War in Afghanistan Research Paper

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War in Afghanistan

Following the unprecedented 9 / 11 terrorist attacks on American soil, an atmosphere of fear and hysteria swept through the world. U.S. reprisal came in the form of fully blown war against terrorism as they assured the world that America would use all resources at its disposal to wage war on terror. Even as the demise of Osama bin Laden marked an important milestone in the U.S.-led war on terror, it appears as though U.S. Middle East foreign policy is going to take yet another tactical turn. After scaling down operations in Iraq in the first term, the Obama administration is at least rhetorically signaling that they will remove combat troops in 2014. By just about every measure, Afghanistan is still smoldering causing speculation that it could possibly reignite. Will the U.S. finally withdraw the combat troops by 2014? Experts believe that withdraw is not in America's best interests. Proponents of the conflict theories, realism, world systems theory and a section of Marxist scholars lay foundation for an integrated approach to this issue. Is there a room for compassion in international relations? Enduring tensions and persistent warfare seems to indicate the exact opposite. The war on terror has caused historic misunderstanding, which has paralyzed relations between Middle East and the West. They have entered a war from which they might never get out in this lifetime.

Introduction

America has had its fair share of historical baggage. In the course of pursing its interest, the United States has made allies and enemies alike. With economic supremacy comes political power. As a superpower nation, America has since dedicated tremendous resources to spread democracy, which is one of the pillars of the U.S. political economy. Democracy involves market liberalization in form of the 'free market enterprise.' Middle East is a region endowed with tremendous resources and as such, resource conflict is always imminent. The mission to Afghanistan commenced in earnest immediately after 9 / 11 (Fawcett, 2009). Studies indicate the manner in which forces tied to western capitalists have waged a resource war using Afghanistan as a proxy in their phony agenda of controlling the oil in the Middle East. The rushed enactment of the U.S.A. PATRIOT helped the conflict along since it eased restriction on federal law enforcement to gather intelligence both domestically and abroad. The acts of the U.S. In Afghanistan and other perceived enemy states as well as the experiences of social injustices during the war undercut the self-professed American myth of 'reverence, respect and integrity.' In light of the research, there emerge concrete indicators that this resource conflict may last a lifetime. With the recent fallout in the Middle East and North Africa during the Arab Spring, oil prices escalated making way for tremendous profits for western oil multinationals.

Background of the Study

Since the fall of the United Soviet Socialist Republic in 1991, the United States rose to become the world's sole superpower nation. Both nations were the hitherto world superpowers. With the fall of socialism in the West, capitalism became the novel world order. The U.S. had finally won the longstanding ideological contest that had lasted over the last half of the 20th century. Since then, the U.S. has continually amassed global supremacy in terms of political power, economic prowess, and social authority (Fawcett, 2009). American influence has been felt everywhere throughout the global spectrum. From waging war against perceived enemy nations, the introduction of free market enterprise, the spread of democracy, and spread of socio-cultural dictatorship, American influence has had far-reaching effects in the current global state of affairs in recent times.

With the rise of capitalism, the U.S. made ties with her western capitalist allies notably the United Kingdom and France with whom their interests are in line. As a superpower nation, America has since dedicated tremendous resources to spread democracy, which is one of the pillars of the U.S. political economy. Democracy involves market liberalization in form of the 'free market enterprise.' America has been very instrumental in economic lobbying urging foreign nations to adopt free market enterprise and political democracy in line with the western ideology. The goal is to open up their economies to foreign multinational corporations such as Coca Cola, Pepsi, Royal Dutch Shell, BP, and ExxonMobil among other companies (Fawcett, 2009). With their multinational companies strategically placed to capture emerging markets economies, the U.S. And her western allies consolidated economic power as they repatriated profits to their home countries.

With economic supremacy comes political power. Economic experts fault the U.S. For interfering with the domestic policy of host nations in bid to lobby for market monopolization for their companies at the expense of domestic companies (Nathan, 2011). Western multinationals notoriously hire professional lobbyists in their bid to influence the legislation of laws to allow them tax breaks, unfair market practices, and lax environmental regulations. Similarly, a report undertaken by Amnesty International indicates that western companies are involved in unfair trade practices designed to intimidate rival companies (Josef, 2009). While studying the political economy of capitalism, realist theorists of power politics proclaim that the dawn of global capitalism subsequently introduced a vast disparity in the balance of power between the western developed nations and the developing countries of the Middle East, Africa and South East Asia. With America as the de facto leader of the West, it continued to gain unprecedented global influence.

9 / 11

September 11, 2001 -- commonly referred to as 9 / 11 - was a sad day for America. "Our hearts are broken." These were the words of the then President, George W. Bush upon finding out about the series of suicide attacks that had rocked the country that morning. Following investigations, forensics experts declared the attacks as 'premeditated and coordinated terrorist attacks' that targeted New York City and Washington D.C. Al Qaeda suicide terrorists had hijacked four airliners Tuesday subsequently flying the passenger jets into targeted buildings on American soil. Two airliners: United Airlines Flight 175 and American Airlines Flight 11 crashed into the World Trade Centre Complex in New York City. The attacks destabilized the Twin Towers, which ultimately collapsed within the hour. The impact compromised the stability of other buildings and structures within the vicinity. As the American Airlines Flight 77 crashed into Department of Defense headquarters at the Pentagon, American Airlines Flight 93 crashed in a field just outside of Shanksville, Pennsylvania enroute U.S. Capitol in Washington. This series of coordinated attacks was a travesty that claimed over 3,000 lives (Herman, 2011).

Osama bin Laden, the leader of the Al Qaeda extremists claimed responsibility saying he had orchestrated the events. Bin Laden cited U.S. sanctions on Iraq, the pervasive presence of American troops in Saudi Arabia and America's support for Israel as the reasons behind the attacks. The Al Qaeda leader said that his organization was trying to send a message. In the infamous memo dubbed 'Letter to America,' bin Laden conveyed his grievances accusing the United States of occupying the holiest of places in the Arabian Peninsula, humiliating its religion, undermining its culture, dictating to its leaders, terrorizing its neighbors, plundering its wealth, and imposing their imperialist political economy. To him, this was a calling to fulfill the destiny of the Prophet Mohamed -- may he rest in peace. An incensed Osama warned that the United States was 'too close to Mecca.'

US reprisal came in the form of fully blown war against terrorism. The Department of Defense airlifted troops to Afghanistan as part of their mission to depose the Taliban regime, which harbored the extremists. America was motivated to compromise any ties that the Islamist extremist group had in the Middle East and elsewhere. In a televised address to the nation, President Bush noted that 9 / 11 was an act of war. He assured the world that America would use all resources at its disposal to wage war against terrorism. The first important milestone towards this cause was the rushed enactment of the U.S.A. PATRIOT otherwise known as the Patriot Act

The Patriot Act

In the wake of the unfortunate September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, restrictions of U.S. law enforcement agencies to conduct domestic espionage dramatically reduced. Following the enactment of the Patriot Act, the federal government gained the mandate to spy on citizens whenever there was probable cause to believe that they were engaging in terrorist related activities. The Act eased the restriction on domestic wiretapping granting federal law enforcement agencies gained the mandate to intercept email conversations, phone logs, messaging and other forms of communicative interactions between citizens and aliens on American soil. The recourse to ease restriction on domestic surveillance was sanctioned by the rushed enactment of the U.S. Patriot Act, which provided a loophole in the Fourteenth Amendment privilege against undue searches and seizures as well. Under the auspices of the Patriot Act, the Unites States gradually transformed into a Police State; law enforcement agencies gained the mandate to 'reasonably' deprive individuals' civil liberties such as privacy and due process in what… [END OF PREVIEW]

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