Woman President Research Paper

Pages: 10 (3247 words)  ·  Style: APA  ·  Bibliography Sources: 8  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Sports - Women

¶ … Woman Will Reside as President of the United States

The time has come when we are likely to see within the next decade a woman become president of the United States. This is progress that has come, but slowly, to American women. The United States, like most other societies around the world, began as a patriarchal society. It was a societal condition that required no effort of forethought on the part of the earliest settlers or even our Constitutional forefathers. The earliest settlers of America were from patriarchal societies, and American society evolved within their societal cultural traditions. Women were historically subordinate to men in society, and in their marriages and personal relationships with men until the age of the feminist institution. The age of the feminist institution is not the era of early women's suffrage that is described by Karen Black (2005) as beginning in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York when women -- and men -- came together "to talk about women's rights, or rather the lack of them (p. 10). What I will call the era of feminist institutionalization, began when women became institutionalized as income sources to the family household, when the states and federal governments began calculating women's income as a part of the forecasted tax base, thereby institutionalizing their femininity and income. It began with the "baby boomer" families between 1946 and 1964, when the population increased significantly.Get full Download Microsoft Word File access
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"People were optimistic about the economy because they had not witnessed the Great Depression. Both men and women were better educated than older generations: men went to college to avoid the draft, and women went to college because they were seeking equality. Men and women worked outside the home, a trend that started out of necessity as more men served in the military. It was socially acceptable for women with small children to work outside the home. Baby boomers were more comfortable with technology -- in part, simply because computers were more prevalent -- than were older generations. Baby boomers tended to revolt against authority; the protests against the war in Vietnam and the draft were evidence of this tendency (Mani, 2007, p. 216)."

The era of the feminist institution became firmly imbedded in American society during the counterculture movement of the 1960s, when more and more women were working outside the home in order to earn incomes, and young women also began exploring their sexuality in much the same ways that men had done since perhaps the beginning of civilization.

While progress has been slow for achieving the same rights and being regarded as a body with a brain, as opposed to just a body that ensured every man who was married owned something, property, by virtue of the fact that he had a wife whose body was legally his property; women have nevertheless made social progress, especially during the 1960s, that has brought women to the level of men socially, if not entirely economically (in many employer organizations men are still paid more for the same work done by women (Frankfort-Nachmias and Leon-Guerrero, 2005, pp. 5-7))

and, within recent years, politically. While women have not achieved all of the milestones that they must in order to achieve full enfranchisement of their American rights, the road is nearly to an end as we usher in the next decade, which will predictably see a woman take the reins of American leadership as president.

We have seen the progression of women in the political arena in the United States, although it is perhaps interesting to note that countries other than our own have seemed more progressive about accepting women in roles of leadership and high office. Indira Gandhi won election to India's office as Prime Minister of India, and was re-elected; Golda Meir, was elected to Israel's office of Prime Minister of Israel; Benazir Bhutto was elected to office as President of Pakistan, and when it appeared as though she would once again be elected to that office (Ludwig p. 22), she was assassinated. The British people elected, and re-elected Margaret Thatcher as their Prime Minister, and Thatcher worked closely with then President Ronald Reagan to bring about the end of communism in Russia, East Germany, and the European communist bloc countries of Eastern Europe. The accomplishments of women who have held high political offices around the world have been such that they gained wide recognition around the world, and they were much loved by their constituency in those countries. As Arnold Ludwig points out, however:

"Over the entire twentieth century, only 27 of the 1,941 rulers from all the independent countries all over the world have been women. That's only 1.4%! You then have to temper your interpretation of this statistic with the fact that almost half of these women rulers gained power only because of the infectious charisma that came from being "widows-of-Him" -- the "Him" being their martyred or revered husbands or fathers -- and because of a desire to carry on their mission (p. 21)."

Arnold makes this statement in support of his contention that women "rulers" are the exception, and a big exception. Arnold says too:

"While being intelligent, competent, well-educated, and emotionally stable does not bar you from holding high office, you can also be the ruler of a nation if you have never read a book, do not know how to make a budget, still count with your fingers, take delight in murdering people, stay zonked out on drugs or alcohol during cabinet meetings, pay more attention to the imaginary voices in your head than to your advisors, or, simply put, are ignorant, demented, or crazy. With notable exceptions, the one thing you cannot be as a ruler is a woman (p. 21)."

In the United States, only recently, beginning with the presidency of Bill Clinton, have women in America begun to be recognized as capable and intellectually worthy of fulfilling the duties of high political office. We have seen an increase in the number of women who have been elected by their constituencies to the offices of the United States Senate and the House of Representatives. Recently, Nancy Pelosi, a Democrat from California, was elected to the prestigious and important office of Speaker of the House. Former President Clinton appointed Madeline Albright to the office of U.S. Secretary of State, a very high profile office and one of great importance.

The Secretary of State is responsible for the duties liaising with important heads of state on behalf of American foreign policy. It is often the Secretary of State, acting on behalf of the president and the American people, who lays the ground work for successful resolution of disputes and outbreaks of war and violence in areas like the Middle East and in Africa, or anywhere in the world where the United States is attempting to establish relationships for purposes of improving America's economics, and protecting its citizens from foreign invasion and threats (Lipman 2005). Madeleine Albright was the first woman to hold the office of Secretary of State (Lipman p. 2).

Clinton also appointed Janet Reno to the office of the United States Attorney General, where she was responsible for a vast network of attorneys working at the U.S. Department of Justice, and across the nation. The Attorney General is the liaising official with law enforcement agencies like the U.S. Marshalls, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Secret Service, and the Department of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF). The government website found online at http://www.justice.gov/ag/about-oag.html gives this introduction to the office:

"The Judiciary Act of 1789 created the Office of the Attorney General which evolved over the years into the head of the Department of Justice and chief law enforcement officer of the Federal Government. The Attorney General represents the United States in legal matters generally and gives advice and opinions to the President and to the heads of the executive departments of the Government when so requested. In matters of exceptional gravity or importance the Attorney General appears in person before the Supreme Court. Since the 1870 Act that established the Department of Justice as an executive department of the government of the United States, the Attorney General has guided the world's largest law office and the central agency for enforcement of federal laws (USDOJ:OAG, 2009)."

Reno held the office for the eight years of Clinton's presidency, and resided over some controversial legal issues like the matter of Elian Gonzales, a young Cuban refugee who left the communist island with his mother for the U.S. where they have relatives living in Florida. Elian's mother was lost at sea, but the child, with the aid of other refugees, made it to the Florida shore where, under the law, the child would then be entitled to due process of law governing the rights of illegal aliens to appeal the courts for asylum from a Communist country -- effectively ensuring their opportunity to remain in the United States and to become legal aliens, and, in most cases, U.S.… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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