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Translation Plagiarism and Detection SoftwareChapter Writing

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Bailey, J. (2011). The problem with detecting translated plagiarism. Plagiarism Today. Retrieved online: https://www.plagiarismtoday.com/2011/02/24/the-problem-with-detecting-translated-plagiarism/

This is a thorough article related to the difficulties in detecting translation plagiarism. According to Bailey (2011), there is no reliable technology tool that can be used to detect instances of translation plagiarism. According to Bailey (2011), the three most notable problems with identifying translation plagiarism all relate to the complexities of translation itself: such as there being no one way to translate most complex sentences and especially idiomatic ones. The differences between grammatical structures of languages and the lack of reliable electronic translation that can identify idioms also prove problematic. This article is extremely helpful in understanding the nature of translation plagiarism, how to prevent it, and how to detect it.

Evering, L.C. & Moorman, G. (2012). Rethinking plagiarism in the digital age. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy 56(1): 35-44.

This article is helpful because it distills the issue into a thorough investigation of the various definitions and forms of plagiarism. This helps to minimize bias and clarify terms. Furthermore, the authors effectively show how each institution may need to define plagiarism differently for its own purposes. There are, Evering & Moorman (2012) suggest, different degrees of severity. The digital environment presents unique problems including but not limited to translation plagiarism capitalizing on translation tools that can be used to elude Turnitin.com and other technologies. The authors suggest that preventing and minimizing plagiarism depends on coaching students about appropriate academic behavior.

Gipp, B. & Meuschke, N. (2011). Citation pattern matching algorithms for citation-based plagiarizing detection. Proceedings of the 11th ACM Symposium on Document Engineering, p. 249-258.

Electronic plagiarizing detection systems capitalize on new technologies to combat age-old problems. Gipp & Meuschke (2011) propose several new algorithms that may be used to detect highly sophisticated or stealthy types of plagiarism such as translation plagiarism. According to the authors, the algorithms used to detect translation plagiarism need to be "versatile" and combinatory. This paper is a seminal work on the development of emerging anti-plagiarism technologies, specifically those used to detect translation plagiarism.

Greenberg, C. & McLean, A. (2011). Where sharing should not go. Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Electronic Theses and Dissertations, Cape Town, South Africa. Retrieved online: http://naulibrary.org/dglibrary/admin/book_directory/Library_Science/10470.pdf

One of the strengths of this article is the literature review, which highlights developments in plagiarism research, especially with regards to university level plagiarism. Topics include defining and preventing plagiarism. The authors also address the literature on what universities are doing in particular to coach students and staff. A survey was undertaken to ascertain what institutions are doing to educate students and faculty about how to avoid plagiarism and prevent it from taking place. Over 300 participants, some faculty and students, are interviewed about their perceptions of plagiarism and attitudes. This information can be used to develop a comprehensive plan to minimize plagiarism.

Hexham, I. (1992). The plague of plagiarism. Research Gate. Retrieved online: http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Irving_Hexham/publication/236899249_The_Plague_of_Plagiarism_Academic_Plagiarism_Defined._Originally_published_as_On_Plagiarism_and_Integrity/links/00b4951a21c5e03a4c000000.pdf

One of the most thorough overviews of academic plagiarism available in short article form online and written for an academic audience, this article will be invaluable for my research. The author outlines the different types of plagiarism, from the egregious copying and pasting to more complex types of plagiarism that can be avoided simply by practicing proper methods of citation. The intent of the author seems to be on identifying plagiarism as well as how to prevent inadvertently plagiarizing in one's own work.

Jones, M. (2009). Back-translation: the latest form of plagiarism. The 4th Asia Pacific Conference on Educational Integrity, pp. 1-7. Retrieved online: http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1706&context=commpapers

Like many authors, Jones (2009) is pessimistic that technological tools can be harnessed to completely combat forms of plagiarism like translation plagiarism. Cross-language plagiarism also takes on a sinister form when it is deliberately used to translate from English to another language and then back to English, rather than simply being an inadvertent form of plagiarism that results from faulty use of translation software and its interpretive results. Jones (2009) calls this nefarious type of translation plagiarism "back-translation." As preventative measures, Jones (2009) suggests that instructors have students write while in class. Jones (2009) focuses more on prevention and identification of back-translation than on how to help students and any other writers avoid inadvertent translation plagiarism.

Kent, C.K. (2010). Web-based cross language plagiarizing detection. Computational Intelligence, Modelling and Simulation (CIMSiM), 2010 Second International Conference. DOI: 10.1109/CIMSiM.2010.10

Rare among papers, the Kent (2010) actually details an empirical review of a plagiarizing detection method specifically used for cross-language or translation scenarios. In this case, the source language was Bahasa Melayu and the target language was English. Google Translate API was the software used to perform the initial translation. Other parts of the anti-plagiarism review included a pre-processing stage and the use of both Stanford Parser and WordNet to identify similarities between the documents. Results will help show how future translation plagiarizing detection software might be improved.

Leighton, L.G. (1994). Translation and Plagiarism: Puskin and D.M. Thomas. The Slavic and East European Journal 38(1): 69-83.

This article discusses the meaning and methods of translation in general, tracing the evolution of translation and discussing the philosophical and pedagogical issues associated with translation. All translation involves subjective judgments and editorial decisions, according to the author. While not about student plagiarism but about professional level plagiarism, this article can be used to highlight some of the underlying issues associated with translation plagiarism. This article is also useful when addressing translation plagiarism involving older texts that have been translated multiple times by different authors. Those texts can differ widely and therefore the potential for plagiarism becomes more pronounced. The author discusses the boundaries of legitimate use and plagiarism.

"Online Translation - Dealing with Copyright and Plagiarism Issues Part I - Idiot's Guide to Online Copyright Issues," (2007). ComiPress. Retrieved online: http://comipress.com/article/2007/06/09/2092

Using examples and case studies, this article helps understand how translation plagiarism works. This article also addresses the issue from a copyright perspective: is translating an original article into another language legally defined as copyright infringement? The author of this article helps to clarify issues such as these, making it very helpful for researchers like me to understand the differences between ethical and legal plagiarism. Properly citing source material is a must in both cases, something that many English language learners might not be aware of, and which should be taught to all students. The author also suggests the possibility of acquiring permissions for borrowing the work.

Oseland, C. (2012). Turnitin adds translated plagiarizing detection. THE Journal. Retrieved online: http://thejournal.com/articles/2012/01/17/turnitin-adds-translated-plagiarism-detection.aspx

Turnitin.com is the leading anti-plagiarism and plagiarizing detection technology available on the market. One developer working with Turnitin has introduced a new tool specifically designed for detecting translation plagiarism. Although it is currently in beta, many different languages are supported, making it possible to scan translated documents for matches in multiple languages. Given the preponderance of English language learners on campuses, it is important to understand that many students who do not write well in English will be tempted to use translation services like Google Translate. Because of the rise in transltion plagiarism, this type of software discussed by Oseland (2012) will become a valuable addition to the Turnitin suite of products.

"Reflections on Translation Plagiarism," (n.d.). Plagarius. Retrieved online: https://plagiarius.wordpress.com/2013/08/06/reflections-on-translation-plagiarism/

According to the author, translation plagiarism has become "rampant in ESL classes." Back translation has also become a problem among native English speakers who deliberately use translation software to copy and paste material in the hopes of eluding anti-plagiarism technology. The author points out that the results of back translation and translation plagiarism can be poorly written at best. However, problems may arise when working with actual translated material. Many students will need to refer to sources in another language, and the process of translation offers many opportunities for inadvertently plagiarizing. How to prevent inadvertent plagiarism in translated material is a difficult subject and one that cannot be easily addressed. The best solution is to "understand the material in greater depth," notes the author, something I hope to discuss in my work too.

Rosamond, B. (2002). Plagiarism, academic norms, and the governance of the profession. Politics 22(3): 167-174.

This article addresses the various forms of plagiarism in the era of new media, discussing in particular custom research papers and the means by which students can avoid detection. Rather than work harder to develop software and technology that can be used to detect matches, similarities, or other markers of potential plagiarism, Rosamond (2002) advises a more nuanced approach. That approach entails creating a normative culture in which plagiarism is less likely to occur, and changing the way classes are taught and students are assessed. Through an alteration in pedagogy and organizational culture, it may be possible to root out many types of plagiarism on school campuses without creating the antagonistic environment that anti-plagiarism software tends to create. This paper will be helpful for me in generating alternative views of how to address and prevent plagiarism.

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