Essay: U.S. Invasion of Iraq- Reasons

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[. . .] 1. Economic Reason

The economic factors played a pivotal role in compelling United States to invade Iraq. It is believed by many intellectuals that the motives of war announced by the U.S. government had nothing to do with the invasion of Iraq. The only factor that compelled Iraq's invasion by America was to get hold on its oil reserves. Many people believe that the invasion of Iraq has benefitted only those rich people involved in oil industry sector who supported President Bush (The Debate 2002).

Many intellectuals have even concluded that invasion of Iraq was just for the benefit of American oil companies (Zunes 2004). At the start of the 20th century, America was experiencing a rise in its import reliance in an ever-tense oil market. It was crucial for American government to have control over Iraq's oil reserves as there was an increase in the oil vulnerability of U.S.. It was not acceptable for America to watch the dominance falling in the hands of the oil producers. Iraq had the world's second largest oil reserves next to Saudi Arabia and also had very little oil production expenditures. Thus, Iraq was seen as the solution of the impending threats faced by the United States (Hinnebusch 2007). The invasion of Iraq was extremely advantageous for America as it could promise America a gargantuan influence over European Union and China. In fact, the invasion of Iraq would give America the opportunity of having control on its major financially viable resources (Zumes 2004).

It is a known fact that Iraq has the world's second largest reserves of oil. However, majority of the oil reserves have not been exploited yet. It has been anticipated that Iraq will become the world's largest supplier of oil after the war will be over. It is probable that Iraq will leave behind the linchpin of oil i.e. Saudi Arabia. The U.S. government agreed that to be in charge of the oil production in Iraq will be significantly beneficial for America. Companies producing oil and weapons and people holding shares with them have been the only beneficiaries of reliable rewards. An anticipated attack on Iraq was regarded as totally illegal under the laws that are followed internationally. There was no good reason for United States to become involved in war with Iraq. It was foreseen by many that the invasion of Iraq will act as a catalyst in damaging the economies of West. The war generated an extensive increase in the prices of oil globally. The situation will not get better provided the oil fields in Iraq be controlled by USA and its allies (The Debate 2002).

1. Diplomatic Reason

After the 1991 Gulf War, a Pax-Americana was made which had several characteristics. One of them was the 'dual suppression' of both Iran and Iraq. The peace process and coalition with Saudi Arabia were the other important features of the Pax-Americana. However, it was broken down later and seriously affected the developments in the oil market of the United States. As Iran and Iraq did not want American supremacy over them so they started evading from the remoteness inflicted on them by the United States. The Arab world confronted the humanitarian damage wreaked on the Iraqi people by the sanctions on Iraq. Many countries, particularly Russia, France and China were being given oil dispensations by Iraq. On the other hand, America was not involved in any oil trade with Iran or Iraq. Secondly, America did not keep its promise of a peace settlement between Palestine and Israel. This created hurdles in the smoothening of relationships between the United States and the Arab world. Also, the relationship between America and Saudi Arabia destabilized due to the involvement of Saudi citizens in 9/11 attacks. Saudi Arabia failed to secure and moderate oil prices on the request of America which made the Muslim country less dependable for the Bush administration. The invasion of Iraq meant that American dependency on Saudi Arabia will stop and America will have Iraq as a new acquiescent oil producer. Thus, Iraq's occupation allowed America to face its economic rivals with a 'towering' head. American invasion of Iraq permitted it to have the lion's share in the oil industry (Hinnebusch 2007).

The United States of America wanted to declare its military supremacy on the world in an unfalteringly way. American government planned to demolish Saddam Hussein in order to send the message to the whole world that no power is superior to American military power. Hussein was United State's main target as he had openly challenged the domination of America. Iraq could be demonized without difficulty and had several weak points that made it easily conquerable. Bush wanted to acquire the right of molesting countries that were considered as threats by the United States. Therefore, Iraq was chosen as the model to set an example for the world. The Unites States of America wanted to enter in Iraq with their troops as 'knight in the shining armor' for Iraqi people. They hoped that such a scenario would undermine the confidence of the Arab world. Iraq's occupation was seen as a chance to establish lasting bases in the Middle East (Hinnebusch 2007).

1. Political Reason

Before the declaration of war on Iraq, the American people had no idea that the government will get itself involved in a war with Iraq. American nation was so proud of its right to set Iraq free. They wished to inject American values in the authoritarian society of Iraq. However, the perception changed when people were asked to support Bush Junior in his war against Iraq. United Nation's proposals were not given a heed by the Bush administration. Neither did it consider the protests of American people against the war on Iraq (Shafer 2003).

The scenario would have been changed if there was another administration in power. However, the extraordinary interests of the political ruling coalition were the main factor for United States to lead coalition forces in Iraq. The Bush Jr. administration's foreign policy-making was subjugated by a combination of the Likudist neo-cons and Cheney and Rumsfeld lobbies. The arms-oil lobby of Cheney and Rumsfield believed that they must hold strong ties with the Arab world to have access to profits generated by oil and arms trade. However, they changed their policy of friendship with Arabs and started to think of a war so that they could have the unswerving ownership of the oil reserves. Many oil companies like Halliburton had strong associations with the ruling coalition in Bush administration. Thus, the oil men saw the invasion and renewal of Iraq as a golden chance for their progress and development in the future. The Likudist neo-cons favored Israel and its policies of colonization in the areas conquered by it. However, supporting Israel was an obstacle in the friendship with Arab world as oil access was conditional to strong relations with Arabs. They feared that United States would conciliate with Arabian oil producers instead of considering the Israel's aspirations of expansion. Therefore, the conquest of Iraq was unavoidable to achieve their goals (Hinnebusch 2007).

The invasion of Iraq meant that dependence on Arabian oil would be reduced. Iraq was to be used as a weapon for flouting OPEC (Organisation of Petroleum Exporing Countries). The target to strike at the foundations of the Muslim countries was also to be achieved with the conquest of Iraq. The American government's aim to acquire the control of Arab oil without any approval and association with the Arab world was the main factor of grabbing the hold of Iraq. United States also wanted its political relations with Israel to be strengthened without any constraints so the best solution was to conquer Iraq (Hinnebusch 2007).

Conclusion

It is unquestionably clear to the people in United States and the rest of the world that the war in Iraq is a failure of America. The American people have crystal cleared their disappointment and consternation over the war in Iraq. The American involvement in war with Iraq is still continued to date. This span of time has exceeded the total time America spent in World War II. Hundreds and thousands of American soldiers and Iraqi civilians have been killed or injured since the commencement of war in 2003. The war has damaged and destroyed Iraq in an irretrievable way. The U.S. economy has also been negatively affected. The United States of America has faced its biggest budget insufficiency due to its occupation of Iraq. The national debt has reached its highest level in the history of United States (Oweiss 2007).

The real purpose of such a long stay in Iraq is not clear to anyone. United States has failed to declare the sole reason of its 'hanging about' in Iraq. Anticipation of civil war, facilitation of Iraq's dissolution or the establishment of democracy; American government is not able to justify its… [END OF PREVIEW]

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