Essay: Vocational Education Purpose

Pages: 8 (2425 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 6  ·  Topic: Teaching  ·  Buy This Paper


[. . .] Not much can be done unless the promotion of equality for women is addressed. One solution may include the incorporation according to Irving of an "entrepreneurial spirit" that may promote more decision-making and practices that will benefit the community, and not simply the student.

Most moralists including Kant would agree that it is immoral to use human beings simply to get from point A to point B, and yet vocational institutions, as they remain now, do simply that. This is especially the case when it comes to the marginalization and oppression of women who live in systemic, class-based systems such as in Japan. There is always a story in the news highlighting the benefits of vocational education (see Calunsod, 2011). However, when one reviews statistics it is easy to see how prevalent oppression still is in parts of the world where those "lacking" the pre-requisites for "success" will always take a backseat when paired with those that come from a place higher up in the social hierarchy, unless dramatic shifts are seen in societal norms. This fact is confirmed by many social researchers, including Tachibanaki who explores the depth of oppression among women in Japan, and the effects this has on society at large.

According to Tachibanaki "discrimination against women is an indisputable fact" in Japan (p. 85). This is due largely from unequal income distribution and the fact that Japan still exists as a "class" based society where women are still second class citizens. Despite large shifts in culture elsewhere in the world, women are far from achieving equal status, even though they maintain jobs and families. Tachibanaki notes that while "the EEO came into being in 1985," women are "more highly discriminated against than ever" in Japan. Tachibanaki states that even among women that manage an education, "a lower proportion of highly educated Japanese women work" (p. 189). This is because many give birth and are then unable to find work. Those that are educated often receive a banking type education under the static style discussed by Freire and fellows; they do not receive an education that encourages critical thinking or community participation. Even if they did, it is unlikely that they would be encouraged to participate in communal conversation or societal change. Despite this oppressive and marginalist tone, there are however, more co-educational high schools and universities opening, with men even applying to formerly all-women's schools.

One must ask after this, why is a dynamic education so important? For women in Japan and for other minorities living in an oppressive society, an education is necessary for status and lifestyle, for progression and movement, for consciousness and development. An education is the best chance a woman has for any type of growth. The same is true for society at large. If humanity is expected to grow consciously, then dynamic opportunity and communities must evolve. In Japan, employment among women generally remains around 75%, whereas for men the number is closer to 95% (Tachibanaki, 2010). But, is this dynamic employment, or static? Women are only able to acquire technical and professional positions with an adequate education.

Does vocational education provide that education? Clearly not, if a woman with a love of crafts is going to learn the "science" of homemaking, while her neighbor, with the same potential for greatness out of chance, and because of class, is sent to a proper tertiary school to acquire an appropriate education for professional achievement. Vocational education clearly fits the bill for a banking system as Freire would describe it. It is systematic, static, and provided in a way that allows for minimal critical thinking or direct learning experience other than memorization and duplication.


Experiential learning, critical thinking, and community participation and problem solving are essential for the advance and success of women and other displaced groups in society. Oppression and marginalization will continue, allowing vocational education in various sectors and regions throughout the world to continue to be no more than simply a means to an end, unless moralist leaders step to the plate and contribute to a universal or global cry for change.


Apple, M.W. (2008). Can Schooling Contribute To A More Just Society? Education, Citizenship,

And Social Justice, 3(3), 239-261.

Calunsod, R. (2011 July). Disadvantaged Kids In Mindanao Get Japanese-Sponsored Education.

The Japan Times, Online. Retrieved July 28, 2011:

Chan, J. (2005 Apr). Anti-Japanese Protests and the Reactionary Nature of Chinese Nationalism.

Freire, Paulo. (1993) Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum Books.

Irving, Barrie A. (2010 Mar). "Making a Difference? Developing a Career Education as a Socially Just Practice." Australian Journal of Career Development 19(3).

Mcllveen, P. & Patton, W (2006). "A critical reflection on career development." International

Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 6(1), 15-27.

Mullaly, B. (2007). "Oppression: The focus of structural social work. In, B. Mullaly, The new structural social work" (pp. 252-286). Don Mills: Oxford University Press.

Oakes, Jeannie, & Saunders, Marisa. (2007 Aug). "Multiple Pathways: High School Reform that

Promises to Prepare All Students for College, Career, and Civic Responsibility," University of CA, Los Angeles, 1, In, Tsolakis, Marika Z.

Okano, Kaori, & Tsuchiya, Motonori. (1999) Education in Contemporary Japan: Inequality and Diversity. Cambridge University Press.

Tachibanaki, Toshiaki. (2010). "The new paradox for Japanese Women: Greater choice, greater

Inequality." I-House Press, Tokyo.

Tsolakis, Marika Z. (2008 April). "College,… [END OF PREVIEW]

Four Different Ordering Options:

Which Option Should I Choose?

1.  Buy the full, 8-page paper:  $28.88


2.  Buy + remove from all search engines
(Google, Yahoo, Bing) for 30 days:  $38.88


3.  Access all 175,000+ papers:  $41.97/mo

(Already a member?  Click to download the paper!)


4.  Let us write a NEW paper for you!

Ask Us to Write a New Paper
Most popular!

Vocational Courses in High Schools Term Paper

Vocational Rehabilitation Counselors Term Paper

Education Mcintyre Discusses Various Paradigms of Research Thesis

Purpose of Education Essay

Education for Diversity Thesis

View 501 other related papers  >>

Cite This Essay:

APA Format

Vocational Education Purpose.  (2011, July 28).  Retrieved July 23, 2019, from

MLA Format

"Vocational Education Purpose."  28 July 2011.  Web.  23 July 2019. <>.

Chicago Format

"Vocational Education Purpose."  July 28, 2011.  Accessed July 23, 2019.