U.S. Strategy Thesis

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U.S. STRATEGY on TERRORISM

There have been several government-written strategies addressing terrorism in the United States since the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, and all of these are required to complement one another if the defense against a terrorist attack in the United States is to be effective and efficient. This work intends to select three strategy documents from the required readings, the supplemental readings, and research and compare and contrast the objectives of each of these documents. Toward this end the three chosen documents to be examined are those listed as follows:

The National Strategy for the Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets published in February 2003 by the White House in Washington, DC;

The National Strategy for Secure Cyberspace published in February 2003, by the White House in Washington DC; and the DHS (Department of Homeland Security) Intelligence Enterprise Strategic Plan published in January 2006, by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Washington DC.

I. The NATIONAL STRATEGY for the PHYSICAL PROTECTION of CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES and KEY ASSETSGet full Download Microsoft Word File access
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Thesis on U.S. Strategy Assignment

According to the White House in its 'National Strategy for the Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets" relates strategic objectives which "underpin our national critical infrastructure and key asset protection effort" are stated to be those listed as follows: (1) Identifying and assuring the protection of those infrastructures and assets that we deem most critical in terms of national-level public health and safety, governance, economic and national security, and public confidence consequences; (3) Providing timely warning and assuring the protection of those infrastructures and assets that face a specific, imminent threat; and (4) Assuring the protection of other infrastructures and assets that may become terrorist targets over time by pursuing specific initiatives and enabling a collaborative environment in which federal, state, and local governments and the private sector can better protect the infrastructures and assets they control. (2003) This document additionally relates the fact that Homeland security especially in relation to critical infrastructure and key asset protection is a responsibility that is shared and one that the federal government alone cannot accomplish. Instead, there are the requirements of "coordinated action on the part of federal, state and local governments; the private sector and concerned citizens across the country." (White House, 2003) it is stated further that the nature of possible attacks launched by terrorists include the following three: (1) Direct infrastructure effects: Cascading disruption or arrest of the functions of critical infrastructures or key assets through direct attacks on a critical node, system, or function; (2) Indirect infrastructure effects: Cascading disruption and financial consequences for government, society, and economy through public- and private-sector reactions to an attack; and (3) Exploitation of infrastructure: Exploitation of elements of a particular infrastructure to disrupt or destroy another target. (White House, 2003) the guiding principles stated in protection of the critical infrastructure and key assets are the following: (1) Assure public safety, public confidence, and services; (2) Establish responsibility and accountability; (3) Encourage and facilitate partnering among all levels of government and between government and industry; (4) Encourage market solutions wherever possible and compensate for market failure with focused government intervention; (5) Facilitate meaningful information sharing; (6) Foster international cooperation; (7) Develop technologies and expertise to combat terrorist threats; and (8) Safeguard privacy and constitutional freedoms. (White House, 2003) This strategy document states that the federal government has the role of leadership in making sure that the three principles objectives already stated above in this work in writing are met. The leadership role of the federal government is stated to involve: (1) Taking stock of our most critical facilities, systems, and functions and monitoring their preparedness across economic sectors and governmental jurisdictions; (2) Assuring that federal, state, local, and private entities work together to protect critical facilities, systems, and functions that face an imminent threat and/or whose loss could have significant national consequences; (3) Providing and coordinating national-level threat information, assessments, and warnings that are timely, actionable, and relevant to state, local, and private sector partners; (4) Creating and implementing comprehensive, multi-tiered protection policies and programs; (5) Exploring potential options for enablers and incentives to encourage stakeholders to devise solutions to their unique protection impediments; (6) Developing cross-sector and cross-jurisdictional protection standards, guidelines, criteria, and protocols; (7) Facilitating the sharing of critical infrastructure and key asset protection best practices and processes and vulnerability assessment methodologies; (8) Conducting demonstration projects and pilot programs; (9) Seeding the development and transfer of advanced technologies while taking advantage of private sector expertise and competencies; (10) Promoting national-level critical infrastructure and key asset protection education and awareness; and (11) Improving the federal government's ability to work with state and local responders and service providers. (White House, 2003) the federal departments and agencies under the National Strategy for Homeland Security will assist lead departments and agencies in assisting state and local governments and private-sector partnerships in the following efforts: (1) Organize and conduct protection and continuity of government and operations planning, and elevate awareness and understanding of threats and vulnerabilities to their critical facilities, systems, and functions; (2) Identify and promote effective sector-specific protection practices and methodologies; and (4) Expand voluntary security-related information sharing among private entities within the sector, as well as between government and private entities. (White House, 2003) Cross-sector coordination will be the responsibility of the Department of Homeland Security who will serve as "the primary liaison and facilitator for cooperation among federal agencies, state and local governments and the private sector. As the cross-sector coordinator. DHS will also be responsible for the detailed refinement and implementation of the core elements of this strategy." (White House, 2003) it is interesting to note that this work relate that the largest part of the country's "critical infrastructures and key assets are owned and operated by the private sector" and that these private sector firms "prudently engage in risk management and planning and invest in security as a necessary function of business operations and customer confidence" (White House, 2003) Stated as the level of investment in security that "reflects implicit risk-versus consequence tradeoffs are based on: (1) the known factors about the risk environment; and (2) what can be justified economically and sustainability in a marketplace characterized by competitiveness as well as in the limited government resources environment. The private sector is said to look "to the government for assistance when the threat at hand exceeds an enterprise's capability to protect itself beyond a reasonable level of additional investment." (White House, 2003) This require collaboration between the federal government and the private sector and as well the state and local governments toward the goal of providing warning in a timey nature and ensuring the protection of infrastructures and assets that face a specific imminent threat and promote an environment in which the private sector can better carry out its specific protection responsibilities." (White House, 2003) Planning and resource allocation makes identification of eight primary initiatives including: (1) creation of mechanisms that are collaborative in nature for 'government-industry critical infrastructure and key asset protection planning'; (2) Identification of key protection priorities and development of appropriate mechan9isms for supporting those priorities; (3) Fostering increased risk-management sharing of expertise between the public and private sectors; (4) identification of options for incentives for private organizations that proactively enact security measures that are enhanced; (5) Coordinate and consolidate federal and state protection plans; (6) Establishment of a task force to review legal impediments to 'reconstitution and recovery in the aftermath of an attack against a critical infrastructure or key asset; (7) Development of an integrated critical infrastructure and key asset geospatial database; and; (8) conduct critical infrastructure protection planning with our international partners. (White House, 2003) Information sharing, indications and warnings is an area with six identified initiatives as follows: (1) Define protection-related information sharing requirements and establish effective, efficient information sharing processes; (2) Implement the statutory authorities and powers of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to protect security and proprietary information regarded as sensitive by the private sector; (3) Promote the development and operation of critical sector Information Sharing Analysis Centers; (4) Improve processes for domestic threat data collection, analysis, and dissemination to state and local government and private industry; (5) Support the development of interoperable secure communications systems for state and local governments and designated private sector entities; and (6) Complete implementation of the Homeland Security Advisory System. (White House, 2003) Personnel surety, building human capital and awareness is an area with six primary identified initiatives including: (1) coordination of the development of national standards for personnel surety; (2) development of a certification program for background screening companies; (3) exploration of establishment of a certification regime or model security training program for private security officers; (4) identification of requirements and develop programs to protect critical personnel; (5) facilitation of the sharing of public- and private-sector protection expertise; and (6) development and implementation of a national awareness program for critical infrastructure and key asset protection. (White House, 2003) the area of technology and research and development has four… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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