Work and Organization Term Paper

Pages: 6 (2367 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 8  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Business - Management

Work and Organisation

Improving the capabilities of individuals and groups to solve problems and arrive at decisions is identified as an important issue in organizational settings in spheres of education, industry, and government. Latest research in this realm has found an authoritarian model of problem solving, even though there are fewer consensuses regarding the right methods. Independent research on personality and cognitive styles has found vital individual disparities in the manner in which people approach and solve problems. (Problem Solving and Decision Making: Consideration of Individual Differences Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator)

Decision making - a group based approach:

major change is happening in organizations across the world, a changeover which has important connotation for expertise which will be crucial to the success both as a member of organizations and as a manager and leader. This change entails enhancing the importance on the group or team. A lot of factors are prompting this change. Technology is a chief force prompting this as responsibilities have often come to be extremely intricate for people to address in their individual capacities. Apart from that competitive forces have constrained several organizations to flatten the organization by considerably curtailing the number of levels of middle-level managers. Transferring authority and responsibilities to percolate to the bottom level to let teams to take over responsibilities used to be performed by the management. (Surviving the Group Project: A Note on Working in Teams)Buy full Download Microsoft Word File paper
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Term Paper on Work and Organization Assignment

On an increasingly broad scale, as organizations, particularly multinationals get in the act of several businesses, several industries and several nations, new and complex decisions are surfacing which depend on a lot of interdependent groups with decisions arrived at teams having members of these several groups. Even, in the absence of these forces, others have found a simple solution that exploiting the potential power of these groups can put a remarkable effect on efficiency and job satisfaction. Currently, nearly all organization espouses the concept of groups. Groups have come to be the central unit in a lot of organizations. Part of this is focused on the fact which is backed by research that efficiency of the groups are more in providing a solution to the problem and learn more quickly compared to learning at the individual level.

Nevertheless, inspection will discover that less organizations and individuals in them are especially content with the manner in which their groups are functioning. While a group is operating well, the dynamics of the group and a sense of belongingness and acceptance can extract the cream. Groups have the potential of improving problem solving and creativity; generate understanding, acceptance, support, and dedication. Apart from that, groups have the potential to improve the morale, give a vent for association, and improve self-esteem, aid in the creation of unanimity and security. Everybody among us possesses at least a few experiences wherein involvement in an efficient group has assisted us to attain at levels which we did not thought to be possible. Even people, who assert a real aversion towards groups, mention that some type of working in groups have put a major mark in their lives. (Surviving the Group Project: A Note on Working in Teams)

Decision making models:-

Group decision making is the process of reaching at a conclusion based on the feedback of several individuals. Such a decision-making is a major constituent to the functioning of the organization, since it is acknowledged that organizational performance entails more than merely action at the individual level. Because of the significance of the group decision-making process, decision-making models serve to establish an organized method of developing an effective group decision making. Overall, four group making models can be identified with each one possessing distinct merits and demerits. These four models include the rational model, political model, process model, and garbage can models. (Group Decision Making within the Organization: Can Models Help?)

Rational Model:-

This model is based on the economic analysis of the decision making. This is based on objectives, alternatives, consequences and optimality. This model takes into account that complete information as regards the decision to be taken is offered and one appropriate conception of a problem or decision to be arrived can be determined. The model also takes for granted that the decision-makers persistently evaluate the merits and demerits of any options with goals and objectives in view. Thereafter, they calculate the consequences of selecting or otherwise of each alternative. The alternative which gives the maximum utility will be chosen for implementation. The rational model constitutes the baseline against which other models are contrasted. The most relevant benefit of the rational model is that it uses a logical, sequential approach. Decisions are arrived at deductively by determining the goals or objectives to be obtained, assessing the possible options based on the information at hand and selecting the most appropriate option. To put it differently, the model is intuitive in character.

Political model:-

As against the rational model, the participating individuals do not execute the decision task by means of rational task in terms of objectives and on the contrary are guided by and perform on their independent needs and perceptions. This process entails a series of bargaining within the decision makers for everybody to endeavor his independent viewpoint to be the perfect one to be chosen. Hence, every decision maker attempting to influence powerful workforce with the framework to assume his or her standpoint and pressurize the remaining decision makers. The merit of political model is that it gives a representation of the subjective manner in which the real world frequently functions, and it has the potential to lessen variance. It is well-known that individuals always reserve their personal biases and agendas which impact their behavior. Through proper recognition or acknowledgement of this fact within the decision making process, potential problems and conflict can be forecasted and minimized. Conflict can also be minimized when people having clout favor this viewpoint, and once this happens, other group members tow in line behind them. but, the political model suffers from a disadvantage that often the best solution or decision might not be chosen. Besides, the type of bargaining and maneuvering is can generate effects that are long-term and damaging. (Group Decision Making within the Organization: Can Models Help?)

Process model:-

This model is more structured wherein the decisions are based upon standard functional procedures, or pre-established instructions within the organization. Actions and behaviors take place within the ambit of these procedures or guidelines. The most integral part of process model is conformity as it is a means queries, or incertitude is addressed at the time of decision task. In case the decision makers are not sure regarding the possible effectiveness or the outcome of a decision, they conform to the existing standard. This conformity must not be understood to imply that the decision will not bear a concrete basis. In this situation, conformity is connected to the fact that the reasoning for the decision is based upon predetermined guidelines.

Garbage Can Model:-

This model is the most suitable for judgment tasks in organizations wherein the technologies are ambiguous, the involvement of the participants changes in the amount of time and efforts contributed, and choices are varying and not well defined. In this type of organization, a facility to arrive at a decision is defined as a garbage can and several types of problems and solutions are placed in isolation of one another by the decision-makers as these problem and solutions are found out. A prominent advantage of the garbage model comes to be that it gives a real-world representation of the non-rational manner in which the decisions are frequently made in an organization. Sometimes, not all decisions are arrived in a logical, political, or even standard fashion. A significant disadvantage of garbage can model is that it is not included in the most effective way of arriving at a decision. (Group Decision Making within the Organization: Can Models Help?)

Individual and Group Decision Making:

Consensus constitutes a process for group decision-making. It is a process through which a full team of people have the opportunity to arrive at an agreement. The input and ideas of all the participants are assembled and synthesized to come to a final decision that is acceptable to everybody. Through the process of consensus, an organization works not just to achieve better solutions, but also to promote the growth of community and trust. It is pertinent to note here that consensus does not imply that everybody thinks that the decision arrived at is inevitably the ideal one possible, or everyone is certain about its execution. But it of course it implies that while arriving to that decision, it is ensured that no one in the team get the impression that his position on the matter was misunderstood or that an appropriate hearing was not made. Optimistically, everybody will come to learn that it is the most appropriate decision, it frequently occurs, as it works, collective intelligence emerges with better solutions compared to what individuals could have come up… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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