Understanding Gases and Their Properties Chapter

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Chapter on Understanding Gases and Their Properties Assignment

a) volume and pressure - When the gas volume decreases, the pressure increases but when the gas volume increases, the pressure decreases (Bishop, 2001). The system used to demonstrate this and the following relationships, is a laboratory apparatus, consisting of a cylinder with a movable piston, a thermometer, a pressure gauge and a gas for adding or removing gas. To explain the relationship, an increase in temperature also increases the motion of particles. When these particles move faster in the container, they push against the walls more frequently and strongly each time. The result is a greater force against the wall and per unit area or pressure; b) pressure and temperature - the demonstration apparatus is adjusted by locking the piston and tightly closing the valve to avoid gas leaking in or out. The relationship that results is an increase in the temperature of trapped gas and a corresponding increase in the pressure. Inversely, a decrease in temperature in the trapped gas also decreases the pressure. To explain this relationship, a rise in temperature increases the motion of the particles. When these particles move faster, they push against the wall of the container more frequently and forcefully. This results in greater pressure; c) volume and temperature -- The valve is closed and has no leaks and the piston moves freely to keep the pressure from the inside equal to that outside on account of the weight of the piston and the pressure of the atmosphere. An increase in temperature will increase the volume. Inversely, a decrease in temperature will decrease the volume. To explain, increased temperature of the gas increases the average velocity of gas particles. This leads the gas particles to collide more strongly against the wall of the container. The force also grows with each collision. The increasing force against the walls of the container increases gas pressure. An internal pressure resulting from increase of gas temperature and acting on the bottom of the piston becomes greater than the external pressure. The greater internal pressure leads the piston to move up. This increases the volume of the chamber. The resulting increase in volume thereby decreases the gas pressure in the container, leading in turn to the internal and constant external pressure to become equal; d) the piston is locked to keep it from moving and the temperature is maintained at constant levels for heat to move in and out and keep the maintain equal temperature in and out of the cylinder. Gas added through the valve at the left side of the cylinder will increase the number of gas particles. Pressure increases. When gas escapes through the valve, the number of gas particles decreases and so does the pressure of the gas. Simply put, an increase in the number of gas particles increases pressure. Inversely, a decrease in the number of gas particles will also decrease pressure. To explain, Increasing the number of gas particles in the container will increase the number of times they hit the walls per unit. This, in turn, leads to an increase in the force or gas pressure; and e) The internal temperature is kept equal to the constant external temperature by allowing heat to in and out of the system. The piston is allowed to move freely to keep the same and to maintain constant pressure. Adding gas through the valve will increase the number of gas particles in the cylinder. As a result, the piston rises and so does the gas volume. If gas escapes from the valve, the volume once more decreases. To explain, the increase in the number of gas particles also increases the number of hits per second against the walls of the container. An increase in the force of these collisions correspondingly increases gas pressure against the walls. The piston thus rises and produces an initial increase in the force or gas pressure asserted on the walls. The piston will rise and increase the gas volume. These further result in a decrease in pressure until the internal and external pressure become equal again (Bishop).

56. 300 degrees C

84. a) 27.56 degrees C

b) 38.80

c) 2.5 X 10 (4) L

90. 1.6 X 10 (9) L. NH3

103. 10 moles

Chapter 14 Condensation, Evaporation and Dynamic Equilibrium: Change From Gas to Liquid and from Liquid to Gas -- An Introduction to Dynamic Equilibrium

41. a) The attraction between molecules in liquid acetone is weaker than those in water molecules, enabling acetone molecules to escape much faster from the surface than can liquid water molecules. When the temperature is constant, most of the acetone molecules escape at a higher rate of evaporation. The weaker the attraction among molecules, the faster the rate of evaporation is (Bishop, 2001).

b) Not all. Those that evaporate are those that have the momentum to escape or are nearer the surface. The three criteria for a molecule to turn from liquid to gas are the surface area of the liquid, the strength of attraction between the particles in the liquid, and the temperature of the liquid.

c) Evaporation reduces a liquid's temperature. After all the fast-moving particles have escaped, those left have lower velocity. And those with lower velocity also have lower temperature. This is why nail polish that spills on one's hand is cool because it is in the state of evaporation, which has a lower or cold temperature.

d) acetone that spills on the lab bench will evaporate much faster than the one in the test tube because the space on the lab bench is greater than that in the test tube. The size or amount of space determines the rate of evaporation. Comparing the two locations at the same temperature, the number of particles with the momentum required to escape from the surface is comparative for the two. But the only particles that anage to escape are those at or near the surface. Because there are more particles at the surface of the lab bench than in the test tube, those that escape from the lab bench transform into the gas state much faster than those in the test tube.

e) the temperature of the liquid is one of the three factors that determine the speed of evaporation. Higher temperature increases the average velocity and momentum required for them to escape or evaporate more quickly. This is also why rain in open pavements evaporates faster when the sun comes out than before it does.

Boiling Liquids

50. Butane is a gas derived from raw natural gas. It possesses a certain property that makes it easy to place in containers. It can be very easily liquefied. This is how it is used in lighters.

Particle-Particle Attraction

55. a) N-O

b) Al-Cl Al (partial positive), Cl (partial negative)

c) Cl-N

d) H-I H (partial positive), I (partial negative)

e) Br -- Cl

f) Cl -- S Cl (partial negative), S (partial negative)

g) Se -- I

h) N -- Sr. N (partial negative), Sr. (partial positive)

i) O -- FO (partial positive), F (partial negative)

j) F -- PF (partial negative), P (partial positive)

Chapter 15 Why Solutions Form

37. a) polar solute and non-polar solvent -- non-soluble

b) non-polar solute and non-polar solvent - soluble

c) ionic solute and hexane -- non=soluble

d) molecular solute with small molecules of water - soluble

e) hydrocarbon solute and hexane - soluble

41. a) potassium hydrogen sulfate or KHSO4 in wine-making -- soluble

b) propylene glycol as antifreezes - soluble

c) benzene or C6H6 for organic compounds -- soluble

Fats, Oils, Soaps and Detergents

56. By first scrubbing the surface of plates, glasses and other eating utensils, the grease is broken up into smaller drops that would immediately get back together at the surface of the utensils. If soap anions are present, their nonpolar hydrocarbon would enter the droplets and remain in the water and the soap would surround the fats or oils. When the droplets collide, the negative ends of the soap anions will make the droplets repel one another and thus prevent them from re-attaching to the utensils. The droplets float in the solution or water and goes down the drain. But hard water prevents anions from remaining in the solution. The ingredients of hard water bind to soap anions and allow soap to precipitate. The use of detergents solves or avoids this problem with hard water. Detergents function like soap but are less likely to develop insoluble compounds with hard water ions.

Saturated Solutions and Dynamic Equilibrium

62. a) in a still pond the degree of agitation is almost nil as against the agitation in a waterfall. The degree of agitation is one of the three factors, which keep particles remain constant;;

b) Higher or warmer temperature makes particles escape more easily. Similar to agitation, temperature also increases the rate of solution and move from the surface faster. This is why minerals will dissolve faster in a warm downstream than in a cold mountain… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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