Term Paper: Workplace Stress Study

Pages: 10 (4615 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 6  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Psychology  ·  Buy This Paper

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] Overtime work can also result in poor mental performances and other illnesses. The economic downturn, personal lives, low income and huge amount of workload have added to stress at job (Jadwiga, 2009).

When a person is experiencing stress, his hormones are released which included cortisol and catecholamines (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003). The prolong activation of stress related illnesses can cause the system to disrupt the processes of the body and increase various problems related to health (APA, 2014). One of the illnesses is allostatic load which is a biological burden that is exacted on the body through regular adaptation of emotional and physical stress (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003). This also results in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, cognitive impairment, depression, diabetes, obesity, and coronary vascular disease. Individual's age faster as a result of stress and their immune system weakens which enhances illnesses (Shuttleworth, 2004; APA, 2014).

Hypothesis

Stress at work has a lot of serious effects in the society and if ignored by the individual for a long time can result in several illnesses. It is not considered a serious health issue in society because the entire focus has been on the physical safety and other issues like discrimination and harassment which has caused the society to overlook the stress symptoms. There has been a of work on the causes, results and management of stress in workplace, but the other common issues have over-taken the significance of health issues as a result of stress. Promotion of issues like saving yourself from a fellow employee who harasses or gender issues in workplace are more in focus and ample studies are being done on them. It is to be noted that extreme stress can also affect the person physically as well as psychologically and for this reason, stress in workplace will be the focus of the project.

Methodology

Keywords like 'stress at workplace' 'symptoms of stress' 'causes of stress' 'statistics of stress' 'health problems of stress' 'reasons of stress at work' ' organizational strategies for stress' were used in order to search the articles in the university library. The search was limited to secondary database which were published between the years 2000 to 2013.There was a large amount of secondary data were available for analyses on the topic. The large number of data made it difficult to select the literature; however it required inclusion and exclusion criteria which were used in this research. A systematic search of literature was used to study the evidence that was presented in the secondary data. After the systematic search was done, the study became a systematic review which means that all the references were read. Quantitative method in which a survey was also carried out with a sample size of 15 was held. Secondary sources were used in this research and the study presents a complete reference list, detailed results and a discussion are also given in the report. Areas like newspaper articles or textbooks are reviewed in the secondary source. During the conduction of literature review, it was kept in mind that the studies should point to the hypothesis or the research question.

Results

Almost 72% mortality within America can be attributed to lifelong ailments. Majority of the adults residing within America have been informed by health specialists that they are suffering from either one or more than one chronic ailment (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003). The expenditure of chronic ailments constitutes nearly 80% from the two trillion dollar health expenditure within America. More than sixty percent Americans are either overweight or obese (Gallup, 2010). Nearly half of the American workforce has put on weight during their working hours and almost thirty percent assume that stress in their workplace has been a major factor for their weight gain (Shuttleworth, 2004).

The organizations are developing new health plans for their customers which increase the responsibilities of the employees relating to the costs of their health care (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2001). The firms must develop better insurance policies so that the health costs of the workers are covered without any burden on the employees. The insurance offices must be opened during the working hours as it will increase the productivity cause when the workers know that their health costs will be covered without any problem (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2001). 69% of the workers state that their main source of stress is their work and 41% of the workers feel stressed out because of their work (American Psychological Association, 2009). 51% employees state that their productivity had suffered because of stress while 52% of the employees state that they have considered changing their jobs, and declining a promotion as well (American Psychological Association, 2009). The median number of days that individuals were absent from work were 25 in 2001 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2001). In the companies that had a large number of employees and were placed in multiple areas had high levels of stress in the employees which is 46% (Tudu & Pathak, 2013). Work stress has been estimated to cost 300 billion dollars every year with large number of absenteeism, decrease in turnout, less productivity and insurance, legal and medical costs (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2001).

Employers cited in the National Business Group on Health/Watson Wyatt Survey (2009) that the 'underuse of preventative services' and 'employee's poor health habits' were the two challenges in the maintenance of an affordable benefit coverage (Shuttleword, 2004). According to 52% of the employees, the company does not fulfill its responsibility of promoting health of employees (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003). According to U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009), only 2% of the employers offer comprehensive cessation benefits of smoking. The American employees survey stated that only 42% of the employees have reported that their organization offer options for healthy food (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003). 46 million people in 2008 lacked health insurances which increased to 58.5% later that year (Tuda & Pathak, 2013). Between the years 2008 and 2009, the premiums for the health insurance for employees was increased to 5% for the families which bought the total to 4824$ for individual person and 13, 374$ for individuals ((National Business Group on Health & Strategy One, 2007)

In 2005, the mental health problems of the employees due to work, rose up to 156 million visits to the doctor's office, hospital and clinics (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2008). This made stress one of the top reasons of people's visit to the doctor (Hurley, 2007). The individuals also suffer from mood disorders which costs up to 50 billion dollars every year and loss in high productivity resulting in 321.2 million absent workdays (Kessler et al., 2006). The mental health disorders in 1990 in American economy cost 79 billion dollars and loss in productivity (Shuttleworth, 2004). Around 15.3% or the workers are reported to have used alcohol, 19% got involved in alcohol monthly while 11% got involved weekly (Rice & Miller, 1996, as cited in U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1999). The workers using drugs cost twice as much in the compensation claims of the workers as compared to those who are free of drugs. A 0.4% of health premium plans will be raised by the Congressional Budget Office projects in Wellstone-Domenic Mental Health Parity Act. (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2008).

Around 70% of deaths in America are caused by the chronic disease. 66% of the adults who are living in America have more than one chronic disease as told by the healthcare provider (Kaiser Family Foundation & Health Research and Educational Trust, 2009). The chronic disease costs more than 75% of 2 trillion dollars as the cost of health care cost. In 2009, out of every ten American, six adults were either obese (26%) or overweight (36%). 44% of the employees have gained a lot of weight during their work and around 32% state that their stress is due to weight gain during the working hours (Gallup Organization, 2010). The productivity loss which was related to family and personal health issues in American employers cost 1685 dollars per worker a year or 226 billion dollars annually. Injuries in workplace in 2008 resulted in 5214 deaths in America (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003). Around 4.6 million cases regarding the non-fatal injuries were reported. More than half of the cases require job transfer, time away from job or job restrictions (Goetzel et al., 1998). In 2008, the total amount of occupational injuries and deaths was 183 billion dollar and in 2007, the compensation claims cost for the workers was estimated to be 85 billion dollars (Tudu & Pathak, 2013).

Analyzing the data collected together and based on the statistics in the study, it can be stated that work related stress is not… [END OF PREVIEW]

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