Youth Jean Piaget's Theory Term Paper

Pages: 4 (1182 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 2  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Children

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Adolescence is not the end-stage of moral and cognitive development for Piaget, and he asserted that these would continue to be improved and refined throughout adulthood into old age. As with his theory of cognitive development, researchers like Lawrence Kohlberg also discovered that younger children are also able to comprehend abstract moral values at an earlier age than he realized.Get full Download Microsoft Word File access
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Term Paper on Youth Jean Piaget's Theory of Assignment

. Erik Erikson revised the stages of development in Freudian psychoanalysis away from the emphasis on gratification of the basic drives and instincts of the id to gratification and development of the ego, and therefore like most of the later Freudians has been considered an ego psychologist. He did not name his stages oral, anal, phallic, latent and genital as Freud had, and deemphasized sexual gratification as the basic motor of human development. In the oral stage, for example, he argued that the infant was in a state of dependency on the mother and had to develop a sense of her "caring and dedication to feeding" and other basic needs (DeRobertis, 2008, p. 90). Without this, children would lack a sense or trust and hope, and if abused or neglected would withdraw into a state similar to schizophrenia. At the next stage of development during toilet training, children would develop a sense of autonomy and ego control, as long as they had supportive and helpful parents, but is they were abused or mistreated by controlling, domineering or neurotic parents then they would have personalities based on shame and doubt, as well as obsessive-compulsive personalities. In the phallic stage, which is one of initiative vs. guilt, children with abusive or controlling parents would end up feeling guilty about sexuality and develop hysterical neuroses (DeRobertis, p. 91). Adolescents must pass through a stage where they develop their own unique identities and moral codes vs. simply conforming and fitting in with the parents, families and peers. If they successfully navigate this stage -- and of course many people fail to do so -- then they will be healthy adults who are confident in their own identities. Late adolescents also pass through a stage of intimacy vs. isolation, in which they develop the ability to love and be loved by other adults, as well as to maintain friendships. Those who fail to pass through this stage may become emotionally distant and shut off, over overly needy and dependent on others.

The theories of Erikson and Piaget have been revised over time, particularly the idea that all children and adolescents pass through the same stages at the same ages, or that emotional, cognitive and moral development always proceed at the same pace in every individual. Nor do today's researchers consider each stage of life a 'crisis' as Erikson did, at least not for all individuals. Erikson and Piaget remain very influential today because of their pioneering work, even if contemporary development theorists reject the concept of rigid and inflexible stages of life. Youth development in contemporary times is considered far more fluid and experimental, with children and adolescents experimenting with a variety of different identities and images over time, and these can vary greatly from one individual to the next or one culture and subgroup to another. This is more of a trial-and-error process than exact, scientific stages, and moral and cognitive development can benefit just as greatly from failures as successes.

REFERENCES

DeRobertis, E.M. (2008). Humanizing Child Development Theory: A Holistic Approach. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse.

Sigelman, C.K. And E.A.… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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