Wireless Broadband Technology Term Paper

Pages: 50 (20344 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 58  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Education - Computers


[. . .] All the communication is done using a series of radio signals or radio specifications, the frequency of the signals being that of a low 2.4 GHz and the data speeds are up to a range of 721 Kbps. There is no one direction in which this technology can be used; it is omni directional. The distance that it can cover ranges from 10 cm to 100 m; the greater the transmitting power, the greater the distance covered. The output power can be less than 10 mill watts. Basically, the Bluetooth technology functions like this: it can be embedded in an electronic device or be used as an adaptor. (How Bluetooth Technology Works-CNN.com)

Any electronic device that is popularly used today can make use of these built in 'transceivers'. When one device comes within the specified within 10 m to 100m range of another, communication in the form of exchange of information such as capability and addresses takes place. Thereafter, security and error corrections are established with a 1-to 2 (sometimes capable of up to 721 bps) megabit links and then communication can happen as required. (Mobile Computing: Bluetooth Technology) The Bluetooth technology enables users to automatically exchange information and data between two Bluetooth enabled devices, like for example, when a mobile phone comes within the range of a PC, a number that has been stored in the phone will automatically be transferred to the PC. (How Bluetooth Technology Works-CNN.com)Buy full Download Microsoft Word File paper
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Term Paper on Wireless Broadband Technology Overview of Assignment

Voice as well as data transfer can happen, the Bluetooth technology being one with an extremely flexible topography. Each device can boast of a 48-bit address and the irritating radio interruptions are eliminated by the use of a technique known as 'frequency hopping' whereby the radio frequencies are frequently changed- up to 1600 times per second. In addition, three complimentary but different error- correction schemes are used and verification and encryption are both built in. The power consumption of a Bluetooth device is much less than that of a mobile phone even, using a mere 0.3 mA in standby mode and 30 micro amps in 'hold' mode and 8-30 milliamps in transmitting mode. This amounts to less than one tenth of a watt in power consumption, and therefore, battery power and life is not wasted. (Bluetooth Technology: How Bluetooth Technology Works)

2.1.2. Mobile Phones

Presently, the world technology is revolving around digitalization. Almost all the applications in the human life are being attempted to be digitalized. It has much impact in the sphere of communication. The invention of cellular phones is considered to be an important milestone in the field of communication. (An Overview of Cellular Technology) The wireless telephones indicate to a hand set with inbuilt antennas and also known as cell, mobile or PCS phones. Their easy portability makes it more popular particularly among the mobile users. (Digital Wireless Phones to be Compatible with Hearing Aids) It is estimated that about 12 million persons in U.S. are using cell phones. (How Cell Phones Work)

Until recently, comparatively larger mobile phones are based on analogue devices and its use is confined to business experts for voice communication. Presently the wireless technology has been made digital. The 2nd generation phones presently are in operation that allows transmission of speech in digital format over a radio path. The Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) technology is being used in the present 2C phones. The mobile phones have global operation with introduction of the European system of Global System for Mobile Communication. This also made the Digital Cellular Service, chatting cost effective. Synchronization of the internet facility into the Mobile Phones is made possible through the WAP-Wireless Application Protocol. (An Overview of Cellular Technology)

The Coded Division Multiple Access technology (CDMA) facilitates data transfer in huge quantity including audio and video files. Its reformulated and advanced form -Wideband Coded Division Multiple Access-WCDMA is used as a global standard for the 3rd Generation phones. The Multimedia Messaging Service-MMS facility have been introduced in advanced phones like Nokia 3530 enabling transfer of pictures, videos etc. (An Overview of Cellular Technology) This has enhanced features enabling communication with any one from any where globally. (How Cell Phones Work) The wireless telephone is based on two-way radio technology that involves voice and converts the sound into radio waves. This makes possible the traveling of the radio waves through the air so as to reach to a base station. The base station on the other hand transmits the call through the telephone network so as to reach the concerned person. (An Overview of Cellular Technology)

Prior to receiving a call on the wireless telephone the message moves through the telephone network in search of the base station in close proximity to the cellular phone. The base station in turn communicates the message to the concerned mobile sets through radio waves for conversion into sound waves. (Digital Wireless Phones to be Compatible with Hearing Aids) About 800 frequencies are necessitated across the city by a normal analog cell phone system in the United States. The entire region is divided in to a number of cells each cell comprising of about 10 square miles. The divisions are considered to be hexagons based on large hexagonal grids. Each of the cells is equipped by a tower and necessitating radio equipment known as base station. Each particular division in an analog system utilizes about one-seventh of the duplex voice channels available thus avoiding the possibilities of any sort of collision by introducing a unique set of frequencies. (How Cell Phones Work)

About 832 radio frequencies are used by a mobile system to be operated in a city. Each of the mobile set requires two frequencies per call hence about 395 voice channels are available per carrier. In this way about 56 voice channels are available in respect of each cell. This implies at a particular moment each cell accommodates communication by 56 cell phones. The introduction of digital transmission system enhances the number of available channels. To illustrate a digital system based on TDMA technology is capable of carrying channels about three times that of the analog system thus accommodating about 168 channels. The cell phones incorporate a low power transmitter. And many have also two signal strength of 0.6 watts and 0.3 watts. The low power transmission is also involved in base stations. The mobile system necessitates a large number of base stations of different sizes. A large city consists of a number of towers. (How Cell Phones Work)

Since the number of cell phone users are huge thee cost per user becomes very low. The Cell phone service also require to maintenance of a central office known as Mobile Telephone Switching Office by each of its carriers. This central office manages all the phone connections to the normal land-based phone system and controls all of the base stations in the region. The cell phones are extending a number of services and new ones are constantly being added in a cost effective manner. The varied models of the cell phones facilitate different utilities like storing contact information, time and job scheduling, monitoring appointment and reminders, provision of calculator, sending or receiving e-mail, receiving of information, receiving information on news, entertainment, stock quotes from Internet, playing of games and synchronization of PDAs, MP3 players and GPS receivers etc. (How Cell Phones Work)

2. 1. 3. Satellite

The geosynchronous satellites stationed at a distance of 22000 miles above the earth at the equator is utilized by the satellite data services. The services of these satellites are used for performing many jobs from ranging from video distribution for TV transmission networks to authentication of credit cards at major retailers. With the increase in launching of satellites, utilization of their services for data transmission also enhanced and this has a direct impact on the prices to be lower. Such reduction in prices has tremendous impact on the consumer market constituting of several satellite services providing high speed Internet services for domestic users. The conventional cable line providers can not sufficiently cater to the bandwidth requirement since ATM, Frame Relay and DSL services are not available uninterruptedly. They are even not considered cheap beyond the city areas. The rural areas are therefore are neglected and provided with low cost broadband data services. This resulted in real market potentiality for the satellites to fulfill. The receiving antenna at the ground need not be moved with stationing of satellite at a fixed location in the sky. The incoming signals are received and rebroadcast to the receivers antennas by the transponders located in the satellites. (Satellite Data Service: An Introduction to Satellite-based Data Services)

2.1. 4. Wi-Fi

Beaming of Internet connection as far as 300 feet is possible by the radio signals known as Wi-Fi. It is possible to logging on to the Internet by any of the computers having Wi-Fi receptors by fixing it with a broadband modem irrespective of their locations across the hall, neighbor apartments, or from relaxing chairs. The beginning of WiFi is… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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