World War II Russian Campaign Term Paper

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He had to send troops to Greece and Yugoslavia as well and it is very important that even there the reason was Italian defeat in Greece. Hitler was very disappointed in Mussolini and had to help his weak ally, which was not able to capture such small country as Greece was. Hitler considered African victories as political but not military success. He needed Rommel's divisions in the east but not far away in Africa. He was sure that those troops he had sent to Africa could preserve Italians from defeat and would help defeating British troops in the whole Mediterranean region because he planned to capture Greece and Yugoslavia where British positions were rather strong.

When preparing troops to invade Russia Hitler thought he would capture main regions of Soviet Union for several weeks and Soviet system would collapse as soon as Wehrmacht would step on Soviet land.

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Sure, Baltic republics and parts of Ukraine (which were Polish territory before 1939) were inhabited by people who suffered a lot from Bolsheviks' regime and its politics of industrialization and Collectivization. Hitler was sure that those nations would help him and he had a plan to form army units so that they would be able to fight for "their future against cruel Stalin" as it was written in German posters. During the war national minorities of Soviet Union (Chechens, Tatars, Polish and Ukrainians) decided to join the Nazi, as they wanted to fight against Soviets for a long period of time. This was a very important factor of Hitler's moral success, but it didn't influence the war because those rebels were not trained to fight and in reality, could not resist Red Army. Besides it, they saw and realized the horror of Hitler's "new order" and gave up fighting for no reason. "They burned down Russian villages and looted Russian homes. This was more than simple anti-Bolshevism, and it was harder to forgive"(Overy, Richard Russia's War p. 148)

Term Paper on World War II Russian Campaign Assignment

This was one of the reasons of the fact that anti-Communist movement organized by Germans was not popular. The situation in Africa was different: both German and Allies' troops fought not for own territory but for a colony inhabited by the nations who didn't care of that war and didn't influence the outcomes of any battle there. Neither Germans nor Allies didn't have real, sincere support from the natives of African territories as native population lived their own life while they fought.

First months showed Germans that though Soviets are badly equipped and trained they are really serious enemies and German commanders hoped to defeat Red Army before it could move back and construct strong defense. But Russian tactics was outdated, for example during one cavalry attack in the beginning of the war "By October 18 German armored forces had taken the cities of Kalinin to the ... down by machine-gun fire; 2,000 of the horsemen were killed, not a single German."(Overy, Richard Russia's War p. 114)

This was true that such commanders like Kliment Voroshilov were still sure that cavalry could be effectively used in the modern war. Russian cavalry attacks were brave but absurd and even Germans admitted that. But "Soviet forces fought better with the weapons of the twentieth century"(Overy, Richard Russia's War p. 114)

and it can be explained by serious German losses of tanks and aviation. Though Soviets didn't manage creating large tank army units and had only tank brigades while Germans had tank divisions and they could be commanded much more effectively than Russian small brigades, but still odd Soviet troops fought extremely brave and Germans admitted their fatalism. Russian tank T-34 was a great problem for Germans as well and Wehrchmacht and SS tank divisions lost many tanks when meeting T-34 or such huge steel monsters as heavy KV tanks. The reasons of Russian failures in the beginning of the war were basically because of shortage of modern techniques (they had perfect Il-2 assault aircrafts, T-34 tanks and artillery weapons) and inability to use them in organized defense line. German military machine and industry worked to supply army in Soviet Union with the most modern technologies. For example, "the Reich's war industries succeeded in raising tank production from 2235 in 1940 to 5290 in 1941"(Bartov, Omer Hitler's Army p. 14)

and continued increasing war production later. [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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