Ultrasound Is a Supersonic Transmitter That Radiates Term Paper

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Ultrasound is a supersonic transmitter that radiates high-frequency 3.5 MHz waves not accepted by ear. Waves are come to an object, reflected from it and come to a receiver. These are then interpreted into picture on dislay.

SONAR or Sound Navigation and Ranging. This is where the History of Ultrasound scanners should start. Jean-Daniel Colladon, a Swiss physicist, has successfully used underwater bell in the early 1826. He used this to determine the speed of sound in Lake Geneva. Later in 1877, another physicist, Lord Rayleigh of England published "The Theory of Sound" which first illustrated sound wave as a mathematical equation that formed the basis of future investigations on acoustics, but Lazzaro Spallanzani, an Italian biologist takes credit for the discovery of high frequency ultrasound. In 1794 he demonstrated how bats can navigate accurately in the dark using echo reflection from high frequency inaudible sound. Francis Galton, an English scientist, discovered very high frequency sound waves beyond the limits of human hearing. This was through the Galton Whistle, one of his inventions. Pierre Curie, together with his brother Jacques Curie of Paris, France discovered in 1880 certain crystals that produced the piezo-electric effect. This is the discovery that led to the development of high frequency echo-sounding techniques.

In 1881, thermodynamic principles by the physicist Gabriel Lippman anchored the mathematical development of the reciprocal behavior of achieving a mechanical stress in response to a voltage difference. Curie brothers then verified this finding. This made possible the generation and reception of ultrasound. Further research soon followed.

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During the World War I, especially after the Titanic sank in 1912, a lot of other technology on sonar systems paved way to the development of ultrasound. Underwater sonar detection is one of them. Underwater echo-sounding devise was also described by Alexander Belm in 1912. The first working sonar system by Reginald Fessender was built in 1914. It was an electromagnetic moving-coil oscillator that emitted a low-frequency noise and switches to a receiver to listen for echoes.

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Diode and Triode was invented with the turn of the century which allows powerful electronic amplification needed to develop ultrasonic instruments. French physicist, Paul Langevin, together with Constantin Chilowsky, a Russian scientist, developed a powerful high frequency ultrasonic echo-sounding devise. These were called "Hydrophone." Hydrophones became the basis of the development of naval pulse-echo sonar.

The first practical RADAR system or Radio Detection and Ranging system was developed in 1935 by Robert Watson-Watt. These radar systems led to the invention of 2-dimensional sonars and medical ultrasonic systems during the late 1940s. Two other engineering advances probably had also influenced significantly the development of the sonar, in terms of the much needed data aqusition capabilities, these are the first digital computer or what was called the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) made in 1945 at the University of Pennsylvania, and also the point-contact transistor in 1947 at & T's Bell Laboratories.

Another important in the development in was the construction of pulse-echo ultrasonic metal flaw detectors. This step in the development in ultrasonics started in the 1930's. The concept of ultrasonic metal flaw detection was introduced by Sergei Y Sokolov in 1928. This was done at the Electrotechnical Institute of Leningrad. Sokolov showed that a transmission technique could be used to detect metal flaws by the variations in ultrasionic energy transmitted across the metal, but with poor resolution. This led him to suggest that a reflection method may be better and more practical. Floyd a. Firestone produced the "Supersonic Reflectoscope" in 1941, but was not formally published until 1945. These are only the few pioneer technologies that, piece by piece, helped in the creation and development of the modern ultrasound.

Dr. Karl Theodore Dussic from Austria and Professor Ian Donald from Scotland are the two researchers that became keys in the history of ultrasound and its application in medical imaging. Dr. Dussik published the first paper on medical ultrasonic in the year 1942. He based this on his research on transmission ultrasound investigation of the brain. On the other hand, Professor Donald developed practical technology and applications for ultrasound in the 1950's.

Ultrasound scanner technology prospered in the 1980's. These were real-time scanners with standard appearance, sizes and fabrication, usually portable on 4 wheels, the monitor on top of the console and with rows of receptacles at the bottom. Then in the mid-1980's convex abdominal transducers were introduced. These better fit for use in Obstetric abdomen with wider field of view. Before the 90's, B-scan ultrasound images steadily improves its resolution and quality. Also, during this time, techniques for resolution and overall image enhancement focused on increasing the number of transducer crystals from 64 to 128, improving the transducer crystal technology to broad-band and high dynamic range, increasing array aperture to more crystals firing in a single time-frame, improving computational capabilities, improving technical algorithms for focusing on receiving by increasing the number of focal zones along the beam, incorporating automatic time-gain controls and replacing analog to digital the portions of the signal path.

The first model of Acson 128 System was marketed in 1983 by a California founded company, the Acuson Corporation. It employed a 128-channel Computed Sonography platform that was based on a software-controlled image formation process. Over 45 large and small diagnostic ultrasound equipment manufacturers emerged by early 1980's worldwide.

Image quality improved dramatically in the 1990's as well as progressive emergence of new and effective technologies for ultrasound scanners. These are the radar navigation, telecommunications and consumer electronics. Very high-speed digital electronics required for use of ultrasound technology was also made affordable.

Improvement on ultrasound scanners continued. Different categories of ultrasound were developed. These scanners came to use in clinics and private offices in early 1980's with a trend of decentralizing services worldwide. There was increasing acceptance and demand from the public and in medical specialties and sub-specialties.

As demand and use increases, standardization and maintenance of the quality of scans became a problem. Radiologist then underwent training and appropriate examinations before using the technology. There were also varied standards and mis-diagnosis. This led to the emergence of special training centers and accreditation boards by health authorities in the United States, Australia, Europe and other countries.

At present uses of ultrasound scanners continue to increase. Diagnositic application in the field of Obstetrics and Gynecology developed 5 legitimate indications: first, measurement of biparietal diameter, second, in evaluation of multiple gestations, third, determining amniotic fluid volume, fourth, placental localization and lastly, diagnosis of early pregnancy failure. These indications continued to expand since the early 80's including fetal biometry, estimation of in-utero fetal weight, diagnosis of fetal malformation, differentiation and assessment of solid, cystic or mixed masses in the pelvis, monitoring of follicular size and number in patients undergoing ovulation induction, evaluation of non-palpable masses, ascites, uterine and cervical leisions, early pregnancies and the localization of IUCDs, diagnosis of ectopic pregnancies and ovarian and edometrial cancers, in assisted reproduction, and diagnosis of ectopic pregnancies among others.

Ultrasound also has its use other than in the field of Obstetrics and Gynecology. It helps a lot more areas of medicine, including: diagnosis of gallbladder disease, evaluation of flow in blood vessels, guiding a needle biopsy, guiding the biopsy and treatment of a tumor, checking the thyroid gland, studying the heart, diagnosing some forms of infection, diagnosing some forms of cancer and revealing abnormalities in the scrotum and prostate.

Ultrasound scanning has greatly improved through the years. In the University of Tokyo, Japan, Kazunori Baba first researched on 3-D ultrasound system in 1984. It gives 3-D fetal images by processing the raw 2-D images on mini-computer in the year 1986. Baba collaborated with ALOKA® in Biomedical Engineering Department of the Tokyo University and developed the commercial 3-D ultrasound technology in Japan.

Although ultrasound scanning was incorporated to numerous uses, there were still some who oppose this technology. Safety of the ultrasound was scrutinized, especially the high power ultrasound in 1940s. In 1967, conductive experiments were conducted by Ian Donald, in cooperation with Malcolm Ferguson-Smith. This is to delineate possible harmful effects on high intensity ultrasound on interphase and mitotic chromosomes, but researchers did not found any. This was also true in the studies done by Juntendo Ultrasound Research Center in Japan during 1963. It did not reveal any harmful effect on pregnant rats exposed to a maximum power of diagnostic equipments for 3 days after fertilization. No teratogenic effects were also found in the thesis research of Bertil Sunden of Sweden in 1964. In the United States John C. Hobbins did not found any cytologic effects of ultrasound in his studies done during the year 1967, same with studies by El Kohorn of England during the same year. Other important researchers were Wesley Nyborg of Pennsylvania State University and later at the University of Vermont, Paul Carson of the University of Colorado, Raymond Gramiak of the University of Rochester among others.

A much more recent development in ultrasound scanner is the 4-D or dynamic 3-D scanners. There are already available in… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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