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Plato the Republic

Plato (the Republic) There have been numerous theories concerning the best means through which equality, justice, and at the same time power can be achieved and defended by a state. At this moment in time the rule of democracy and that of the democratic principles is considered to be most suitable for the world we live in. However, there are…

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Philosophy in His Writings, Hegel

However, Hegel does not limit the definition of Absolute to God. Limiting a definition of the Absolute to God is detrimental to the quest for knowledge and truth. Logic is central to Hegel's argument, because the Absolute is perfectly logical. Hegel also expands the definition of the Absolute to encompass Truth. This suggests that there may be an objective reality "out there," that exists regardless of what any human being wants to believe. There are different means of approaching this absolute Truth, but that does not change the nature of the Absolute. What is remarkable about Hegel's definition of the Absolute is that the philosopher recognizes the importance of the process of using logic to understand the Truth. The Truth is never static. The Truth is continually evolving as the absolute Mind gains wisdom and knowledge. "The truth is the whole. The whole, however, is merely the essential nature reaching its completeness through the process of its own development," (Hegel, cited by Mickelson). For Hegel, the Absolute is also self-conscious. Hegel's Absolute is not unlike the Buddhist concept of the Universe. Like Buddhists, Hegel does not believe in an anthropomorphic God. If asked, "Do you believe in God?" many people would hesitate because the question assumes that God is only defined in the Christian manner. Hegel suggests that God cannot be limited in this way, and therefore approaches a more realistic and workable definition of God. God as Absolute invites the human being to use the power of Logic, Reason, Mind, and Ideas to contribute to the expansion of universal knowledge and truth. Works Cited The Encyclopedia of Marxism. Retrieved online: http://www.marxists.org/glossary/terms/a/b.htm Mickelson, Carl. "Hegel Glossary." Retrieved online: http://www.class.uidaho.edu/mickelsen/texts/Hegel%20Glossary.htm Scott, Alex. "Hegel's Phenomenology of Mind." Retrieved online: http://www.angelfire.com/md2/timewarp/hegel.html…

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Philosophy of Suicide Arthur Camus vs. Arthur Schopenhauer

Philosophy of Suicide Suicide involves two sides: the act and the reason. The reason, or philosophy of suicide, is what justifies the act to the person committing suicide. In this sense, to the actor, the means justify the end, or the act of killing oneself justifies the philosophy of taking one's own life. The Act Suicide is defined as being…

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Meno and Phaedo the Role of Wisdom

Meno and Phaedo The Role of Wisdom in true Virtue according to Meno and the Phaedo The roles of wisdom and virtue in human life have enjoyed considerable discussion in Plato's works before the Meno and Phaedo dialogues were written. Hence, the two works can be seen as a culmination of these concepts in the mind of Plato. Furthermore, the way in which wisdom and virtue are expounded in these works should also be considered in the context of previous explanations in Plato's works. Meno for example appears to attach a very simplistic and literal meaning to the value of wisdom. He regards it as knowledge that can be taught. He follows Aristotle's early assertion that "virtue is wisdom" with a statement to the effect that virtue can therefore also be taught. According to Roslyn Weiss (137), for example, Meno is a somewhat simple soul, but highly aware of this and willing to learn. He therefore eagerly accepts Socrates' assessment of virtue as equal to wisdom. However, Socrates has something more subtle in mind with the concept of wisdom. Because, according to the philosopher, virtue does not come by nature, it can be assumed that wisdom is not a natural process either. This assertion is based upon the fact that not all human beings have the same amount of virtue or wisdom, and these concepts are therefore the result of targeted effort. In order to explain this further, Socrates makes an important distinction between learning and teaching. Virtue and wisdom come by learning. It cannot however be taught by one specific teacher. It develops through life and experience. This is where Meno diverges strongly from Socrates in his insistence that both virtue and wisdom must be elements that can be taught. He makes not distinction between learning and teaching (Weiss 138) or between wisdom and knowledge. These concepts are all equal to him. He is therefore further delighted by the philosopher's assertion that virtue and wisdom are not only equal, but that they arrive by a process of learning. It appears that he entirely misunderstands the philosopher's concept of virtue and wisdom. In previous works, and most notably the Republic, Aristotle explicated his philosophy of virtue and the role of wisdom in it. Indeed, wisdom itself is one of the four main virtues. In his dialogue with Meno, Aristotle notes that "virtue is a quality of the soul." He constructs…

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Logic Paraphrase: "There Are Reasons to Be

Logic Paraphrase: "There are reasons to be upset at the existence of the wealth gap: it creates political instability, violent crime, shortened life spans, and is simply unfair." The only major change made I turning the rhetorical question ("Why decry the wealth gap?") into a statement that clearly expresses the author's intent and meaning. The paraphrase more clearly lays out the argument largely because of this starting point, however it was already fairly explicit and arguably more rhetorically effective in its original form. An editorial in the April 13 New York Times argues that greater federal regulation of the mining industry is needed in order to prevent mine disasters and limit the deaths caused by future accidents through greater safety procedures. The basic premise is that there is are no effective means for ensuring compliance with current safety standards, as evidenced by the repeated violations at the Upper Big Branch mine in West Virginia where an explosion killed twenty-nine men. The conclusion is that greater federal oversight and regulation will ensure greater safety by preventing similar accidents and loss of life. 3) The three basic functions of language are informational ("The door is open."), expressive ("Open doors seem vulnerable.") and directive ("Close the door."). 4) The anthropogenic cause of global warming is a source of real disagreement in the political and scientific spheres -- though the Earth is warming, it could be due to natural causes. All arguments amongst politicians concerning "what the American people want" are merely verbal, as the American people clearly do not think with a unified mind but rather want many different and often mutually exclusive things. The argument over gun……

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Hellenistic Philosophy the Skeptics View

According to Plotinus anxiety is experienced by the separation of like and like. As the individual transcends from the material world through the Soul to the One, he comes closer to the ideal of purity, unity and eternity. This enables him to eliminate the anxiety by attaining the highest state of goodness. 10. The Hellenistic concept of tranquility is termed as ataraxia, which is a freedom from anxiety and disturbance. It signifies a state of content with one's fortune and fate. Various schools of philosophers have attempted to discover the path to the Hellenistic ideal of mental tranquility and have presented conflicting theories. According to the Hellenistic philosophers the pursuit of Hellenistic tranquility requires the pursuit of knowledge that is attainable and that helps in relieving mental anxieties. The Skeptics advocate a suspension of judgment and moderation in affect to avoid anxiety about the truth of things. The Stoics on the other hand adopt a dogmatic approach. The Epicureans focus on the pursuit of pleasurable experiences to avoid anxiety. The price to be paid for tranquility varies under each philosophy varying from avoiding the search for the truth to relying on established principles to undertaking the search on the strength of free will. Depending on which philosophy one subscribes to, the attainment of a state of inner peace and contentment……

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Philosophy Kuhn's Rationale on the

The more troubling comparison, however, is to coercion.[footnoteRef:5] [5: J. Rouse. 'Kuhn's Philosophy of Science Practice.' Division I Faculty Publications. Paper 18, , 2002 . ] Other authors agree with Kuhn and can see the rationale of his argument for the irrational nature of science and the irrationality part of the nature of scientific revolutions. Rouse recognizes as Kuhn did…

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Philosophy Ideology and Theory

Educational Ideology, Philosophy, And Theory Differentiating Ideology, Philosophy, and Theory The concepts of ideology, philosophy, and theory are interrelated in ways that account for difficulty in understanding their distinctions (Rosenstand, 2008). The fact, for example, that all ideologies incorporate (or are based on) one or more philosophy is one source of potential confusion; the fact that the converse is sometimes but not necessarily always true is another source of potential confusion (Rosenstand, 2008; Wiley, 1995). In principle, ideology refers to a set of beliefs and often to a larger view (or a worldview); philosophy represents a systematic intellectual inquiry intended to help understand the nature of reality; and theory is a methodological approach to interpreting reality accurately and in a manner consistent with the available empirical data (Rosenstand, 2008; Wiley, 1995). Within the realm of education, for example, the belief that modern education is deficient for specific reasons would be an ideology; the position that the key to improving education lies in better meeting the needs of all students through recognition of the differences in their learning styles and preferences would be a philosophy; and a testable hypothesis about the efficacy of various teaching methods in relation to different learning styles would be an example of a theory. Ideology and Philosophy Differentiated In general, ideologies are beliefs or sets of beliefs about the world or about a subset of the world of particular interest (Taylor, 2002). In contemporary American society, both political conservatism and political liberalism would constitute ideologies, as would Communism, Marxism, and Socialism. All of those ideologies encompass underlying philosophies consistent with the overall worldview shaped by the ideology. To a certain extent, different (meaning mutually inconsistent) philosophies can fit within the same ideology, provided only that they do not conflict with the more general principles or set of beliefs that define the ideology. For example, Republican conservatives may differ substantially in their particular philosophies in many areas without deviating from the core ideology of Republican conservatism. That is particularly evident today in the political extremism voiced by segments of the Republican Party whose members refer to themselves as "Tea Partiers." Likewise, every Democratic primary election campaign demonstrates the wide range of political and social (and other) philosophies among political liberals, most of whom share the worldview and ideological perspective of the Democratic Party. Ideologically, most politically conservative republicans share the worldview that government should exercise only minimal…

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Philosophy Is a One of

Philosophy is a broad science and it is normally used as an umbrella term for comprehensive body of studies. It is usually used for the study of inordinate concepts such as ethics, logic and aesthetics. But it also goes beyond these to study religion, social values, political theories etc. For many decades even psychology was considered a part of philosophy but not anymore. Every science involves philosophical problems, but the above-mentioned subjects all raise, in one form or another, the problem of values and thus start metaphysical questions of central import. Thus metaphysics is the clearing house for all fundamental philosophical problems. It is the comprehensive discipline in which all philosophical issues and theories converge. Indeed, inasmuch as the special sciences, such as physics, biology, psychology, and sociology, set out from unexamined dogmatic assumptions and issue, severally, in various uncoordinated results which require synthesis, in order to yield a consistent world view, to metaphysics belongs the twofold task of critically examining the primary assumptions of the sciences and of synthesizing their conclusions into a harmonious whole. As a critical inquiry into the validity, scope and interrelations of the respective fundamental assumptions and conclusions of the special sciences, metaphysics is the criticism of the categories, that is, of the chief concepts which man uses in the ordering and mastering of experience. But as widely accepted this branch might have been, it has also faced criticism from famous names such as Kant and Voltaire. Many felt that metaphysics was not to be given the kind of attention that it had come to garner. (Walsh, 1963, p 13) However metaphysics remains an important branch of study and continues to occupy a significant place in the world of philosophy. Philosophy is a vast field which also means that there will be as many differing views about what philosophical thought is and what is not. Stephen Stich has introduced a new dimension to the philosophical discourse by focusing on the reasons why there is low representation of women in the club exclusively catering to philosophers. He believes that there is a possibility that women do not have the same intuitions about certain philosophical queries as men and while this needs further experiments for it to become a fact, it is an interesting way of expanding on 'what is philosophy' discussion. Some of the biggest names in the world of philosophy have given us useful fodder…

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Understanding Educational Philosophies

¶ … Education Philosophies Understanding Educational Philosophies The notion of education refers to the learning process that continues from the time a person is born till the time of his death. Individuals engage themselves in the learning process in order to gain knowledge that can shape and contour their learning styles. Teachers and trainers in this regard play a significant role for the students that aid them in their learning process during their formal education in elementary, middle, high school and beyond (Vang, 2010). In this regard, educational philosophy is an academic field of applied philosophy that bolsters and supports a specific vision and idea of education. The definition, objectives and significance of teaching and learning process is evaluated in the process of applied philosophy. This philosophical study of education is more like guiding principles that help the students learn about education and its related issues (Vang, 2010). However, different educational philosophies have been developed over the course of years. Metaphysics, epistemology, axiology, and logic are the areas of philosophy that is extensively connected to the field of education (Vang, 2010). Metaphysics is one of the branches of philosophy that focuses on the study of existence and deep nature of reality. Physically living and non-living things are learned though metaphysics that incorporates the earth, humans, space, time, cause & effect and change. Nonetheless, it has been observed that a number of diverse fields of interest are being elucidated by the concept of metaphysics that include religion, spirituality, parapsychology, astrology, meditation, reincarnation and so forth (Ornstein, Levine, Gutek & Vocke, 2010). This means that it has immense connectivity to the field of education as it facilitates in the process of understanding of various concepts regarding the society, civilization, nation and the world on a broad spectrum. In addition, it also enhances the ability to realize the developments in religions and communities that would lead to critical and abstract thinking, thus resulting in coherent and lucid expression of perceptions in both verbal and written communication (Ornstein, Levine, Gutek & Vocke, 2010). Epistemology is also a field of philosophy that concentrates on the theoretical study of knowledge that particularly highlights the nature, scope and downsides of knowledge. Additionally, this branch of philosophy is hypothetically related to the study of intellect science. The examination of nature of knowledge has been the aspect of arguments. Indeed, this field has remained a debatable and controversial arena…

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Philosophy Structures Structure One: In

He is too lazy to do this and too afraid of making the wrong choice. Reasons: "Enlightenment is man's emergence from his self-imposed nonage. Nonage is the inability to use one's own understanding without another's guidance" (Kant 1). "This nonage is self-imposed if its cause lies not in lack of understanding but in indecision and lack of courage to use one's own mind without another's guidance" (Kant 1). "Laziness and cowardice are the reasons why such a large part of mankind gladly remain minors all their lives, long after nature has freed them from external guidance. They are the reasons why it is so easy for others to set themselves up as guardians" (Kant 1). Conclusion: "Thus it is very difficult for the individual to work himself out of the nonage which has become almost second nature to him. He has even grown to like it, and is at first really incapable of using his own understanding because he has never been permitted to try it" (Kant 2). I think the argument that Kant considers has this form: Enlightenment is escape from nonage, which is the inability to decide for the self without influence from others. Men do not want to take this responsibility because they are too lazy or too afraid. Therefore most men do not strive for enlightenment but remain burdened by requiring guidance. However, I think Kant's objection to this argument fails, for this reason: Kant assumes that guidance is a bad thing and that a person is either lazy or afraid for making their own choices. It is necessary to think about one's actions before a course is chosen and seeking guidance or wisdom from others is not a form of weakness, but rather the ability to understand that a person does not necessarily see a situation from all perspectives. Making a choice with blinders on is not making a good decision. Works Cited Darwin, Charles. "Natural Selection; or the Survival of the Fittest." The Origin of the Species by Means of Natural Selection. Cambridge: Cambridge Library Collection.……

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Moral Philosophy Can Desires and

Which type of foundation for such duties do you find more convincing? Why? Kant deems that certain forms of actions such as theft, lying and murder are extremely prohibited even in situations where such actions would lead to happiness. The wrongness or rightness of activities neither does nor rely on their upshots, but rather on the duty they fulfill. According…

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Naturalists and Materialists Philosophy Is

For example, he argued that earthquakes were caused by waves within the water that the earth sets on (33). Without having seismographs and plate tectonics to counter this assumption, it was a perfectly logical conclusion for the man to reach and he used it as proof of the water on earth hypothesis. As he employed all of these in his theory, Thales has to be credited with perhaps the first established scientific theory about the workings of the universe. Besides this "Grand Unified Theory," Thales was also involved in the burgeoning of several philosophical ideologies. He is credited with the first uses of monism in philosophical thought. At the core of all human existence, he argued was a sense of shared community. Even more, this unity somehow impacted every living things that existed on the planet. Humans, animals, plants all shared this unity which was unseen and even largely unfelt except in the cases of close kinships such as family or friends. Those we hate even are part of this universal united entity within. Everything was somehow connected with everything else on the planet by a soul or some kind of a life force. The world itself, he believed, was a living entity and so what was life and what was matter were inseparable concepts. More than just humanity and nature, Thales was interested in knowing to define what it was which made up all material objects. He wanted to know what it was within an object or a living thing which gave it the properties and characteristic normal to that item. In this too he eventually determined that the basis of all matter was in water. Humanity has taken this philosophy and expanded it. For example, scientists have agreed that in interplanetary exploration looking for sources of water will indicate life on these distant planets. A theory that was discovered millennia ago still has merit within a far more technologically advanced age. This is just one example of how both pre- and post-Socratic philosophers impacted the rest of humanity. These early ideas of Thales encouraged other early pre-Socratic philosophers to try to figure out what that life force might be. If it was agreed upon that all things in the world were connected then it was the job of philosophers to identify it and explain it in the best way possible. This was the burgeoning of the naturalist philosophical…

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Philosophy the Roots of Modern

Hegel's views are similar to Kant's, as Hegel holds that philosophy should become self-critical and aware of its own limitations. On the other hand, Hegel argues that such self-critical reflection demands that philosophy be aware of the genesis, context, and development of itself. Hegel presented a modern, subjective point-of-view, saying that the existence of objects in space around us is doubtful and it is not possible to gain knowledge of the world through rational thought alone. Locke criticized the common rationalistic belief in knowledge without experience. Locke took modern philosophy in a new direction, from the analysis of the physical world to the study of the mind. This made epistemology, which studies the nature of knowledge, the main concern of modern philosophy. Locke's philosophy tried to reduce all ideas to simple elements of experience, yet he distinguished sensation and reflection as sources of experience. While contemporary Western culture constantly changes and evolves, it is still modern in many ways. Still, this culture had changed from being mainly modern to post-modern. For example, modern philosophy centered on universal, absolute truth, while post-modern thought is centered on pluralistic, personal truths and personal statements. One problem with modern thinkers is that they assume that viewpoints are more homogeneous than they are. Our current awareness of diversity forces us to change these modern arguments to fit into a society with multiple cultures, religions, and value systems. For example, in the Grounding, Kant argues that all rational creatures have a duty to keep their promises. Treating other rational creatures as ends rather than means best supports Kant's moral theory. However, relying on universal applicability does not logically convince me to accept his arguments. Modern philosophers believed that human reasoning could find absolute truth and tried to prove the existence of God. Post-modern thinkers believe that, since flaws and biases exist, truth can never be found. Who knows what the absolute truth is? In my post-modern thoughts, no one does. Maybe there is an existing complete truth but we will never understand it perfectly, as only God has that power.……

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Kant and Nietzsche on Reason

Kant and Nietzsche: "Categorical" or "Chimerical" Imperatives Kant's entire philosophical project is grounded in the primary and universal applicability of reason -- practical and "pure" -- and his moral theory is no exception. From the moment he discards the idea of an innate "moral instinct" or conscience as the basis of moral authority (Kant 10), rationality becomes the only possible…

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Philosophy of Education Create an Outline Communicating

Philosophy of Education Create an outline communicating your educational philosophy using the following guidelines. Consider the historical development as it impacts educational philosophy. The modern classroom is nothing like the classroom of even two decades ago. In most areas of the country, 40% of the class is of non-Anglo descent, many do not speak English as their first language, and, according to the National Center for Educational Statistics, this trend is rapidly growing to where it is projected by 2020 there will be less than 30% Caucasians in the modern classroom (IES, 2010). What does this mean for the contemporary teacher? Certainly, no teacher can be expected to know every language, or be familiar with every culture from every student. However, is that what is meant by diversity in education or necessary to be effective as a modern teacher? In essence, the idea of diversity in the classroom is to operate with the idea of a global village and overlap in cultures within the microcosm of the classroom. This means simply that the modern educator be sensitive about culture, gender, sexuality, and individual differences within the classroom. History, for instance, has been incredibly Eurocentric and male oriented for generations. What this has meant in the classroom is that white males of European descent have been emphasized as those who were important to the human race opposed to others. Successful diversity within the classroom simply encourages a change in curriculum and focus: look at history from alternative points-of-view; look at innovation cross-culturally; look at the contributions women and minorities made towards technology and historical development; ask questions about a student's own cultural development and heritage and allow them to celebrate that (Rosebery, et.al., eds., 2001). ii) Reflect on your belief statements in Module 1 and create your mission statement as an educator. Mission Statement: My classroom will reflect the highest standards of intellectual and social development, bringing relevant and multidisciplinary subject matter to the student in order to show that the world is a synergistic organism. Using the inquiry method, I will strive to move students from rote knowledge acquisition, to higher levels of analysis, synthesis, and actualization via Bloom's hierarchy ("Bloom's Taxonomy, 2005). iii) Describe your own educational philosophy in terms of its metaphysics, epistemology, axiology, and logic. Metaphysics: Metaphysics is often difficult to define when focusing on tangible outcomes, but is essentially concerned with explaining the nature of being.…

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Philosophy of Descartes and Its Rational Transition

¶ … Philosophy of Descartes and its rational transition through the stages of senses, self (Cogito) and God (Innate Idea). Find two criticisms on Descartes approach to philosophy. While considering the argument over dreams, Descartes was guided to his position by a set of personal experiences. His test sample of one individual yielded the case that his mind was the…

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History of Western Philosophy: John Locke Was

History of Western Philosophy: John Locke was a little confused at first by the way this section started with Filmer's arguments in favor of the monarchy, but once Russell started speaking about Locke I realized the benefit of first setting up the theories Locke was reacting to when developing his more democratic theory of government. It is amazing to me -- as Russell said it would be to the modern mind -- that someone could have reasoned the way Filmer does. His use of the Bible -- or actually, his very selective interpretation of the Bible -- reminds me of the current ongoing debate about teaching evolution vs. creationism or "intelligent design" in public schools. In both cases, arguments are built using what looks like sound logic, but at the bottom is a premise that is inherently illogical because it derives from faith -- that kings derive their authority via hereditary inheritance from Adam, on the one hand, and that God created everything -- including fossils -- just as they are today on the other. Once I fully understood Filmer's argument, I also understood why Russell needed to start with this explanation of what the thinking was before John Locke wrote his treatises on government. Locke's ideas have become so ingrained in our modern consciousness that they often appear as self-evident facts, and an explanation of his philosophy would have seemed needlessly elementary and even obvious had it not first been explained that thinking had previously developed along radically different lines. This section also made it very clear to me in an almost tangible way that thought and philosophy des not happen in a vacuum -- it is always a product of the history that creates it. Often when studying philosophy, it feels as if the ideas helped to shape the world. To a very large degree, this is true, and Locke's ideas were used a century later in the founding of America and even to an extent in the French Revolution. This makes it abundantly clear that philosophical thought can have very real and practical applications and consequences. Russell makes it just as……

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John Stuart Mill's Utilitarianism

John Stuart Mill's philosophy of utilitarianism were a popular moral guidepost for leadership today, it would be interesting to see how many leaders embrace the idea that actions are correct so long as they lead to the promotion of contemporary definitions of happiness. It would be fascinating indeed to witness the justifications for actions by leaders on moral grounds made…

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Philosophy Plato Lived a Century After Pythagoras,

Philosophy Plato lived a century after Pythagoras, though he also studied the idea of the Pythagoreans and accepted some, notably in terms of their ideas on mathematics. Plato has been considered a disciple of Pythagoras, but he should not be seen as a Pythagorean because he followed his own thought processes and developed his own view of the nature of the world. Plato learned about logic and ethics from his direct teacher, Socrates, who would also question much of what the Pythagoreans accepted. The idea of the eternal forms is one of those concepts Plato either developed himself or adapted from Socrates, for it is not always possible to tell where Socrates ends and Plato begins in the dialogues. In examining the world and the relationship of the human mind to the world, Plato found that ideas, as he used the term, are not only something in human consciousness but something outside it as well. Platonic Ideas are objective and do not depend on human thought but exist entirely in their own right. They are perfect patterns that exist in the very nature of things. Such an idea is not just a human idea but the idea of the universe itself. It is an ideal that can be expressed externally in concrete form or internally as a concept in the mind. The Idea is the foundation of reality. Plato is classified as an idealist in his philosophy, basing his view of the world on the idea that there are forms embodying this world in a state of perfection and that what we perceive in this world are only shadows of the ideal. Central to Plato's thought is the power of reason to reveal the intelligibility and order governing the changing world of appearance, with the purpose of creating, at both the political and the individual level, a harmonious and happy life. The way Plato adopted Pythagorean ideas for his eternal forms came in the idea of numerology, with the number Two represented the world of the eternal forms, a world of duality in which there is an Ideal world and a world of the sense, only the latter of which can be accessed directly, while the former is only accessed through philosophy. The ancient Greeks considered the nature of the universe and whether it was permanent or not. Heraclitus stated that it was not possible to step into the same…

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Philosophy Socrates to Sartre and Beyond: A

Philosophy Socrates to Sartre and Beyond: A History of Philosophy In Socrates to Sartre and Beyond: A History of Philosophy Samuel Enoch Stumpf and his co-author James Fieser might seem to be taking upon themselves an impossible and unwieldy task. As the title of their work proclaims, they strive to show a line of intellectual continuity between the earliest ancient…

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Chaos and Order How Philosophy Got Started

Chaos and Order: How Philosophy Got Started Werner J. Krieglstein (2002) talks about chaos and order and how these two conditions have played on the thinking of mankind from his earliest days, as he realized he did not have the answers to the all things in the universe. Here, with the ancient contemplations of the universe around him, and the curiosity about man's own presence on earth as he gazes upward and sees the universe above him, the earth beneath him, and suddenly feels the need to explain his self in the presence of these more enormous aspects of heaven, earth, the moon and the sun. This is when philosophy began, although there is probably no way to say at exactly what moment and by whom it began; it is clear, and very well discussed by Krieglstein in Compassion: A New Philosophy of the Other (27-33). Krieglstein introduces the Greek and Egyptian strategies for the creation of man and the universe and earth; and in introducing these ancient concepts, the ways in which the ancients went about creating stories to make sense of existence, is for the Egyptians, when they decided there was, out of the chaos of nothingness, a fluid snake-like intelligence, that took the shape of "something" other than man, and became the first God, Atum, who was simultaneously Ra (the sun God), and who created six other gods, before turning to the task of creating man. The Greeks, took, looked around themselves and realized that they were in the midst of something much greater than themselves either individually or collectively. "Who could blame the Greeks when they preferred the light of reason to chaos? (Krieglstein 27)." So it began, at least as Krieglestein describes the and ancient Egyptians, that at least those two groups began philosophizing about making order from chaos; which is what the psyche of mankind needs, to make sense of that which is unknown to him. This is why Krieglestein mentions that chaos occupied a place in the minds of the ancients (27). It is the nature of ratio (reason), for mankind to attempt to make sense of chaos, to convert chaos to order, to harness the energy of chaos - because the ancients realized, too, that there was an energy in chaos - and to convert that energy to ratio (28-29). It is no surprise, then, that this need to make reason or…

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Critique of a Postmodern Philosophy Thomas Kuhn

Postmodern Philosophy Philosophers over the course of history had been trying to find the answers to questions comprises of HOW, WHEN, WHO and WHAT. They apply these query terms to every phenomenon whether it is related to nature or human existence, whether it is the question formation of universe or it is about its end. From the medieval age till…

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History of ED Theory and Philosophy in US Schools

Educational theory and Philosophy in U.S. schools Educational Theory and Philosophy during 1950's During the 1950s one of the concentrations for most of the educational theories were the existing "isms" and how they coincided with education. Some of the most common "isms" were "experimentalism," "re-constructionism" and "progressivism" and these were directly proportional to any educational analysis. However, most researchers that…

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Philosophers and the Development of the Age OS Reason

Age of Reason / Age of Enlightenment The Age of Reason & the Age of Enlightenment The Age of Reason is generally considered a separate movement in 17th and early 18th Century Europe, which preceded - and led into - the Age of Enlightenment; it is also commonplace to approach both eras as having overlapping boundaries - and hence, they…

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What Is Progress for the Philosophy of History?

¶ … progress' for the Philosophy of History Political Activities Change History Essentially, progress for the Philosophy of History can be summed up in a single word: action. The nature of such action, of course, depends on the ones who are the authorities of those actions. However, upon reading excerpts from Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels the German Ideology and…

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Induction Discussions Across the Centuries: David Hum,

Induction Discussions Across the Centuries: David Hum, Paul Edwards, and the Ongoing problem of Induction Though the pages of a philosophy textbook might seem full of dusty long-dead men, the logical progressions and conclusions outlined by these men do not occur in isolation, and philosophy as a body of knowledge is far from a series of isolated and independent conjectures. Instead, philosophy operates as a dialogue spanning the millennia of human investigation into problems of knowledge, reality, and purpose, with the arguments and conclusions of philosophers long past still serving as points of departure for more contemporary thinkers. Some problems continue to evolve as this dialogue progresses, with agreements found and foundational arguments generally accepted and built upon, yet for certain other issues the discussion remains at early stages for centuries at a time. The problem of induction is one of the latter type of philosophical problems in its fundamental lack of progress despite centuries of discussion. This is not to say that arguments in this area have not led to more sophisticated and detailed examinations of the problem as some of philosophy's best and brightest have turned their attention to the issue, but ultimately no real progress has been made in developing a solution to the induction dilemma that has been generally accepted or not strongly refuted or limited by the same fundamental problems originally identified. This could lead to the obvious conclusion, of course, that the problem might not have a solution, however this is not something that can be concluded lightly. Two arguments spanning much of the period during which the problem of induction has been a focus of certain philosophers will be detailed and examined below. David Hume's identification of the problem, which is considered by many to be the first true codification and definition of the problem of induction (though Hume never used that specific term), occurs in his an Enquiry on Human Understanding, first appearing in the eighteenth century. Paul Edwards, a twentieth century philosopher, dealt with the problem explicitly by addressing Bertrand Russell's own definition of the problem, however his argument finds a dialogue with Hume's description of the problem just as directly. Through an examination and comparison of Hume and Edwards' arguments on the problem of induction, it can be seen that although the problem can be sidestepped it still cannot be solved. Hume's Definition of the Problem of Induction Hume distinguishes…

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Philosophy of Science as Developed

The world's real circumstances, unlike numbers or abstract Ps or not-Ps, are always in a state of flux. (Boyd, 2004) Empiricists stressed the need to verify statements with sensory data in all possible situations, thus providing one of the founding philosophies of the sceintific method of experimentation. Hume, stressed that all the materials of thinking, also known as perceptions are derived either from sensation or "outward sentiment" or from reflection otherwise known as "inward sentiment." Hume divided perceptions into two categories, distinguished by their different degrees of force and vivacity. Our "more feeble" perceptions, ideas, were ultimately derived from our livelier impressions. One can only imagine a horse after one has seen a horse in life, or at least a picture of one. (Morris, 2001) Hume calls ideas feebler because of his copy thesis; he argues that all ideas are ultimately copied from impressions. That is, for any idea we select, we can trace the component parts of that idea to some external sensation or internal feeling. Thus, ideas are always once removed from the truth -- an idea of a horse is inferior when produced from a copy, as opposed to the sight of a real thing. (Feiser, 2004) In dealing with abstract notions of morality, this becomes problematic -- how can one prove if God exists, as one cannot prove by Hume's observable criteria that God does not exist, according to the central tenant of verifiable theory? God, and even abstract political concepts such as democracy and the inalienable rights of human beings cannot be verified in Hume because they cannot be proven true or false as theories in absolute. But although somewhat limited, the empiricist, logical positivist theory of verifiability in science is a bracing and refreshing reminder of the limits of the ability of philosophy to define in the abstract 'the good' and the 'moral' outside of situations in life. Works Cited Boyd, Richard. "Confirmation, Semantics and the Interpretation of Scientific Theory." http://www.rpi.edu/~eglash/eglash.dir/SST/boyd.htm Feiser. James. "David Hume (1711-1776): Metaphysics and Epistemology." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/h/humeepis.htm Logic: The Verifiability Theory of meaning. Theology Web. 11 Dec 2004 http://www.theology.edu/logic/logic10.htm Logical Positivism. Fact web assembled by W. Payne. 11 Dec 2004 http://facweb.bcc.ctc.edu/wpayne/logical_positivism.htm Morris, William Edward, "David Hume," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2001 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .…

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My Philosophy Over Different Philosophers Scientists

Philosophy My philosophy over different philosophers/scientists In a book by that title, Paul Kurtz asks, "science and religion: are they compatible?" His answer is that though both may be valid, they are only minimally compatible. Religion, he suggests, is the creative and poetic expression of the human imagination which seeks to create answers to those unexplained aspects of life which…

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Reason Mind and Body

Reason Mind Body The philosophers of ancient Greece were the first western thinkers to develop the notion of reason, and specifically, to investigate how far reason can take human beings in their search for understanding of the world and themselves. Essentially, reason refers to logic or rational thinking; it stems from the idea that every characteristic of the world that…

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Hegel's Historical Narrative Philosophy of History

¶ … GW Hegel's Philosophy of History. The author explores the narrative and his ideas and concepts that are derived from that work. The author also compares and contrasts this work with the beliefs and theories of Karl Marx. The author uses four sources to underscore the important points of this paper. Often times writers, historians and philosophers develop their…

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Science vs. Philosophy: Return to Unity

Relationship/Science-Philosophy The Relationship Between Science and Philosophy: Return to Unity is predicated on the concept that the dichotomy between the two disciplines was artificially created in order to achieve various desirable ends, and that this dichotomy now no longer serves mankind and is being replaced by a 'discipline' that not only brings science and philosophy into relationship, but virtually unifies…

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Philosophy Field Trip Realism: A

This agreement is necessary because a belief is what one is prepared to act upon, and only actions based on beliefs that agree with the facts promise to head to the desired outcomes. Pragmatists recognize that human beings are within nature rather than looking at nature from the outside in. Human beings interact with nature, and human intelligence is social.…

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Medieval Philosophy in the Introduction

5 (Gersh, 1998, p. 123) At about this same point in history, it is important to note that collections of texts were being made. Mckitterick & Marenbon, (1998, p. 97) offer this comment, "Sometime before 814, Archbishop Leidrad of Lyons presented a comprehensive collection of philosophical treatises to his cathedral library." These writers follow up withi an extensive list of…

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Philosophy of Mind When Thinking About Philosophy,

Philosophy of Mind When thinking about philosophy, it is a general conception that philosophy resides in the mind. In other words, thought is the main residence of philosophy. This has been recognized by philosophers throughout the ages. Even today, modern philosophers recognize that the mind and thought are the ruling domains of philosophy. When considering specific philosophical concepts like the external world and the individual's relationship to it, as well as memory, learning, and new friendships, it is clear that the mind plays a significant role in how philosophy is used to make sense of living and being. Thomas Nagel, for example, created the work What does it all mean? To bring philosophy ot a more general audience. One of the areas of philosophy that this author considers is those things that are outside the mind. Nagel provides evidence that some consider the world outside the mind as non-existent. This philosophy is referred to as solipsism. In this philosophy, Nagel suggests that some believe that there is nothing outside of the individual mind. Since no sense impressions can be said to exist outside the individual mind, those who subscribe to solipsism believe that there is no external world, and that all experiences exist only in the mind. Nagel, however, does not appear to support this conclusion. One of the reasons for this is the fact that solipsism is a relatively extreme philosophy, not to mention that it is also a lonely one. Believing that there is no world outside that created by the individual mind makes all things, including friendship and other people, a mere illusion created by the mind ot make the individual experience more entertaining and interesting. Instead, the author seems to support the view that there is no conclusive answer to the question whether there exists anything outside the mind or not. Indeed, Nagel directly states that solipsism is not his conclusion at all. He does not provide a very specific conclusion that does support his specific view. Nevertheless, while Nagel seems to support the view that there is little outside of the mind that can be supported by conclusive evidence, he is more prone to supporting the idea that there really is little beyond the individual sense experience that can be verified conclusively without doubting the evidence. One thing that the author does assert is that existing evidence does not warrant the existence of one single…

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Experimental Philosophy Williamson's Criicisms of

I also agree with Williamson when he argues that the methodology of experimental philosophy is dubious. In particular, the ambition of experimental philosophy to collect a wide range of responses to identify any gaps in theory seems impracticable because of the size and diversity of the population. Williamson (p. 3) also acknowledges that such an approach would result in a gigantic task of data collection through surveys. This would consume a large amount of time and would be less likely to offer meaningful insight into the reality of a thing rather than in what Williamson calls "the concept of X" (p. 1). I also agree with Williamson criticism of the absence of expertise in this proposed revolutionary approach. Since the data would be collected from lay people, the role of expert opinion based on the traditions and principles of philosophical questioning would be minimized to an insignificant role. Any philosophical enquiry cannot be complete without the inclusion of expert opinion. From Williamson's Article, it also appears that the experimental philosophers have failed to appreciate the diversity of the population. It is also the assumption of uniformity in their analysis of philosophical intuition that is unsettling. There is greater diversity among human beings in terms of social, cultural and intellectual factors. Globalization has brought about greater specialization and compartmentalization in society. Hence, any segment of the population with reasonable uniformity in terms of the above factors would not yield any meaningful results that could be used to construct a philosophical theory. On the other hand, attempting to extract generalizable findings from the data collected from a large and diverse population would also not be a productive exercise. Therefore, I find Williamson to be justified when he fails to find any clarity in the ideas projected in the shape of experimental philosophy. Williamson's claim that experimental philosophy does not stand up to testing of its assumptions is also true. Williamson (p. 5-6) effectively illustrates the confusion with which experimental philosophy attempts to distinguish concepts such as contextualism and subject-sensitive invariantism on the one hand, and conceptual competence and conceptual performance on the other. Particularly, in the discussion of conceptual competence and conceptual performance, Alexander fails to consider the role of perception. He also fails to explain the factors that act a source of interference in conceptual performance. Since philosophy deals with abstract concepts and reality, it is essential that any discussion of…

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Logical Errors One May Make

The ad hominem fallacy Where one verbally abuses the opponent. 5. The red herring Another famous fallacy that diverts our attention from the issues at hand. McInerny gives the example of a debate by two chemists over introducing a new line of fertilizer. One chemist, realizing he is losing the argument, deflects the issue to a recently denied pay raise. 6. Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc Confusing causality with effect. This occurs just as much in science as in theology or, in fact, in every part of life and is a common fallacy. A caveman sees the singing of the birds accompanied by the rising of the sun and therefore concludes that the bird's singing 'pushed' up the sun. One phenomenon, although occurring before or correspondent to the other, need not necessarily mean that it produces the other. The above were just six of the 28 fallacies that McInerny describes and wonderfully illustrates in part Five. Comprehensive and relevant, we are bound to leave the book a better thinker. The jacket description touts the book in the following terms: Whether you are a student or a teacher, a professional honing your career skills or a generalist devoted to the fine points of thought and expression, you are sure to find "Being Logical" an invaluable guide to reasoning. I concur. Source D.Q.……

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Fichte Separate Right From Morality

This is through examination of the unique roles of ethics and rights in controlling and determining interactions between individuals within the society. Ethics forms part of the first principle in relation to the illustration by Fichte as he seeks to build on the ground by Kant on the systems of ethics. Rights on the other hand focus on the second principle relating to the recognition of the rights of other individuals and institutions within the society. Ethics aims at promoting relationship among individuals within the society and aspect of self-awareness as a motive for the demonstration of morality. This differentiation is essential in limitation and enhancement of the freedom of the human beings within the society (Fichte 2007). This is through formulation of the laws and regulations as the external spheres for the management of interactions of the individuals in the community. It is uncertain to determine whether Fichte was liberal in relation to the illustration of the concepts and philosophical views. This relates to the differentiation of the political views, human rights, and ethics in relation to existence within the community. Fichte is liberal in consideration to his views or expressions of the concept of individual rights in relation to privacy and personal freedom. Despite this expression of liberalism in the context of personal rights and freedom, Fichte is anti-liberal with reference to the economic sphere affecting interaction or actions of other individuals within the society. This is an indication that the original rights of an individual should be respected and recognized. According to the views of Fichte in the examination of the differences between rights and ethics, it is ideal to note the existence of the state's right interference from the protective perspective. State or government interferes with the rights of an individual with the aim of offering maximum protection to the actions and freedom of other beings across the globe. Differentiation of rights and ethics at the personal level is essential in the guidance of effective and efficient behaviour thus an opportunity for controlling or limiting action of individuals in the society (Fichte 2007). It is also vital to differentiate between rights and ethics to facilitate effective and efficient thinking and reasoning thus fostering adequate relationship among individuals. Fichte notes that the concepts of rights and ethics are complex thus the need to study them in isolation for the purposes of simplicity or effectively analysis. This makes…

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Plato and the Apology

Plato and the Apology Philosophy is an intellectual discipline that exercises logic and reason in its quest to comprehend reality. Philosophy always seeks answers to the fundamental questions of life. It also tries to answer the question concerning human nature, morality and knowledge. Every dimension of life, from the composition of democratic governments to computer software, has its origin in…

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Trial and Death of Socrates

Trial and Death of Socrates Why did Socrates think that it was illogical for a virtuous person to be afraid of death? It should be established first of all that Socrates is virtuous and he deals in logic. His Socratic dialogues (recorded by Plato) delve into the logic of almost everything believed and stated. In Socrates' response to the Athenian jury (that condemned him to death) he mentions that while he has "never" done any "wrong" to any one "intentionally," he didn't really have time to defend himself. That said, he cleverly states that since he's done no wrong to anyone, why would he then do wrong to himself "…by asserting that I deserve some evil and to make some such assessment against myself?" (like death) (37-b). "I should have to be inordinately fond of life, gentlemen of the jury," he continued, to assume that other men would put up with my conversation (37-d). What reason does Socrates give for preferring death to living? For one thing, he says "You see by my age, that I am already advanced in years and close to death," and he added that if the jury had waited a little longer to put him on trial he could have saved them the trouble because he would have met his mortality "…of its own accord" (38-c). He goes on to say that he could have used "…lamentations and tears" and could have begged for his life but that would have been "unworthy of me"; begging and saying things that are untrue in his own defence are the things the jury was "…accustomed to hear from others" (38-e). And here is a very good passage that illustrates his preference to being condemned to death rather than be allowed to live: "I would rather die after this kind of defence than live after making the other kind" because neither he, Socrates nor "…neither any other man should, on trial or in war, contrive to avoid death at any cost" (38-e / 39-a). In other words Socrates wanted his integrity to remain intact even after he was gone; he wanted his legacy to be that of a man who sought honesty in all he did. And he made the point that just because young people gathered around him and emulated his questioning style that was no reason to be condemned to death; but if it is the desire…

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