Term Paper: Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition (Wms-Iii)

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[. . .] The subtests of the factors were also scored and the measurement is set against the subtests according to the categorization like "Letter-Number Sequencing, Spatial Span, Logical Memory Immediate, Logical Memory Delayed, Visual Paired Associates Immediate, Logical Memory Delayed, Family Pictures Immediate, Family Pictures Delayed, Faces Immediate, and Faces Delayed" [Weiss, 2002]. The resulting assessment can be used for coming to the conclusion that the currently published factor structure of the five factors in the model are constructed identically to the original factors as indicated in the WMS-III Technical Manual. The results of these factors include:

Model 1 a single-factor model

Model 2 a two-factor model -- working memory and auditory memory

Model 3 a three-factor model -- immediate memory, delayed memory, and working memory

Model 4 a three-factor model -- auditory memory, visual memory, and working memory

Model 5 a five-factor model -- auditory immediate memory, auditory delayed memory, visual immediate memory, visual delayed memory, and working memory" [Weiss, 2002].

To assess the nature of the result from the WMS-III sampling, the researcher has conducted a cross validation data analysis of the various factors so as to determine e whether the numerical estimation and output generated from other instruments and those of the WMS-III are the same or not. The other tests include the LISREL and the AMOS which confirmed similar results of the same procedure [Arbuckle & Wothke, 1999; SAS Institute, 1989]. The assessment thus confirm that the calibration of the sample used for testing WMS-III through cross validation of the five factors model do to some extent collaborate with other tests. However, the researchers have observed that the model 3 which is basically a delayed factor do not have a collaborative solution. Instead it is indicative of the fact that the two models that were not fitting to the data can result in wrong estimation between the delayed factors and the sensory modality [Weiss, 2002]. As a result of these findings it can be concluded that the interdependency of the tasks of the delayed memory are basically the same but may offer wrong interpretative results. There are some areas like the model 4 and the three factor model which includes visual memory, auditory memory and working memory can be best estimated with the help of the WMS-III structure.

The results implies that although there is a high level of correlations between the conditions of the delayed factors with the various other instruments but the extent of the measurement of the clinical knowledge through memory tests is still limited as delayed memory and other various memory types are difficult to evaluate. The evaluation requires the use of a combination of delayed memory and factors that contribute to the clinical settings. Other than that the authors recommend that the factor analysis inherent in the WMS-III must be first explored through the neuropsychological patients before they should be subjected to the delayed or immediate memory clinical assessment process. The above experiment for testing the instrument makes it clear that although there is a great deal of areas that the WMS-III can cover but the mixture of the memory profile of individuals are heterogeneity in nature and at times may become obscure to the delayed functions which is a criteria for testing in the WMS-III for specific disorders.

To test, another research is taken into account to compare the expanded WMS-III Standardization Protocol to the those of the WMS-III Among Temporal Lobectomy Patients. Robert C. Doss, Gordan J. Chelune and Richard Naugle [2000] in their study studied the differences between the expanded standardization protocols that is often used for deriving results from professional instruments, in this case the WMS-III. The researchers anticipate the results would offer some view on the Primary Indexes using a neurological sample. The comparability sample in this case has been taken of 63 patients with temporal lobotomy and were administered the standardization protocol while some were administered to the derive norms of the final published version. The comparability is based on age, sex, education, seizure duration, post surgical seizure status and the full scale IQ. The result of the research although do not offer any comprehensive understanding of the two versions of the WMS-III but nevertheless it does allow the researchers to understand the fact that there is hardly any difference between the group sample and that for temporal lobotomy patients the scores of the two versions of the WMS-III are the same.

In another test by D' Urso [2001] the researcher attempts to establish a relationship between the perceptual modality performances and the short-term memory developmental capacity of Math and English students using the WMS-III. The basic premise of the author had been to investigate the validity of WMS-III and another instrument called the Multi-Modal Paired Associates Learning Test III (MMPALT III). The aim had been to expand the knowledge base of the learning styles of the students and measure the perceptual modality that is usually found in performance-based testing processes. A sample of 48 English and 37 math students were taken from a local college and subjected to subtests. The results were evaluated whereby the Print, Aural, Interactive and Visual subtest scores were taken into account for the Multi-Modal Paired Associates Learning Test III and the Aural and Visual for the WMS-III scores.

D'Urso in his test uses the ANOVA Pearson correlation coefficient to test the scores and to associate the factors model with the research premise. It has been observed after calculation and tabulation that there exist differences between the math and English students scores when they were given subtests of the WMS-III. Thus, D' Urso concludes that there exist low and moderate correlation coefficient that show that there is a difference in the construct and factors that support the two instruments. The MMPALT III although shows a very vague outcome of the memory-based factors but nevertheless the results suggest the future comparability of instruments should be based on visual and aural modalities that are the core for both the instruments.

The validity of the scores observed when taking into account of the WMS-III test has been a matter of great concern for all as it shows how the instrument is a valid and reliable tool for professionals who can structure their test according to the factor erected by the WMS-III. Larry Price, David Tulsky, Scott Millis and Larry Weiss studied this instrument in detail in a test called "Redefining the Factor Structure of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III: Confirmatory Factor Analysis With Cross-Validation" [2002: 574]. In their test they confirmed that the factor analysis that support the five factor solution and separates the immediate and delayed memory factors form a structural equation which can be used for examining the factor structure. They also establish that to verify the results of the three factors that include both the delayed and immediate factors such as visual and verbal and working memory they would have to represent the factors in a cross validation structure to make using an independent sample.

Thus in their analysis, the authors have identified the fact that the factor structure is imperative for subtests to be validated and authentic in its tests. The researchers although in their other tests still did not come to conclusive results but they have established that the instrument is largely dependent on the factors mentioned instead of taking into consideration of the various environmental influences. What this indicates is the fact that the WMS-III is ideal for focused studies and measurement of the memory-based research. Professionals who depend on randomly selected clients can easily rely on the WMS-III for accurate focused study premises as it clearly outlines the factors and the structure under which it operates.


In accordance with the assessment criteria established at the beginning of the review of WMS-III it can be observed that this instrument is highly useful for time constrained professionals who are in the field to test and conduct surveys of clients before coming to conclusive results. The WMS-III is based on the five factors structure which is also the norm for its other subtests. The results that are often wielded from the instrument although largely offers accurate results but there exist a slight discrepancy when compared to other tests as reported above, showing that there is a chance that the WMS-III is not an accurate instrument when it is used outside the factors structure.

Furthermore, where cost and reliability is concerned, the price of $300 approx. does justify for the all encompassing factor base test results it offers to the users. Studies thus do not need to be dependent on large samples to come to accurate conclusions. Nevertheless, for an innovation base as well as developmental base results, WMS-III is clearly not a practical instrument for extensive research. Instead it is more a clinical tool rather than a research tool.


Doss, R. et al. [2000]. Comparability of the Expanded WMS-III Standardization Protocol to the Published WMS-III Among Right and Left… [END OF PREVIEW]

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