"Physics / Quantum Theory" Essays

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Attic Fan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,857 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


A high quality thermostat is also necessary since it helps in energy conservation and is also time saving since it eliminates the need of the home owner climbing up to the attic in order to reset the fan. It is also necessary to include a firestat that helps in shutting off the fan incase of a fire outbreak. The fan's… [read more]

Use of Emerging Technology Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (1,832 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


The Scientific, Commercial and Creative Prospects in Carbon Nanotube

Most simply phrased, the carbon nanotube is a form of carbon. The
most recently uncovered of eight carbon allotropes, this is a molecular
configuration of the basic element and is categorized as a member of the
fullerene family. The fullerene allotrope has itself only recently been
added to the list… [read more]

Galileo and the Scientific Revolution: An Examination Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,040 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Galileo and the Scientific Revolution: An Examination of Galileo's Progression And An Imagined Rebuttal

Galileo Galilei ranks among the greatest scientific minds ever to have lived. His contributions to numerous fields helped to lay the very foundations on which many modern scientific disciplines are built, as well as being entirely revolutionary in his own day. His political controversy and eventual… [read more]

Kuhn James Pierce Popper Descartes Al-Ghazali Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (3,618 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Truth?

One cannot simply define the meaning of truth because it is so ambiguous. The word "truth" differs greatly from a word like "apple" that has an immediate visual connotation, and is easily and unequivocally defined. "Truth" however, is an intangible and equivocal concept with inanimate and ineffable traits. So in order for one to define truth, one… [read more]

Sony Cyber Shot Dsc W300 Black Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,159 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


sony cyber shot-DSC-W300 BLACK

Strategic Group Analysis

The Sony Corporation operates in a highly dynamic industry, characterized by numerous and rapid changes, most of them due to technological advancements. This means that both Sony and its competitors must quickly adapt to the emerging requirements. The company's top competitors and the components of its strategic group include Japanese Panasonic Group, Dutch Phillips Electronics and Japanese SANYO (Hoovers, 2009). These companies manufacture similar products (such as digital cameras, television sets, play stations or other numerous electronic appliances with applications in all entertainment and leisure, professional activities or day-to-day chores) and address the same target market. The primary strategy used to overcome competition is that of differentiation. However, with the technological innovations, most products came to reveal similar features. As a result then, the differentiation strategy based on product characteristics becomes more and more difficult to reap on. Consequently, Sony and its competitors have made increased efforts to differentiate in terms of cost.

The Sony Corporation has developed strategic partnerships with various providers that insure it with a timely delivery of high-quality components is cost-effective conditions; other endeavors have also been launched to further reduce expenditures. This allows the organization to reduce the retail price of their items and better attract the attention of the customer base. However the demand for the Sony products varies based on independent features, it has generally been observed that "the demand curve for Sony will be downward sloping, implying that more sets will be sold as the retail price is reduced" (Nellis and Parker, 2006)

2. Product Life Cycle

With the numerous advancements that are being made in Information Technology, the product life cycle of various items has suffered drastic modifications. The most eloquent example in this sense is given by the decrease in product life duration as newer technologies emerge and the best product of last year's is today outdated. The players in the electronics or telecommunications industry suffer greatly from this as they must continually strive to advance their products, services and technologies in order to keep up with the new emergent demands. This then gives the rapid and dynamic rhythm of the industry and explains the modifications in product life cycle.

Historically, the PLC of digital cameras required massive investments in development, launch onto the market, growth, support at maturity stages and revival in decline. Today, most of the investments are made in development, introduction and sales. Sony and its competitors understood the futility of trying to support a declining product in an era of rapid technological innovations. As such, most of the financial resources and time is spent on research and development of newer technologies and their integration within products that will further increase customer satisfaction.

In placing their new digital camera, the marketing team at Sony has to consider a pivotal piece of information - the PLC of digital cameras has been rethought to focus more of market, brand and technology, rather that the product itself. "The development of digital cameras (a… [read more]

Hermann Von Helmholtz Acoustic of Speech Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (667 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Hermann Von Helmolhtz: The Acoustics of Speech

Hermann von Helmholtz was a German citizen of mixed European ancestry who developed into a brilliant and broadly knowledgeable scientist. He studied mathematics and made contributions in many areas of science, not the least of which was the study of sound in general and specifically how it applied to human hearing and speaking. He began his experiments with a simple observation that has delighted many children -- and adults -- since bottles have exited. Helmholtz notices that by blowing across the mouth of a glass bottle, he could produce a sound not unlike a human vowel. Even more extraordinarily, he noticed that by changing the amount of liquid in the bottle and using bottles of different size and shape, he was able to alter the pitch and sound of the vowels.

This began his interest in the physics of perception. He conducted research into how humans see and hear, as well, creating many new avenues for exploration with his discoveries and inferences. He also remained quite interested in the physics of sound, particularly sound created by humans and especially the mechanics of producing speech. Eventually, using more sophisticated means than blowing over the tops of bottles, he was able to mechanically reproduce most of the German vowel sounds. He first analyzed the sounds of the vowels, determining how he believed they were produced and the basic pitches required for them. His method for doing this was itself rather ingenious -- using wax to plug his ears so he wouldn't receive any interfering noise, he would listen to the human voice through a series of glass globes hose small ends would be place in the wax. The globes would only vibrate -- that is, resonate with sound, and so pass the vibrations of sound into his ear where he would hear them -- when the speaking voice matched the glass' natural frequency. By knowing the frequency of the glass, Helmholtz could determine the various pitches of the…… [read more]

Inventions Become so Commonplace That People Forget Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,082 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … inventions become so commonplace that people forget the innovator who created this product. This is the case with Benjamin Franklin. He was extremely curious, always asking more questions than anyone could answer. He wanted to know the how and the why of the most confusing and common phenomena. Today, we still find many uses for Benjamin Franklin's inventions and discoveries.

Franklin is known as one of the most practical inventors in history (PBS). He studied and conducted research in physics, meteorology, natural history, geology, chemistry, mechanics, agriculture, medicine, and mathematics. Some of his inventions, such as bifocal glasses, are well-known, but there are many rare ones as well. Of the numerous inventions Franklin created, he did not patent a single one. Franklin believed that "that as we enjoy great advantages from the inventions of others, we should be glad of an opportunity to serve others by any invention of ours, and this we should do freely and generously" (van Doren 242).

Franklin loved the water and swimming. When he was growing up in Boston, he often dreamed of becoming a sailor. Wanting to increase his swimming speed in the water, he devised swim fins, or what he called pallets, for his hands. He explains in one of his personal letters: "When I was a boy, I made two oval palettes, each about ten inches long, and six broad, with a hole for the thumb, in order to retain it fast in the palm of my hand. They much resembled a painter's palletes. In swimming I pushed the edges of these forward, and I struck the water with their flat surfaces as I drew them back. I remember I swam faster by means of these pallets, but they fatigued my wrists" (Goodman 46) He also tried putting sandals on the soles of his feet, but he was not satisfied with the way they worked.

Now, especially with the fuel prices rising, are beginning to use woodstoves for their homes. Many people are buying Franklin stoves and do not even give second thought that these are actually "Ben Franklin" stoves. In 1742, he wanted to build small stove that would use less wood and deliver more heat and modified and built a stove that he claimed would be more efficient. He marketed it with pamphlets that described the many advantages of the "Pennsylvania Fireplace." He discussed their methods of construction and operation, suggesting that "you do not lose the pleasing sight nor use of the fire, as in the Dutch stoves, but may boil the tea-kettle, warm the flat irons, heat heaters, keep warm a dish of victuals by setting it on the top" (Franklin 116). Franklin also thought a great deal about construction of chimneys. In a paper addressed to Jan Ingenhousz, August 28, 1785, he answered the question: "What is it then which makes a 'smoky chimney'; that is, a chimney which, instead of conveying up all the smoke, discharges a part of it into the room, offending… [read more]

Black Holes Scientific Debate Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,647 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Black Holes

Scientific debate has been one of the strongest threads of reality in the U.S. And elsewhere for a very long time. Many scientists, especially physicists and astronomers have known of the existence of the Black Hole for a long time and yet to now have been entirely unsure as to how to define and describe it to the… [read more]

Nuclear Energy - Albert Einstein Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (489 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Nuclear Energy - Albert Einstein


Albert Einstein and Nuclear Fission: Between 1905 and 1915, Albert Einstein published several scientific articles detailing previously unexplained physics problems and observed phenomena. The two most important of those scientific contributions concerned Special Relativity and General

Relativity, which revolutionized our understanding of gravity, time, space, and which introduced the equivalence of matter and energy (Clark 1984), as expressed in the infamous formula, E=mc2.

One of the implications of the equivalence of mass and energy is that a very small amount of the radioactive isotope Uranium235 could potentially release a tremendous amount of energy in the form of heat and radiation under the right circumstances through the process of nuclear fission (Clark 1984). By the outbreak of World War II in 1939, nuclear physicists around the world were researching both the possible civilian and military applications of nuclear fission. Several German physicists who, like Einstein, escaped from Nazi Germany before the Holocaust realized that Germany was actively pursuing a program to develop a fission bomb whose destructive power could determine the outcome of the war, and quite possibly, the future of most of the civilized world.

They drafted a letter to U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt to warn him of the need to develop a fission weapon before the Axis powers did so, and they recruited Albert

Einstein to sign it to give it the appropriate credibility (Clark 1984). The letter persuaded…… [read more]

Fingerprints vs. DNA Is One Better Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (3,159 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Fingerprints vs. DNA: Is one better than the other?

Fingerprints vs. DNA

Finger print identification is more accurate than DNA analysis. Fingerprints are time tested and in vogue for the last two centuries and easily accepted and understood. Finger prints are unique for each individual and are permanent and unalterable. The important fact about the fingerprint is the near infallibility.… [read more]

Promise of Nanotechnology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,425 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Promise of Nanotechnology

Designing and developing products at the molecular level offers a wide range of choices that could be beneficially harnessed for a wide variety of applications. Nanotechnology offers an entirely new dimension of medical diagnostics and drug delivery and a quantum leap in computing power. There is no question of doubt that the frontier of nanotechnology would develop… [read more]

Internal Phosphorus Loading in Shallow Lakes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  21 pages (6,811 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Internal P. Loading in Shallow Lakes

Internal Phosphorus Loading in Shallow Lakes

Improving water quality in shallow lakes has been an issue of concern for many years. It used to be assumed that a majority of the phosphorous loading in shallow lakes stemmed from external source. External sources include wastewater and industrial wastes. The old paradigm was that if one… [read more]

Environmental Impact of Depleted Uranium Ordinance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (2,822 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Environmental Impact of Depleted Uranium Ordinance

Introduction and Outline of the Main Issues:

Ever since the introduction of nuclear power generation in the first series of nuclear reactors of the 1960s, nuclear waste disposal has been a very serious environmental concern. Nuclear materials emit multiple spectra of radiation, via Alpha,

Beta, and Gamma particles; equally significant is the fact that… [read more]

Teleradiography Computer Technology and Medicine Revolutionary Combination Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,299 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3




Revolutionary Combination

The recent fusion of state-of-the-art computer technology and medicine, called teleradiography, has excited radiologists for its capabilities. The 2002 Akmerican Heritage Stedman's Medical Dictionary describes teleradiography or teleroentgenography as a procedure, which is performed with the tube held approximately 6 feet from the body and then sent to a distant site.

The choice… [read more]

Oedipus Rex in Oedipus the King Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,401 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Oedipus Rex

In Oedipus the King by Sophocles, the central character is high-born, a king, and a man of power, but by the end of the play he has been destroyed. He loses his kingdom, his sight, and his place in society. His sin is not simply blindness, though the literal blindness at the conclusion evokes the idea of his… [read more]

Milky Way Galaxy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,540 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Milky Way Galaxy, named for the hazy band of light that stretches across the dark skies of the night, is a very large structure made up of more than 200 billion stars (including our own Sun and planets) and a huge amount of gas and dust all bound together by the force known as gravity. Although this system (usually referred… [read more]

Artificial Intelligence Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,724 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Artificial Intelligence and Humanity

Artificial intelligence is everywhere. The technology has been used in nearly every industry, in every nation on the globe to help create, maintain, and propagate order, productivity, and efficiency. As these technologies become more and more advanced and human like in their operation and function, scientists, philosophers, and everyday people have begun to wonder whether or… [read more]

Person of Impact Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (696 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Inspirational Figure -- Richard Feynman

When I was in high school, I watched a documentary on the Challenger disaster in 1986 when the first of two of the Space Shuttle craft fleet exploded shortly after liftoff. One of the most intriguing aspects of the documentary was the brilliantly simple way that one of the members of the investigation panel demonstrated the failure of the now-infamous "o-ring" component that lead to the loss of the Challenger. That documentary prompted me to look up the member of the panel who conducted that demonstration after requesting a pitcher of ice water for that purpose during the televise press conference.

Richard Feynman was a Nobel Prize-winning physicist who taught at the California Institute of Technology until his death from cancer in 1988 at the age of 69. He was a mathematics prodigy who taught himself advanced calculus by the age of fifteen and completed every physics course offered at the Massachusetts Institute of technology before the end of his sophomore year, including a graduate-level course in theoretical physics. He is the only person ever to have achieved a perfect score on the Mathematics and Physics graduate school entrance examination for Princeton University where he completed his graduate studies. During World War II, Dr. Feynman worked on the historic Manhattan Project at Los Alamos, New Mexico under world-renowned physicist Hans Bethe.

In reading about Dr. Feynman, I discovered that in addition to his numerous accomplishments in his field of physics, he also authored numerous books that had nothing to do with physics. They were tremendously influential in my life. In particular, I read Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman, The Pleasure of Finding Things Out, and What Do You Care What They Think?, the latter titled as a reference to a lesson that the author learned from his first wife who died prematurely in 1945 from tuberculosis. While at Los Alamos, he regularly drove back and forth to Albuquerque to spend as much time as possible with her before her death.

Dr. Feynman's writing taught me several important lessons that have become important themes…… [read more]

Magnetism and Electromagnetism: Concepts Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (796 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


4. When a magnetic compass is placed at different points on a magnetic line of force, it aligns itself along the tangent to the line of force at that point.

This also follows the basic premise that the polarities align themselves to the opposite poles while repelling their own polarity.

These lines of force represent the magnetic field. A very basic example of this is when metal shavings are placed on a table and a magnet is placed under or over them. These shavings will physically align themselves to illustrate the magnetic lines of force within the metal shavings themselves. This is an excellent way of showing how all steel shavings are magnetic in nature.

Law of Magnetic Poles

The law of magnetic poles states that opposite poles attract each other while similar poles repel each other. This is a very basic law, but one that governs the interactions of magnets. It follows that the magnetic fields are also aligned based upon the pole orientation. Each pole, representing a magnetic field, has both a direction and a magnitude. These can be used to figure out the magnets' interactions and help to determine how they will behave in a certain environment.

By rotating magnetic fields or polarities, certain mechanical advantages can be attained. This is precisely how generators and electric motors work, creating energy or movement trough the reverse polarization of magnets and by utilizing the law of magnetic poles.

Magnets also respond to electrical charges, and the laws of electromagnetism help scientists to understand how electrons and magnets interact within a circuit. Also, any time an electrical field is created, a magnetic field is also created, as these two forces are related in physics.

The Biot-Savart Law predicts that a magnetic field will be created around any wire carrying electric current. In this way, magnets and electrical circuits and activity are related. Electromagnets, which are used in many applications, can be turned on or off with the switch of electrical currency. These are examples of application of the Biot-Savart Law.

As an example, magnetic poles are found just about everywhere in nature. The Earth has a magnetic pole that runs through its center from north to south. His polarity also helps compasses align themselves for use as navigation instruments. Compasses point to magnetic north, not true north.

Magnetic Lines of Force

Magnetic Poles and Polarity…… [read more]

Solar and Wind Hybrid LED Street Lights Business Proposal

Business Proposal  |  6 pages (1,692 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Business Plan for Solar and Wind Powered Street Lights for Norway

The overarching goal of this business plan is to two-fold: (a) to obtain start-up funds in the approximate amount of five million kroner from the Norwegian government, represented by Innovation Norway; and (b) to sell or rent solar and wind hybrid powered street light-emitting diode (LED) lamps to the… [read more]

How the Rate of Heat Loss Is Affected by Surrounding Temperature Research Paper

Research Paper  |  1 pages (334 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Heat Loss is Affected by Surrounding Temperatures

Broad introductory comments

Background of topics under consideration

Overview of heat loss and temperatures

Factors Affecting Heat Loss


Heat Balance

Heat Loss

Heat Transfer

How Surrounding Temperatures Affect the Rate of Heat Loss

Hot Surrounding Temperatures

Cold Surrounding Temperatures

Measures of Rate of Change

Concluding comments

How the Rate of Heat Loss is Affected by Surrounding Temperatures

Many people intuitively understand that when a hot object is placed in close physical proximity to a cold object, the cold object will become warmer and the hot object will become cooler. What many people may not fully understand, though, are the processes by which the rate of heat loss is affected by surrounding temperatures. The purpose of this study was to provide a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning these issues, including a background and overview, the various factors that affect generally create heat loss, and an analysis concerning how surrounding temperatures affect the rate of…… [read more]

Free Speech Controversy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,216 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Freedom of Speech

Although judges can declare any statute plain, they always have a variety of ways to declare it unclear. English has a multitude of ways to be vague. In his 1963 article "Vagueness and Legal Language," Christie argues that it is, in part, this vagueness in language that allows the law to perform many of its social functions. It is, he adds, an "important addition to the legal tool chest" (p. 886).

Before continuing, Christie makes it clear that he is going to specifically address vagueness, not ambiguity. The first usually pertains to general terms that have an open textured meaning. There is a doubt about the boundaries or scope of the word. He gives terms referring to colors as an example, because many shades exist. The second term, ambiguity, refers instead to an instance where the general term may be "clearly" true in some cases and "clearly" false in others. The word, itself, can be interpreted in more than one way. Is a "light" book light in color or light in weight?

Christie addresses two forms of vagueness. The first is the search for vagueness. Sometimes an interpreter may disagree with the remarks of a speaker but have to act upon them. In such cases, this provides a means for the interpreter to look for vagueness and say "he couldn't have meant this, so he must have meant this." The listener has the opportunity, then, to throw out one possibility for another one that conforms more with his/her personal standards. Language becomes the scapegoat. As John Adams said to J.H. Tiffany in 1819, "Abuse of words has been the great instrument of sophistry and chicanery, of party, faction, and division of society."

Christie then questions: who can disagree that this technique of using vagueness is not justified -- within reasonable bounds, that is. Legislatures and judges are not perfect and will make mistakes.

The second form of vagueness is when legislation is purposely written vaguely. Notes Christie:

The importance of the flexibility that vagueness gives to all normative methods of social control can scarcely be overestimated and is recognized by all. It allows man to exercise general control over his social development without committing himself in advance to any specific concrete course of action. Without such flexibility, man would have to choose between no regulation and the impossible task of minute specification of what is and what is not to be permitted. (p.890)

The best example of this, he says, is the "due process" provisions of the fifth and fourteenth amendments of the Constitution. Christie also gives the example of the Supreme Court ordering that integration of schools proceed "with all deliberate speed." It was left to the lower courts to decide what this meant in each specific case.

Here is where Christie makes his main point: Such "purposeful vagueness" can be a good thing in legislation. Christie further makes the point that vagueness in law may be desirable for the public good. For example, in the… [read more]

Nanotechnology Is the Predictable Capability to Form Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (6,153 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Nanotechnology is the predictable capability to form things from the base level by the application of the tools and methods that are being devised presently to set each of the atoms and molecules in its desire place. When such type of development is accomplished in the sphere of molecular engineering, that seems likely, it gives rise to manufacturing revolution. (Introduction… [read more]

Medical Uses of Electromagnetic Radiation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (479 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This form of radiation also kills germs and is widely used to sterilize rooms, exposed body tissues, blood plasma, and vaccines (Ultraviolet pp).

Gamma rays are used much the same way as X-rays, such as diagnostic purposes and as well as in the treatment of cancer (Gamma pp).

Infrared radiation is thermal, or heat, radiation, and was first discovered by Sir William Herschel in 1800, "who was attempting to determine the part of the visible spectrum with the minimum associated heat in connection with astronomical observations he was making" (Infrared pp). Then in 1847, A.H.L. Fizeau and J.B.L. Foucault proved that infrared radiation has the same properties as visible light, being reflected, refracted, and capable of forming an interference pattern (Infrared pp). Infrared radiation is used in a number of medical purposes, ranging from the simple heat lamp to thermal imaging, or thermography (Infrared pp). "A thermograph of a person can show areas of the body where the temperature is much higher or lower than normal, thus indicating some medical problem" (Infrared pp).

Works Cited

Electromagnetic radiation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_radiation

Gamma rays http://www.bartleby.com/65/ga/gammarad.html






http://www.bartleby.com/65/ul/ultravio.html… [read more]

Digital Video Production Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,797 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … script was a democratic process i.e. It was the script that most of us elected to use. My personal reason for choosing this script was based on what I considered at the time to be the most fluent, the least complex, and the easiest to produce.

It was the most realistic, within the time constraints. It had a… [read more]

Line Parabola Hyperbola Exponential Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (393 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


inear equations -- as shown by line graphs -- are used to describe two quantities that are directly proportional with each other by some amount. An example of this is the formula for computing distances and speed. The distance traveled by an object is directly related to its speed. The faster it moves, the farther it goes. The formula for computing the distance is D = S*T where'd = distance, S = speed, and T = time. For example, a person walking at a constant speed of 4 feet/second will traverse the distance for each second that passes:


Parabolas are produced using quadratic equations of the form y = Ax^2 + Bx + C. A real life example is the formula for acceleration: s = ut + 1/2(at^2), where'd = distance, t = time, and a = average acceleration. The distance traveled is proportional to the square of the time. Another interesting example is the path of an object thrown upward. It will travel up and fall down along a parabolic path as described by the equation y = v0t - 1/2 gt^2, where v0 is the initial velocity, g is the acceleration due to…… [read more]

George Orwell's 1984 Post-9/11 America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,429 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


George Orwell's 1984

Post-9/11 America is an uncomfortably appropriate time to be taking a look at literature like George Orwell's 1984. Given the current political climate of the United States, Orwell's dark, repressive world hits close to home. As Winston Smith goes about his regular routines being constantly reminded that "Big Brother is Watching You!" The reader can't help but… [read more]

Newton's Three Laws of Motion Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (769 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Newton's Three Laws Of Motion

Three laws of motion, published in 1687 by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, formed the basis of modern classical mechanics and dynamics. These laws were initially explained on the example of simple physical objects, but their application expands over objects of different nature and in general, classical physics of universe is based on them. Newton's three laws of motion supplemented knowledge of physics and mechanics and gave a deeper explanation of law of universal gravitation and Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Systematization of dynamics and motion knowledge, which is provided by these laws on the hand with mathematical apparatus of calculus, gave an impulse to the development of different branches of physics: mechanics and its brunches, electromagnetism, optics, molecular physics.

Three Newton laws are postulated as follows:

First Law: Objects in motion tend to stay in motion, and objects at rest tend to stay at rest unless an outside force acts upon them.

Second law: The rate of change of the momentum of a body is directly proportional to the net force acting on it, and the direction of the change in momentum takes place in the direction of the net force.

Third law: To every action (force applied) there is an equal but opposite reaction (equal force applied in the opposite direction).

The first law is also called law of inertia or principle of Galileo, saying that uniform motion is motion with constant velocity (constant speed in linear path). Constant velocity also implies that the object moves without acceleration and that the net force (or vector sum of forces which act on the object) equals to zero. The first law of motion states that a resting object will move only when forces acts upon it and moving object will not experience change in velocity until it experiences force upon it. The first law seems to be very easy for understanding and quite obvious, but at the same time it's impossible to prove it directly under usual conditions. There are not objects, which will be moving with constant velocity forever, and there are no objects, which are at rest forever: friction forces, microscopic dynamics and other factors contribute to interruption of inertia. It's a well-known fact that a launched ball or hockey puck will…… [read more]

Industrial Psychology A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  6 pages (2,403 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


Industrial Psychology

Any human interaction will necessarily be influenced by individually differential factors such as age, gender, and culture. So the primary response to this question is likely to be yes, there will be cultural differences when it comes to interviews. The literature appears to confirm this. Wheeler (2008), for example, focuses on job interviews when examining the cultural factor.… [read more]

Psycho Auditory Imagery Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (608 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


What are some illusions that you have observed/studied on the internet?

Some illusions include Olfactory (false perception in relation to odor or smell), Somatic (false perception concerning touch), Visual (false perception in relation to sight), and Gustatory (false perception relative to taste).

What theory of perception accounts for the ability of people to recognize geons? (b) At what exposure speed was recognition accuracy for objects with component deletion equivalent to recognition accuracy for objects with mid-segment deletion?

The theory of perception that allows human beings to recognize geons is the theory of geons. The theory operates on three assumptions: objects are in simple convex arrangement (single concave parts); distinction between geons binary contrasts; and explicit relationships among geons. Recognition accuracy for objects with component deletion is equivalent to recognition accuracy for objects with mid-segment deletion at the exposure speed of six.

Describe the process that allows you to see the color yellow. (b) Why can you see the color blue?

The process that allows human beings to see the color yellow involves trichromatic (cones and ganglion cells). The cones have the capacity to stimulate red, yellow, blue, and green colors. Ganglion cells have great sensitivity to the red-green and yellow-blue combination of colors. In the presence of a white background, say white object, the color blue would be absorbed. The green and red colors reflect color yellow on transmission of the object. Within the ganglion cells, yellow color or light has the capacity to stimulate both red and yellow colors at equal status. Stimulation of both green and red colors leads to the generation of the yellow color perceived by human beings. Blue is visible to human beings because it represents primary color thus the stimulation of two colors cannot lead to its development or visibility.… [read more]

Doind a Research Project Pay Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (583 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


X-ray machines virtually involve a stream of fast electrons that reach a sudden stop once they interact with a metal plate. The fact that calcium in bones absorbs X-rays at a larger level in comparison to soft tissue or air makes it possible for bones to appear white in X-ray photographs. This is also why lungs typically appear to be black, as they contain air.

It is particularly intriguing that people did not immediately realize the medical importance of X-rays. "People were interested in seeing "pictures" of their bones and within months, it became a popular offshoot of photography studios" (History of the X-ray Technician Career). A series of physicians, however, realized that the technology could play a particularly important role in diagnosing and treating injuries or disease. This was an important moment in medical history, as the invention practically revolutionized the world of medicine and provided doctors with an important tool they could use with the purpose of making society a safer place.

A great deal of physicians experienced premature death as a result of being involved in X-ray research because they did not understand the risks associated with being exposed to radiation. Across time individuals such as Ed Jerman got involved in operating the technology and they enabled society to acknowledge the fact that people who worked with X-rays needed to have a complex understanding of it.

Works cited:

Waser, Andre, "Nikola TESLA's Radiations and the Cosmic Rays," Retrieved March 31, 2013, from the Andre Waser Website: http://www.andre-waser.ch/Publications/NikolaTeslasRadiationsAndCosmicRays.pdf

"History of the X-ray Technician Career," Retrieved March 31, 2013, from the Anthem Education Website: http://anthem.edu/x-ray-technician-school/history/… [read more]

Visual Attention to Color Vital Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (891 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Visual Attention to Color

Vital Attention to Color

Name the independent and dependent variables used; include the levels of each variable

The independent variable in this study is the color vision. The dependent variable is target detection and identification.

Are there any methodological flaws or limitations in the experimental design? Explain.

The study is designed across proper research lines and there are no apparent flaws or limitations in the method however, it's suggested that a more detailed literature review and secondary sources analysis would have helped a lot more. The study could have focused to guide how the noise factors can be systematically removed. It could elaborate the steps that were used by the researcher to minimize the effects of noise factors or the confounding variables. In the absence of this detail the new research will not be guided enough and other researchers will need to find and establish those steps themselves.

How did the experimenters control for possible confounding variables? '

There are personality influences related to the color vision. These could serve as confounding variables. The researcher did not survey those subjects with personality issues for understanding color vision to avoid confounding variables (Snowden, 2002). The patients having symptoms of schizophrenia were not included to that the color vision is focused and object detection not the psychological association of disease and motion detection.

4. Explain the role of the magnocellular and parvocellular streams (from what you learned from lecture or from your textbook). Explain how the research discussed in this article expands upon previous views.

Magnocellular cells and Parvocellular cells are neurons in thalamus. The cells are part of visual system and these cells have a critical role of defining visual perception plus they tell the motion and course of a body. The study enhanced my knowledge and guided how the cells help in detecting bodies in motion. The M-stream is the color-blind cells yet this study proved us that these cells play a major role in guiding attention and movement of the eye. The researches that were conducted earlier as well as the research that is under consideration suggests that Parvocellular cells of the P. stream has a bigger role in spatial resolution, yet it has a smaller temporal resolution as compare to the magnocellular cells. The cells' function combine to offer a very profound response detecting object details relevant to its speed as well as the distance and size of the object in the stimuli.

5. What are the implications of the author's findings? Relate your answer to a sensation or perception topic that you have learned about in this class

The author found that there is dominant role of M.…… [read more]

Teaching Space Science Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,107 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


For example, the number of stars in the observable Universe is of the order 1022. One way to give meaning to this number, and at the same time help students develop a contextual framework for the enormity of the Universe is to have students imagine counting grains of sands on the beach. Even with the vast sum that would result from this exercise, this is a smaller number than the quantity of stars in the observable Universe. For temporal comparisons, Bennett prefers using Carl Sagan's device of the cosmic calendar, in which one imagines the history of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present, compressed into a single year (Bennett, 2011).

Another means of helping to convey broad spatial and temporal scales needed to understand space science is to have students review their school's "galactic address," an exercise that begins with the school's street address and ends with its place in the universe.

For example, a room within a house would typically be measured in feet, and an example might be 10 ft X 14 feet.

Distances within a city might be measured in miles or fractions of miles, and an example might be driving a half mile to the grocery store, or the town might be about 10 miles wide.

A state might be tens to hundreds of miles across, an example would be the state of Texas is about 600 miles across.

The United States might be measured in hundreds to thousands of miles; the distance from New York to Los Angeles is 3000 miles.

The Earth is measured in tens of thousands of miles; its circumference is 25,000 miles.

The Solar System is measured in millions to billions of miles or astronomical units (AU), with an AU defined as the distance from Earth to the sun, or 93 million miles. Neptune is 30 AU or 2.79 billion miles from the sun.

The Milky Way Galaxy is measured in hundreds of thousands of light-years, and an example is the Milky Way is about 100,000 light years cross.

A Local Group, which is a cluster of about 20 galaxies, including the Milky Way, is measured in millions of light years; the Andromeda galaxy is 2.2 million light years away from our Milky Way galaxy

A Supercluster, a group of clusters is measured in hundreds of millions of light-years; an example would be the Virgo supercluster of galaxies is about 150 million light-years across.

The Universe is measured in billions of light-years, and the farthest known galaxy, at the edge of the observable universe is 13 billion light-years away (Bennett, 2011).

Given the scope of such numbers, building any scale model of the solar system is challenging because the distance between proportionally-sized objects representing celestial bodies would render them all but invisible to the human eye without assistance. These examples summarize many of the challenges associated with teaching astronomy.

Works Cited

Bennett, J. (2011). Teaching resources -- strategies for teaching astronomy. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from: http://www.jeffreybennett.com/astronomy.html

Discovery… [read more]

Shoemakers -- a Philosophical Approach Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


This shows the true nature of man, that the worldly desires capture him so badly that at the end he becomes a slave to his own desires turning himself into an animal who is never satisfied and always wants more, hence to stop his madness he should be locked up into a cage where he does not harm others or… [read more]

Science Tasks Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,633 words)
Bibliography Sources: 26


Photographs were taken at the time intervals and were counted on the basis of the photograph to minimize errors.




5 minutes 36% 64%

10 minutes 30% 70%

15 minutes 22% 78%

20 minutes 20% 80%

25 minutes 16% 84%

30 minutes 8% 92%



5 minutes 52% 48%

10 minutes 52% 48%

15 minutes 50%

20 mintues 44% 56%

25 minutes 40% 60%

30 minutes 44% 56%


5 minutes 38% 62%

10 minutes 30% 70%

15 minutes 28% 72%

20 minutes 22% 78%

25 minutes 18% 82%

30 minutes 12% 88%


The experiment was designed to test habitat preference in terrestrial isopods (sowbugs) and the results were conclusive.

Isopods rejected the dry sandy environment both times it was offered to them, at an astonishing rate. Nine out of ten isopods had moved away from the dry environment on both occasions.

But the experimental data do not precisely bear out the initial hypothesis.

Sowbug avoidance of the dry environment did not precisely map onto a preference for the moist soil over the mud puddle.

In trials 2 and 3, no sowbug would actually enter the water -- but rather gathered on the edge of the Plexiglas near the water-line -- supporting the hypothesis that their gills and pseudotracheae are not suitable for underwater respiration.

Yet the close similarity of results in trials 1 and 3 would suggest that sowbugs have a sensory apparatus for detecting water based on atmospheric vapor content (or some similarly olfactory means). In both trials 1 and 3, the isopods headed directly for the wetter ground.

The concluding percentages of trials 1, 2, and 3 are presented below as graphs, and the similarity in results to 1 and 3 is undeniable.

It follows that they must have some way of sensing the water vapor, which…… [read more]

Perception of Objects in Infants Grant Proposal

Grant Proposal  |  7 pages (2,240 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


In addition, numerous differences in the way infants perform have something to do with differences in the processing speed, or the capacity to remember and compare information. The most popular explanation is central to the speed of processing information and perceiving things. However, why the speed of processing, which is the core during the perceiving of objects or social cognition,… [read more]

Stop for Death by Emily Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (772 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In a literary analysis of the meaning of immorality and the belief in life after death, written in 1900 the topic is given real and firm weight by hundreds of learned men from biblical prophets to Greek philosophers, some in belief and some outside of it. (Gordon)

Immortality is clearly one of the most-weighty questions ever debated yet, Dickinson discusses it like she would discuss an article of clothing.

Since then-tis-eternity, and yet, Feels shorter than the day, I first surmised that Horses; Heads, Were toward Eternity." (Dickinson) Noticing the imperceptible passing of time Dickinson expresses the idea of eternity as if it were simply a day, like any other day.

The other set of physical processes from which we derive our conceptions of time are of an entirely different nature: the growth of children, the changes in our own bodies and minds from hour to hour and from year to year, and, on a larger scale, the gradual changes in the earth's landscape of which we are dimly aware. None of these make accurate clocks; none are simple to understand.

(Park 60)

Concepts of time are again treated with so much complexity that many a literary work has been focused on the idea in theory and in reality.

Dickenson treats these very weighty ideals with the lightness an individual might give to planning a Sunday visit to the neighbors. Her imagery is light and whimsical. It is difficult to believe that this much peace might be felt by a person actually experiencing the real voyage she is taking through her life and through the landscape she describes. Dickinson gives the impression from her light treatment of Death, Immortality, and Eternity in Because I Could Not Stop For Death that she might welcome death. She seems to express her expectations of death as both trivial and easy to conceive of.

Works Cited

Dickens, Charles. A Christmas Carol. London: J.M. Dent & Sons Limited, 1914.

Dickinson, Emily. Because I Could Not Stop For Death,

Gordon, George A. The Witness to Immortality in Literature, Philosophy and Life. Boston:

Houghton Mifflin and Company, 1900.

Park, David. The Image of Eternity: Roots of Time in the Physical…… [read more]

Math to Answer Everyday Imponderables Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


The three most important ideas that I got are rather simple in nature, yet they are interesting and at least appear free of serious errors. The first one is the calculation of capacity of phone lines between two given cities. This helps in finding out how telecommunication firms determine the capacity needed to handle phone calls between two cities. Obviously there has to be a formula to calculate this or otherwise busy routes would either get jammed or stop working altogether in the absence of appropriate capacity. The author explains that this can be calculated by a formula whereby the capacity is proportional to the product of the population of two given cities and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. However the rather weird part is the application FPS unit system. It must be borne in mind that most of us are familiar with metric unit system while FPS has become rather obsolete.

The other important idea is the calculation of windchill equivalent temperature, which helps in determining the possible effects of cold winds and temperature on our bodies. The author suggests that just the temperature is not enough to choose the appropriate clothing. It is important to find out the speed of winds too. Together they give us windchill equivalent temperature. Brookhart explains that if you were exposed to air that is 5 degrees Fahrenheit and wind that has a speed of 15 miles per hour, the total effect on the body would be the same as if you were exposed to -25 degrees F. air and no wind at all.

Apart from these two interesting concepts, the third significant one is lottery odds calculation. Through a slightly complex formula, the author suggests that the odds of selecting the correct six numbers drawn from 1 to 49 are 13,983,816 to 1. Certainly not a very good news for this lottery crazy nation.

The book also helped me recently when I got a chance to apply my improved problem solving skills to one of my friends asked for my help for one economics related problem. She wanted to know if there was some way we could predict which nations would thrive in the coming years based on the knowledge we already possess.

Referring to Clint Brookhart's book and subject of numeracy, I explained to her how development is intricately connected with proper use of mathematical concepts. Therefore we can predict that the nations more likely to thrive economically will be the ones with greater numeracy rate. Sadly that eliminates America. I based my conclusion on the fact that almost every major development of the past has mathematics ingrained in it. For example, computers and the Internet wouldn't have been possible had it not been for mathematics.

The very structure of computer is based on mathematical computations. Similarly computer interprets everything that we view or download from the Internet in Binary code. Without good understanding of mathematics, it would have been impossible to develop any computer application.… [read more]

Sir Isaac Newton: The Story Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,606 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Ultimately, Newton was appointed master of the Mint, and made a considerable fortune as he profited directly from each coin minted (245).

However, Newton did not completely keep out of the world of academics, and was elected president of the Royal Society, which he ran with an iron hand. In a shameful incident he used his influence to conspire against John Flamsteed, an astronomer, who was attempting to publish a new atlas of the stars (261). Newton had blamed his inability to make certain calculations about the moon work out because of data Flamsteed had provided (262). Eventually, Flamsteed got his scholarship published but not before Newton showed fully the vindictive and petty side of his nature (265). It was around this time that the invention priority of calculus also became an all-consuming distraction (273). But all of Newton's life was not simply politics, he also embarked on a new edition of the Principia, at least partially because the first edition was difficult to find (274). This new edition expanded and strengthened Newton's ideas and cleared up several significant problems (275).

Eventually, near the end of his life, Newton left the scientific behind and returned to the theological interests that he had begun when he was younger (299). He wrote two papers that expounded on his idea of the two basic theories of religion -- love of God and love of neighbor (303). He went on to say that the advent of Jesus Christ did nothing to alter these ideas (304). He obviously died with this conviction on March 20, 1726 (311). Thus, in his Life of Isaac Newton, Westfall has documented the life of a solitary scholar, Trinity College professor, government administrator, and…… [read more]

Ibn Sina the Great Avicenna Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,612 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In addition, Shifa, his famous treatises in philosophy, includes al-Najat and Isharat (Philip K, 1970).

His contribution in music was an improvement over Farabi's work and was much more ahead of knowledge existing somewhere else on the subject. He doubled the fourth and fifth which was a 'great' step towards the harmonic system, while doubling with the third appeared to have also been acceptable (M.A, 1983).

Furthermore, Ibn Sina's Qanun has many of his anatomical findings that are even recognized now. Not only being the first physician he was also the first scientist who described the minute and graphic description of various parts of the eye, like cornea, conjunctive sclera, choroids, iris, layer lens, optic nerve, retina, aqueous humour, and optic chiasma (Watan Afghanistan).

Lastly but not the least in contribution to the scientific world, Ibn Sina condemned speculations and assumptions in anatomy and called upon physicians as well as surgeons to support their knowledge on a close study of human body (The Islamic World to 1600). His observations were that Aorta at its origin has three valves, which open as the blood flows into it from the heart during contraction and closes and during relaxation of the heart so that the blood may not be poured back into the heart. He also stated that the movements of muscles are possible due to the nerves supplied to them, as well as to the perception of pain in the muscles due to the nerves (The Islamic World to 1600).

Works Cited

Edward G. Browne (1921) Arabian Medicine, London, Cambridge University Press.

Philip K. Hitti (1970) History of the Arabs, 10th ed, London, Macmillan, pp 367-368

M.A. Martin (1983) in The Genius of Arab Civilization, 2nd ed, Edited by J.R. Hayes, London,

Eurabia Puplishing, pp 196-7

The Islamic…… [read more]

Baseball Bats Today Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,195 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This is again due to the inflexibility of the wooden bat. A wooden bat actually bends and bows during a swing, then snaps back into place. Pitchers used to dealing with wooden bats may also purposely throw pitches inside to make the batter hit the ball on the thin handle and break the bat. A bat is also more likely… [read more]

Age of the Universe Understanding Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (869 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Butcher's experiment found that the Thorium to Neodymium conversion was negligible and most of the initial Thorium was still intact even in the oldest of the stars. So the result from butcher's experiment suggests that the age of the universe is around 8 billion years. But the problem with the radiometric approach is that the success of the method depends of our precision in assuming the initial concentrations of the isotopes. [Jon Covey]

Redshift Measurement and Age of the Universe

Redshift refers to the change in the apparent wavelength of light received from a moving astronomical source. As the distance of the light source increases there is a shift towards the red end of the spectrum. This is called the red shift. Edwin Hubble, the famous astronomer was the first to find the expansion of the galaxies using the shift in the spectrum. Presuming that the universe is expanding at a constant speed its age can be calculated by simply dividing the distance between any two galaxies by their speed. However the gravitation force between galaxies is under a constant flux and hence the speed of the galaxies also changes. To rectify this problem scientists used a value known as the Hubble's constant. [Author not Available]. The age of the universe is calculated using the following formula. v = H (o) r; where v is the velocity and r is the distance from earth. [Jon Covey] Current measurements using Hubble's redshift method indicate the age of the universe to be around 13 to 15 billion years which confirms well with the big bang theory.


The different techniques for arriving at the age of the universe are based upon different assumptions. For example the red shift method of calculating the age of the universe is dependent on the belief that the universe is continuously expanding. (Based on the Big bang theory). The radiometric dating method again depends on the correct appreciation of the initial concentration levels of the isotopes. In conclusion we can state that each method is dependent on certain assumptions, which we are yet to validate with any degree of accuracy. However there is no question of doubt that we are moving forward in our attempts at finding order in a chaotic universe.


Edward L. Wright, "Age of the Universe," Accessed on November 29th, 2003, http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/age.html

Jon Covey, "Age of the Universe," Accessed on November 30th, 2003, http://www.ldolphin.org/univ-age.html

Author not Available, "Redshift: A Measure of Distance," Accessed on November 29th, 2003, http://www.channel4.com/learning/main/netnotes/sectionid237.htm.… [read more]

Light Energy Illustrates the Techniques Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,756 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


"However, if you do not proceed systematically, you could spend days without achieving one observation" (The Speed Of Light). The complexities that Galilio and Roomer may have faced in their experiments could have been the distance. Another reason, which adds to the complexity involved in measuring the speed of light, is its value.

The value of the speed of light is considered to be very important because according to many scientists nothing can travel at a speed greater than the speed of light. According to Einstein, "Strange things happen to matter as it approaches the speed of light. Matter becomes compressed as it gets within 10% of the speed of light, such that a ruler would appear shortened. Also, the mass of the matter starts to increase" (Kurtus 2002, The Speed Of Light).

Hence, after continuous efforts, the speed of light was finally determined and thus resulted in a debate whether any matter could travel at a rate faster than that of light. Experiments are still being conducted by many scientists in determining various other techniques, which could be employed in determining the speed of light.


Botha A. (2002), The Speed Of Light, [Online], Available from:

[12 Feb. 2004].

Fowler M. (1996), The Speed Of Light, [Online] Available from:

[12 Feb. 2004].

Kurtus R. (2002), The Speed Of Light, [Online] Available from:

< http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/lightspeed.htm > [12 Feb. 2004].

The Speed Of Light, [Online] Available from: [12 Feb. 2004].… [read more]

Postmodernism Post Modernism and Individualism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,652 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Postmodern thought favors reflexivity, individual responses, and self-consciousness, fragmentation and discontinuity ambiguity, simultaneity, and an emphasis on the destructured, decentered, dehumanized subjects.

Modernism tended to present a fragmented view of human subjectivity and history, but presented that fragmentation as something tragic, something to be lamented and mourned as a loss. Many modernist works tried to uphold the idea that works… [read more]

Killer Whales Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,017 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Another theory indicates that killer whales dive deep down to feed on bottom fish like halibut, rock fish and greenling. The populations of these fishes are just 2% of what they were in the 1950s. (Ylitalo et al. 2000)

Toxic Exposure

PCBs or polychlorinated hydrocarbons via toxic waste dumps, oil spills and industrial and human refuse pollution is the main culprit for the high levels of toxicity in killer whales. Killer whales are predators at the top level of the food chain. Any toxic pollution would accumulate in high levels as we move up the food chain. The pollutants cause tissue contamination and infertility as well as a high probability of epizootic disease. ("Issues Affecting the Southern Resident Orcas" 2004)

Vessel Traffic

High boating activities in coastal areas reduce the breathing space of orcas which is an essential aspect of their habitat. There is a greater probability of collision between a vessel and an orca or on the other hand the orcas would avoid collision and change their routes. ("Issues Affecting the Southern Resident Orcas" 2004). When killer whales surface to breathe they are instead subjected to exhaust fumes of a vessel (Matkin et al. 1997)

Underwater noise

Underwater noise pollution caused by vessel traffic, sonar and various other activities and devices seriously harms the orca habitat.("Issues Affecting the Southern Resident Orcas" 2004) Orcas depend on echolocation for hunting and traveling, they chirp, click, squeak and whistle in order to communicate with other members of the pod. This vocal environment is disturbed by noise pollution. (Ylitalo et al. 2000)


As a result of all these harmful activities the status of northern residents is 'threatened', southern 'endangered', transient 'threatened' and off shore 'special concern'. ("British Columbia Killer Whale Adoption Program" 2004)During the last five years resident population has fallen by 4.9%. If all issues are accounted then the estimation for extinction of killer whales is 74 years, 95% confidence interval of 33 to 121 years. (Ylitalo et al. 2000; Taylor & Plater 2000)


Author not available], British Columbia Killer Whale Adoption Program, [Online] 2004 Available at http://www.killerwhale.org/conservation/frame.html. Accessed 4/2/04

Author not available], Issues Affecting the Southern Resident Orcas, The Whale Museum, [Online] 2004 Available at http://www.whale-museum.org/education/library/issues.html. Accessed 4/2/04

Author not available], OMPlace, The (Orca) Killer Whale, Whales in Danger Information Service, [Online] 2004 Available at http://www.omplace.com/omsites/discover/ORCA/orcag.html. Accessed 4/2/04

Lacey, RC, Hughes, KA and Miller, PS 2000. Vortex: a stochastic simulation of the extinction process. Chicago Zoological Soc.

Matkin, C.O., D. Schel, G. Ellis, L. Barrett-Lennard, H. Jurk and E. Saulitis. 1998. Comprehensive Killer Whale investigation, Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project annual report (Restoration Project 97012). North Gulf Oceanic Society, Homer, Alaska.

McCain, B.B., et al. 2000. National Benthic Surveillance Project: Pacific Coast. Organic Chemical Contaminants Cycles I to VII

1984-90). NOAA, Seattle.

A van Ginneken, A, D. Ellifrit and Balcomb K.C. 2000. Official Orca Survey Field Guide. Center for Whale Research, Friday Harbor,


Ylitalo et al. 2000. Contaminants in Killer Whales, The Science of the Total Environment… [read more]

Fairy Tale Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,617 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



According to Morrison and Thompson-Guppy, the difficulties of being accepted into a ready-made family can bring about a number of psychological issues yielding "a clinical picture similar to depressive illness," (521). Read through the lens of modern psychological research, the story of Cinderella and her "wicked stepmother" might be viewed in a new light. Given the purely powerless role… [read more]

Situational Awareness: High Reliability or Normal Accidents Dissertation

Dissertation  |  50 pages (24,100 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 100


High Reliability or Normal Accidents: A critical examination of situational awareness and its value in reducing human errors in aviation ground operations


The concept of situational awareness

Level 1 SA -- Perception Of The Elements In The Environment.

Level 2 SA -- Comprehension Of The Current Situation.

Level 3 SA -- Projection Of Future Status.

Situation Awareness Requirements

Theories… [read more]

Examining Identity and Assimilation Essay

Essay  |  15 pages (2,734 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Euthanasia has had a long history. Greeks and Romans allowed the euthanizing of people under certain circumstances. Euthanasia is the practice of ending a person's life for the sole purpose of relieving the person's body from excruciating pain and suffering due to an incurable disease. The term euthanasia is often referred to as mercy killing or the 'good death' as… [read more]

Analyzing Chile Trade Agreements Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,230 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Chile Trade Agreements

Trade agreements can be delineated as any contractual agreement that is conjured up between states, regarding their trade relationships and associations. In particular, a great deal of the agreements signed by Chile have been free trade agreements (FTA). These sorts of arrangements encompass the collaboration and working together of at least two nations to decrease trade barriers… [read more]

Humanitarianism Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,494 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Edkins, Campbel and Malkki all discuss issues of humanitarian principle, contrasting the ideal of humanitarianism with the reality of real affirmation of the human in the humanitarian aid experience. Each in his or her own way argues that the only real way to provide humanitarian intervention is by separating such from the idea of the political, or in one case… [read more]

Use of High Strength Steel's in Automobiles Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,068 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … High Strength Steels in Automobiles:

The use of high strength steels by automakers has become the fastest growing automotive lightweight material in the automotive industry in the past two decades. The use of the high strength steels and ultra high strength steels has overtaken aluminum's growth rate by 13%. While the use of all grades of aluminum has… [read more]

Comparison of Techniques Used for Measuring Arterial Stiffness Dissertation

Dissertation  |  14 pages (3,813 words)
Bibliography Sources: 35


¶ … Measuring Arterial Stiffness

Arterial Stiffness

Intermittent blood flow converts to steady blood flow due to arteries cushioning the pulsation. The expanding and contracting of the aorta promote steady forward flow of blood. Figure 1 show the design and muscle type of the arterial wall.

Figure 1 (Arnett, 2001)

When arterial stiffness becomes increased, the pressure of the systolic… [read more]

Reaction to the Life of Augustus Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Second Caesar:

Suetonius and Augustus

What's immediately interesting about Suetonius' rehearsal of the life of Augustus is the speed with which this otherwise expansive writer treats the protracted period of civil turmoil that followed the assassination of Julius Caesar and ended the Roman Republic. While the imperial birth crisis dragged on for 14 years -- nearly a third of Augustus' life -- and spanned the Roman world, Suetonius spends less than 11 relatively terse paragraphs lingering on the details. As it is, a reader who takes The Twelve Caesars as an encyclopedic source on the era may come away thinking of the "five civil wars" that Augustus fought in order to secure the imperium as something of a running battle that broke out immediately after the death of Caesar and quickly installed a near-adolescent on the throne, or left with a confused idea of where to place the Augustan triumvirate in the chronology.

Given Suetonius' reputation for "astringent" equipoise (viii), it is difficult to read the apparent elision as deliberately pro-Augustan suppression of a painful phase of Roman history. However, modern interpretations of the emperor as an extraordinarily cunning political animal are still impossible to reconcile with baldfaced assertions like "When the people would have forced a dictatorship upon him he fell on his knee and, throwing back his gown to expose his naked breast, implored their silence" (76). Does the author really believe that this highly sentimental scene actually took place, or is he simply reporting a pious legend that accumulated around Augustus during a century of state worship?

Of course, as an informed historian, Suetonius is within his rights to portray his subject in admirable terms if the evidence warrants it. In light of the cast of characters found in The Twelve Caesars, we would be more surprised if Augustus did not come off looking…… [read more]

Data Warehousing Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  6 pages (2,067 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Data Warehousing Text

• Chapters 7,9, 13

Exercise #3-pg 161 Chapter 7 -write

As a senior analyst responsible for data staging, you are responsible for the design of the data staging area. If your data warehouse gets input from several legacy systems on multiple platforms, and also regular feeds from two external sources, how will you organize your data staging… [read more]

Toshiba's Assembly Line Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,432 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Toshiba's Assembly Line

In business, one of the basic principals is to reduce costs as much as possible, in an effort to maximize profits. For manufacturing companies, this can be particularly challenging, as the costs associated with producing various goods can be become very volatile. To address this issue many companies have implemented the concept of the assembly line, by… [read more]

Cause and Effects of Cell Phone Radiation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,129 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Cell Phone Radiation

The whole world has experienced an increase in the use of wireless mobile telephones and this has consequently raised health concerns since a very slight effect on the health of humans can spell a serious public health concern. Many investigations have been carried out both for specific effects and general effects of the use of… [read more]

Decision-Making Across Cultures Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,306 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Decision Making Across Cultures

The art of negotiation is in its structure a simple process. However, the factors involved transformed it into a complex practice, with elements which can turn it from a successful endeavor to a major failure if not practiced with thorough knowledge for sensitive issues such as culture, or negotiation skills. Therefore, when engaging into a negotiation process, due consideration must be given to risk management, the actual negotiation, and the decision making part. However, all these must be considered in the context of cultural diversity which combines both standard negotiation techniques with the specificities of cultural differences throughout the world.

In order to better describe the above, the American negotiation style is compared to the Chinese and the Japanese one. This endeavor better reveals the way in which culture transforms and personalizes the process of negotiation.

The American style of negotiation is rather unique because the cultural aspects are based on a mix of European culture. At the same time, given the worldwide knowledge of the United States as the biggest country in the world, with global recognition, the American style may be prone to self sufficiency. More precisely, it may be that one of the characteristics of American negotiation styles is relaxation. The American negotiator is most of the time a very self sufficient friendly individual (Lourie, 2003). This attitude almost always comes from the belief of representing a major country, if not the greatest country in the world. This is reflected in the way in which the negotiator, now presented as a generic individual, behaves. Given the friendly, opened type of character, the American style of negotiation seems to follow that path.

By comparison, the Chinese type of negotiation is of different nature. In general terms, as with the American situation, the Chinese do not enjoy a fast pace of the negotiation process. The Chinese are overall a people for whom the speed of development must be one to be controlled very thoroughly and one which can be adjusted on the way. Similar to this, the negotiation process in their terms must have a starting point of general affairs, where individuals meet and develop the ideas about their respective businesses. The Chinese style of negotiation is by no means a fast one, but rather a very calculated one.

Finally, the Japanese style of negotiation is mostly based on teams. As in China, the process of negotiation is a great endeavor. It implies a prior approval from one of the piers and thus a great honor. Especially the Japanese, they take great pride in being the representative of an idea, company, or leadership. One of the most important aspects of the Japanese style of negotiation is the respect he or she offers and the respect he or she demands in return. This is the basic principle of Japanese negotiation. From this point-of-view, if the counterpart fails to respect basic elements of the cultural practice of the Japanese, such as being late for the meeting, automatically… [read more]

Transit Projects a Guide for Practitioners" Chapters Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,806 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


¶ … Transit projects a guide for practitioners" chapters 10 -11 provide two modeling approaches and explain how they could be used in the study of transportation problems? Define and explain each approach that you have chosen. 2) Explain the New Starts program and its potential benefits and weaknesses. Would you implement such a program if you were the president?… [read more]

Fiber Optics Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,260 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Fiber Optics

Assessing the Uses and Benefits of Fiber Optics

Designed and engineered for high-speed data transfer applications, fiber optic cabling technologies use a modulated light source across 50m of glass cable to achieve 500 Kbps to 6.4 Tbps transfer rates, among the fastest of any interface and communications technology (Davey, Nesset, Rafel, Payne, Hill, 13). Using a transmitter, regenerator and receiver, fiber optical networks are designed to support high burst types of transmissions and data transactions. Cable television, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), data-intensive local area networks and CCTV-based networks use fiber optic cabling as this technology has inherent advantages over copper and other network transport materials (Johnson, Gilfedder, 63, 64). This analysis presents the unique attributes of fiber optics technology, its advantages over copper cabling and networks, and an analysis of this networking technology based on fiber configuration and key characteristics. Fiber optic technologies are also pervasively used throughout disk drive interfaces for bandwidth-intensive applications as well (Ferelli, 15, 16).

Comparing Copper and Fiber Optic Cables

Compared to copper, fiber optic network technologies have significantly greater bandwidth, higher transfer speeds, significantly lower maintenance costs, greater security and stability of messaging as well. The most fundamental difference however is the variation in how the electronics that manage fiber optic interfaces use a modulated signal per fiber in the cable. There are single and multi-model fiber cables which are significantly different than those found in copper cabling, which rely on just a single configuration. Single mode fiber cables transmit one signal per filter and have small cores of approximately 9 microns which are used for transmitting infrared light (Ferelli, 23, 24). Single-mode fibers are often used in telephone and cable television systems as they are relatively inexpensive to produce from a mass production standpoint, have significantly greater levels of reliability than copper, and also have exceptional agility in being used in more complex configurations (Davey, Nesset, Rafel, Payne, Hill, 13). Multi-mode fibers are the second type of fiber optic cable produced, and this specific cabling technology supports many signals per fiber being sent in full synchronous and asynchronous modes (Davey, Nesset, Rafel, Payne, Hill, 13). An essential part of this technology is that the cores are 62.5 microns and transmit data in infrared light bursts over the fiber optic cable (Hunt, 28, 29) ensuring signal accuracy through the use of Carrier Sense Multiple Detection / Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) carrier arbitration which is inherent in a TCP/IP network's structure. The ability to operate at significantly higher speeds and not have to content with interference form the attributes of the cabling is another significant advantage of fiber optic over copper as well.

Multimode fiber optic networks are now the technology of choice for Local Area Network (LAN) and wide-area network (WAN) configurations that often must interlink operating centers, manufacturing centers, and most commonly, it centers (Hunt, 30). Copper cable has a longer range that fiber optic cabling, yet has significant disadvantages in terms of security, scalability as a network cabling standard, cost,… [read more]

Mechanical Alloying and the Milling Process Facilitate Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,371 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 18


¶ … Mechanical Alloying and the Milling Process Facilitate the Production of Supersaturated Solids and Solutions of Two or More Elements

Today, nanomaterials hold an enormous amount of promise in delivering innovations in construction, healthcare and manufacturing process of all types, but in order to yield these positive outcomes, they must first be produced in a cost-efficient fashion. Although there… [read more]

Political Photography Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,979 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


Political Photography

The objective of this work is to answer the question of how changing shutter speeds and lenses on cameras through the 19th and 20th centuries affect use of photography in American public media or political photography? Toward this end, this work will conduct an extensive review of literature in this area of study including peer-reviewed academic and professional… [read more]

on Australian Telecommunications Case Study

Case Study  |  10 pages (3,029 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Australian Telecommunications

The merger of Vodafone and Hutchison Whampoa's Australian operations has created VHA, a firm with 27% share in the Australian mobile market, good for #3 out of 3 players. The company needs to determine how to best leverage its competencies in order to take advantage of opportunities in the market place.

Consumers tend to be price sensitive, although… [read more]

Monique and the Mango Rains Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,594 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Monique and the Mango Rains

Answer to Question ONE: What makes rare connections possible?

The fact that Kris Holloway had joined the Peace Corps and was willing to give up two years of her life to leave Ohio and travel to troubled Africa for an assignment that would be challenging speaks volumes about her as a person. Had she stayed… [read more]

Computer Tech in Laser Eye Surgery Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,082 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Computer Technology in Laser Eye Surgery

Laser eye surgery was first approved by the Food and Drug Administration in October 1995.

Since that time, the procedures have evolved to help a variety of people overcome several different eye disorders. This paper overviews the use of computer technology in laser eye surgery, as I feel this is still an… [read more]

When I Consider How My Light Is Spent by John Milton Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (860 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Milton-"When I Consider How my Light Is Spent"

John Milton, "When I consider how my light is spent."

When I consider how my light is spent,

Ere half my days in this dark world and wide,

And that one talent which is death to hide

Lodged with me useless, though my soul more bent

To serve therewith my Maker, and present

My true account, lest He returning chide;

"Doth God exact day-labor, light denied?"

I fondly ask. But Patience, to prevent

That murmur, soon replies, "God doth not need

Either man's work or His own gifts. Who best

Bear His mild yoke, they serve Him best. His state

Is kingly: thousands at His bidding speed,

And post o'er land and ocean without rest;

They also serve who only stand and wait.

The lyric poem, "When I Consider How My Light is Spent," also known as John Milton's Sonnet XIX, is reflective verse that seems to be about his blindness, but, like many great works of art that have endured for centuries, has numerous and complex meanings, depending on the point-of-view from the reader. John Milton (1608-1674) was, of course, a English poet of the Elizabethan Era most famous for his work Paradise Lost and his treatise condemning censorship, the Areopagitica. During his lifetime, England was in a religious and political flux, and Milton's poetry and prose often reflect the dual nature of his political and social views, certainly they try to make some sense out of the conundrum of English and European culture of the era ("John Milton," 2008; Lace, 2005).

The poem opens with a narrator reflecting on the sad notion that he has lost his sight before even half his life is over. He is distressed, and wonders if the Creator is somehow displeased with him and actually punishing him for not properly using his "talents." In the Biblical parable quoted, God punished the servant who had not used the money (wealth) entrusted to him, perhaps God expected the same of him?

Questions continue to be personified by Milton -- and the resultant answers remind the reader that it is not necessarily a reciprocal relationship in which God or Humans depend on the gifts to survive. Instead, those who serve the creator best are those who "Bear his mild yoke." Indeed, the overriding them seems to be that the individual must look inside themselves and find what it is they do best that will allow them to be good citizens of the temporal as well as on the proper path towards the spiritual. "His state Is kingly//thousands at…… [read more]

Politics of Life Itself Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,445 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


The Biomedical Debate According to Rose
Human evolution has produced an increasingly perceptive understanding
of the inner-workings of the human body. A more detailed comprehension of
both physiology and genetic makeup have offered remarkable new insights
into ways to remove human beings from suffering, act to preventatively
address conditions which have previously been seen as chronic and serve to
lengthen… [read more]

Visions of Papal and Ecclesiastical Supremacy: Michelangelo Thesis

Thesis  |  16 pages (4,743 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Visions of Papal and Ecclesiastical Supremacy:

Michelangelo, Raphael, St. Peter's Basilica, the Sistine Chapel, and the Tempietto

The traditional world was one of connection and unity. The medieval church represented the intersection of the mundane with the sacred, the coming together of the institutions of humankind with the institutions of God. Like God on high, the Church was a focal… [read more]

Edmund Blair Leighton Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,072 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Edmund Blair Leighton was a Pre-Raphaelite Victorian painter who painted highly finished and decorative works. He became well-known for his elegant depictions of Victorian life as well as for his history paintings. The subjects of his works were highly romanticized and idealized, and this has led to modern criticism of his work as being merely decorative and somewhat irrelevant in relation to more 'serious' art.

While his works are not considered to be "great" art today they are still extremely popular. Little is known or remembered about the life of the artist, but his works and reproductions continue to be seen and bought today. The reason for this continuing popularity of a rather obscure artist leads to the central thesis of this paper. The contention that will be explored is that while Edmund Blair Leighton's works can be described as being merely decorative and without any real artistic depth, yet they still retrain a certain quality that is recognized by the modern art public. It is suggested that this quality refers essentially to nostalgia for a world of heroism, romantic elegance and poise and higher values that are possibly missing from the modern world.

In this light it is therefore not surprising that, in a world which has become often mechanistic and mundane, that paintings which espouse romantic and higher ideals are still admired. In other words, we still find value and have an attraction for paintings which appeal to our sense of order, proportion and harmony. What also should be taken into account is the nostalgia for the heroic and romantic past, which could also go a long way to explaining the contemporary popularity of his works.

Leighton grew up in an artistic family and environment and adopted many of the norms and conventions of an artist of this time. He was the son of an artist, Charles Blair Leighton, and he studied at the Royal Academy Schools. (Edmund Blair Leighton. English Pre-Raphaelite (2nd wave) painter born 1853 - died 1922). He also regularly exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1878 to 1920. (Edmund Blair Leighton. English Pre-Raphaelite (2nd wave) painter born 1853 - died 1922).

During his life he was well respected in art circles, particularly for his history genre paintings and portraits. He was also admired for his meticulous and detailed style and for his romantic realism. This can be seen in the painting entitled "God Speed!."

(God Speed! Source: http://www.artrenewal.org/asp/database/image.asp?id=5210)

The romantic idealism and the combination of heroism and beauty are meticulously rendered in the above painting. This painting also hearkens back to the age of chivalry and decorum. As one commentator notes; "His luxurious canvasses of valiant knights, golden tressed ladies and romanticized royalty in dramatic costume and idyllic settings made him popular in his time and account for his renewed popularity in recent years." (Parker)

This style and mood also applies to the non-historical works. Leighton painted many Victorian scenes and depicted courtship and weddings, among other subjects. All of these works evoke the… [read more]

Detecting Deception From Nonverbal Cues Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (2,876 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Detecting Deception

The Detection of Deliberate Concealment of Intentions and Deception

Psychology professor Paul Ekman pioneered the use of facial expression recognition for the purpose of detecting deliberate deception. According to a large volume of work by Ekman dating back to 1974 (Ekman, 2001; 2003) as well as collaborative work in conjunction with O'Sullivan and Frank (1999; 1991), human facial… [read more]

Culture and Society in the Age of the Scientific Revolution Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (671 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Culture and Society in the Age of the Scientific Revolution

The scientific revolution did not happen all at once, nor did it begin at any set date. Realistically speaking, the scientific revolution that we associate with Galileo, Francis Bacon, and Isaac Newton, began much earlier. You can push the date back to the work of Nicolaus Copernicus at the beginning of the sixteenth century. Even then, you haven't included all the factors that contributed to the set of transformations of the world of knowledge that we call the scientific revolution (Hooker).

Nicolaus Copernicus: Copernicus (1473-1543) was the first major astronomer to challenge the Ptolemaic universe. His book did not revise Ptolemy's system, as all previous criticisms had, but rather challenged the fundamental assumption of the Ptolemaic universe: that the earth was the center point of the revolution of the heavens. Copernicus also argued that the planets moved in circular orbits. His system, though, was a far more accurate predictor of planetary motion than any that had been previously put forth (Hooker).

Johannes Kepler: Like Copernicus, Kepler (1571-1630) believed that the sun represented the spiritual essence and presence of God and should be placed at the center of the universe.

In the Keplerian universe, the planets orbited around the sun and remained in their orbital paths; these paths, however, were elliptical rather than circular. This was the big prize: by revising Copernicus's model through the use of Brahe's calculations, he produced a mathematical model of the universe that perfectly predicted planetary motions (Hooker).

Galileo Galilei: Galileo (1564-1642) combined the two roles of observer and theorist and, more than anyone else, provided the empirical discoveries that cinched the Copernican-Keplerian universe. In 1609, bought a curious new Dutch invention, the telescope. While the telescope had been around for a few years, he was the first to use it to systematically look the heavens. Galileo insisted that all physical description of the universe would of necessity be a mathematical description. His revolutionary argument was this: if a physical model…… [read more]

Solar Flares Affect Planet Earth March 13 Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (953 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Solar Flares Affect Planet Earth

March 13, 2009 marked the twenty-year anniversary of solar flares that impacted the earth. The sun may not seem like a place with weather phenomenon but the Earth's closest star does experience frequent storms and the occasional flares that radiate to Earth. NASA defines a solar flare as "a sudden, rapid, and intense variation in brightness" that "occurs when magnetic energy that has built up in the solar atmosphere is suddenly released," ("What is a Solar Flare?"). In a recent Scientific American article, Adam Hadhazy describes what took place twenty years ago and how solar flares generally affect planet Earth.

In "A Scary 13th: 20 Years Ago, Earth Was Blasted with a Massive Plume of Solar Plasma," Hadhazy notes that solar flares could "pose a serious threat to satellite operations and even to power grids on the ground." The flares release energy "the equivalent of millions of 100-megaton hydrogen bombs exploding at the same time," ("What is a Solar Flare?"). Although regular flares are common and relatively innocuous for earthlings, a coronal mass ejection (CME) is a more severe and intense spewing of a billion tons of plasma or ionized gas (Hadhazy). On March 13, 1989, a CME entered the Earth's magnetosphere, "crashing into it," as Hadhazy describes. Usually the magnetosphere shields the earth from solar wind and "solar jetsam," but the March 13, 1989 CME set of a geomagnetic superstorm. The 1989 CME was "the size of 36 Earths" and "ripped through space at a million miles (1.6 million kilometers) per hour," (Hadhazy).

The sun experiences cyclical weather patterns much like the earth does, except the sun's cycle lasts about 11 years. Currently the solar cycle is at its nadir or "solar minimum," (Hadhazy). The next peak of the solar cycle will be in the year 2012, and is likely to cause intense solar activity. Peaks are referred to as "solar maximums," (O'Neill). The 2012 solar maximum could release a flare as large as "the energy of 100 billion Hiroshima-sized atomic bombs," (O'Neill). At the other end of the spectrum are the mild solar winds that continually emit from the sun and hardly affect the earth, largely because of its protective magnetosphere.

Solar flares and CMEs are relatively predictable because of the cyclical nature of solar storms. The Space Weather Prediction Center and the Space Weather Web site offer daily updates on solar conditions. Flare prediction involves observation from Earth using telescopes and equipment that can detect radiation signatures, but the detection of x-rays and gamma rays demands equipment staged outside of the Earth's atmosphere ("What is a Solar Flare?"). Several such systems are set up for solar flare prediction at the Earth-Sun Lagrangian Point such as the Advanced Composition Explorer (O'Dell). Unfortunately, x-ray flares that emit from the sun are extremely difficult to predict because x-rays travel…… [read more]

Krimer, L. &amp Goldman-Rakic, P. ) "Prefrontal Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,290 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Krimer, L. & Goldman-Rakic, P. (2001) "Prefrontal microcircuits: Membrane proper ties and excitatory input of local, medium, and wide arbor interneurons." The journal of neuroscience 21(11), pp. 3788-96.

This study incorporates advances in mathematical modeling as well as technological improvements in measuring capabilities to identify heretofore unknown differentiations in axon form and functions, specifically in regards to their arbor size.

Research conducted by the authors also confirmed the results and deepened the understanding of other neural identifiers and functions, especially an understanding of the relationship axon differentiations in size/structure to function and transmission speed of axons (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). Of overriding importance to the authors of this study was the role that lateral inhibition plays in neural transmission throughout the cortex; to this end, research was focused on the relationship of primary neurons to adjacent local neurons in areas known from previous research to be involved with memory formation, storage, and retrieval in an attempt to determine the overall role of pyramidal-neurons in neural transmission (Krimer & GOlcman-Rakic, 2001).

The role of pyramidal neurons as signal neurons for adjacent neurons to fire in the visual cortex had been previously discovered and described, and the authors of this study wished to determine to what extent the same functions occurred in other cortical functions, specifically memory (Sillito, 1975; Eysel et al., 1998; ctd. In Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). To achieve this, three groups of inteneurons with predominantly horizontal axonal arbors were classified based on the size of these arbors, and measurements relating to activity were conducted (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001).

Similar studies had previously been carried out on primates and in rats, but this study relied on ferrets (Lund & Lewis, 1993; Kawaguchi, 1995; ctd. In Krimer & Goldman-Rikac, 2001). This required the decapitation of the ferrets and the quick cold storage of their brains. Preparation of the cortical tissue for measurement and analysis was a complex process; neuron pairs could only be identified visually after removal of the frontal cortex and the cutting of this portion into sagittal sections only four hundred micrometers thick (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). Samples were then incubated at approximately thirty-five degrees Celsius for at least one-and-a-half hours before submersion in a perfusion chamber with a complex liquid and gas mixture at a temperature of thirty-one to thirty-two degrees Celsius (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). All of this was in preparation for the actual visualization of the neurons.

This was accomplished using infrared differential interference contrast video microscopy, greatly enhancing the contrast of materials in the prepared samples and enabling the researchers to identify and select eighteen usable neural pairs with which to begin their measurements and the real heart of their research (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). In order to identify neural pairs that would fit the specific needs of the research question at hand, the authors of this study were examined for certain physiological features. Those with a smaller cell size (in comparison to nearby pyramidal neurons) and lacking apical dendrites were identified as laminae II/III… [read more]

Nature's Second Eye Photography and the Camera Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,992 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



Photography and the Camera through the Years

Photography has gone a long way in recording and visualizing natural phenomena, with the camera as the device. Both have evolved through the centuries.

The precursor was the camera obscura in the 1700s. The first photograph was taken in 1835, the first patent for photography awarded in 1840. The first… [read more]

Peasant Life During the Meiji Restoration Thesis

Thesis  |  20 pages (5,967 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Peasant Life During the Meiji Restoration

The Meiji Restoration brought political, social and economic changes in the life of Japan that needed a period of sacrifice, like most of the changings following a revolution or a change of system in the life of a country. The transition from the Tokugawa to the Meiji period is considered a period of abrupt… [read more]

Scientific Method Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (947 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Scientific Method in Thought and Deed

The scientific method consists of five main steps: observation, formation of a question, a hypothetical answer to that question, a prediction of events based on the hypothesis, and finally, a test of that prediction. In this paper, I will outline the process for an experiment concerning plants' response to light, explaining each step of the scientific method. Following that is a brief example of how a friend and I recently used the scientific method to settle a friendly dispute, again in a step-by-step explanation.

The Plant Experiment


Plants growing near windows tend to grow towards the window, getting leafier and taller on the side nearer the glass, and sometimes actually leaning towards the window.


What makes plants behave like this -- that is, grow towards a window as opposed to neutrally or in any other direction?


Because plants rely on light for photosynthesis, the process by which they produce their energy, plants respond to and actually reach out for light. It is the light coming through the window that causes the plants growth to be uneven, and that causes the leaning in some cases.


Plants whose light source was specifically limited to one side or another would show significant changes in growth pattern, growing towards the light source both in overall volume of leaves and other matter, as well as the entire plant leaning from the stem towards the light source.

The Experiment (Testing the Hypothesis/Prediction):

To set u this experiment, the ideal set up would be a dark room with an individual darkened compartment for each plant, each with an identical light source differing only in its placement. These compartments would need to be large enough to allow growing room, and be well-ventilated without letting external light through. The interior of the compartments would ideally be black, to minimize reflection from the light source. Each plant would have a unique light source, shining on it from a unique angle -- some from the north, some south, etc. -- to control for any directional growth tendencies plants might have. The plants should all be of the same species, ideally from the same seed batch, and all aspects of plant care aside from light must be exactly the same for every plant. The experiment must control watering levels, soil the and density, and nutrients administered to minimize any effects these influences would have on the results.

Several control plants would also be useful -- one in a darkened compartment with light shining directly down on the plant, perhaps in a more reflective (white) compartment, several with multiple light sources shining from different directions, some grown in a controlled environment outside the compartments entirely, in full ambient light. All other conditions for the control plants (i.e. water, soil, etc.) should be identical to the plants…… [read more]

Flat Thomas L. Friedman's First Books Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,978 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Flat

Thomas L. Friedman's first books on globalization, such as the Lexus and the Olive Tree, written in 1998, focused on the second era of globalization, that according to the author lasted from 1800 to 2000, when "the Internet and e-commerce were just taking off." The more recent "The World is Flat," on the other hand, focuses on… [read more]

Choosing Copiers, Scanners, &amp Printers for Law Offices Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,459 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Copier/Scanner/Printer Comparison for Law Offices

Selecting Copiers, Scanners and Printers for Different Sized Law Offices

One of the harsh realities of modern jurisprudence is the amount of paper that continues to be generated for almost any type of activity undertaken by lawyers today. Notwithstanding the promises of a paperless office that accompanied the introduction of word processing technology in the… [read more]

Relationship Between Moralities and American Society Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,126 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … moralities and American society

The school and the family are the two primary sources the Americans get their teachings about how to discern between what is right and what is wrong in their early stages of life. Religious institutions play their role, too in the educational process of the American children. On one hand, they are taught the importance of distinguishing between right and wrong and acting rightly. On the other, society is showing them different meanings of acting "correctly" everywhere and all the time. Steven Carter has written a whole book on the topic of integrity and he was determined to write a whole book about it because of the dilemma he and the entire American society faces when it comes to such a sensitive subject. He is explaining in the opening chapter of his book, titled the Rules about the Rules how he came to the idea of this object of study. Sports and cheating in football offered him the opportunity to ask himself how he should explain to his children the decision of a football player to fake the catching of a ball in order for his team to win points.

The author tells the story of his first successful (up to a point) attempt to chat that happened in his childhood, when participating in a school game. The child was not aware of the consequences of his misconduct. He only knew that he was acting so that he could win the game. The teacher exposed him in the end and the feelings of shame and guilt staid with him his entire life. The author sets thus an example of how children learn at some point about the importance of following the rules. The internet and the satellite transmission, the whole victories of the present high tech that is making the life of Americans so easy today are also powerful tools in proliferating with the speed of light success stories of people who won the game by putting their personal interests above those of the society and even bragging about their success. Carter's opinion on the state of morality of our nation is rather categorical. Among his examples to support his opinion that the Americans lack integrity is that of a book such as one teaching the readers how to win video games by breaking the rules of the games:..."it captures precisely what is wrong with America today: we care far more about winning than about playing by the rules." (Carter, 179). His examples about contemporary Americans cheating at a national scale continue with some winners of different kinds of contests that are supposed to set a positive example to the nation and in fact have just the opposite goal since the winners break the rules and take shortcuts in order to win. They were exposed in the end and disqualified, but that only makes one wonder how many others have done the same and never been exposed. Some nations have a saying claiming that… [read more]

Victorian Period Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,834 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Journal Exercise 5.1A: Morality Then and Now

The literature of the Victorian Period expressed fascination and fear
with technology and machinery. Thomas Carlyle stated that man's ability to
use tools is all he is in his philosophical work Sartor Resartus. In John
Stuart Mill's On Liberty, the author stresses the idea that the individual
is supreme and sovereign over all… [read more]

Birth of a Star Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,029 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Birth and Life of Stars and Dwarfs

Stars twinkle and shine pretty in the night sky but they are actually complicated heavenly bodies. They are like us in that they are born, live their stellar lives, and then die. The early phases of a star's life begins when an "early phase of gravitational collapse," (Dasch) forms a "stellar embryo" (Dasch). Gas falls into the embryo, heating it up and when the embryo becomes warm enough, it begins resisting gravity. At this point, the embryo is called a "protostar" (Dasch). Grace Wolf-Chase maintains that this gas is "vast agglomerations of gas and dust" (Chase). Some of matter around the protostar begins to accumulate in a disk shape, rotating around it. Forces of gravity cause the disk to pick up speed and move toward the center. However, the gas and dust must slow down in order to fall onto the protostar. Chase notes, "Recent theoretical work suggests that this is accomplished through the interaction of the material with magnetic fields that thread the disks of protostars" (Chase). The protostar's magnetic field is eventually bent into an hourglass shape, which throws off gas, which slows down the disk. Matter from the disk is now able to fall onto the protostar. Chase surmises, "Planets may eventually form within the disk" (Chase). The resulting mass of the protostar will shape how it evolves. Stars evolve in patterns, which is also associated with their mass. There are generally three types of stars, which are high-mass stars, intermediate mass stars, and low-mass stars. In early stages, stars produce energy through a "stage of nuclear fusion called hydrogen-burning" (Dasch). Again, depending on the star's mass and density, more stages may follow this first stage. All stars finally stop burning and explode, an act that completes the star's evolution.

Jeffrey Hall observes, "Nature is filled with symmetries, and this is one of the most enchanting symmetries. The death of one star triggers the birth of new stars" (Hall). Stars die as a result of the hydrogen-burning process. As hydrogen burns, the star's core grows. Stars that have less than half of our Sun's mass will eventually burn off all of their hydrogen and "end their lives as helium white dwarfs" (Dasch). Stars that have larger masses will experience a growth in their core, which increases its temperature until nuclear fusion begins to take place. This takes place in the form of burning helium and when this starts, the star does not expand but instead becomes hotter. When all of the helium is burned away, the core of the star will shrink and its outer layers will expand and cool.

This process will eventually turn the star into a super giant. The star is still expanding, forcing the outer layers to drift from the stars gravitational force. This loss is continuous and when the star's mass becomes less than times as massive as our Sun's mass, we call it a carbon-oxygen white dwarf. White dwarfs are just one… [read more]

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