Research Paper: Traumatic Brain Injury Individuals Regarding Employment and Their Social Life

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Psychology & Nbsp;(general)

Taumatic brain injury indiviiuals regarding employment and their social life

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Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often struggle with basic tasks and social skills, primarily due to the impact the injury may have on particular neurological functions. Depending on the severity of the injury and the parts of the brain that are impacted, individuals with TBI may experience issues that impact their new identity, self-esteem, their ability to maintain focus in the workplace, and appropriate resources in regards to the knowledge of the professionals who deal with TBI individuals. The main question that will be focused on in this capstone project is: What factors impact the growth of traumatic brain injury individuals to be successful at work which leads to a social life? In addition, this capstone project will be describing and analyzing the factors that impact the success of TBI individuals by their new identity, self-esteem, returning back to work, appropriate resources needed; all are intertwined together by these factors.

APA ONLY USE PEER REVIEW JOURNALS

FOR CAPSTONE REQUIRE to HAVE

PROBLEM STATEMENT

LITERATURE REVIEW (INTERGRATE SYNTHESIS of 4 PEER REVIEW JOURNALS)

A CRITICAL ANALYSIS NARRATIVE

PROPOSED RESOLUTION (the USE of JOB COACHES and MENTORING)- IS it REALISTIC? WHAT ARE the CONSEQUENCES of the RESOLUTION and WHO WILL BE IMPACTED? WHAT WOULD BE the CHALLENGES and BARRIERS to IMPLEMENT THIS?

CONCLUSION -- a NARRATIVE on FINAL THOUGHTS ABOUT the PROBLEM and GENERATED SOLUTION

Introduction and Problem Statement

Most people have in the past few years become more aware of the sometimes terrible consequences of traumatic brain injury because so many members of the American armed forces in Afghanistan and Iraq have received such injuries. Like others with traumatic brain injury (TBI), these soldiers often struggle with basic tasks and social skills, primarily due to the impact the injury may have on particular neurological functions. Injuries to the brain can disrupt not only basic physiological functions but also a person's most basic sense of self.

Depending on the severity of the injury and the parts of the brain that are impacted, individuals with TBI may experience issues that impact their new identity, self-esteem, and their ability to maintain focus in the workplace. And despite the fact that there is an increasing amount of information is being discovered about TBI, a number of individuals with such injuries still find it difficult to gain access to the resources that they need to heal most fully:

They may well find themselves working with medical and mental health professionals who are not sufficiently knowledgeable about this condition. This paper examines the ways in which individuals living with TBI can best meet their needs and what factors are most important to them in terms of acquiring the skills they need for both work and their social lives.

The National Institute of Health defines traumatic brain injury in the following way:

TBI, a form of acquired brain injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes damage to the brain. The damage can be focal - confined to one area of the brain - or diffuse - involving more than one area of the brain. TBI can result from a closed head injury or a penetrating-head injury. A closed injury occurs when the head suddenly and violently hits an object but the object does not break through the skull. A penetrating injury occurs when an object pierces the skull and enters brain tissue.

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

Because the human brain itself is so complex, injuries to this organ can have highly complex consequences that affect emotional and cognitive functioning as well as physical functioning. There is a wide range of severity of traumatic brain injuries, with a corresponding range of severity of injuries. Mild traumatic brain injury -- which is also often called mild head or brain injury or concussion -- is present if a person suffers a loss of consciousness or confusion that lasts for less than thirty minutes.

Such a level of traumatic brain injury is often overlooked even when an individual seeks medical attention since a minor traumatic brain injury may not be detectable through either MRI or CAT scan imaging. However, there can be long-term consequences that seem anything but mild to the individual concerned and his or her family.

While I will develop this point in much greater degree further on, it is important to note here that traumatic brain injury can have profound consequences for the family and friends of the injured individual. Because TBI can have significant consequences for an individual's personality and emotions -- so much so that the person may seem to be someone else entirely -- the family of the injured person may be at a loss how to react to this seeming stranger.

Both mild and severe traumatic brain injury can arise from a number of different causes, including self-harm:

Half of all TBIs are due to transportation accidents involving automobiles, motorcycles, bicycles, and pedestrians. These accidents are the major cause of TBI in people under age 75. For those 75 and older, falls cause the majority of TBIs. Approximately 20% of TBIs are due to violence, such as firearm assaults and child abuse, and about 3% are due to sports injuries. Fully half of TBI incidents involve alcohol use.

The cause of the TBI plays a role in determining the patient's outcome. For example, approximately 91% of firearm TBIs (two-thirds of which may be suicidal in intent) result in death, while only 11% of TBIs from falls result in death. (Natural Institute of Health)

Assessments of Traumatic Brain Injury

The symptoms of even mild TBI can include such emotional and psychological consequences, include problems in cognition (such as difficulty in thinking clearly and problems in both short-term and long-term memory and difficulty in focusing on tasks) as well as significant mood swings and anger over the loss of function. The individual may also be angry at the treatment that he is getting from both his family and friends and the professionals that he is relying on to become better.

Other symptoms that can arise from even "mild" TBI include -- not surprisingly, but sometimes with severe physical and emotional consequences -- headaches along with visual problems, fatigue, depression, nausea, seizures, loss of smell, balance problems, photosensitivity and over-sensitivity to noises. This range of symptoms from even mild traumatic brain injury can cause problems in all aspects of an individual's life, from personal relationships to the ability to care for other family members (such as young children) to the ability to function at work.

Individuals who suffer severe traumatic brain injury can have devastating symptoms in all aspects of their functioning, including emotional, cognitive, psychological, and physical. Individuals with severe TBI may be left in a permanently non-responsive state. (of course, severe traumatic brain injury can result in death.) the severity of a traumatic brain injury -- from mild to severe -- is assessed by using the Glasgow coma scale, which is detailed below. This scale should be used by medical professionals. (This table is taken from the National Institute of Health's National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.)

The eye opening part of the Glasgow Coma Scale has four scores:

4 indicates that the patient can open his eyes spontaneously.

3 is given if the patient can open his eyes on verbal command.

2 indicates that the patient opens his eyes only in response to painful stimuli.

1 is given if the patient does not open his eyes in response to any stimulus.

The best verbal response part of the test has five scores:

5 is given if the patient is oriented and can speak coherently.

4 indicates that the patient is disoriented but can speak coherently.

3 means the patient uses inappropriate words or incoherent language.

2 is given if the patient makes incomprehensible sounds.

1 indicates that the patient gives no verbal response at all.

The best motor response test has six scores:

6 means the patient can move his arms and legs in response to verbal commands.

A score between 5 and 2 is given if the patient shows movement in response to a variety of stimuli, including pain.

1 indicates that the patient shows no movement in response to stimuli.

One important note to make here is that even an individual who has no apparent (or few) symptoms after a head injury should consider seeking professional medical help given that the initial absence of serious symptoms does not mean that there is not a significant risk to the individual who has been injured.

A recent very public example of the potential for even seemingly mild head injuries to have severe consequences occurred in March 2009 when actress Natasha Richardson died after a ski accident:

British actress Natasha Richardson has died from head injuries suffered during a skiing accident at the Mont Tremblant ski resort in Quebec. Her death was confirmed Wednesday evening in a written statement by Alan Nierob, the Los Angeles-based publicist for her husband Liam… [END OF PREVIEW]

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