Vancouver British Columbia Term Paper

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[. . .] The Condition of, or understanding of this Sale, is this, that our Village Sites and Enclosed Fields are to be kept for our own use, for the use of our Children, and for those who may follow after us; and the land, shall be properly surveyed hereafter; it is understood however that the land itself, with these small exceptions becomes the Entire property of the White people for ever; it is also understood that we are at liberty to hunt over the unoccupied lands, and to carry on our fisheries as formerly. We have received as payment Twenty seven pound Ten Shillings Sterling. In token whereof we have signed our names and made our marks at Fort Victoria 29 April 1850. (Tenant 1990)

The book also explains that there were several other purchases made during 1850. (Tenant 1990) There were also purchases made in 1851,1852 and 1854; eventually the governor acquired about 348 square miles of land. (Tenant 1990) Although Douglass acquired a great deal of land, much has been made of the fact that he failed to sign any treaties on the island after 1854. (Tenant 1990) In addition, he never signed any treaties with natives on the mainland. (Tenant 1990)

The author explains that Douglass spent a great deal of money building roads so that gold miners had access to the interior. (Tenant 1990) The book asserts that these roads were funded with loans that the British were not fully aware of. (Tenant 1990) In addition, Douglass failed to compensate the native people for building roads through their land. (Tenant 1990) This was in strict violation to the instructions that were originally given to him per the Hudson Bay Company. (Tenant 1990) Historians have asserted that Douglass did not compensate the Indians on the mainland because he didn't acknowledge their right to the land (even the land that they had lived on for generations). (Tenant 1990)

The book asserts that the governor's behavior had much to do with the attitude of distant forces in Britain. The author explains that In Britain during the 1850s there had been a decline of concern over the treatment of aboriginal and other non-white peoples in the colonies. Earl Grey, whose term ended in 1852, was the last of the great colonial secretaries to give high priority to protecting aboriginal interests. The Aborigines Protection Society continued to exist, but its influence was now much reduced." (Tenant 1990)

The book goes on to explain that the British believed that the aboriginal people needed to assimilate more and become "civilized." (Tenant 1990)It seems as though the British did not respect the natives because they lived a different lifestyle than the colonists. (Tenant 1990) The governor even suggested that the Indians should be resettled into villages. (Tenant 1990)

In later years, some of the conflicts between the natives and the immigrants were confronted through the use of treaties and self-governing tactics. (Tenant 1990) The book explains that the largest problem that the natives had with the colonists was rights to the land. (Tenant 1990) The author contends,

Indians everywhere were trying to convince the settlers that they had no business being there because the land belonged to them." Letters and petitions to governments were commonplace both before and after union with Canada, and confrontations, demonstrations, and protest meetings occurred as settlement proceeded. It was in the late 1880s that a new level of political awareness and organization began to emerge and with it a very specific set of Indian political demands for recognition of aboriginal title, for treaties, and for self-government." (Tenant 1990)

One of the largest confrontations between the Native people and the established government came in 1874; when the Natives staged a protest against the provincial government. (Tenant 1990) At this time the government was deciding the size of the reserves that would be given to the Natives. (Tenant 1990) The natives believed that they should receive 80 acres of land for each family. (Tenant 1990)

The natives asserted that they had already made several complaints concerning their treatment and the fact that the land that they had already been given was too small. (Tenant 1990) Various Indian chiefs in the area wrote the government and stated that they felt as if they were being taken advantage of. (Tenant 1990)The chiefs asserted that they had been nothing but kind to the immigrants and that they needed this kindness to be reciprocated. (Tenant 1990)

The chiefs also added that they felt as if the immigrants were attempting to get rid of all the native peoples in the region, so that they could have the land to themselves. (Tenant 1990)

Between 1931 and 1958 tribal councils were established to deal with land rights and other political issues facing the natives. (Tenant 1990) The disputes over land continued for much of the twentieth century. (Tenant 1990) The book explains that Whites took an extreme long time to make good on any of the land treaties that were made with the Indians. The author contends,

Government Indian agents throughout the province were now at the height of their influence and control over the local Indian communities. The great majority of Indian children were now in the religious schools. In Ottawa, Duncan Campbell Scott approached retirement after a long and successful career. In British Columbia over the next half century, Whites growing up in the province or emigrating into it remained immersed in their own society's comforting myths and learned virtually nothing of Indian issues or past white policies towards Indians. Among white provincial politicians Indians and Indian issues now seemed either irrelevant or federal responsibilities. In 1927 the provincial government had still not even carried out the promise it had made upon entering Confederation to convey title of Indian reserves to the federal Crown (it finally did so in 1938 "after sixty-seven years of irresolution and vacillation")." (Tenant 1990)

By the 1980's and the 1990's there were conflicts within the various Indian led political associations. (Tenant 1990) These conflicts led to the defection of several Indian leaders to the camps of political rivals. The Native people also formed a forum consisting of all the Indian tribes in British Columbia. (Tenant 1990) The purpose of the forum was to give a voice to the less respected tribes or tribes that did not already have representation. (Tenant 1990)

Regional Geographic Factors

According to Encarta Vancouver is located in the Southwestern area of British Columbia, Canada. ("Vancouver (British Columbia)" 2003) The city is extremely important to the nation of Canada because it is the third largest city in the country. ("Vancouver (British Columbia)" 2003) In addition, it possesses one of the leading seaports on the Pacific Coast. ("Vancouver (British Columbia)" 2003) Vancouver is situated 26 miles from the border of the United States. Encarta also explains that,

Vancouver is a cosmopolitan center with numerous large buildings. Among those considered to have special architectural merit are Robson Square and the Provincial Court House, designed by local architect Arthur Erickson; Cathedral Place; and the Vancouver Public Library, designed by 20th-century architect Moshe Safdie. Older buildings of note include the art deco Marine Building (1929-1930) and the "Chateau Style" Hotel Vancouver (1928-1939)... Beyond the city boundary to the east lie the communities of Burnaby, Port Coquitlam, Coquitlam, and New Westminster; beyond them, an outer suburb, Surrey. South of the Fraser River's north arm is Richmond, and Delta lies across the main channel. North Vancouver and West Vancouver lie across Burrard Inlet. Together, these areas (and other smaller municipalities) make up the Vancouver metropolitan area."

Vancouver (British Columbia)" 2003)

The current population of the city Vancouver is approximately 545,671 at according to the 2001 census. ("Vancouver (British Columbia)" 2003) For the metropolitan area of Vancouver the current population is almost 2,000,000.

Vancouver (British Columbia)" 2003) Encarta reports that the population of Vancouver city grew 8.5% between 1996 and 2001. ("Vancouver (British Columbia)" 2003) Likewise the population of the metropolitan area grew by 13%. ("Vancouver (British Columbia)" 2003) The article also concedes that the population of Vancouver has grown as a result of East Asian immigration into the city. ("Vancouver (British Columbia)" 2003)

According to an article in The Architectural Review present day Vancouver is a sprawling city with a booming housing market. The history of the city is evidenced by the present growth of the location. The article reports that,

Vancouver is in the midst of a new housing rush in the city centre. The last rush to downtown Vancouver was the rebuilding of the West End during the '60s. During… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Vancouver British Columbia.  (2003, December 4).  Retrieved February 23, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/vancouver-british-columbia/6843733

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"Vancouver British Columbia."  4 December 2003.  Web.  23 February 2019. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/vancouver-british-columbia/6843733>.

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"Vancouver British Columbia."  Essaytown.com.  December 4, 2003.  Accessed February 23, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/vancouver-british-columbia/6843733.