Zhang, Zhi-Xue (Nd) an Exploratory Annotated Bibliography

Pages: 8 (2072 words)  ·  Style: APA  ·  Bibliography Sources: 20  ·  File: .docx  ·  Topic: Business - Management

Zhang, Zhi-xue (nd) an Exploratory Study of Tight and Loose Coupling Between Executive Leadership and Organizational Culture. Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and Hong Kong Research Grants Council. Online available at http://www.iacmr.org/03-106.doc

This work seeks to answer the question of what links exist between leadership and organizational culture and as well seeks to understand "under what conditions would a strong leader not be able to develop a strong culture and when can a strong culture exist in spite of a weak leader?Get full Download Microsoft Word File access
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Annotated Bibliography on Zhang, Zhi-Xue (Nd) an Exploratory Study of Assignment

The methodology reported in this study states: "two samples were used in this study." (Zhang, nd) Sample 1 consisted of 542 MBA students at two different universities in Beijing with each student working for a different company in Beijing, holding a professional and managerial job. The study states that among these participants "44% worked for State-owned enterprises, 23% for foreign, and 15% for private forms, with the rest for other types of firms. Each respondent rated his/her company's corporate culture and the CEO's leadership behavior." (Zhang, nd) Sample 2 consisted of 1045 employees from 140 firms from various cities in China. Each of the 140 companies involves six to eight middle managers rating the company's culture and leadership behavior." (Zhang, nd) Surveys were completed and measures used in the study were the Chinese CEO Leadership Attributes Measure which consisted of 24 items measuring six dimensions of leadership behavior which include: (1) innovative and risk taking; (2) interpersonal relationships; (3) benevolence; (4) vision articulating; (5) authoritarian; and (6) analyzer and monitor. The participants in this study were asked to rate their CEO on each of the six items using a 5-point Likert scale, varying from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The Organizational Culture Values measure further consisted of 24 items, which assessed five dimensions of organizational culture: (1) harmony and employee orientation; (2) customer focus; (3) innovativeness; (4) systematic management and control; and (5) social responsibility. Respondents were asked to rate their company in terms of the company's emphasis of the values on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 'no emphasis at all' to 'very much emphasize.

Major findings: Findings reported by Zhang include that a relationship exist between the strength of a set of leadership attributes and the strength of several organizational culture dimensions in various Chinese companies. Also stated in the findings is a loose coupling between leadership and organizational culture exists "more frequently than expected. Our findings indicate that in the enterprises where the executive leader has limited managerial discretion, where the resources are limited, and where there is strong organization inertia, the strong leader is not able to develop a strong culture. Conversely, a weak leader was not able to weaken a pre-existing strong culture.

Value of the article: The research reported is valuable in that a loose coupling between leadership and organizational culture existed more than was expected by the researchers in this study. Additionally the findings that limited managerial discretion combined with limited resources results in the strong leader being unable to develop a strong organization and a weak leader was found unable to weaken a strong culture that pre-existed in the organization.

Dooley, Jeff (1998) a Whole-Person/Systemic Approach to Organization Change Management. Online available at: www.well.com/user/dooley/change.pdf

Research question: The work of Dooley (1998) examines organizational change initiatives in relation to how they generally fail to deliver "promises of increased productivity and morale, decreased cost, decreased waste and increased customer satisfaction."

Research methodology: Dooley (1998) qualitatively analyzes a systemic model for organizational change.

Major findings: Dooley (1998) states findings that "some capabilities are more critical to an individual's ability to be effective in change initiatives." Further stated by Dooley (1998) is: "It is important to acknowledge that there is likely to be no single, general model for organization change. These models are offered as conversation-starters, or checklists for developing strategies for driving effective change in organizations by the people who will live and work in the organizations either anticipating change or in the middle of it already."

Value of the article: The value in Dooley's work is the recognition that no one single model can be touted as the only effective model for organizational change even though many of the components of the effective organizational change models are much the same.

Van Teijlingen, Edwin R. And Hundley, Vanora (2001) the Importance of Pilot Studies. Social Research Update. Issue 35. Winter 2001. Sociology at Surrey Online available at http://sru.soc.surrey.ac.uk/SRU35.html

Research Question: This work examines the value of pilot studies.

Research Methodology: This is a qualitative review of pilot studies.

Major Findings: Van Teijlingen and Hundley write in the work entitled: "The Importance of Pilot Studies" that the term pilot studies "refers to a mini version of a full-scale study" this is also referred to as a 'feasibility' study and includes the "specific pre-testing of a particular research instruments such as a questionnaire or interview schedule." (2001) Pilot studies are stated to be a critical element of a study design that is sound and while the conduction of a pilot study is no guarantee of success in the primary study the likelihood is however increased for the success of the primary study when having conducted a pilot study. Pilot studies are stated to "fulfill a range of important functions and can provide valuable insights for other researchers." (Van Teijlingen and Hundley, 2001)

Value of the Article: This article's value is in the information that is provided concerning pilot studies prior to primary study conduction.

Matveev, Alexei V. (2007) the Advantages of Employing Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in the Intercultural Research: Practical Implications from the Study of the Perceptions of Intercultural Communication Competence by American and Russian Managers. Russian Communication Association. Online available at http://www.russcomm.ru/eng/rca_biblio/m/matveev01_eng.shtml

Research question: This study employed both qualitative and quantitative methods for solicitation of information from the respondents.

Research methodology: The research methodology in this work is a qualitative review of literature in this subject area.

Major findings: Matveev (2007) states that intercultural researchers "use two types of investigation processes" which are those of qualitative and quantitative research. Both of these methods have advantages and drawbacks. The strengths of qualitative research include: (1) obtaining a more realistic feel of the world that cannot be experienced in the numerical data and statistical analysis used in quantitative research; (2) Flexible ways to perform data collection, subsequent analysis, and interpretation of collected information; (3) Provide a holistic view of the phenomena under investigation; (4) Ability to interact with the research subjects in their own language and on their own terms; and (5) Descriptive capability based on primary and unstructured data (Mateev, 2007) Mateev relates that Employing the qualitative method in this study allowed the researcher to: (1) Collect the primary data in a flexible, non-structured way that allowed emergence of new information and interpretations of intercultural communication competence; (2) Interact with the research subjects in their own language and, in most of the cases, at their own work place; (3) Understand intercultural communication competence as a more holistic and complex construct; and (4) Obtain a more realistic and hands-on feel of the world that cannot be experienced in the numerical data and statistical analysis used in quantitative research.

Value of the article: The value of this article is in the information that is provided relating to qualitative and quantitative research methodology in research study.

Pertti, Jarvinen (2005) Action Research as an Approach in Design Science. Presented in the EURAM Conference, Munich, May 4-7, 2005 in track 28: Design, Collaboration and Relevance in Management Research.

Research question: This work examines the use of action research in information systems management. Pertti states that in management information systems, "action research is long considered as promising but low-level research approach" however this research approach has "an utmost relevance because action researchers are working with practitioners to solve the important practical problem." (Pertti, 2005)

Research methodology: The researcher in this study employed a qualitative review of literature in this subject area.

Major findings: Pertti (2005) states findings that many similarities exist between the fundamental characteristics of action research and design science.

Value of the article: The value of this article is in the findings that action research and design science seem to be similar approaches to research.

Doolin, B. (2004). Power and resistance in the implementation of medical management information system. Information Systems Journal, 14(4), 343-362.

Research question: This study sought to monitor and scrutinize clinical activity and management sought to examine whether clinical behavior would be influenced due to the increased visibility the system enabled.

Research methodology: The methodology of this study was in the form of action research in a qualitative study that implemented a large information system in a hospital in New Zealand.

Major findings: This study reports that doctors were not merely subject that were passive within a computerized control system and some even resisted the information in terms of application by challenging the validity and for using it to state an argument for more resources. The system due to the interrelatedness between the… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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