Water in Africa Essay

Pages: 7 (2389 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 2  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Transportation - Environmental Issues

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In other areas, rainfall patterns are either steady or they have been sporadic throughout the past century. It is expected, however, that there will be increasing climatic variability with climate change, and the ability of agriculture in the region to adapt to that is going to be critical going forward. There are tools and approaches that facilitate this, but these need to be in place on the ground and available to the farmers in the region in order to be effective (Cooper, et al., 2008).

Ultimately, there is broad-based agreement in the literature about the importance of water to eradicating poverty. The current problem presents itself as a gap between the resource, which exists in sufficient quantity, and the development of that resource (Van Koppen, 2003). Therefore, it is important that this gap be eliminated in order to foster a higher level of sustainability in the region. This is especially true in the Sahel, where a desertification pattern exists. Water resources are critical to both the survival of people through agriculture, but the ongoing stability of the region. Starving people, especially those who are unable to move, are likely to be the cause of substantial violence going forward. Thus, it is imperative that more investment is put into the development of sub-Saharan Africa's resources (Hanjra, Federe & Gutta, 2009).

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Part V. The key to keeping the focus on the organizations and people when dealing with numbers lies in two things, one at the front end and one at the back end. At the front end, you have to operationalize your variables properly. A lot of softer "human" factors are converted into hard numbers, and that requires some assumptions on the part of the researcher. The result is imperfect proxies that blur the human dimension.

Essay on Water in Africa Assignment

At the other end the researcher needs to remember that a lot of the research does relate to people, organizations and soft concepts. The result of this should be attention paid to these different variables. It is important for the interpretation of the results to account for the human dimensions as well. The processing of the actual numbers should stick to quantitative techniques, but the way that these numbers are interpreted has to account for the fact that these numbers are reflective of actual human, human behaviors and organizational behavior.

Part VI. Part 1. IV: Rain recorded? DV: Number of umbrellas sold

IVs: Price of coffee, price of competitor's coffee DV: # of coffees sold

IVs: Price of coffee, price of competitor's coffee DVs: # of coffees sold, # of competitor's coffees sold.

Part 2. Between group variance is variance between the two groups. In-group variance is variance among members of just one of the groups.

Part 3. The mean is just one measure, and on its own the mean is not a particularly robust measure, and certainly is not a great predictor of success. The sample size might not have been big enough, for one. Another thing to consider is the variance of these means. The lesser result might be within one standard deviation of the other one, meaning that it is perfectly likely to be higher than the better result next time. So there is basically no predictive power based simply on the mean, without understanding the other metrics that are at play in this example. The variance definitely needs to be taken into consideration, for both processes, and there needs to be a significant understanding of all the numbers, not just the mean.

References

Acerman, M. & Hollis, G. (1996). Water management and wetlands in sub-Saharan Africa. IUCN: Switzerland.

Bayliss, K. & Fine, B. (2007). Privatization and alternative public sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa: Delivering on electricity and water. Palgrave MacMillan.

Bojo, J. (1996). The costs of land degradation in sub-Saharan Africa. Ecological Economics. Vol. 16 (2) 161-173.

Conway, D., Persechino, A., Ardoin, S., Hamandawana, H., Dieulin, C. & Mahe, G. (2008). Rainfall and water resources variability in sub-Saharan Africa during the 20th century. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research Retrieved April 18, 2014 from http://tyndall.ac.uk/sites/default/files/wp119.pdf

Cooper, P., Dimes, J., Rao, K., Shapiro, B., Shiferaw, B., & Twomlow, S. (2008). Coping better with current climatic variability in the rain-fed farming systems of sub-Saharan Africa: An essential first step in adapting to climate change? Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. Vol. 126 (2008) 24-35.

Dreschel, P., Gyiele, L., Kunze, D. & Cofie, O. (2001). Population density, soil nutrient depletion, and economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa. Ecological Economics. Vol. 38 (2001) 251-258.

Hanjra, M., Federe, T. & Gutta, D. (2009). Reducing poverty in sub-Saharan Africa through investments in water and other priorities. Agricultural Water Management. Vol. 96 (7) 1062-1070.

Jaglin, S (2002). The right to water vs. cost recovery: Participation, urban water supply and the poor in sub-Saharan Africa. Environment and Urbanization. Vol. 14 (2002) 231-245.

Platteau, J. (1996). The evolutionary theory of land rights as applied to sub-Saharan Africa: A critical assessment. Development and Change. Vol. 27 (1) 29-86.

THwink.org (2012). Causal chain. Thwink.org. Retrieved April 18, 2014 from http://www.thwink.org/sustain/glossary/CausalChain.htm

Van Koppen, B. (2003). Water reform in sub-Saharan Africa: What is the difference? Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. Vol. 28 (20-27) 1047-1053.

Woodhouse, P. & Ganho, A. (2011). Is water the hidden agenda of… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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