Research Paper: Woodrow Wilson and Human

Pages: 10 (2900 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 20  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Government  ·  Buy This Paper

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] S.' Union Carbide to engage in a trade. The company imported an estimated 145,000 tons of chromium mineral from Rhodesia. Additionally, Nixon's Administration also expanded military help to South Africa resulting in the violation of the ban by the UN. This policy obviously put the U.S. As an afterthought of the South African white administration of backing the human rights violations, which were part Wilson's frameworks. The policies of the Ford and Nixon systems of Administrations that wanted to replace Wilsonianism with the national security only upgraded existing conditions in the area. The patterns in foreign policy conduct encountered continuous and conflicting shifts during Carter's Administration between1977 to1981.

Carter won the Vietnam War Watergate but the weary scandal tormented Republican Administration by expanding domestic constituency supporters dissatisfied with the Cold War. His new vision de-accentuated the perspective conceptualizing Africa's conflicts within the socialist adventuristic ideologies. For Carter, conflicts emerged as an aftereffect of social disorder, or political and socio-economic anxiety. Just like Wilson, Carter resorted to the religious and ethical virtues of the White House, which were transformed into the process of forming the U.S.' foreign policy. The greatest concern was the manner of achieving a genuine democratic system in African. While helping him realize this target, he selected various African-Americans, who shared his perspectives to strategic foreign policy making positions

It was during Carter Administration that a genuine qualitative leap that the noticeable quality of American foreign policy relating to human rights was reactivated. Although weak at first, Carter was capable of moving America far from the realpolitik of the Ford-Nixon-Kissinger regime to the practical Wilsonian ideology. He explicitly transformed the issues of democratic governments and the fundamental rights of humanity as the main themes of global political talk. This policy initiative was sought after during the initial years of his service. This won the confidence of pro-human rights and democratic advocates in both Africa and the U.S. For instance, import and export restrictions were imposed on South Africa, Uganda, and Ethiopia. By connecting military and economic support violations to human rights policies, Carter's Administration planned to influence the policies of the oppressive administrations in Africa

Carter's idealism empowered nations in Africa to respect democracy as a pillar of promoting human rights. During his Administration, he rejected the plans by Kissinger in southern Africa as conflicting with human rights and democratic standards. However, it upheld the Front-Line States' in the anti-apartheid efforts. Carter also expanded strategic endeavors at the Angolan, Namibian, and Mozambican dictatorial regimes. Dictatorship and racism instead of socialism were seen as the principle risk to the U.S. interests Africa. The administration also invalidated the Byrd Amendment of 1971, which permitted American organizations to import chrome from Rhodesia. Similarly, it endorsed new laws denying U.S. organizations from engaging in exchange with the white minority administrations in South Africa and constraining military sales bans on nations in Africa that violated human rights.

These moves showed Carter's Administration as the main devotee of the pro-democratic government and human rights developments in Africa and opposition to apartheid South Africa. President Carter's move from socialist realpolitik to Wilsonian idealism was evident during the Soviet attack of Afghanistan in 1979 and the recalling of the U.S. prisoners in Iran. He arranged for the U.S. army to help Afghanistan shield its citizens from the U.S.S.R.'s attack. Besides, Carter swiftly arranged for army installations in Somali, Kenya, and Sudan in 1980 when grave violations of human rights were evident in these nations. Carter used logistical back-ups from the Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force established as a consequence of the 1979 Soviet attack on the U.S. And Afghanistan prisoners in Iran. His Administration's conflict was evident in various occasions. His principal concern was the Soviet's expectation in the African continent and his regime's firmness on the recognition of human rights. Between the financial years 1979 and 1982, nations like Zaire turned into one of the initial Sub-Saharan African victims whose military support was lessened by Congress throughout the Administration of Carter. South Africa and Ethiopia additionally were reserved for denial and sanction of military support

The Bush and Reagan Administrations saw the issue of democracy and human rights policies within the context of suppressing socialism in Africa. This was plainly symbolized in their continued support in what Reagan called "flexibility warriors" like the Angola's National Union for Independence. The Western nations' contact group made during Carter's Administration to direct the Namibian move to freedom was softened during Reagan's Administration. In this case, Reagan created the policy of productive engagement, which focused in the perspectives of the anti-apartheid administration. The rapprochement of the U.S.-USSR, which started in 1980s paved way for the end of the Cold War. Such advancements cleared the way for the accommodative policy of Reagan's Administration to human rights policies advanced under the Bush Administration.

The practice of supporting dictators at the cost of human rights was common during the Cold War in particular. The U.S. trained forces for military dictators as a way to preserve the U.S. influence in different parts of the world that were either anti-communist or at the fine border between communism and non- aligned group of states

. There are numerous cases in which the U.S. Intelligence agencies, and in particular the CIA were proven to have supported with logistics at least different coups d'etat in Third World Countries and influenced elections and re-elections in order to ensure that the political leadership in that country would be favorable.

The fear of losing the Cold War to the Soviets, whether it justified installing friendly dictators in an effort to gain political influence was not the main reason for deposing Mohammed Mossadegh in 1953, but was mostly due to oil in Iran. Oil was first discovered in 1908, and from 1908 to 1951 the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, now known as British Petroleum, seized control of the oil industry, robbing Iran of huge source of income. However, the political atmosphere changed when, in 1951, a democratically elected government ruled by Mossadegh took control, and their first priority and main party goal was to nationalize the oil industry. Mossadegh became at once a national hero, gaining the admiration of not only his people but also anti-colonial parties in third world countries around the world, and an enemy of Great Britain

. Britain was infuriated and demanded that the United Nations and the International Court of Justice take action against Mossadegh. When they overruled Britain's claim, Churchill supported both a military invasion of Persia and a covert operation to take out Mossadegh, both of which were discouraged by Truman, who was opposed to imperialism and supported nationalist leaders. However, the Eisenhower administration supported the overthrow of Mossadegh when Montague Woodhouse, a MI6 agent working in the British embassy in Tehran, told the high ranking CIA officials that Iran could turn communist and chose to "emphasize the communist threat to Iran rather than the need to recover control of the oil industry," even though the threat of Iranian communism was very low. The United States soon abided to the wishes of the British and Operation Ajax, a CIA operation, was initiated shortly after Eisenhower's election. A series of orchestrated anti-Mossadegh protests, bribing of Iranian clergy and parliament members, and economic problems caused by British blockades, mainly on oil exports caused a referendum which ousted prime minister Mohammed Mossadegh and made Shah Reza Pehlavi the highest ranking official of Iran. Not only did this action set a precedent for the United States, which began a witch hunt on pro-communist and anti-American leaders, but also had major blowbacks as Iran fell into chaos in the more well-known 1979 Iranian Revolution, removing Pehlavi and instituting a fundamentalist Islamic government and creating huge anti-American sentiment, which strains Iranian-American relations to this day.

As Truman predicted, the deposing of Mossadegh would be the first of many American orchestrated interventions, namely by the CIA

. But success of the Iranian operation was only the catalyst for the United States' next maneuver. The United States had announced in the Monroe Doctrine that the Americas were not open to European colonialism or exploitation, and by the 20th Century, European influence over the Americas had… [END OF PREVIEW]

Four Different Ordering Options:

?
Which Option Should I Choose?

1.  Buy the full, 10-page paper:  $26.88

or

2.  Buy & remove for 30 days:  $38.47

or

3.  Access all 175,000+ papers:  $41.97/mo

(Already a member?  Click to download the paper!)

or

4.  Let us write a NEW paper for you!

Ask Us to Write a New Paper
Most popular!

Woodrow Wilson Term Paper


Inaugural Addresses Wilson and Eisenhower Woodrow Essay


Person in History Woodrow Wilson Essay


Historical Contexts and Literature Term Paper


Public Administration Core Competency Final Exam Research Proposal


View 115 other related papers  >>

Cite This Research Paper:

APA Format

Woodrow Wilson and Human.  (2013, August 23).  Retrieved March 22, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/woodrow-wilson-human/5020283

MLA Format

"Woodrow Wilson and Human."  23 August 2013.  Web.  22 March 2019. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/woodrow-wilson-human/5020283>.

Chicago Format

"Woodrow Wilson and Human."  Essaytown.com.  August 23, 2013.  Accessed March 22, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/woodrow-wilson-human/5020283.