Work Values Cross-Cultural Comparison Research Paper

Pages: 9 (2471 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 10  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Careers  ·  Buy This Paper

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[. . .] 231).

Redding (1993) defined the Chinese concept of guanzi as a network of personality defined bonds that allow business relationships to develop in the societal context. Therefore, it functions as a defining in-group. According to Luo (1997) guanxi "contains implicit mutual obligation, assertion, and understanding, and governs Chinese attitudes toward long-term social and business relationships" (p. 43).

Comparison of U.S. And China

Both china and the U.S. have dedicated significant funds to the development of nanotechnology, as will be explained in detail below. While two countries are investing in nanotechnology for several reasons, one overarching tenet of both approaches falls under the rubric of "economic competitiveness." Thus, the definition Woo-Cumings puts forth in their characterization of industrial policy holds particular significance in its emphasis on those activities which will provide "the ability of the state sector both to accommodate itself to the changing requirements for remaining competitive in the global market place and to provide support for educational infrastructure and for research and development" (1999, 27).

While it is generally accepted that the U.S. does not maintain an active industrial policy, an emerging body of literature in sociology has emphasized in fact that despite this public aversion, the U.S. state does in fact have and has historically played a central role in stimulating economic growth and innovation (Woo Cumings, 2002; Schrank 2010). The hidden nature of the U.S. industry policy is, as Negoita explains, "convenient." Convenient in the sense that it "avoided a public discussion on the role of government in generating technological innovation" (Negoita 2010:4). Additionally, as has been discussed elsewhere (Motoyama, 2009), although science policy is conventionally seen as important for technological development, a direct link to commercial payoff is not typically viewed as an immediate result. Thus, given the emphasis on commercialization and competitiveness in both countries' work values.

Scholars of national innovation systems have noted that in recent years, a preoccupation in the West over fears of being "left behind" have led to scholarship and policies "concerned with supporting the technical innovative prowess of national firms" (Nelson and Rosenberg 1993: 3). Such preoccupation has given rise to new form of "techno nationalism...combining a strong belief that the technological capabilities of a nation's firms are a key source of their competitive prowess, with a belief that these capabilities are in a sense national, and can be built by national action" (Nelson and Rosenberg 1993: 3).

Conclusion

An investigation of the work values/attitudes in China and U.S. As determined by demographic variables, such as gender, age, educational level, and managerial levels will assist organizations working in China or organizations working in U.S. that employ Chinese or U.S. workers. Because of the dynamism within the socio-economic environment over the last two decades, these factors may reveal some value differentiation that will affect conceptual models of motivation. Comprehending China's massive labour work ethic can be an organizational competitive advantage.

Work ethic as a concept exists in all cultures but appears not to be consistent across cultures in terms of specific values attributes. The task at hand is to identify the variables that create the optimum work environment for success within the Chinese and U.S. cultural, social, political and economic contexts. McClelland's theoretical framework reflects the strong emphasis of Western psychological development theory as individualism. Developmental theorist and education experts today are also seriously questioning the applicability of Western theory to diverse populations in seeking a better understanding of learning and motivation. (Bowman, 2001).

In comparison with the U.S., China as a society that has recently transitioned from state-owned to privately-owned enterprises lacks the long history of entrepreneurship and related small technology start-ups. Further, it does not yet have a well-established private sector with a strong presence of venture capitalists. In part of make up for this deficit, China has sought to use a division of labour across different levels of government as a way to solve this problem.

References

Bernstein, Paul. (1997). American Work Values: Their Origin and Development. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Cappelli, P., Bassi, L., Katz, H., Knoke, D., Osterman, P. And Useem, M. (1997). Change at Work. New York: Oxford University Press.

Dawis, R.V. (2005). The Minnesota theory of work adjustment. In Brown, S.D. & Lent, R.W. (Eds.) Career development and counselling: putting theory and research to work. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Farber, Henry S. (1997). "Changing Face of Job Loss in the United States, 1981-1995." Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1: Microeconomics: 55-128.

Florida, Richard. (2004). The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It's Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life. New York: Basic Books.

Fraser, Jill Andresky. (2001). White-collar Sweatshop: The Deterioration of Work and Its Rewards in Corporate America. New York: Norton.

Heckscher, Charles C. (1995). White-Collar Blues: Management Loyalties in an Age of Corporate Restructuring. New York: Basic Books.

Johnson, Monica Kirkptrick. (2002). "Social Origins. Adolescent Experiences and Work Value Trajectories during the Transition to Adulthood." Social Forces 80:1307-1341.

Kalleberg, Arne L. And David Stark. (1993). "Career Strategies in Capitalism and Socialism: Work Values in the United States and Hungary." Social Forces 72:181-198.

Locke, E.A., (1983). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In M.D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Lorence, Jon and Jeylan T. Mortimer. (1985). "Job Involvement through the Life Course: A Panel Study of Three Age Groups." American Sociological Review 50:618-638.

Pink, Daniel H. (2001). Free Agent Nation: How America's New Independent Workers are Transforming the Way We Live. New York: Warner Books.

Ross, Andrew. (2003). No-Collar: The Humane Workplace and Its Hidden Costs. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Schmidt, Stephanie. (1999). "Long-Run Trends in Workers' Beliefs about Their Own Job Security: Evidence from the General Social Survey." Journal of… [END OF PREVIEW]

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