Term Paper: World War II the Role

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[. . .] S.S.R. The primary troops were ready to fight by 1942 against the Axis. 13

It is necessary, at this point, to get a general overview of the situation in Germany at this time. In 1944, powerful forces both from the east as well as from the west bombarded Hitler. Added to this were the threats posed by air raids and submarine attacks by Russia supported by her allies. Germany had to attack Russia in 1941, knowing fully well that there could be a massive defeat in store for her. Initially, Russia's losses were huge. But, Russia being a large country with vast resources, this victory was short lived. In December 1941, Germany lost the war and the finale came when America joined the war when she was still full of strength and Germany was completely weak. 14 America, at this juncture, decided to defeat Germany at the very outset in case there was actually a world war. 15

Accordingly, despite the American citizen's desire for neutrality, America did enter the war, after the devastating attack by Japan on Pearl Harbor in December 1941. This was done the very next day after the attack when America declared war on both Japan and Germany. 16 Severely weakened by counter attacks and the advance of the Russian troops, Germany could no longer fight the war on an equal footing with the Allies. In 1945, U.S. troops managed to set foot on the Rhine, after which there was no hope for Germany. Both British and American armies entered German soil, along with French troops in a massive air attack.

The power of the Allied forces was beyond compare at this point when they were able to enter Ruhr and capture about 325,000 Germans as prisoners. The invaders also penetrated Austria and Czechoslovakia and Germany had to give up even more of her citizens in surrender. Meanwhile, the Soviets had entered Berlin and met with the American troops that were already present there. In the fighting that followed, Hitler found that he could not cope, and he finally committed suicide in April, after which Berlin had to surrender. 17 This then was the battle against Germany carried out by the United States of America and her Allies.

Japan, however, was another major player in the Second World War. Japan was a country lacking in natural resources and had to rely on outside help for its share. The United States was a major supplier of such resources as oil and petroleum. But when Japan attacked China for reasons of expansion, America disapproved and shut off all supplies to Japan. When this was done, Japan had no option other than to look elsewhere for its supplies and this is what happened. Southeast Asia had rich natural resources and this is where she set her sights on as the American embargo showed no signs of loosening up. 18 The United States stood between Japans plans of expansion to the East Indies by stationing her troops in Pearl Harbor and thereby preventing any communications between Japan and the East Indies. Frustrated, Japan started planning her attack on the U.S. troops at Pearl Harbor. 19

This surprise attack was meant to immobilize U.S. forces so that in the confusion after the attack, Japan would be able to seize the Dutch East Indies, as well as Malaya, Singapore, and Burma. Following the successful capture of these islands, they would fortify themselves by strengthening the islands of the South and the Central Pacific. Once this was done, they would be strong enough to oppose the Americans and also negotiate peace with them. In comparison to the Japanese forces, the United States' forces were very minimal; they were comprised of two small forces foe land defense. The American Navy and Army had developed certain strategies to fight the Japanese in the case of an attack. The Navy was to fight across the Pacific while the Army was to fight across the Alaska-Hawaii- Panama line. However, all these strategies came to naught, when the Japanese actually attacked on December 7, 1941. 20

Both the U.S. air forces and the U.S. armed forces were almost completely destroyed in this devastating attack and the Japanese captured Malaya and Singapore and Burma and the Dutch East Indies in a rapid series of victories. Macarthur tried his best to defend Manila against Japanese advance, to no avail, since the U.S. troops were grossly inadequate for such an immense task. He just could not face the Japanese on their beaches and he retreated to Bataan Peninsula from where he assumed that he would be able to plan out counter strategies against Japan. This was not to be and in May 1942, the fight for Philippines ended and the U.S. had to surrender the Bataan forces to the Japanese. The exhausted forces were made to march towards camps in Luzon in inhuman conditions. This 'Bataan Death March' filled the hearts of Americans with extreme hatred for the Japanese. This did not in any way deter the Japanese from establishing an entire empire of conquered territories, something that even they found a mite difficult to actually believe. 21

They had succeeded beyond their wildest expectations in defeating a country of the caliber of the United States of America. They were further tempted to try to go beyond this and try to venture into Honolulu and the Solomon Islands and herein began their descent and eventual defeat at the hands of America and her Allies. These forces together were a definite threat to the Japanese Empire whereby Japan did not possess the resources to both defend her boundaries and also produce more planes and ships for her defense forces. The Battle of Midway in 1942 in the Coral Sea proved to be a lost battle for the Japanese and a turning point for the Americans. The losses suffered were heavy and a large number of planes and ships and soldiers were lost. The Navy headed by Admiral Nimitz, and the Army under General Macarthur carried on long and bloody campaigns against the Japanese in order to set up a base for the Allied Forces to wage war on Japan and in June 1944, Saipan, Guam and Tinian were all captured by U.S. troops. 22

This proved to be a basis for political unrest in Japan and resulted eventually in the fall of the Tojo Government. The Marianas were captured during the Battle of the Philippine Sea with the primary intention of providing a base in the heart of Japan for the B29, the state- of- the- art new bomber of the Army Air Forces. This facilitated the strategic bombing of Japan and thus began the defeat of Japan by the United States of America. The U.S. bombings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were the final cap to the whole episode, along with the declaration of war by the Soviet Union. The Japanese in 1945 had to lay down their arms and offer to, under the leadership of Emperor Hirohito surrender. 23

The War in Europe was launched by the Americans to strike against the Nazi Germany. In 1944, the Germans tried to halt the progress of the Allies into Germany in a bloody campaign also known as the Battle of the Bulge. However there was to be no success for Hitler and he became totally exhausted in this attempt at defiance against America. The German soldiers became a totally disorganized force whereby there was no control and they began to surrender out of fear and exhaustion. It was in 1945 that the Soviets reached Berlin and Hitler killed himself. Meanwhile, Mussolini had been killed when trying to escape to Switzerland and this is how the United States of America defeated all the Axis powers namely Japan, Germany, and Italy. 24 With the U.S. victory in the War of Europe and in the Pacific War, the Greatest War in human history, the Second World War, was won, and May 8, 1945 was declared as V-E Day.

Though America's victory was indeed sweet, there has been a lot of criticism on her decision to use the Atomic bomb against Japan in her fight for power. America had the idea that this was the quickest way to end the war but others feel that it was totally unnecessary; Japan would have surrendered even otherwise, and the purpose of using the bomb was to actually subdue the Soviets who were advancing in power. America would have had to use this method to subdue forces more powerful than her in order to maintain the role of the foremost leader of world peace. 25

To conclude, America's entry into the Second World War was definitely inevitable if she wanted to survive on her own terms and for this she would not let an Asian or a Nazi Dictatorship take over and have control on the world. America would not have been able to defend her… [END OF PREVIEW]

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World War II the Role.  (2004, March 20).  Retrieved July 18, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/world-war-ii-role/8660117

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"World War II the Role."  Essaytown.com.  March 20, 2004.  Accessed July 18, 2019.