Research Paper: Waste Management Contaminated Land

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Waste Management

(1) Generate a site conceptual model, indicating as much information as possible:

The conceptual model technique is essentially used to model the hydrology, geology, and geochemical situation of a site. It is also essential to understand that historic usage of the land site is also important. The changes observed during various times provide a brief understanding of the site and its nature. The changes are relevant for consideration in development of a conceptual map (Thampi & Raneesh2012). The transport process and flow is created through a simplified approach of assumptions and incorporation of qualitative information. The conceptual model also facilitates the comparison of the actual and projected containment plume. The following report is concerning the conceptual model of the site. It is essential to undertake a detailed investigation of the historic data for site usage, hydrology, geology, and geochemical information regarding the site prior to prepare the model.

Historic Use:

The historic use of the site provides details regarding the usage as a part of the filed in three different times including 1873, 1895, 1970, and 1996. The land used in 1873 had E-W trending lane in 170 meters north of the site and similarly 130 meters south of the site as well. The map does not provide a direction of flow for the stream. The usage in 1895 has experienced changes since the last available record. It elaborates that a railway line was established in the north 60 meters far from the site.

The north east side also had 230 meters away railway line. Furthermore presence of a Sewage station is observed in the south east of the site at 230 meters. There is previously marked bended drains are also changed with the straight Haldon Road. The latest (1996) information of the site observes that the site is an industrial estate and surrounding areas of 250 meter radius in north and west are also built. The site check report provides information about the development of industry in east and north.

Geology / Geo-chemical Information:

The head deposits of the site are in turn and are underlain by London clay. The site has observed a peri-glacial activity at the end of ice age in Britain. The dip direction is not available however it is noted that the sediments are different in size and nature. The clay features are dark grey with a brown red color variation. The presence of London clay is approximately 100 meters under the site.

Hydrology Information:

The surface derange of the site is assumed to be poor as the site has multiple deranges and ditches present within 1 Kilometer of the site. The ground water of the site is near to sea level as the site is located close to the sea. The flow of water is expected as at south east towards Clements green Creek. The study for contamination of the land water is underway for the vulnerability assessment of the groundwater.

It is also signified to note that the ground water of industrial vicinities is contaminated as well as a low level of drainage is also expected in these vicinities. The classification of the site on this basis is regarded as worst. Low permeability is present in the layers and lenses. The site does not have a large amount of the groundwater absorption.

Conceptual Model:

The conceptual model is designed for the industrial site that is located on the Clements green Creek as stated by the case. It is also noted that multiple factors including the landfills, sewer lines, and underground storages developed on the site as a result of industrialization has caused groundwater contaminations. The level of groundwater is also high as result of heavy constructions. The level of groundwater is observed at the sea level. Conceptual model for waste management is developed to address the issues of current contaminations and the possible solutions.

Figure: Conceptual Model:

Source:Eriksson et al. (2005)

Chemical / Oil spills

Waste

Dumps

Industrial Water Drainage

Industrial Waste

Physical

Sewage

Air

Water

Waste Source

Transport

Martials

Chemical / Petrochemical

Chemical Contaminations

Residue

Transport

Transport

Transport

LandFilling

Ground water

Land

The industrial waste, industrial derange, waste dumps, oil and chemical spills are potential sources of causing the site to develop contaminations and risks associated with the inappropriate waste management. These contaminations are transported through multiple means causing the soil and groundwater contaminations. The absorption of the site is also not efficient as heavy industrial developments took place on the site (Spellman & Bieber 2009). The area around the site is also affected by these developments. The transporters are considered as air, water, sewage, and physical spills of the condemnations.

The transportation of the materials related to the industrial contaminations causes the soil to absorb hazardous materials, residue of the chemicals and other materials. These contaminations contain a potential for major reasons observed during the site review. The chemicals and petrochemical spills ate industrial sites are also potential carriers of the causes for soil and groundwater contaminations (Thiessen & Achari2011). These materials are than again transported to the soil layers beneath, causing the major contaminations for rise in the level of groundwater. The major cause of rise in groundwater level is also the presence of industry developments, already present groundwater level at the sea level. It is noted that the site is situated close of the sea cost also affects the absorption of the contaminations and provides a potential damage to the site's capacity to absorb contaminations. The presence of drainage pathways around the site are also one of the major contributors of the causes.

(2) List the likely contaminants, receptors and pathways, and discuss any assumptions made in this evaluation, and hence carry out an initial risk assessment for the site.

Contaminants, Receptors, and Pathways:

There is multiple source of contamination for groundwater (McKnight et al. 2010). The sources could be present on the site or in near vicinities. In case of the current site they are present on the site as well as within the radius of 500 m. The industrial development at and around the site has increased site's exposure to groundwater contamination. The onsite contaminations source is industrial in nature e.g. air pollution, chemical's storages and spills, fuel, storage, and spills are also significantly important in creating an impact on the high condemnations of ground water (Perrow 2011). The landfills, sewer lines, and underground storages also a major cause of groundwater contaminations.

It is essential to secure the receptors and pathways for contaminations in groundwater on industrial sites. The review of industrial site waste sources and contaminations enables the identification of the receptors (Parker, West, Odling & Bottrell2011). The ingestion of soil, dermal contact with soil, inhalation of soil particles, and soil to groundwater pathways are critical for the contaminations. The receptors are air, soil, and water which are critical for the developments in ground waters (Meadows & Watmough 2012). These receptors are affected through exposure of different substances present in and around the industrial site.

Assumptions made in this evaluation:

The assumptions made in the development of conceptual model are mainly regarding the impacts of the ground water contaminationsrecede through the air, water, and dumping of hazardous materials. The additional assumptions for inappropriate sewage and drainage are also considered. The soil to groundwater pathways are severing affected during the period of 1977 and 1996 as observed through site review. The site observed heavy industrial developments. The industrial developments caused the site to develop a potential for groundwater contaminations. The industrial waste, industrial water drainage, waste dumps, and spills of chemicals and oil are assumed as per the site review. The rise in level of ground water is among one of the major issues.

Initial risk assessment:

The initial risk assessments of the site provide an understanding that the sea coast is close to the site which has a tendency of affecting the site as high level of groundwater (Hanson et al. 2011). The site also has heavy industrial developments through the past years. The rapid development of industrials estate in the vicinity has potentially damaged the land properties for absorption. The composition of the land location is already near the sea. The increase in the ground level is caused by a combination of all these factors involved.

The risks associated for the groundwater in industrial sites is through the continuous leakages and underground storages developed as fuel and other petrochemical materials tanks. The pollutant materials from underground sewages and dumping (permanent or temporary) at industrial developments are also one of the major risks for groundwater contaminations. In case of the current site the risk is highly increased. The reasons for the high risk potential are actual level of the ground water that is already high.The risks arising from the industrial chemicals absorbed through the land are also potential carriers and regarded as a high risk factor in causing contaminations. These chemicals flow in the direction of ground water flow as a result the risk is potentially increased. It also causes a high risk factor… [END OF PREVIEW]

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