"Physics / Quantum Theory" Essays

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Quantum Mechanics Is a Theory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,133 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Finally, Schrdinger proposed an equation that explained how electrons could be understood as waves, while still being in agreement with the uncertainty principle.

Schrdinger's equation can be seen as the final step in the process that tied together the previous theories. The other steps that led to the development of quantum mechanics were on the right track. Schrdinger's equation was the final step that allowed the theories and ideas of quantum mechanics to be successfully applied. Applying Schrdinger's equation to an atom results in a new method of understanding subatomic particles. This method is based on explaining subatomic particles by mathematical equations and on accepting subatomic particles as wave functions.

A definition of quantum mechanics shows the contributions that combined to form the theory. This definition describes quantum mechanics saying,

Using the energy quantum as a starting point it incorporates Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and the de Broglie wavelength to establish the wave-particle duality on which Schrdinger's equation is based."

This shows how quantum mechanics evolved from the various contributions that have been described.


One author describes quantum mechanics as, remarkably successful tool for calculating the properties of systems on an atomic scale, and also a system whose internal self-consistency is so compelling it has been used successfully to predict that particles of matter have previously unexpected properties and even that particles of matter not previously known must somewhere or somehow exist." look at the development of quantum mechanics has shown that it has developed out of the constant quest to understand matter. This began with the idea of the atom, continued to the idea that the atom was made up of electrons orbiting the nucleus and continued to the theories of electrons as waves that form the basis for quantum mechanics.

Currently, quantum mechanics is successful in explaining the properties of matter, a success that leads to the idea that quantum mechanics will be able to explain everything. Recognizing how far quantum mechanics has come, it is also important to recognize that it is far from the end. Quantum mechanics and atomic theory will continue to develop in an attempt to explain matter, atoms and the universe. The future may be advanced quantum mechanics or it may be the development of whole new systems. Only time and continuing scientific advancement will tell.


Anderson, P. "Quantum Theory." In The Greatest Inventions of the Past 2000 Years. Ed. John Brockman. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.

Boslough, J. Masters of Time. London: Orion Books, 1992.

Brown, T.L., LeMay, H.E., & Bursten, B.E. Chemistry: The Central Science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1994.

Daintith, J. A Concise Dictionary of Chemistry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Maddox, J. What Remains to be Discovered. New York: The Free Press, 1998.

Moore, W.J. Basic Physical Chemistry. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1983.

Shriver, D.F., Atkins, P.W., & Langford, C.H. Inorganic Chemistry. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Anderson, P. "Quantum Theory." In The Greatest Inventions of the Past 2000 Years. Ed. John Brockman. New… [read more]

String Theory the Fundamental Forces of Nature Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,610 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


String Theory

The fundamental forces of nature include the electromagnetic force, the strong nuclear force, the weak nuclear force, and gravity. One or some combination of these forces, applied to matter, is responsible for everything we can observe in the physical world. The story of strings as a plausible theory within the realm of physics stems from attempts to unify… [read more]

Hitchhiker's Guide Douglas Adam's Comic Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (580 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


67), unknowingly forecasting the development of the iPod Touch.

Dent and Prefect travel through space by hitchhiking, picked up by spacecraft within the improbable nanosecond during which contact could possibly occur. They travel from planet to planet in a "nothingth of a second," making their travel faster than the speed of light, given the distances over which they traverse. Although this mode of travel has been theoretical supported by the theory of special relativity, it has obviously never been done except within the pages of books such as Adams's. In reality, it seems as improbable as Adams' physics of improbability.

Some of the science in Hitchhiker is accurate, or nearly so. Dent's alien friend is from a small planet "six hundred light-years away in the near vicinity of Betelgeuse" (Adams, p. 22); Betelgeuse is, in fact, 640 light-years from Earth. On page 26, the Vogons admonish Earthlings for failure to involve themselves in the "local" affairs of Alpha Centuri, "only" four light years away; Alpha Centuri is 4.4 light years away (Dickinson 1999, Tyson, Liu and Irion 2000). On page 60, Adams refers to "a nice hot cup of tea" as an example of a strong Brownian Motion producer. Brownian motion refers to the random movement of particles suspended in a fluid. Tea could, in fact, serve as an example.

Some of the science is deliberately ridiculous, such as the computer called the "Bambleweeny 57 Sub-Meson Brain" (Adams, p. 60). Adams also blends science and satire. On page 33, he lets the alien Vogons debunk the theory of evolution by having them ignore nature and have elective surgery to "rectify the gross anatomical inconveniences" that made… [read more]

Beowulf One of the Most Interesting Parts Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (969 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+



one of the most interesting parts of the poem, both in terms of the relationship between the characters and the way the events are interconnected and through the relationship with Einstein's conception, as expressed in "Physics and Reality" is Beowulf's third and final battle, with the dragon. The storyline is simple: Beowulf has returned to his home and has become king and ruler there. A golden cup is stolen from the lair of a dragon by one of the slaves and Beowulf is forced to fight the dragon that threatens his people and kingdom. He benefits only from the help of Wiglaf and succeeds to kill the dragon, only to perish himself because of the wounds received in battle.

Before analyzing this specific moment from the perspective of Einstein's idea of a "courageous scientific imagination," it is useful to have a look, first of all, at Einstein's article and better understand the role of this scientific imagination. The elements of physics that Einstein lists throughout his essay are not only clearly and logically interconnected, but are also placed in a historical perspective, so that the reader can better understand both how physics developed and how the new physics that Einstein promotes, including quantum theory, fits in.

So, following Einstein's article, physics tries to explain different things. First of all, it places in its center the object, animate or inanimate, and analyzes both how objects interrelate between them and the behavior of objects that are placed in different environments. As Einstein points out in his work, "one of the most primitive concepts is that of an object" (Einstein, 1938).

The relationship between the objects (named, from a physics point-of-view, bodies) also needs to be analyzed, something which led, for example, to the discovery of the electromagnetic field, something that could explain how objects interrelated between them in certain conditions. For the physicist of the 19th century, as Einstein shows, "the reality of our outer world consisted of particles with simple forces acting between them and depending only on the distance" (Einstein, 1938). Such observations drove physicist, as creators, to adapt their theories to explain different events.

On the other hand, as Einstein shows, and this is another excellent example where the creative imagination intervenes, the new conditions and experimental observations require new theoretical explanations from the scientists. This is how the quantum theory was created: as Einstein mentioned, it both created new features of reality and provided the relevant explanations for things that were being noticed and for which traditional physics could no longer provide sufficient explanations. As Einstein put it, "later developments both destroyed old concepts and created new ones" (Einstein, 1938), but in both cases it was the physicist who did that, as a creator. From this perspective, one can better understand the scientist's creative imagination: on one hand, he creates the necessary explanations for observable facts and records these, but, on…… [read more]

Hawking, Stephen William. The Universe Book Report

Book Report  |  3 pages (998 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



Professor Hawking also attempts to add levity and an added literary flair to what could be dry, technical matters. These also serve to show his erudition as a man with an interest in subjects beyond the purely scientific realm. For instance, the title of the book comes not from science but from Shakespeare's Hamlet, who says, "I could be bounded in a nutshell and count myself king of infinite space." Hawking even talks about his appearance on the television show "Star Trek: Next Generation" where he won at poker with Einstein, an example of his challenging the old masters with some of his theories that build upon the dimensionality of the universe and Einstein's theories of relativity.

Hawking also tries to make his theories funny and relevant to every day life today, as well as introduce speculations of what will happen to the universe, long after his text's first readership has passed into eternity. Hawking even mentions the effect of airline food on human life expectancy, a sobering thing to reflect upon for one who engages in as much air travel as Hawking! But there are also more serious, vital references to how understanding physics can impact human life on earth in the relative short-term as well as in space and far into the future. Hawking describes how statistical evidence points to the physical limits of population growth and electricity being reached on earth by the year 2600. But by applying the same statistical principles to knowledge as to population growth, to take a more comforting view of things, predicted human knowledge of how to preserve energy reserves could potentially carry the human race forward, faster to possibly attain solutions to this problem of geometric physical expansion.

There is, however, no question that having some background in physics helpful in understanding the text, even while Hawking tries to simplify basic quantum principles. For instance, as the author attempts to explain the rational behind an early and inaccurate Michelson-Morley experiment, when humans imagined that space was filled by a continuous medium called the "ether," he must go into a lengthy explanation how early physics saw "light rays and radio signals were waves in this ether, just as sound is pressure waves in air." (2) In this experiment, because no difference was found in the speed of the two perpendicular light beams, the experiment's observers concluded that ether was non-existent. Still, for a man bounded, essentially, in his own physical nutshell, Hawking has accomplished and understood a great deal in his life and is able to make at least a small 'kernel' of what he as understood, interesting and comprehensible in concrete, physical terms. Also, his book functions as a shorthand introduction to the history of physics, and the different people and concepts that played a role in physic's conceptual evolution over the…… [read more]

Niels Bohr Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (574 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Niels Bohr

Niels Henrik David Bohr was a prominent 20th century physicist, known widely for the discovery of quantum theory and generally for the physics of the microcosm (Thomsen, 1986). Bohr was born in Copenhagen on October 7, 1885. His father was a professor of physiology at Copenhagen University and his mother was from a family that was prominent in the education field. This environment was conducive to the development of his knowledge and genius.

Bohr attended Gammelholm Grammar School in 1903, and later entered Copenhagen University. At this point his interest in physics was promoted and nurtured under the guidance of an original and highly regarded physicist known as Professor Christiansen. Bohr obtained his master's degree in physics in 1909 and completed doctorate studies in 1911.

His leap into the world of theoretical studies was instigated by the offer of a prize by the Academy of Sciences in Copenhagen to the individual that could solve a specific problem. Bohr began studying on experimental and theoretical levels the investigation of surface tension through the means of oscillating fuel jets. His studies after this point progressive evolved into works that were increasingly theoretical in nature. Bohr's doctoral dissertation was a purely theoretical project using electron theory to explain the properties of metals, and first came in contact with quantum theory, which influenced much of his subsequent work.

Bohr continued to pursue both experimental studies in laboratories under prominent physicists as well as his own theoretical work, including moving onto studying the structure of atoms using conceptions from quantum theory. Through this work, Bohr presented an illustration of atomic structure that underwent some improvements, but still provides an accurate conception of the chemical and physical properties of the elements.…… [read more]

Scientific Achievements. Albert Einstein Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,606 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … scientific achievements. Albert Einstein is perhaps one of the most famous physicists of all time. He discovered the Theory of Relativity and is often known as the "father" of the atomic bomb. Einstein's life is a model to scientists and physicists today, and a valuable lesson in what one person can accomplish in their lifetime. Without Einstein's discoveries… [read more]

Scientific Models and Religious Myths Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,098 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For the evolution theory it is almost 3.5 billion years while for the cosmology theory is almost 15 billion years ago, in the other religious theory, the time is not given although it is believed to be a long time ago. They all appear to give the notion that there is no exact time line on when the earth was exactly created. Secondly the theories are such that out of all of them, there is the presence of life at one stage in the postulates.

The similarities between the theories are very much ideological similarities where all things appear to be much of the same caliber especially when it comes to the earth. All life is taken to have been from a certain source which in the theories of evolution was in existence while in the bible it was created. The origin of human beings cannot be eliminated from this comparison since it should be the main topic as people create different myths and ideologies about the origin of man. In the similarities it is believed that man was not in the picture of either creation or evolution until at a later stage in the theories.

The myths and postulates differences however are some of the things to be reckoned with as although most of the ideologies on the origin of all the different life forms of the earth differ in a very big way. Their biggest difference lies basically in every aspect of the universe, whereby the sun was created in the religious myth while it is presumed to having been present before. All living things and plants including marine life and plants are said to have been created in the Book of Genesis while in the evolution theory they evolved. Finally it all comes down to the ages of both the universe the earth and the earliest life forms where there is a very big difference in terms of the years which differ by many billion years in both cases.

Human beings were created by god while in the other theories and models the human being evolved from the apes and chimpanzees.

All the three postulates whether scientific models or religious myths serve a specific function and purpose. They try to decipher the little clues about life's origin and the universe we live in. therefore they function as answers to the question of origin of life. Whether the human being is authentic or not as Eliade (1965) would investigate, it is not up to us as we are just mere creatures as he tries to show that human beings can regain their authenticity as they try to study religion. Finally, McGrath (2010) approaches the issue in a way that it seems that he draws his conclusions from the verified methodologies and assumption in his quest to the Christian ideologies.


Alister, E. McGrath. (2010). "Science & Religion" 2nd Edition

Charles Darwin, (1859). On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favored Races… [read more]

Physical Science Elemental Isotopes Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,521 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


The set-up of Bell's experiment is given in the diagram:

Polkinghorne outlines Bell's explanation of the EPR paradox as follows:

He analysed what properties the 1 -- 2 system would have if it were a genuinely separated system (as Einstein had supposed), with properties at 1 depending only on what happened locally at 1 and properties at 2 depending only on what happened locally at 2. Bell showed that if this strict locality were the case, there would be certain relations between measurable quantities (they are now called the Bell inequalities) that quantum mechanics predicted would be violated in certain circumstances. (Polkinghorne 79).

It was not until about 20 years later that Bell's theories could be confirmed by experiemental observation, but it was discovered that indeed Bell was right and Einstein was wrong. "Spooky action at a distance" does appear to be the case in quantum entanglement, and leads to the phenomenon known informally as "quantum telepathy." As Marcus Chown says, alluding to this description, "entangled particles behave like a single indivisible entity. At some level, they know each other's deepest secrets." (Chown 57).

Works cited

Blundell, Stephen. Superconductivity. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.

Chown, Marcus. The Quantum…… [read more]

Michelson and Morley Experiment Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,759 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Michelson-Morley experiment of 1887 was not the first of its kind nor was it the last. Michelson had built a prototype half a decade earlier and used it to test the movement of light. And even until 1930, the Michelson-Morley hypothesis was still being tested (Lombardi). However, the conclusion reached in 1887 was not that which was hypothesized, and the… [read more]

Motion Galileo's Naturally Accelerated Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (357 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



Galileo's Naturally Accelerated Motion

One of the single most important men in the field of physics is the Italian born Galileo Galilee. During his time theorizing and experimenting within the field of physics, he formulated one of the most widely taught theories, that of naturally accelerated motion, which posits the idea that bodies during falls pick up equal levels of speed in equal time periods. Within the concept of naturally accelerated motion, an object which falls out of a resting state moves double the speed at two seconds of falling than in one, which is then continued throughout the time the object is in motion..

According to this theory, the natural acceleration of bodies in falling motions always increases in correlation with the amount of time that body has been falling. As states earlier, a body will fall twice as fast after two seconds then one. And so, after twice that amount of time, a body will reach speeds of four times the original speed of fall. This then continues for the entire length of the area…… [read more]

Free Will vs. Determination Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,280 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Free Will vs. Determinism

The same set of questions has plagued mankind since time immemorial. Are people's choices, and therefore destinies, predetermined, or are they subject to their own free will? or, are both forces at play, with some aspects out of their hands, while others completely under their control. Do people truly have autonomy, or are they controlled by determinism?

There are those who feel that every aspect of their life is predetermined by some sort of fate. They believe that the world is bursting with external causes and for this reason their actions are significantly limited. It is this limitation that prevents the individual from having any real control of their life. That they are only actors in a pre-scripted play, and have no choice but to follow the direction that has been set before them. However, on the opposite end of the spectrum, there are those who believe that an individual always has and always will have free will. And that their destiny is truly within their control, determined only by the individual and unique choices they make.

Determinism is most often defined as a theory involving a higher power or order that guides each and every facet of the universe. This is clearly demonstrated in the case of God's law in Christianity. Every action and reaction in the universe depends upon and is conditioned by their causes. In what is known as 'hard' determinism, every moment of existence is directly a cause by the law (Passantino & Passantino). In hard determinism, every event in life is a direct effect of all the events that preceded it; therefore, these events are set and predetermined ("Determinism").

This incompatibilism is what takes determinism and transforms it into fatalism. With fatalism, a person simply cannot take any action that would alter the already predetermined future. The future is set in stone and human beings are merely along for the ride. In this extreme version of determinism, it is pointless for humans to deliberate or take any action, because events will unfold as they have been pre-destined to unfold ("Fatalism").

In fatalism, a person only has free will if they are the exclusive originative cause of their actions, and that they actually could have made another choice. Fatalism believes, though, that every choice is limited by the past, predetermined by the past, and no other choice could have been made. d'Holback was one philosopher who was a true incompatabilist. He fully subscribed to the theory of fatalism and its rejection of free will. Yet, on the other side of the coin, van Inwagen, a Libertarian philopsopher, believed that autonomy was the correct theory and rejected determinism ("Determinism").

The immediate cause of fact is removed from the ultimate cause in 'soft' determinism. The compatibilists believe that the theories of free will and determinism are not necessarily mutually exclusive. They believe in determinism, however, they also believe that the causal agents are not necessarily predetermined in a free choice ("Free Will"). Soft determinism… [read more]

Quantum Tunneling Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,304 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Quantum tunneling is a function of quantum-mechanical activity in the instance where a particle moves against potential energy and appears on the other side of the energy barrier. At least the wave function describing the particle is extended to the other side. These wave functions are the means by which the particle is found, so it is assumed that the… [read more]

Physics -- History of Ultrasound Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,428 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


d.). Ultrasound continued to be refined and gradually used widely in the medical profession; for example, in 1989, French physician Daniel Lichtenstein began using lung ultrasound at the point of care in ICU units (Tsung, 2011, p. 22). The technology developed and was refined continually until point-of-care ultrasound became possible with portable equipment in circumstances far from any laboratory or… [read more]

Physical Science Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (598 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Elusive Theory of Everything

The Theory of Everything is an elusive hypothesis scientists have been searching for since the early 1900s. It is a theory of physics that fully explains and links all known physical phenomena -- a "General Theory of Everything." Even the Ancient Greeks thought that might be an underlying unity for all of the universe, but after Einstein's general theory of relativity was published in 1915 the search for a unified field theory intensified. In fact, it was something Einstein was obsessed with throughout his life, and particularly during his last years -- however unsuccessfully (Pais, 1982, Chapter 17).

In a marvelous example of the way we see our world, authors Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow tell the story of a small town in Italy called Monza, which barred pet owners from keeping goldfish in curved fishbowls. The town council said it was cruel to the fish to give them such a distorted view of reality. This, however, begs the question: "How do we know that the reality we perceive is true? The goldfish is seeing a version of reality that is different from ours, but can we be sure it is any less real?" (Hawking and Mlodinow, 2010).

Since Einstein, Hawking and others who have worked on black holes and the origins of the universe have tried to reconcile Einstein's gravitational and quantum physics into one theory. String theory has been the most promising, but there are at least five different permutations with each overing a different range of situations in time and space.

Scientists acknowledge that no theory to date is completely accurate about everything- there are simply too many variables that we must allow for "successive approximations" which, over time, evolve into more and more accurate predictions as our general knowledge increases. Because…… [read more]

Physics Concepts in Physics Matter Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,808 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12



Concepts in Physics


Matter can be identified as anything that occupies space, has mass, and possess inertia (Weisstein 2009). Inertia relates to one of Newton's first law of motion, which states that in order ofr an object to obtain motion or momentum, a force has to act upon it (Zimmerman-Jones 2009). That is, an object that is in… [read more]

1962 Nobel Prize in Physics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,780 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


1962 Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize

There are many Nobel prizes. They are awarded in Chemistry, Peace, Literature, Physiology, Economics, and Physics. The economics prize was not one of the original prizes. The other five were created through the will of Alfred Nobel, a Swedish scientist (Dorozynski, 1965). These were created in 1895, but they were not given… [read more]

Physics of Magnetism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,313 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The Laplace equation, "2" = 0, defines the field's potential strength and direction at any point as shown in the example in the Excel spreadsheet in Table 1 and Figure 4 below.

Table 1. Excel Spreadsheet for Solving Laplace's Equation

[Source: Denker, 2004].

Figure 4. Contour Intervals of Fields [Source: Denker, 2004].

According to Denker, in this spreadsheet (active copies… [read more]

Earth Revolves Around the Sun Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,278 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Put more simply: "Parallax is the apparent difference in the position (line of sight to) an object, when the object is viewed from different locations. So, when we observe that a star has apparently moved (not to be confused with it actually having moved -- proper motion), when we look at it from two different locations on the Earth's orbit around the Sun (i.e. On different dates), that's stellar parallax! (And if the star does not seem to have moved? Well, its parallax is zero)" (Cain, 2009).

The Doppler effect offers further subsequent evidence that the Earth moves around the sun. A wavelength of light that comes to us via an object becomes shorter (or bluer) when the source is approached and also becomes longer (redder) when we move away from the source (Motz, 2002. Thus, when an Earth moves in forward momentum to a star, the star will only look somewhat bluer, when measured by high-tech instruments; also, it will seem redder when the Earth is on the reverse end of the orbit, moving in the other directions: thus, this dynamic demonstrates clearly that the Earth possesses a velocity in conjunction to the stars, comparable to aberration (Motz, 2002).

Fundamentally, we know that the universe is filled with billions of galaxies and that the sun is at the center of our galaxy. The moves around the center of our galaxy and the planets tag along. It's important to remember that the gravity of the sun is so large, that the planets revolve around it just like the way the moon revolves around the earth; however, all of these motions are simultaneous, so in actuality, the earth is going around the sun while the sun moves around the center of the galaxy, while the galaxy moves apart from other galaxies, as a result of the expansion originating from the big bang (ucsb.edu).

Ideally, the scientific validity of all of these pieces of evidence could ultimately be improved by visual evidence -- such as the type that satellites could have provided and other tracking devices. However, in the 1800s there were discoveries and forms of proof found, through mathematics and observation. Kepler was one of the major thinkers in this arena who was able to disprove so much of the work of earlier thinkers like Copernicus and Ptolemy and Aristotle. For instance, for 2,000 years philosophers had believed that the planets made circular movements in motion in their orbits, but Kepler found that the planets move in ellipses with the sun at one focus. Earlier astronomers and mathematicians defined the ellipse as a regular curve with easily defined properties much like those of a circle. Through his study of the orbit of Mars, Kepler discovered that the simple ellipse would succinctly define it's orbit" (witchita.edu). Furthermore, kepler's discoveries, that the planets weren't moving at constant speeds, and that the distances of the planets varied greatly in their orbits were further forms of proof that were able to provide hard evidence for… [read more]

Properties of Light Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,011 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


If the refractive index of the medium being hit is lower than the medium from which the light is coming and the incident angle is greater than the critical angle, the light is reflected. However, the presence of a boundary between materials means that the light will be partially refracted and partially reflected. When the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle, then the light is reflected back internally. Total internal reflection is used in fiber optics.

An additional property of light is diffraction. Like refraction, diffraction is concerned with the bending of light. However, diffraction specifically focuses on how light bends when it goes through an opening. The obstacle in front of the light causes the light to bend and change. This makes the light appear to spread out once it gets through a small opening. The angle at which the light bends when it hits the obstacle is proportional to the wavelength of the light, so that red light will bend more than blue light. This can cause diffracted light to have a blurry edge with color shading that looks blue towards the inside and red on the outside, even when the light hitting the obstacle was a white light.

A final property of light is interference. While it is easy to think of light as a single phenomenon, the reality is that light comes from multiple sources to travel through the same medium. When different sources of light encounter one another, they interact. This is referred to as interference. There are two basic types of interference: constructive interference and destructive interference. With constructive interference, the two beams of light enhance one another. This means that the amplitude of the wave is increased. Constructive interference occurs when the waves are in phase, which means that the crests (highs) and the troughs (lows) of the waves of the light coincide with one another. Destructive interference happens when the waves are out of phase and the crest of one wave coincides with the trough of another wave. This results in a smaller amplitude. What is interesting is that while the light is amplified as the beams cross one another, once the light passes through the area of interference, it returns to its normal amplitude.

Although light is only one small part of the electromagnetic spectrum, it plays a critical role in how people perceive the world. In fact, light is probably the most readily observed aspects of physics, and the various properties of light and how it interacts in the natural world are easily observed by the average person. Those properties include color, velocity, reflection, refraction, diffraction, and interference. Each of these different properties can alter the appearance of light to the observer. These properties have also been used by scientists to enhance observation of phenomenon outside what would have been possible in naturally occurring circumstances.

Works Cited

Nelson, Stephen. "Properties of Light: Reflection, Refraction, Dispersion, and Refractive

Indices." Tulane University. N.p. 29 Oct. 2002. Web. 12 Nov.… [read more]

Chemistry and Physics Assessment

Assessment  |  3 pages (749 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


(b) (iv) A strong base is a material that has a very low pH level.


Question 4:

(a) (i) The estimate for kinetic energy comes in the form of the equation: Ek = 1/2mv2

so Ek = (1/2) x (3.3 x103 kg m-3) x (8 cm y-1)

then Ek = 132 kg m-2

(a) (ii) Despite the small plate being more active, the large plate contains the most kinetic energy, making Student A correct. Smaller does not always necessarily indicate that something, in this case a plate, will have an increased kinetic energy; therefore, one of the most important factors to take into consideration when evaluating the kinetic energy was the mass of the plate in question and since Plate A weighs significantly more then, in this case, it seemed to the be deciding variable that made this one have an increased kinetic energy.

(b) (i) The quark model is a model that outlines a classification for the valence quarks of hadrons, at it's essence the quarks and antiquarks that determined the quantum numbers of the hadrons. The Boson model of weak nuclear interaction explains how the radioactive decay of subatomic particles. Since quarks and leptons are considered the "building blocks" of matter or the "elementary particles," it also means that they constitute all mesons and baryons. These elementary particles can rise out of the lambda decay, as these mesons and baryons can be released since there is energy expended in the radioactive decay of subatomic particles.

(b) (ii) The energy time uncertainty principle explains the fundament limit on accuracy with certain pairs of physical properties that a particle has, like position and momentum or volume and speed. The range of the weak nuclear interaction at low energies is very high because it will be slowly decaying, which means that the nuclear interactions are very weak and thus less energy is expanded. This range, in comparison to a typical nucleon, would be almost on the opposite ends of the spectrum, since with a weak nuclear interaction then there would…… [read more]

Philosophy of Science Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,074 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Philosophy of Science: Hempel vs. Holism

It is a shame that in scientific debate philosophies of holism and reductionism have been considered mutually exclusive, when a combined approach is plausible and even logical. Hempel himself admits to subjectivity concerns with his treatment of hypothesis, but no one would argue that an approach to holism is possible without a thorough understanding of the elements of a holistic system. The virtue of reductionism is in its elementary utility, it is a paradigm easily applicable with clear-cut causal definitions: if H. then I; not I; not H. Through reductionism modern science has been built, brick by brick, from the ancient Greeks, to Copernicus and Galileo who melded into Newton, and finally to relativity, quantum mechanics and string theory. However, utility and tradition are not synonymous with truth. From a positivist viewpoint, it is necessary to accept holism -- and has been at least since Heisenberg proposed his Uncertainty Principle. Like Newtonian mechanics, Hempel's theories suffer from generalized application: on the level of barometers and mountain-tops there is causal continuity, but in more complex systems the approach breaks down. Simple, reducible hypothesis elude many fields to this day -- notably economics, where no two experts yet agree on the precise phenomena leading to this past decade's recession. While understanding the reduced elements -- sub-prime mortgages and credit swaps -- contribute to understanding of the whole, there is an interaction still un-described occurring in the interstitial spaces; a ghost in the machine.

Hempel's argument for radicalism in the selection of hypothesis is too narrow to encompass a universe of phenomena. The Pascal experiment is simple enough to be dominated by reductionist conclusions, just as the motion of planets is simple enough to be dominated by Newtonian mechanics. However, many experiments in physics cannot explain their results as simple summations of the work of individual elements. The collapse of wave functions in quantum mechanics is one example. The interaction of the observer with the whole system in observing it informs and manipulates the destinies of individual particles -- electrons say -- which are collapsed from a pre-observation, indeterminate state into a single observable state. In order to describe the famous double-slit experiment it was not necessary to radically change the central hypothesis of wave-particle duality but was correct to re-examine, from a holistic viewpoint, the system and make a conservative change to the corollary, un-expressed hypothesis that an observer can remain wholly separate from his experiment. As Duhem would have it: not I; so not H. Or not A1 or not A2 or not AN.

In the case of wave function collapse we also have one instance of a higher-complexity layer of a system affecting the state of a lower-complexity, reductionist element. If the holistic layer -- the backdrop against which the electrons splash and are observed -- is able to interact with the reductionist layer -- the electrons themselves -- we arrive at a failure in Hempel's theory. The double-slit experiment cannot be fully described… [read more]

Noble Prize in Physics in 1956 Term Paper

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Noble Prize in Physics in 1956

The subject of physics is closely related to engineering and development of new technology. This is the basis for many developments in the world. It was recognized by Alfred Nobel as one of the important subjects and the Nobel Committee decided to reward with the Nobel Prize.

It was said in the order of… [read more]

AC Theory Term Paper

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AC Theory

Which connection gives better power factor and efficiency on light loads for a three-phase Cage motor "Star" or "Delta"?

Star connection refers to one end of the coils being connected to one single point and the other ends of the coils are connected directly to three phase power phases. However, in delta connection, coils are directly wired between… [read more]

Michio Kaku Beyond Einstein Essay

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A classic popular science text on the tenets, concepts, and contexts surrounding string theories and unified field theory, Kaku's Beyond Einstein draws the reader's attention to prevailing thought in theoretical physics. Kaku claims that unified field theory is "comprehensive," and can provide predictions "concerning the origin of the universe, the beginning of time, and the existence of multidimensional universes," (4). Although Kaku comes dangerously close to providing a religious worldview within scientific terminology, unified field theory has stood the tests of scientific, mathematical, and critical rigor.

String theory in part seeks to unify Einstein's theory of general relativity and quantum or particle physics. Thus, Beyond Einstein shows how string theory builds on Einstein without discarding the theory of relativity. Einstein's theory of relativity focuses mainly on the force of gravity. Yet as Kaku points out, gravity is only one of the four forces of the universe. The other three include electromagnetic force, strong nuclear force, and weak nuclear force. Rather than view these four forces -- or any others that may exist -- as separate and distinct, string theory offers a unified solution. A string is like a guitar string. It vibrates, and has the potential to create potentially infinite number of "tones." Those tones will include the manifestation of matter as well as any other noticeable effect. According to string theory, matter itself is comprised not only of its visible and measurable electromagnetic particles but also of the one-dimensional strings. Matter is therefore particles in different modes of vibration, and the nature of matter will change depending on the vibration of the string.

Furthermore, string theory encompasses multiple dimensions. At least ten dimensions have been posited. Strings would exist on the first dimension, lines and planes on the second, space on the third, and time on the fourth. String theory goes beyond time. Dimensions are measurable, and have geometric shapes. Those shapes determine the behavior of a string when it vibrates in that dimension. Thus, gravity behaves differently in different dimensions. If the geometric features of a dimension are known, then predictions can be made about the behavior or manifestations of matter and energy (Greene). The problem with string theory as of yet may lie with the human brain itself. The brain struggles with conceptualizing even the fourth dimension, let alone a further seven or ten more. Computer programs have been able to aid physicists with visualizing the geometry of further dimensions, with current research revealing about ten (Groleau).

Greene notes that Einstein was actually the first to provide a unified theory, in that Einstein's theory of relativity unifies space and time within the context of gravitational force. General relativity presents reality along four dimensions, as a sort of fabric. The fabric can shift and undulate. String theory takes relativity a step further in recognizing the strings that make up Einstein's fabric, and also by helping unify general relativity with all other foundational theories. The primary means by which string theory has achieved its goal of unification has… [read more]

Sir Isaac Newton Research Paper

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Sir Isaac Newton laid the groundwork for the studies of physics and calculus. He has been called "one of the great minds of the 17th century Scientific Revolution," which is indeed an understatement, as Newton developed some of the most cogent formulas upon which modern science and technologies rely ("Isaac Newton Biography"). Newton was born in 1643 in Woolsthorpe, England, was raised by his grandparents after his father died and his mother remarried, and matriculated at Cambridge University in 1661. It was while at Cambridge that Newton developed most of his core theories and technologies. He devoted much of his early career to the development of optics, and invented the reflecting telescope in 1668. The telescope " brought him to the attention of the scientific community," ("Isaac Newton"). Newton basically invented the science of optics; he was able to show how the spectrum of the rainbow is present in white light and also how light behaves in general.

In 1687, Newton's attention shifted to the study of gravity and mass. He published the Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, which is referred to as his "single greatest work" because of its universal application in the study of physics ("Isaac Newton"). In Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, Newton proposed the mathematical model for orbital motion as the predominant principle of the movement of celestial bodies. Newton therefore revolutionized understanding of the universe as well as the behavior of objects on earth. Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy also contains a section on the behavior of fluids, including the properties of fluids like density and how such properties impact the ability of objects to move through them. Thus, Newton demonstrated how objects would move slower through more viscous fluids due to density. Newton also studied the density of air, and from his calculations, was able to measure the speed of sound waves (Hall).

It is for his work on the study of gravity and physics that Newton is most renowned. However, Newton can be considered a Renaissance man in that his talents spanned multiple…… [read more]

Understanding the Northern Lights A2 Coursework

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In 1869, Anders Jonas Angstrom, used a spectroscope to examine the aurora and discovered it was monochromatic.[footnoteRef:6] Over the subsequent decades the aurora emission were documented with greater accuracy, but the source of the green/yellow "aurora line" (green 5577 A)[footnoteRef:7] remained controversial. [5: Helge Kragh. "The Spectrum of the Aurora Borealis: From Enigma to Laboratory Science." Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 39, no. 4 (2009): 381.] [6: Ibid, 382.] [7: Ibid, 384.]

A Norwegian physicist, Kristian Birkland, theorized that charged particles emitted from the sun were interacting with the Earth's magnetic field. He was able to provide empirical support for his thesis by directing a cathode ray (electron beam) towards a magnetized sphere in his laboratory.[footnoteRef:8] In 1924, Norwegian physicist Lars Vergard was able to create a thin layer of nitrogen dust using cyrogenics and bombard it with a high-energy cathode ray.[footnoteRef:9] This experiment produced several emission spectra similar to those produced by the aurora, but nothing happened when the same dust was bombarded with protons. This led to the hypothesis that nitrogen was responsible for the green aurora line. [8: Ibid, 386.] [9: Ibid, 393-396.]

John Cunningham McLennan and Gordon Merritt Shrum, physics professor and student at the University of Toronto, respectively, were finally able to reproduce the green aurora line in the laboratory in 1925 when Schrum mistakenly used a helium gas contaminated with oxygen.[footnoteRef:10] It took a while to reproduce the 'mistake' and figure out that it was the oxygen producing a wavelength of 5577.35 A. The aurora line could not be reproduced using a nitrogen/helium mixture, but the full aurora spectrum could be reproduced by a gas mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, and helium maintained at 2-3 cm Hg and 20° K. Later experiments revealed that the helium was dispensable and that oxygen would attain an excited state when bombarded by a cathode ray, thereby providing a complete explanation for the aurora spectrum. [10: Ibid, 403-406.]


Kragh, Helge. "The Spectrum of the Aurora Borealis: From Enigma to Laboratory Science." Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 39, no. 4 (2009): 377-417

Lewin, Walter. "Lecture 19: How do magicians levitate women?" Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Spring 2002. http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-02-electricity-and-magnetism-spring-2002/video-lectures/lecture-19-how-do-magicians-levitate-women/.

Nave, R. "Aurora" Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, n.d., http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/atmos/aurora.html.… [read more]

Maxwell's Demons Essay

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For example, if the system is considered in isolation, and the terms of Maxwell's theory played out, then this could be evidence that the concept of entropy is statistical. However, on the other hand, the "demon" or the "valve" or whatever else is operating the insolated barrier between the containers would undoubtedly have to add some energy into the system to be able to perform that task. Thus such a criticism would add a level of perspective into the calculation and question whether or not someone could actually construct an isolated system such as Maxwell intended.

Other accounts have tried to explain how the entropy in the system is preserved by using molecules "information." This approach is similar to trying to look at a broader system but with information entropy rather than traditional entropy. If the "demon" only allowed some particles to pass and not others, then the demon must be able to store this information somehow. Then, since the demon would not be able to store information indefinitely because there is no infinite storage space for information, at some point some information must be discard. This would then create a form of information entropy that occurs in the system.

There have been many experiments that have been designed to study that have been based off of Maxwell's thought experiment. Many of the earlier attempts were able to show that the second law of thermodynamics was preserved by accounting for the "demon" in the experiment and the energy or information that this thing or individual added to the system. However the quest for Maxwell's puzzle has grown significantly more complex as time goes on. While some believe that they have shown proof that the system violates the second law, still others point to the role of the observer in the system. However, some have argued that (Callender):

On the subjective interpretation, the entropy of a system goes to zero if one knows the exact microstate of the system. Suppose we place a hot iron bar in contact with a cold iron bar. Suppose also that a different demon, Laplace's, informs you of the exact microstate of this joint system. Does this mean that heat won't flow from the hot bar to the cold bar? No! Trees in the forest tend to equilibrium even when no one is looking.


Maxwell's dilemma still continues to be beyond the ability for physicist or philosophers to concretely answer his question; though great strides have been made. At the heart of the debate remains the philosophical issue that pertains the ability of one to isolate a system; the question can be phrased as "whether the devil lives in the detail or whether the devil lives only in the approximation details." Although the second law of thermodynamics seems to work in many regards, there are situations on a micro level that in which it seems to break down. As technology increases and the level of macroscopic investigation continue to be able to isolate particles, it… [read more]

Dennett Daniel Dennett Is an American Professor Term Paper

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Daniel Dennett is an American professor of philosophy, and a renowned writer. His research in the field of philosophy largely revolves around the philosophy of the mind and philosophy of science. Daniel Dennett coined in the term of "Intentional System" to describe the mental properties of something with regard to their intentional behavior towards a system.

Dennett described the… [read more]

Working Disciplines Education in Today Essay

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A breakthrough in one discipline is useless unless it can connect to the larger scheme of natural operation. But, there are many who dedicate their lives to one single discipline, sacrificing much in order to understand just one small part of nature. It is hard for humans to accept their limitations and false bravado accompanying this hard work certainly distorts any cooperative efforts that necessitate universal understanding.

Politics is being played out in education just like everywhere else in the world. It feels good to be accepted and contributing something novel to the world. Many people will forgo ethical and balanced methods to promote their self serving views to reap emotional benefit. Money and greed play important factors in motivating much research these days and it is a challenge in itself to find what angle many of these people are driving their research towards. Foundational research is based upon individual and subjective causes making cooperative understanding even that much more difficult to attain.

Purpose itself is being ignored in educational research. The question why, not what, needs to be asked more often. In physics, apples fall off trees and abstract equations can significantly model this process, but these models cannot explain why the tree is there in the first place. More importantly, perhaps beside philosophy, no discipline can sufficiently explain the cause, or the why, of human existence.

Synthesizing interdisciplinary research can be accomplished if a more general attitude is taken by those who research. Over specialization compartmentalizes much of the institutional educational forces which garner much human effort and work yet fails miserably at providing true knowledge and understanding. More cooperation is needed. Fragmented information and research does nothing but contribute to more confusion. The development of more well rounded approaches should be encouraged in these situations.

Physics is quite useless if it cannot accurately predict the motion of material and forces. Its integration into the social sciences and arts is required if humanity is to reap the benefits of its researchers in this specific field. The language of physics needs to be accurately translated into every other field if it is to prove its worthiness. Until then, all science and research will remain well below its potential and not serving its natural purpose in the universe.… [read more]

Dangling Particles, Physicist Lisa Randall Term Paper

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Admittedly, the debate is complicated by the less precise nature of evolutionary theory and our inability to perform experiments to test the progression of a particular species. Moreover, evolution is by no means a complete theory. We have yet to learn how the initial conditions for evolution came about -- why we have 23 pairs of chromosomes and at which level evolution operates are only two of the things we don't understand. But such gaps should serve as incentives for questions and further scientific advances, not for abandoning the scientific enterprise.

This debate might be tamed if scientists clearly acknowledged both the successes and limitations of the current theory, so that the indisputable elements are clearly isolated. But skeptics have to acknowledge that the way to progress is by scientifically addressing the missing elements, not by ignoring evidence. The current controversy over what to teach is just embarrassing.


LISA RANDALL, a professor of physics at Harvard, is the author of Warped Passages: Unraveling the Mysteries of the Universe's Hidden Dimensions.

Lisa Randall's research in theoretical high energy physics is primarily related to the question of what is the physics underlying the standard model of particle physics. This has involved studies of strongly interacting theories, supersymmetry, and most recently, extra dimensions of space. In this latter work, she investigates "warped" geometries. The study of further implications of this work has involved string theory, holography, and cosmology. Lisa Randall also continues to work on supersymmetry and other beyond-the-standard-model physics.

Within a year of her work on extra dimensions, it was featured on the front page of the Science Times section of The New York Times. It has also been featured in the Economist, the New Scientist,… [read more]

Solving the 1D Bin Packing Thesis

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The NASA antenna was created using "evolutionary computation" programs, so named because they solve problems in a way that mimics biological evolution, natural selection, and "the survival of the fittest" (2009, p. 23). It is also important to point out, though, that the "automatic" aspects of the design process are based on carefully formulated requirements that software engineers must develop… [read more]

Psychology Concepts of Psychology Theories of Learning Essay

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Concepts of Psychology

Theories of Learning

There are different theories to how people learn and interpret the world around them. According to Gestalt psychologists, "people see patterns in stimuli before them and conjoin isolated events into meaningful structures" (Gilbert, 1998, p. 67). In order to learn, we use proximity and equality. Proximity involves using "location information to infer relation"… [read more]

Bleep Do We Know Traveling the Road Essay

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¶ … Bleep do we Know

Traveling the Road to Divine Inspiration: Enlightenment or Pseudoscience?

In this essay, a discussion ensues which involves the book "What the Bleep Do We Know" by William Arntz, Betsy Chasse, and Mark Vicente, published in 2005. First, the essay provides a book review style discussion of the concepts presented in the book. The rest… [read more]

Multiverse Is a Line Term Paper

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M-Theory suggests that the extra-spatial dimensions are capable of forming small loops that are as small as ten to thirty three centimeter (Planck length).The loops that result are very complex.

Bubble universes

The theory of an Inflationary Universe as evolved by Alan Guth can also be used to explain the multiverse hypothesis. This Inflationary universe rapidly arose from the Big bang. This was due to the rapid changes in the magnitude of the false vacuum. The result was the bubbling out of several universes out of the vacuum. All the vacuums that were formed as a result of this process float around a superspace.Our universe is one of them.


The multiverse hypothesis is one of the greatest concepts ever discovered in the history of mankind. Its applicability is also in almost all spheres of life. It is evident from its potential that one day a unified theory shall be coined that would define the basic multiuniverse law that would define everything through the consideration of all elements of the universe, finite and otherwise.


Aurelien Barrau. "Physics in the Multiverse"

David Deutsch. "The Structure of the Multiverse."

Hawkin, Stephen. "The universe in a Nutshell."… [read more]

Albert Einstein -1955) Was a Brilliant Scientist Essay

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Albert Einstein (1879-1955) was a brilliant scientist who changed the way we understand the world. He was not a great student but he had a tremendous imagination since childhood. He used to think about what it would be like to ride on a beam of light and he figured out his Theory of Relativity partly by those thought experiments. He changed the way scientists understand gravity, space, and time. He also calculated the fact that matter and energy are different forms of the same thing using only mathematics. Those calculations predicted theories of nuclear power and also nuclear weapons. Besides the Theory of Relativity, Einstein also explained the reason for Brownian Motion of dust particles in water and the Photoelectric Effect. His theories played a part in the development of nuclear energy, lasers, and NASA's Apollo Space Program in addition to many other modern applications.

If Albert Einstein had lived longer, he would have continued his unfinished work on understanding the science of…… [read more]

Math and Art in Sculptures Thesis

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Math and Art in Sculptures

The objective of this work is to examine the connection between abstract sculpture and abstract mathematics and to investigate the connection between mathematics and art. As well this work will examine the artist sculptors George W. Hart and Charles O. Perry and discuss their incorporation of math and art in their works and their beliefs… [read more]

Isaac Newton: Maverick With a Mind Research Proposal

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Isaac Newton: Maverick With a Mind in Motion

Isaac Newton was a maverick with his laws and theories.

Newton revolutionized science at Cambridge

Newton's background and predecessors empowered him

Newton's laws of motion rock the science world.

Newton's influence extends beyond laws of motion.

Newton represents modern science as we know it.

Isaac Newton was a true maverick of his day with his laws and theories regarding gravity and motion. His interests and education placed him at the right place and the right time to look at nature and question its forces. His laws of motion and gravity enabled the scientific world to move forward in quantum leaps. His contributions changed science, physics, and math as we know them, allowing the introduction of calculus, among other things. Newton forever altered how we think of science and nature.

Isaac Newton is considered one of the most ingenious minds of the twentieth century. He is most remembered for his contributions to the mathematic and scientific arenas, where his work was most influential. Newton was primarily a physicist but he was also a mathematician, an astronomer, a philosopher, and a theologian. His greatest achievement is his laws of motion, a theory that changed physics forever. While looking at Newton's achievements, it is easy to fall into the trap of reading the words on the paper. What we should never forget is how he revolutionized modern science with his laws and theories. He was a real maverick. His studious background paved the way to a greater understanding of nature and her mysteries.

Daniel Boorstin maintains that Newton was the "first popular hero of modern science" (Boorstin 401). His vision of nature was "more grandiose and more penetrating the Bacon's of Faustus'" (Boorstin 402). His vision "exercised greater influence over scientific thought than any secular figure since Aristotle" (402) and allowed the imagined to become real. Newton revolutionized Copernicanism at Cambridge University where he was able to study and debate. During his studies, he combined scientific skepticism with religious certainty to "posit the existence of gravity" (Noble 723). His law of gravity, in his 1687 publication, "not only accounted for motion but definitely united heaven and earth in a single scheme and created a convincing picture of an orderly nature" (Noble 724). The idea of God was present in Newton's mind and never far from his work. The notion of a grand mystery serving as the underpinnings of the universe was important but as he grew older, he saw the "limits of the capacity of human reason to encompass experience, which explained, too, his unflagging interest in the Bible and Prophecy" (Boorstin 407). Here we see how Newton could easily earn the title of the most ingenious scientist and mathematician of his time.

Born in 1642 and blessed with more scholarly characteristics than farming ones, Newton had the advantage of working on the shoulders of giants while attending school. He calculated from Kepler's ideas that the "force of the sun acting upon the different planets… [read more]

Transporter Technology Term Paper

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Transporter Technology

Transferring light over a beam and duplicating the information held in the original light beam at the receiving end is a reality today, but it is a far cry from the original concept of the transporter made popular by the TV series 'Star Trek' or the matter transference machine in the movie "The Fly," created by writers George… [read more]

Taylor in Freedom and Determinism Term Paper

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Taylor in Freedom and Determinism

Determinism is a philosophical concept which states that all events are determined by prior causes, including human behavior. "Hard determinism" further states that free will does not exist and there is no such thing as moral responsibility. "Soft determinism," however, argues that free will exists and consequently moral responsibility. This paper aims to prove that "soft determinism" is the more plausible theory.

According to Taylor, everything that exists in the universe is governed by the laws of cause and effect. Anything can be explained by an unbroken chain of causes that occurred in the past. Applying this to human behavior, this means that all human actions are governed by the same cause-and-effect and nothing happens by chance. In addition to this, free will is only an illusion that man perceives as real. Anything that man does is ultimately pre-determined and thus he is not morally responsible for his actions. This concept is best illustrated by Laplace's demon: imagine an omniscient entity that knows everything about the past and present, the position of everything in the universe to the tiniest detail, and the knowledge of all physical laws. This being can use the knowledge to determine the future, down to the smallest detail. Since man is composed of matter also bounded by physical laws, he is also subject to such determination.

According to Ayer, determinism and free will are compatible. He begins by stating that determinism and free will are independent concepts. Determinism deals with cause-and-effect, while free will deals with choice. The existence of one doesn't imply or negate the other. For example, it may be possible that man's actions are the inescapable result of a chain of cause-and-effect in his past leading to the present. However, man is capable of deliberately making a "free choice" among possible alternatives of action - and he does. Determinism doesn't imply constraint. A universe whose inevitable future is determined based on its past and present doesn't necessarily presuppose that everything in it doesn't have the capability to choose. In addition to this, Ayer explained that the rule of cause-and-effect are merely human perceptions. Finally, he postulated that "free will" might be a causal factor itself.

This paper argues in favor of Ayer's view regarding soft determinism. Both determinism and soft determinism agree that everything is governed by cause-and-effect and that the future is the result of an unbroken chain of events in the past and present. This concept, however, makes several assumptions: 1) the cause-and-effect is…… [read more]

Black Holes Astronomy Encompasses Vast Topics Term Paper

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Black Holes

Astronomy encompasses vast topics and includes many subjects. Among these subjects is the area of study involving black holes. Although there has been a great deal of research concerning this subject, there are still many factors concerning black holes that are still unknown. The purpose of this disccusion is to explain the phenomenon of black holes and how… [read more]

Environmental History Galileo Bacon Descartes and Newton Term Paper

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Enlightenment Thinkers: Galileo, Bacon, Descartes and Newton revolution in human thought took place during the period of history called The Enlightenment. The great weakness of the old paradigm, religion, lay in it superstition. The new paradigm, physical science, corrected for this weakness by establishing a new mind in which only the evidence of the physical senses could lead to knowledge. Galileo heralded the great change, and so he is often called the Father of Science.

In this essay we will consider Galileo and three other thinkers who were crucial to the Enlightenment -- Bacon, Descartes, and Newton.

Because the church perceived science as a threat, Galileo was forced to recant his views about the sun being the center of the solar system. His views were not just theories, however -- he had observed the planets and their movements through a telescope and found that Copernicus was right. Galileo was the first person to use a scientific instrument to study the universe. Through its use he developed a different relationship to nature than had previously been common. Instead of viewing the heavens with a naked eye and feeling a part of nature, he observed the planets with an instrument, thus, removing himself from being a part of nature to studying it as though it were objective and separate from himself.

Galileo viewed reality as objective and autonomous -- independent from human beings and their activities. Nature was no longer experienced but observed and studied, and only the scientific worldview of a quantifiable material reality was significant or "real." Nature came to be seen as objective, clocklike, and mechanical. In this view, any alternative views of reality -- intuition, for example -- were rejected as legitimate roads to knowledge or understanding.

Galileo did away with superstition by developing a new kind of logic -- "induction and deduction, observation and mathematics, were essentially wedded, and the natural kinds and syllogistic inferences of Aristotle relegated to oblivion" (p. 79). He saw this as necessary in order to "read" the universe. The old Aristotelian syllogistic reasoning was useless to science. Math was everything. Although the church censored Galileo, he did not seek to discredit the existence of God or challenge the authority of the Bible. He said, in fact, that the Bible teaches, "the glory and greatness of Almighty God are marvelously discerned in all his works and divinely read in the open book of heaven" (p. 80).

Science brought progress. A characteristic of the Enlightenment period was its belief in progress and the possibility of controlling nature. In England, Francis Bacon was a philosopher, scientist, and politician who conceptualized scientific inquiry as hypothesis and data, or question and answer. Bacon imagined a new world that human beings would create through science and technology. "Bacon's idea was no less than a complete mastery of nature" (p. 81). Through science, he believed, everything in the world could be made to benefit human beings. Bacon's view of creation was a radical anthropocentrism. "He viewed prescientific people as… [read more]

Existence the Nature Term Paper

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The Nature of Existence

Ever since human beings became aware of being, they have pondered the nature of existence. Why are we here? What is the purpose of existence? These questions continue to make people wonder. As time has gone by and humans have made many discoveries, their concept of reality has shifted and changed in an evolution --… [read more]

Quadratic Formula Term Paper

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¶ … Value of Money

Quadratic Formula

Info: When using the quadratic formula to solve a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, the discriminant is b2-4ac. This discriminant can be positive, zero, or negative. (When the discriminate is negative, then we have the square root of a negative number. This is called an imaginary number, sqrt (-1) = i.)

Explain what the value of the discriminant means to the graph of y = ax2 + bx + c. Hint: Chose values of a, b and c to create a particular discriminant. Then, graph the corresponding equation.

Search the Cybrary and Internet. In the real world, where might these imaginary numbers be used?

The discriminant b2-4ac is used to identify three possible solution cases for quadratic equations: one real solution, two real solutions, and an imaginary solution. For the first case (one real solution), it will show a parabola that touches the x-axis at a single point. For example, the equation y = x^2-2x + 1 will produce the following graph:

For this case, the discriminant is b^2-4ac = -2^2-4*1*1…… [read more]

Absolute Determinism Questions About Place Term Paper

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Nature of quanta behavior can be only explained by statistic regularities of a special Boze-Einstein statistics. All the processes which occur with quanta have random character so their behavior can not be predicted and regularities from classical mechanics can not be applied. Uncertainty principles of Heisenberg only proved the false of absolute determinism in the world of micro-particles. So if the absolute determinism can not be applied to physics of micro world it can not be applied to nature in general and can not postulate absolutism of dynamic processes according to Laplace's initial definition.

Making a conclusion I would like to say that Laplace's absolute determinism was a philosophical conclusion made on the base of existing contemporary knowledge of mathematics and mechanics:

"Present events are connected with preceding ones by a tie based upon the evident principle that a thing cannot ocur without a cause which produces it. This axiom, known by the name of the principle of sufficient reason, extends even to actions which are considered indifferent..." (Laplas, 3 ) His desire to give mathematical explanation to all processes was inspired by the number of mechanical problems which where solved in the 17-18 centuries with the help of calculus and other mathematics methods. But even the contemporaries of Laplace argued that absolute determinism worked properly only in mechanics or while conducting experiments. In other cases it faced a lot of problems as the premises made on the base of absolute determinism laws often appeared to be false while solving classic philosophical problems. Nevertheless, Laplace's theory showed that world was more complicated than it seemed to be to philosophers and mathematicians and weak points in determinism theory of Laplace only opened the horizons for further research.


Laplace, Pierre Simon A Philosophical Essay on…… [read more]

Computer Technology, the Concorde Jet Term Paper

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However, by looking closer at the question proposed by Concorde, other questions regarding computer technology ethics also come into focus.

Technological advancements made it possible for computers to store more bits of information, know more about individual people, accomplish more tasks, and look more deeply into the private lives of individuals. These issues are based in computer ethics, and while not specific to the Concorde, form important boundary issues. In his book Technology and the Future, Albert Teich reviews many issues regarding computer ethics. The book is a summary of readings collected and applied to specific topics which governs the accelerating field of computer technology.

The first areas shared by Concorde and the general field of computer technology are that of advancing expectations. The average desktop computer contains more computer power than the command module used on the Apollo 13 space mission. As computers evolve, and the prospect of AI is considered a possibility, ethical questions as to the expectations these advancements create begin to surface. Is it ethical for computer science to bring to the culture advancements which it is not ready to accept, or not fully equipped to manage? In light of the recent terrorist attacks, the issue of 'face recognition' surveillance equipment has been considered. In a country which honors freedom and independence, the idea of a large databank of information being collected and accessed regarding my personal life every time I walk through an airport is on the Orwellian side of acceptable. The idea of super sonic travels in the company of other high expectations of the computer age.

Teich's book also asks questions about 'smart technology.' Computer technology has created the ability to step into the personal communications of individual citizens and monitor their conversations without their knowledge and with equipment only slightly more sophisticated than a police scanner. Smart technology can identify conversations which are 'potentially dangerous' to the national security of the country. Some would insist that this technology interferes with the freedom and right to privacy of the individual. In general, when technology becomes an opiate for the masses, a force which is looked to in order to solve all of society's ills, then an ethical line has been crossed. Concorde did not create this dilemma in our culture, but it's existence is proof that mankind continues moving toward technical advancements which will test our desire to work for a corporate well being over the selfish desires to work for our own personal benefit.

Computer ethics are constructed by the individual but also adopted by society and the individual's environments. M. Van Swaay stated the issue of computer and technology ethics this way: "Ethics in computing is not about computers, it is about people..." Ethics is therefore based on morality in which it is developed and applied instead of it being given and memorized. M. Van Swaay best defines ethical behavior as follows: "Because ethical behavior implies free choice, it cannot be captured in rule. The standard of reference for what is… [read more]

Isaac Newton Ruba Term Paper

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The second law is applicable to explaining why some objects fall at a faster rate, while others do not. Newton's second law simply relates mass to the rate of acceleration of an object, thereby resulting to the theory that the weight of an object is equal to the gravitational force that an object experiences, which is actually the influence that is put on the acceleration of the object.

The second law is applicable in everyday life in cases wherein there is a comparative analysis of how each object will accelerate or move faster/slower than the other. That is, the second law helps explain why there are differences in the rate of acceleration of objects in space. It also provides a good explanation to the importance of the mass of an object in affecting its rate of acceleration once it is set into motion by a certain force. The second law also explains the concept of free fall, which happens when an object is acted only by the force of the object's weight, that is, its mass and the pull of gravity. In free fall, an object experiences uniform acceleration because there is uniform application of the force of gravity. These are the important applications and significance of Newton's Second Law of Motion.

The Third Law of Motion is called the Law of Interaction, which explains the behavior of motion when it concerns two interacting objects. The third law states: "For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction" (Physics Classroom 2003). This law explains that if one object, assigned as A, exerts a force on an object B, B will exert a force equal and opposite force on A. It is mathematically expressed as: FA = -FB.

The significance of the third law in the study of physics and mathematics is in explaining, in empirical terms, how forces can occur in pairs. An example of an application of the third law is the principle behind why rockets move forward by the sheer force of fuel. This is explained by the third law, wherein the fuel produces various kinds of gases that exert a backward force on the object, and the rocket in turn exerts a forward and equal force in response to the fuel's gases' force. Thus, through the third law, the action-reaction behavior of the motion of objects is explained scientifically.

Isaac Newton's Three Laws of Motion illustrates how objects' behavior and action to motion (absence and presence of it) is explained scientifically and in relation to mathematics and the study of science. Newton's discovery and formulation of the Three Laws of Motion brought about the new thinking that: "All objects in the Universe were suddenly equal, and the notion of hierarchy that had dominated all consideration of the Solar System was eliminated. A mystical approach to understanding the workings of the Universe was replaced by a mechanistic one" (ESA 2001). This is an important and revolutionary step towards the study of physics of everyday life, since through… [read more]

God Exist? The Case Term Paper

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" One person's definition of these terms is different than another's. Therefore, each person's concept of God is different. Immanuel Kant also disputed St. Anselm's reasoning as proof. His thinking is somewhat complicated, but in essence, he says that St. Anselm's argument requires you to assume the existence of God in order to prove God's existence. Also, St. Anselm is… [read more]

Graphene in Spr Imaging Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  5 pages (1,724 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 24


¶ … Graphene in Spr Imaging

Some sources claim that Graphene has the potential to be the new silicon due to its conductivity and flexibility. In fact, Graphene has the potential to boost the speed of the Internet and to serve as a coating that is sensitive to touch extending the lives of computers. Graphene is stronger than even a… [read more]

Graphene-Based Optical Surface Plasmon Resonance for Bio-Sensing Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,535 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Graphene-Based Optical Surface Plasmon Resonance for Bio-Sensing Applications

Although light waves move across a surface, electrons do not move far much like when footfall fans in the stadium do "the wave." In these cases, the fans are recreating the same type of phenomenon that takes place when light is oscillated to create surface plasmon resonance. The field of plamonics has… [read more]

Driving Force Behind Violent Crowds Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,653 words)
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Violent Crowds

The phenomenon of violent crowds proves a vexing problem for psychology, biology, and sociology, because the ostensible reasons behind the formation of a violent crowd seem entirely unrelated. For example, violent crowds may form as a result of political protest, through collective "mob justice," or even out of celebration, as in the case of many sporting events. This… [read more]

Thorough Scientific Inquiry Into Extraterrestrial Life and Extrasolar Planets Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,388 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Scientific Inquiry into Extraterrestrial Life and Extrasolar-Planets

In the early days of Ufology, researchers appeared too eager to verify sightings, which they then interpreted as evidence of 'nuts and bolts' spacecraft piloted by intelligent EBEs. Like numerous deities and other extraterrestrial visitors, EBEs are generally held to be concerned about human conduct. This concern was widely reported in… [read more]

Brain Might Contextual Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 5


The information is carried from the sensory organ to its respective area in the brain, where it is analyzed and interpreted, after which it is relayed to the somatosensory area in the parietal lobe for integration and perception. According to James Gibson, inventor of this theory, there is enough evidence in the surrounding for us to directly interact with it… [read more]

Algebra the Use of Scientific Notation Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (650 words)
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The use of scientific notation is common in some fields, astronomy being one of them. For example, in the paper Hard X-rays and gamma rays from type IA supernovae, by Hoflich, Wheeler and Khokhlov (1997), this notation is used to express the flux on supernovae as a function of distance. The notation used in Table 2 is of the type: 4.8E -- 05. This would be written in standard notation as 0.000048.

In the work Light quark physics from lattice QCD (Lalho, 2010) makes use of scientific notation as well, such as -1.5e+09. This notation can be translated into standard notation as -1,500,000,000. One would actually need to be a physicist to understand the context in which the notation is used, as the vocabulary in that field is quite specialized.

Both of these fields -- astronomy and physics -- frequently make use of scientific notation. In astronomy, there are multiple concepts that can be reflected using this notation. While distances are vast in space, there are often units of measure, such as light years, that can be used by scientists to describe the vastness without the use of scientific notation. The example above is an illustration of one use, however, in the measurement between waves of light. This typically would be a very small measure, so scientific notation is used to make the numbers more readable.

In physics, both scientific notation is used for numbers both large and small. The example provided relates to a large negative number, but when dealing with particles like quarks the numbers can be big or small depending on the particular thing being measured. The use of scientific notation is therefore quite common in physics.

In general, it appears that scientists are most likely to use scientific notation for their numbers. When examining other fields, we see that different forms of notation are used. In business, financial statements are often noted as being "in $000s unless where noted" as…… [read more]

Communication History Fans of Science Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,777 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Lodge did more to introduce the forefront of theoretical electromagnetic research not just to the broader scientific community, but to the engineering community as well. Lodge's biographer W.P. Jolly says, with some irony, that "Lodge was of the light cavalry of Physics, scouting ahead and reporting back, rather than the infantry of Engineering, who take and consolidate the ground for… [read more]

Most Important Twentieth Century Figure Essay

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¶ … 20th Century Figure -- Albert Einstein

Despite the current cartoonish popularity, one of the seminal minds of the 20th century, with far reaching effects even today and certainly contributing to the new age of man, Albert Einstein is one of the most important figures of the 20th century. Einstein's work had such far reaching effects, his theories touched modern science, politics, philosophy, and even art -- so much so that Time Magazine named him "Person of the Century" in 1999.

What made Einstein so special? What made him stand out from a host of extremely bright and gifted physicists of the 20th century? Probably more than anything, Einstein's journey from obscurity to the development of the 20th century's most seminal theory combined with a passion for life and unique sense of creativity. His many contributions to thought in this century include the Special Theory of Relativity, General Theory of Relativity, Statistical Mechanics, and work on a Unified Field Theory. He published over 300 scientific papers and books, and over 150 non-scientific works; quite a feat for someone as busy as he was (Golden, 1999).

Einstein was already publishing papers on magnetic fields, and he decided to apply to the Hochschule in Zurich, Switzerland instead of High School, but he failed the entrance exam. Instead, he went to Aarau to finish school, then in 1896 enrolled in the math and physics program at the Polytech in Zurich, graduating in 1890. In 1891 he was granted Swiss citizenship, which he held for the rest of his life (Isaacson, 2008). After graduation, Einstein was unable to find a teaching post, but he was able after almost two years of searching to get a job in the Berne Patent Office. During this…… [read more]

Connexin 43 Expression Following Retinal Ischemia Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  19 pages (4,785 words)
Bibliography Sources: 50


Connexin43 Expression Following Retinal Ischemia

Ischemia is a condition that occurs when there is an inadequate supply of blood delivered to the tissues generally resulting from a problem in the blood vessel. Retinal ischemia is stated by Renwick, et al. (2006) to result in the "loss of vision in a number of ocular diseases including acute glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, hypertensive… [read more]

Newton's Laws of Motion Essay

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Netwon's Laws of Motion

A source for a staggering degree of revelation, Newton's recombination of the truths which laid the groundwork for his life's work yielded nothing less than a new ideological order of thought. In terms of both the development of his own ideas and the forging of paths for posthumous discoveries, Newton's accomplishments are unrivaled in their influence and staying power. Though it is true that later accomplishments would render many of his conclusions incorrect, there is a point of fact in these scientific studies that they proceeded with an initial intent to disprove Newton's rules. Such is to say that even when his ideas, processes and conclusions were being tested, his blueprint would serve as the inspiration for such work. Even still, many of his observations stand as natural laws today and we collectively recall the so-called Newtonian Age as one from which we have established continuity in evolution rather than divergence. Isaac Newton can essentially be regarded, due to his preeminence in his time and his reigning influence today, as the father of natural sciences. Though he is most highly esteemed for his works in theory, it bears noting that his accuracy was often just as visionary, accounting for the perpetual absoluteness of his three laws of motion, which were unleashed on the world in Prncipia's volumes.

The first of these laws, a formalization of Galileo's law of inertia, observes that a body in motion will tend to stay in motion unless acted upon by an external force. Likewise, a still body, unless acted upon by another force, will remain still. This is a law with complex implications concerning astronomical movement. According to Nave (2000), "Newton's First Law contains implications about the fundamental symmetry of the universe in that a state of motion in a straight line must be just as 'natural' as being at rest. If an object is at rest in one frame of reference, it will appear to be moving in a straight line to an observer in a reference frame which is moving by the object." (Nave, 1) In this regard, we can place Newton in a discussion of scientific continuity predicating Einstein's laws of relativity. Indeed, in this first law, Newton contributes the idea that relative perspective will play a part in the way that motion is perceived, precipitating the conclusion that there is a constant velocity in the movement of the planets.

In many ways, this theory would be an echo of the ideas provided by Galileo relating the universe as being heliocentric and not geocentric as once held by conventional knowledge and the Catholic Church. Newton's Second Law of Motion, however, represented a substantial leap from the Galileo point of entry, asserting that "the acceleration of a body is proportional to the force on it. This is consistent with our experience that the harder we push on a moveable body, the quicker its speed changes." (Casco, 1). Newton operationalized this theory by asserting that where 'F' is force,… [read more]

Srinivasa Ramanujan Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,035 words)
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The Improbable Life and Work of Ramanujan

The correlation between mathematics and spirituality may not seem immediately apparent. Indeed, to some, there is something quite distinctly disparate in the relationship between religion and any science. However, the life and accomplishments of Indian-born mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan stand in contrast to this perception. Widely considered brilliant by those who knew him and yet mired in an ascetic life of poverty and illness, Ramanujan stands as a towering figure in the field of mathematics. Recognized for a categorical speed and dexterity in resolving equations, proving theorems and achieving technical representation of his theoretical insights almost effortlessly. Many of the theorems which he would propose would be proven and reinforced in the decades following his very premature death, and indeed, would live their own life in the revelations yielded to mathematicians and quantum physicists even to present day.

His mathematical skill and insight seems most improbable in light of the biographical details that are available to us. Quite to the point, one of the most immediately striking things about Ramanujan's story is the total absence of formal education, and even moreso, a life of outright struggle in the academic context. In spite of what can be perceived as a disadvantage, he far outshone all of his peer in his command of existing principles and the ability to imagine frequently accurate new principles. As denoted in a 1999 interview with a mathematician inspired by his work, Ramanujan "had just one year of education in a small college; he was basically self-taught. Working in isolation for most of his short life of 32 years, he had little contact with other mathematicians." (Berndt, 1)

This fact is hard to conceive considering the proclaimed relevance today of so many of his conceptual assumptions. Born in 1887 and dead by 1920 of what physicians retrospectively believe was a parasitic bacterial infection as a result of untreated dysentery, he untimely demise would be evidence of a life lived in squalor and self-neglect in a devastatingly poor and filthy India. (Wikipedia, 1) This made the uncommon talent commonly susceptible to the health and mortality, a reality for most living in India at the time. His mere survival to that point may be considered a matter of remarkable importance considering the infant deaths of one sibling prior and two after his birth as well as his unlikely success in a childhood bout with small pox. (Wikipedia, 1)

In spite of these conditions, and perhaps to the continuation of them, Ramanujan was known to work obsessively on his studies and his theorems, allowing little time and allotting little interest in the betterment of his situation. His brilliance and perspicacity would be recognized by those in the Indian and British mathematics community though. In spite of his poverty and shyness, his work would speak for itself to such important figures as Ramachandra Rao, who was a founding member of the Indian Mathematical Society. Rao described his first encounter with Ramanujan, telling that "a… [read more]

Gravity Is the Force Responsible Essay

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Gravity is the force responsible for the fact that dropped objects fall to earth and also for the orbital motion of the planets and all the stars in the solar system. Early man observed the motions of the planets and believed that they could be explained by the fact that the earth was the center of "God's" universe and that… [read more]

Albert Einstein: Historical and Scientific Icon Science Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  16 pages (4,677 words)
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Albert Einstein: Historical and Scientific Icon

Science and celebrity rarely coexist but somehow, with Albert Einstein, they found a way to live together and make the man just as iconic today as he was in his own day. Rarely do individuals live to see their impact upon society but Einstein lived to see how his theories could literally change the… [read more]

Mentioned in Details Thesis

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Team Leadership

Art and Astronomy

In contemporary life, the values embodied in art are often seen as existing in opposition to science. This sense of opposition seems even harsher when pairing the values of science and religion. Yet "The Adoration of the Magi," a religious fresco by Giotto that depicts the Nativity of Jesus and his adoration by the Three… [read more]

Atomic Bomb Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,536 words)
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¶ … Atomic Bomb and the Deciding Event in Persuading the United States to Pursue Development of Nuclear Weapons

The following research study is conducted through a qualitative review of literature relating to the Manhattan Project and the atomic bomb developed and use in World War II against Japan. Japan was a formidable enemy in that the Japanese were very… [read more]

Sir Isaac Newton Term Paper

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Issac Newton

Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton is one of the greatest mathematicians and physicists of all times; usually presented by the historical documents of science as the academician who discovered the Law of Gravity, Newton also had great achievements in domains such as optics, mathematics, mechanics, alchemy, chemistry and even religion or philosophy. He was born in 1642 at… [read more]

Communications Broadband in Space: Nanowire Applications Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,758 words)
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Broadband in Space: Nanowire Applications in Interplanetary Communications

New applications for developments in nanotechnology seem to multiply faster than we can keep up with them. Nonetheless, it is good to note that some new examples of nanotechnology can be turned to existing problems that plague the communications industry. Nanowires, for example, show incredible promise for revolutionizing certain aspects of… [read more]

Galileo His Discoveries and the Conflicts With the Church Term Paper

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Galileo's Discoveries And Conflicts With The Church

Galileo was an Italian astronomer, mathematician and physicist, who originated the scientific revolution of the 17th century, in Italy. Prior to Galileo's work, physics and astronomy were intertwined with traditional philosophy. Galileo, instead, linked mathematics with these sciences. Galileo's major contribution to science includes: the correct definition of uniform acceleration, the setting of… [read more]

Attenuation Means a Reduction in Intensity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,060 words)
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Attenuation means a reduction in intensity and amplitude in a radio signal. Radio signals are used in medicine in the medium of ultrasound. Measured in decibels (dB) per unit length of medium, attenuation is represented by the coefficient of the medium in question (dB/cm, dB/km, and so forth) (Zagzebski 3).

Attenuation is used in ultrasound physics and is the reduction of the beam amplitude, as a function of the distance it goes through the medium being imaged. One has to account for attenuation effects because reduced signal amplitude affects the image quality. By adjusting the amplitude to account for the attenuation in the ultrasound beam going through the medium, loss of energy at the desired depth is achieved (Bushong 2).

The ISO standard on ultrasound attenuation in heterogeneous systems maintains the level of information on particle size distribution. And attenuation in ultrasounds may be used in measurement of extensional rheology by applying acoustic rheometers utilizing Stokes' law of volume viscosity and extensional viscosity. To understand attenuation is to understand that when traveling through any material, the sound waves bounce off the material and are scattered, reducing the energy by scattering and absorption. Scattering is defined as reflecting the sound in directions other than the original direction it was projected. Absorption is converting sound energy into other kinds of energy. Each one of these creates a decay in the quality and energy of the sound as it travels through the material. So the scattering and absorption can therefore be called attenuation. This decaying wave can be expressed as: A = Aoe -az

Attenuation 1).

In the above equation, Ao is the amplitude of propagating wave at a location. The Amplitude (a) is how much the wave is reduced after it has traveled Z (distance) from the initial location the quantity (a) is the coefficient of the wave traveling in z-direction. The dimensions are measured in nepers/length for (a). A neper is defined as a dimensionless quantity and (e) is Napier's constant, or 2.71828. If one wants to convert nepers/length to decibels/length, one must divide it by 0.1151. Decibels are a more constant unit when referring to amplitude of signals.

A recent study by Vlahos, Godoy and Naidich, found that single-energy CT imaging results "in an anatomic depiction of the imaged area based on depiction of differences in physical density," while dual-energy imaging differentiates structures with similar densities but differing elemental composition, based on different attenuations at different photon energies. Therefore, dual-energy moves toward elemental imaging, and possibly chemical composition (2007).

The study found that though Hounsfeld envisioned dual-energy imaging principles, the technology was not available to do so. Now, however, advances in dual-source CT scanning techniques allow MSCT-quality images of a single acquisition upon two levels simultaneously. Another advantage is that, if proper parameters are utilized, the radiation dose is almost the same as a tube/detector system and there is a similar noise level in both the 80-kVp and 140-kVp systems, which improves the accuracy of calculations.

The first system (Somatom… [read more]

Difference Between New Historists' Viewpoints on Renaissance Drama and Cultural Materialists Term Paper

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¶ … New Historicists' Viewpoints on Renaissance Drama and Cultural Materialists' Viewpoints

In recent years, two related and overlapping schools of literary theory have emerged that have offered competing responses to the relationship between Renaissance drama and the political power of Tudor and Stuart Britain (Mcguire 443). On the one hand, where new historicists have tended to see plays of… [read more]

Michelson Experiment for Measuring Light Term Paper

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Michelson Experiment

How did the Experiment Came About the idea of measuring the speed of light, in a more exact and accurate result, was brought about to Albert Michelson during his teaching years at the Naval Academy. During his physics and chemistry class in the academy, when requested by Sampson, his Lieutenant Commander, to provide a demonstration of measuring the speed of light using Foucault's theory, the idea of creating an apparatus for measuring the speed of light with greater accuracy came about to Michelson while assembling Foucault's speed of light measuring apparatus.

The academy unfortunately didn't have enough money to support Michelson's experiment. Asking for his father-in-law's support, Michelson was able to get $2,000 to carry out his study and experiment (Fowler, 1996). He spent money for good quality mirrors and lenses that he used in his experiment. Michelson conducted his experiment in several places due to some factors that he believed to have affected the accuracy of his calculation. Soon, his test was successfully completed in a 2000 feet distance, as compared to Foucault's 60, in the Irvine Ranch.

As a result of Michelson's experiment in measuring the speed of light, the Optics Institute of Southern California online indicates the following.

186,282.3960 miles per second, plus or minus 3.6 feet per second

299,792.4562 kilometers per second, plus or minus 1.1 meters per second

And, following is the diagram of Michelson's experiment as well as the real speed of light measuring device that he built, as shown by the Optics Institute of Southern California Online.

The above diagram shows how the speed of light is measured by Michelson using mirrors where a beam of light is assumed to bounce to every mirror and bounce back to its source.

The Speed of Light

Michelson discovered from his experiment that light travels at a constant speed and that the movement of the earth does not affect its speed in any way (MJ Lea).

In his experiment, Michelson used flat mirrors and concave mirrors where his objective is to measure how much time will a beam of light travel from its source, bouncing to a mirror, and to another mirror, and bounce back to its source. Newton online explains this further as follows.

Albert Michelson measured the speed of light by…… [read more]

One Two Three Infinity by George Gamow Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Infinity - by George Gamow

The story-telling format with which author / mathematics instructor George Gamow approaches his subject, and grabs the interest of the reader, goes far beyond math, science, physics and mere numbers placed in esoteric formulae. The book is simply well-presented material, clever, funny, ironic, and readable - a very enlightened and often entertaining way of presenting complex material. When one reads the book it becomes clear why Gamow won the "Kalinga Prize for the Popularization of Science" in 1956, a year before the Soviets launched their earth-shaking satellite, "Sputnik."

The recipient" of the Kalinga Prize, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) explains on their Web site, "should have striven during the course of his/her career to emphasize the international importance of science and technology and the contribution they make to improving public welfare, enriching the cultural heritage of nations and solving problems facing humanity."

Gamow did indeed "strive" during his life and career - and in One Two Three...Infinity - to "emphasize" the importance of science and technology. He also strove to in his original Preface, written in 1947 at the time the book was first published, Gamow acknowledges that he did not "attempt to tell the whole story" of modern science; he also shows his ability to understand and be modest when he writes (vi) that he has restricted himself to "a general account of physical facts and events in the world of planets, stars, and nebulae..."

In his Preface to the 1961 (updated) edition of the book, he describes the "slow but steady progress toward the controlled release of energy through thermonuclear processes," which today readers understand as not an entirely positive (in terms of threats to the planet and mankind) advancement in science, but he also mentions that his newer edition corrects the flaw in his projected age of the universe - from "two or three billion years to five or more billion years."

On page 231, introducing his Chapter IX on "The Riddle of Life" - his apt and reader-friendly description of how cells are formed and how they function - Gamow uses the automobile as an analogy into how to study "the fundamental properties of living matter." He shows the reader that in order to understand "the complex matter known as an automobile" one must take the "first step" by "breaking it down into separate, physically homogeneous, constituent parts."

And so, just as it is with his "physical investigation" of an auto, he explains that the "sciences of anatomy and physiology" are in a sense "analogous to the science of engineering." And as he launches deeper into the science of human cells, he does not abandoned the analogy with a car; pointing out that although the human body consists of "several hundred thousand billions of separate cells," taking half of one muscle tissue cell would mean losing all the properties of "muscular contraction," the same way in which "only one half of a magnesium atom" would… [read more]

Mechanics and Dynamics Life Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,543 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Torque is the attribute of a force that causes rotation of the object. The product of the perpendicular distance between the line of the force and the axis of rotation gives the magnitude of torque. Friction arises out of opposing torque that resists the motion. The frictional forces arise when other forces are applied or the body is already in… [read more]

Evolution of the Feather Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,829 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The supposed feathered dinosaurs the Protarchaeopteryx and the Caudipteryx are actually flightless birds.

In the Washington Post, an article was published by John Schwartz in which was stated though most paelontoligist feel that the fierce Tynasourus Rex looks like a chicken, because of the anatomical similarities seen between this ancient reptile and the modern bird. But researchers have come to… [read more]

Black Holes Astronomers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,502 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The center feeds upon the gasses that each solar mass (star) releases, taking from them the fuel they so need to survive. Once the massive black hole has leeched all of the fuel from a solar mass, that mass implodes and becomes a black hole which is then made a part of the central hole. Thus the center of an active galaxy will only continue to increase in mass.

These mysterious celestial objects have been a point of contemplation and of great consideration for decades. However, it has only been within the past decade that technological advances have allowed progress towards finding and determining the nature of black holes has been possible. In the end, it is hoped that we will be able to send people or probes out to study these amazing phenomena in person.

Works Referenced

Cowen, R. "Black Holes and Galaxies May Grow Up Together." Science News. 17 July, 2000. v17. i25. 390.

Hellemans, Alexander. "Smoking Gun: A Black Hole's Supernova." Astronomy. Dec, 1999. v27. i12. 34.

Kluger, Jeffrey. "Scientists Catch a Black Hole Red-Handed." Time. 30 Aug, 1999. v154. i9. 44.

Melia, Fulvio. "The Heart of the Milky Way." American Scientist.…… [read more]

History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The second law of thermodynamics is easy to observe also. If one places a cup of hot water on a table, soon the heat will disperse from the cup into the surrounding air until equilibrium is established between the temperature of the water and the air. When the water and air reach equilibrium, the transfer of heat stops. This happens when any warmer object is brought in contact with any colder object. This energy transfer can be made to do work as Joule demonstrated.

Joule was the founder of experimental thermodynamics (Nye, 1997). Joule established that different types of energy, mechanical, electrical, and heat can be changed from one form to another. He formulated Joule's law, which states that the heat produced in a wire by an electrical current is proportional to the product of the resistance of the wire and the square of the current. Joule proved his theory by comparing the water temperature at the top of a waterfall with temperatures at the bottom of a waterfall. As predicted, the temperatures at the bottom were greater than those at the top. The energy of falling water did indeed produce heat (Nye, 1997)

Boltzman demonstrated that heat introduced into a gas would soon become evenly distributed throughout a gas (Nye, 1997).. This is easily observed by introducing smoke into a sealed jar and watching it disperse throughout the jar.

The first and second laws of thermodynamics are everyday occurrences and we take them for granted countless times during our every day lives. They were present in the lives to the scientists who first named them. These scientists made no real "discoveries," they were just astute observers and dared to ask the question "why?"

Works Cited

Crowe, M.J.,(1998) Heat and Thermodynamics from Newton to the Kinetic Theory. Notre Dame, Indiana: Poverty Publishing Co. Chapters 5,6,7.

Nye, Mary Jo, (1997) Before Big Science: The…… [read more]

Examining Identity and Assimilation Essay

Essay  |  15 pages (2,734 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Euthanasia has had a long history. Greeks and Romans allowed the euthanizing of people under certain circumstances. Euthanasia is the practice of ending a person's life for the sole purpose of relieving the person's body from excruciating pain and suffering due to an incurable disease. The term euthanasia is often referred to as mercy killing or the 'good death' as… [read more]

Analyzing Chile Trade Agreements Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,230 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Chile Trade Agreements

Trade agreements can be delineated as any contractual agreement that is conjured up between states, regarding their trade relationships and associations. In particular, a great deal of the agreements signed by Chile have been free trade agreements (FTA). These sorts of arrangements encompass the collaboration and working together of at least two nations to decrease trade barriers… [read more]

Fairy Tale Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,617 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



According to Morrison and Thompson-Guppy, the difficulties of being accepted into a ready-made family can bring about a number of psychological issues yielding "a clinical picture similar to depressive illness," (521). Read through the lens of modern psychological research, the story of Cinderella and her "wicked stepmother" might be viewed in a new light. Given the purely powerless role… [read more]

Situational Awareness: High Reliability or Normal Accidents Dissertation

Dissertation  |  50 pages (24,100 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 100


High Reliability or Normal Accidents: A critical examination of situational awareness and its value in reducing human errors in aviation ground operations


The concept of situational awareness

Level 1 SA -- Perception Of The Elements In The Environment.

Level 2 SA -- Comprehension Of The Current Situation.

Level 3 SA -- Projection Of Future Status.

Situation Awareness Requirements

Theories… [read more]

Perception of Objects in Infants Grant Proposal

Grant Proposal  |  7 pages (2,240 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


In addition, numerous differences in the way infants perform have something to do with differences in the processing speed, or the capacity to remember and compare information. The most popular explanation is central to the speed of processing information and perceiving things. However, why the speed of processing, which is the core during the perceiving of objects or social cognition,… [read more]

Visual Attention to Color Vital Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (891 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Visual Attention to Color

Vital Attention to Color

Name the independent and dependent variables used; include the levels of each variable

The independent variable in this study is the color vision. The dependent variable is target detection and identification.

Are there any methodological flaws or limitations in the experimental design? Explain.

The study is designed across proper research lines and there are no apparent flaws or limitations in the method however, it's suggested that a more detailed literature review and secondary sources analysis would have helped a lot more. The study could have focused to guide how the noise factors can be systematically removed. It could elaborate the steps that were used by the researcher to minimize the effects of noise factors or the confounding variables. In the absence of this detail the new research will not be guided enough and other researchers will need to find and establish those steps themselves.

How did the experimenters control for possible confounding variables? '

There are personality influences related to the color vision. These could serve as confounding variables. The researcher did not survey those subjects with personality issues for understanding color vision to avoid confounding variables (Snowden, 2002). The patients having symptoms of schizophrenia were not included to that the color vision is focused and object detection not the psychological association of disease and motion detection.

4. Explain the role of the magnocellular and parvocellular streams (from what you learned from lecture or from your textbook). Explain how the research discussed in this article expands upon previous views.

Magnocellular cells and Parvocellular cells are neurons in thalamus. The cells are part of visual system and these cells have a critical role of defining visual perception plus they tell the motion and course of a body. The study enhanced my knowledge and guided how the cells help in detecting bodies in motion. The M-stream is the color-blind cells yet this study proved us that these cells play a major role in guiding attention and movement of the eye. The researches that were conducted earlier as well as the research that is under consideration suggests that Parvocellular cells of the P. stream has a bigger role in spatial resolution, yet it has a smaller temporal resolution as compare to the magnocellular cells. The cells' function combine to offer a very profound response detecting object details relevant to its speed as well as the distance and size of the object in the stimuli.

5. What are the implications of the author's findings? Relate your answer to a sensation or perception topic that you have learned about in this class

The author found that there is dominant role of M.…… [read more]

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