"Physics / Quantum Theory" Essays

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Sarah Bakewell Montaigne How to Live or a Life Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,896 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Letter to Friend: Imparting the Advice of Montaigne

Sussex, England

Haverfordshire Estate

Dear Katharine:

It's been too long since our last meeting, though it was good to see you then and how quickly the afternoon passed. You were indeed a generous host; the ginger tea cakes you made were divine and the orange pekoe tea was a delightful treat. However,… [read more]

Aluminum Shoes Introduction Animal Rights Introduction Chapter

Introduction Chapter  |  1 pages (326 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Performance racehorses have been shod with horseshoes made of aluminum for some time, as this metal is extremely lightweight, malleable, and also durable. Being such a light material, aluminum thus allows for faster speed of movement by the horses; they can run faster with less weight holding them down. The question then becomes whether or not aluminum horseshoes would prove a viable replacement for traditional steel horseshoes in other avenues than just racing. It is also imperative to take into consideration the fact that not all horses are physiologically similar and this may have an important impact on the way in which certain materials impact the particular breed of horse. Research into the use of aluminum horseshoes needs to take material and the breed into consideration before they can reach a conclusion. After examining all of these components, it can be stated unequivocally that aluminum horseshoes are at least superior to their steel counterparts.… [read more]

Science Misconception First Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (355 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


b. Condensation and evaporation is another form of energy transformation. Water falls to the earth from the clouds in the form of rain, sleet, hail or snow. It falls or leads to bodies of water where the drops are mixed with the other water content. The sun comes out and changes the energy in the water droplets so that the particles rise back up into the sky and form clouds. From there, the process repeats itself over and over again. The water molecules that constitute rain or rivers do not get created or destroyed. Instead the drops change form as their energy profile changes.

3. Also describe a mathematical equation that relates to this misconception and explain how the equation can help student understanding.

Formula for velocity: Velocity = distance divided by time or V = (d/t)

What this means is that velocity (speed) will increase over time as it crosses a greater distance. It is a means of measuring how kinetic energy in an object becomes working energy when the object is…… [read more]

E-Cards Health Promotion Settings Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (551 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, the other messages in the card are not reinforced. There is no instruction on how to test the brakes of a bicycle. The woman is shown alone, not riding with a friend. And although the colors are bright in terms of the palette of the card, card, she is not wearing the orange or yellow fluorescent colors that are really necessary to be detected when riding at night. Having a bike light is also advised, which the card does not even mention. I would send this card to someone I wanted to encourage to ride a bike for his or her health and entertainment, not to someone who I felt needed a reminder or information about bike safety.

Q5. Which of the 3 strategies for promoting health does it address?

The primary focus of the card is preventative medicine -- preventing bike injuries through appropriate safety measures, and preventing other forms of ill health through exercise.

Q6. How can health educators help assure the messages that health professionals convey to consumers are appropriate?

Greater detail -- such as explaining how to check bike brakes or providing a specific rather than a general link to a how-to website -- is essential when conveying messages to the public. Short but relevant statistics that show how bike helmets save lives would also be useful. Consumers must be convinced with the persuasive tools of logic as well as emotions.


Let's bike. (2012). e-Cards. Retrieved:

http://www.healthfinder.gov/ecards/cards.aspx?jscript=1.… [read more]

Definitions Memo Computer Engineering and Information Systems Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (854 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Computer Engineering and Information Systems Case Study

Memo to Construction Company to Upgrade their High Speed LAN

Colin Tangeman

Choosing Between Wireless and Wired LAN Configurations

As your construction business continues to expand, your network traffic on the Local Area Network (LAN) you are running on is continuing to grow exponentially. You will need to expand your High Seed LAN using either of two options, each which has specific technology-based strengths and weaknesses associated with each. Your two options are a wireless LAN or wired LANs. You may have hard about wireless LANs or Wi-Fi, which is a technology that encodes your information into a radio wave, much the same used for sending music and new information to car stereos across broad distances. The greater the frequency of the radio wave, the more data it can carry from a broadcasting device to a receiver or router, which is what many laptops, tablet PCs and smartphones have in them today (Varshney, Vetter, 2000). Just like the units of measure in your construction business, radio waves that are the foundation of Wi-Fi communication have a very clear set of standards and also linearly scale in KHz levels. Think of the kHz as power measures in your business; they are similar. For example if you are building a new production plant and are wiring it for 220V, there will be much greater breadth of power for devices using that outlet. A 10 kHz wireless router will do the same; it will take 10 times the amount of data than its 1 kHz counterpart. And just as 220V lines are often designed for a very specific production purpose, the kHz ranges of wireless or Wi-Fi networks can do the same. Think of a Wi-Fi LAN technology as a very customized radio you can tune to deliver songs either as quickly or as slowly as you'd like, and at whatever level of sound fidelity you choose as well. For the 10 kHz Wi-Fi networks the songs would be arriving at your car or portable radio at 10 times that of a 1 kHz radio. To understanding how modulation works in a Wi-Fi network. Consider if you can encode up to four segments of a song in a single wave; this is comparable to how modulating methods work.

And just like each type of radio-controlled device, from a hi-fi stereo to a radio-frequency (RF) controlled plane respond to entirely different frequencies, the same holds true with the different standards and frequencies for Wi-Fi networks as well. And just like RF-controlled planes, a change…… [read more]

Strategic Analysis -- Fire Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,783 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Funding sources. The Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergence Response Grants (SAFER) was created to provide funding directly to fire departments and volunteer firefighter interest organizations in order to help them increase the number of trained, "front line" firefighters available in their communities. The goal of SAFER is to enhance the local fire departments' abilities to comply with staffing, response… [read more]

HS2 Proposal Is a Government Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,447 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


3). The report then goes on to spell out in detail a much different report than those issued by the pro-side of the argument. One interesting point that A Better Railway makes in its report is that there is a need to avoid the "expensive disasters that many of our competitors have faced in their high speed rail projects and… [read more]

<Customer Inserts Instructor's Name Here Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,904 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


On the other hand, operational design refers to groundwork that lays all the moves in front of fellow team members who then add detail into the design. The biggest advantage of design is that it takes the forces step-by-step through the entire plan and makes them experience the scene unfold in front of them so that any loopholes in it can be caught and addressed. The design enables channeling of resources, skills and men in a timely and structured fashion, and makes the other team members aware on what their specific roles are. Moreover, it allows for a good evaluation of the execution and the plan so that variations can be noted, rectified and learnt from, to be borne in mind for the next level of progress.

Design; therefore, is like a blueprint detailing all the moves and assigning responsibility for each task in the process. However art is more of the vision that directs what the tools are going to be and in that scenario, the tools is also the design which exemplifies how things are going to work and which team will be responsible where.

To understand how art is important than design consider the following layman example. For instance the goal of a battalion is to capture an enemy fortress. Now there is one design that shows how the battalion is going to ration its food, and another design that details the action plan for the capture of the fort. It is only common sense to see that if the goal is set, a relevant design can help achieve it, but the goal cannot be changed. And this is what happens; goals are primary aims while design is a tertiary objective and if the design is not correct it can be easily changed. The goal however cannot be changed as it defines the strategic direction of the team.

Therefore, art is preferred as compared to design, as art sets the overall focus of the team while design merely pinpoints the details and is a tool for materializing operational art. Therefore, the thesis in light of the arguments is true and lends meaning to military actions which are seen in light of the overall art of operations and then tools are employed to convert the intangible thought to tangible art from. In that art is more important while design is relatively less important.… [read more]

CSR Corporate Social Responsibility Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,051 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


This framework is illustrated by Figure 1. This framework may be able to provide further insights into the debate surrounding CSR and if it has financial ramifications for CFP. It is reasonable to suspect that it could also provide companies that have an organizational dedication to CSR insights into how to leverage this dedication to create a competitive advantage.

It is reasonable to suspect that CSR will not create a competitive advantage in all industries until consumers place higher value on CSR criteria. However CSR initiatives have proven successful in many individual case studies in which the activities received publicity or were properly marketed. Theoretically a company could have the most remarkable dedication to social responsibility internally but never receive consumer recognition for their efforts. Thus for CSR to translate into monetary rewards for an organization there must also be some element of marketing that it employed in conjunction to CSR to promote its responsibility.

Other CSR Aspects

CSR must be embedded deep within the organizational fabric for it to be successful. This includes outlining a CSR code into the corporate charter as well as in the mission and vision statements. Since the establishment of Sarbanes-Oxley regulations this is actually required by publically owned companies however for CSR to be effective it must go far beyond just compliance. Employees must be trained so that they can integrate ethics into decision making processes and this training must also be ongoing to maintain salience at all times. The corporate culture must also foster a climate in which CSR can flourish. If the corporate culture isn't consistent with CSR practices then even with codes of conducts and training programs then often CSR considerations are often dismissed or ignored in practice.


If the considerations the rights of future generations as well as an extended set of stakeholders are integrated into corporate culture and ethical codes of conduct then this represents a method of operating that is alien to many people. The layer of complexity that this adds to decision making can be overwhelming. However, if society is to overcome the obstacles that are blocking the path toward a sustainable future then new ways of conducting business must be facilitated. Better stewardship of environmental resources is an absolute necessity if future generations are going to have the same opportunities as previous ones. The scientific evidence for negative anthropogenic ecological impacts are mounting exponentially and industry is one of the primary drivers for this activity. In addition, since inequality is also rising in many societies then social concerns will become increasingly important as well. CSR may actually prove to be the last hope for the future of capitalism.

Works Cited

Drucker, P. "What is Business Ethics?" The Public Interest (1981): 18-36.

Friedman, M. "The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits." The New York Times Magazine 13 September 1970.

Hui, L. "Combining faith and CSR: a paradigm of corporate sustainability." International Journal of Social Economics (2008): 449-465. Web.

Peloza, J. And L. Papania.… [read more]

Q:1 What Is the Accurate Speed Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (896 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Q:1 what is the accurate speed of light in km/sec? calculate the time required from the sun light to come to earth from the sun. how long would it take the light to travel from one end of the milky wave to the other end that is 10,000 light years long? Compute the sun's angular diameter as seen from the earth. why the modern astronomers, physicist and engineers are always trying to determine the true nature of the sun?

The speed of light is 299,728,377 km/sec.

The average distance of the sun from earth is 146,000,000 km.

Light travels 17.98 million minute.

Therefore, the light from the sun reaches earth in approximately


By definition, lights travels 10,000 light years in 10,000 years.

Therefore, light would travel from one end to the other in 10,000 years.

The diameter of the sun is 1,390, 000 km.

The angular size of the sun is its diameter divided by its distance from the reference point.

1,390,000km/149,000km = 0.009 radians = 0.5 degrees (assuming 1

radian = 57 degrees).

The sun is important for many reasons. It is fueled by the same process of nuclear fusion that coverts hydrogen into helium that was initially responsible for the creation of all matter. This process could be crucial for future methods of synthetic energy production to replace fossil fuels. The sun is the nearest star to earth and provides the best opportunity to study the manner in which all stars evolve and change.

The sun is the source of solar flares and solar winds and directly affect climactic conditions on the earth.

Q:2 Describe characteristics of the sun's photosphere. what are sun spots, describe their properties. how do sun spots effect the earth? what is the solar wind and is it related to sun spots?

The sun's surface features faculae, granules, supergranules, and sunspots. Sunspots are the most important feature from our perspective because they produce the solar wind that is responsible for heating the earth's upper atmosphere by virtue of ultraviolet light and x-rays. Sunspots are dark regions on the sun's surface that represent comparatively cooler areas. They represent powerful magnetic fields that generate a magnetic solar "wind" that force solar gases past the earth at high speed, disruption power systems and the orbits of satellites.

Q:3 what is meant by the helium flash? when does it accrue in the evolution of the stars? what are variable stars? what are the cepheid variables, describe their behavior and how are they used in astronomy?

Toward the end of the life of relatively small stars of about 2.25 solar masses, when the core no longer has enough hydrogen to maintain fusion to resist the inward…… [read more]

Explosives Detect Me Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (651 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


New procedures less physically intrusive, such as Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. NIR can ferret out hidden hazardous chemicals even when they are hidden behind clothing without body searches (Nolan-Neelan 2010). NIT technology is especially useful because it allows for detection at a remote distance. A light transmits through the passenger's clothing and signals are reflected by the chemical and back through the clothing to a NIR detector. "The signal was then passed into a spectrometer, which analyzed the intensity of the light at each wavelength. By comparing the intensities of light diffused by the clothing material and the hidden chemicals, the group was able to work out a 'fingerprint' for the chemical" (Nolan-Neelan 2010).

The TSA has also tested the use of bomb-detection equipment which requires screeners to swab a traveler's hand or bag for chemicals used in making bombs by sounding alarms. "The machines are so sensitive that alarms can sound for passengers who have recently taken heart pills containing nitroglycerin, or if they have recently fired guns" (Frank 2010). Although terrorists are creating new forms of detonation all of the time, the diversity as well as the thoroughness of new screening procedures can hopefully prevent future attacks.


Chapter 12: Military explosives. (2011). Navy Documents.

Retrieved August 16, 2011 at http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/navy/docs/fun/part12.htm

Frank, Thomas. (2010). TSA takes explosive screening to bags. USA Today.

Retrieved August 16, 2011 at http://www.usatoday.com/travel/flights/2010-02-16-TSA-swabs_N.htm

Make your trip better using 3-1-1. (2011). Transportation Safety Authority (TSA).

Retrieved August 16, 2011 at http://www.tsa.gov/311

Moorcraft, Lucy. (2001). Kinetics. University of Bristol.

Retrieved August 16, 2011 at http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2001/moorcraft/Kinetics.htm

Nolan-Neelan, Fay. (2010). Detective explosives within clothing. Highlights in Chemical Technology. Retrieved August 16, 2011 at http://www.rsc.org/Publishing/ChemTech/Volume/2010/12/detecting_explosives.asp

Walter, Katie (1996). High explosives detonation. Science and Technology Review.

Retrieved August 16, 2011 at https://www.llnl.gov/str/Simpson99.html… [read more]

Radiation Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (567 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Beta and alpha particles both move at very high speeds, however, and though the lower mass of beta particles gives them less total energy at any given speed they can reach energy levels comparable to those seen in alpha radiation (BCS 2011). Their much smaller size also gives beta particles greater penetrative abilities, however; they can persist through several feet of air and even thin layers of certain light metals (BCS 2011). Still, it does not take significant barriers to stop beta particles, and the greatest danger is again presented when beta-emitting substances are ingested (Nave 2011).

Gamma radiation is the third primary type of atomic radiation, and is also the most dangerous as well as the most useful type of radiation for a variety of purposes (Nave 2011). Gamma particles are essentially the same as photons, or particles of light, and similarly gamma rays can be seen as waves instead of particles (Nave 2011). Both light and gamma radiation are electromagnetic -- either particles of electromagnetism or waves of electromagnetism -- but gamma particles/rays have much higher energy levels than visible light and so are much more penetrative (BCS 2011). Depending on the energy of the gamma radiation, it can be stopped by a thin layer of aluminum or penetrate several inches of lead (BCS 2011). This type of radiation can thus cause great damage, but can also tell us a great deal about the universe and ourselves.


BCS. (2011). Three types of radiation. Accessed 8 June 2011. http://www.blackcatsystems.com/GM/experiments/ex7.html

Nave, C. (2011). Radioactivity.…… [read more]

Ken Kesey One Flew Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (2,096 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


It was a natural step for Matthews to believe that a more advanced version of this machine had been invented, one capable of producing the sequence of strange sensations he was experiencing. & #8230;Matthews believed that a machine was responsible. He called the machine an "Air Loom," reflecting his fascination with the textile machinery of the times. (Siegel 74)

Perhaps because Siegel is a psychiatrist and not a literary critic, he misses in his account of Matthews the strange fact that the device persecuting him also seems to have been a pun; the Oxford English Dictionary records pronunciation and usage of the word "heirloom" in the late 1700s that would make it indistinguishable from Matthews' "Air-Loom," and even if the wordplay is nothing more than one of the characteristic manifestations of pseudo-poetry (usually termed "clanging" or "word salad") in paranoid schizophrenia, it nonetheless asks us to interpret the Chief and his "Combine" a little differently. We need to hear the word for what it is: it is a type of farming equipment, which must invoke our sense of the Chief as a Native American. Where his people once roamed free, factory farming now mows with giant petroleum-powered combine harvesters. It seems like a metaphor for the soullessness of modern life.

More than that, it seems like Kesey clearly intends it as a sort of metaphor for society itself -- the combined interests of individuals en masse, combining to suppress signs of individuality in others, are clearly the origin of the Chief's sense. As the Combine recurs in his narration, it becomes clear that this is the purpose Kesey intends. For example, the Chief will define McMurphy in terms of his relations to the Combine: "McMurphy wasn't like that. He hadn't let what he looked like run his life one way or the other, any more than he'd let the Combine mill him into fitting where they wanted him to fit." (140) Later in the book the resistance of Murphy to the Combine takes on a messianic and grandiose dimension: "I still had my own notions -- how McMurphy was a giant come out of the sky to save us from the Combine that was networking the land with copper wire and crystal" (224). The earlier description in which the hospital, which reproduces the action of the Combine, is "like the inside of a tremendous dam" (83) seems to then take on additional meaning. It suggests that Kesey, if not the Chief, is intending us to understand the dynamic here as one of repression: the dam's ability to restrain inevitable pressures sounds like a critique of societal conformism. In other words, the Combine of the Chief's madness is meant to be a metaphor for the conformism of the 1950s and early 1960s, when American society had failed to de-mobilize completely from World War Two and maintained the military draft -- it seems like the Chief's backstory, his half-Native American origins (meant to suggest he should be free rather than confined), begins… [read more]

Rockstein and Sussman ) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,410 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


However, when elderly people have been accustomed to rapid or fine movements in certain tasks (such as playing a piano from an early age) or the task does not represent a novel experience for them, any decreased mental processing speed is less perceptible and does not affect functional abilities to the same extent.

The reduced speed of mental processing observed… [read more]

Honolulu Rail Honolulu's Impeding Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (3,651 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Therefore, the project must make financial sense to all stakeholders involved; both internally and externally. Another broad criterion that was identified deals with ease of use or usability. The system cannot be so complex that the steep learning curve eliminates users from navigating the system freely and effortlessly.

The final of the criterion, can be thought of in terms of… [read more]

Data Warehousing Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  6 pages (2,067 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Data Warehousing Text

• Chapters 7,9, 13

Exercise #3-pg 161 Chapter 7 -write

As a senior analyst responsible for data staging, you are responsible for the design of the data staging area. If your data warehouse gets input from several legacy systems on multiple platforms, and also regular feeds from two external sources, how will you organize your data staging… [read more]

Hip Muscle Strength &amp Knee Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  5 pages (2,064 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The claim that hip strength/flexibility is directly related to knee valgus pain is supported by Christopher Powers et al. MRI measurements during a single-leg squat, as outlined in the paper entitled "Patellar Kinematics during Weight-Bearing and Non-Weight-Bearing Movements in Persons with Patellar Subluxation" (2003). This study involved six female participants diagnosed with PFPS. Pain was measured during non-weight-bearing knee extensions and weight-bearing single-leg squats. Just as the Nicholas et al. study found a correlation in experienced pain during exercise with patella/femur rotation -- as allowed by poor hip strength -- so also did the Powers et al. study suggest:

that the patellofemoral joint kinematics during non-weight-bearing [exercise] could be characterized as the patella rotating on the femur, while the patellofemoral joint kinematics during the weight-bearing condition could be characterized as the femur rotating underneath the patella. [POWERS et al. 2003]

In other words, patella/femur rotation as allowed by hip muscle weakness directly correlates with knee valgus pain during non-weight-bearing exercises, such as knee extensions, and weight- bearing exercises such as the single-leg squat.

This correlation is further supported by a study conducted by Catherine Mascal et al., entitled "Management of Patellofemoral Pain Targeting Hip, Pelvis, and Trunk Muscle Function: 2 Case Reports" (2003). In the Mascal et al. study, two PFPS participants experienced a significant decrease in knee valgus pain as coinciding with a marked increase hip muscle strength. Specifically, pain reduction coincided with a 50% increase in strength in patient A, and a 55% increase in strength in patient B, leading Mascal et al. To arrive at the same conclusion as Nicholas et al.; namely that "Assessment and treatment of the hip, pelvis, and trunk musculature should be considered in rehabilitation of patients who present with patellofemoral pain and demonstrate lower-extremity kinematics" [MASCAL et al. 2003].

Several additional studies lend further support to the correlation of hip muscle strength and knee valgus pain, to include the recent Hollman et al. study of frontal plane hip and knee angle measurements in 20 female test subjects between the ages of 20 and 30. The results of this study were that "Hip-adduction angles (r = .755, P = .001), gluteus maximus EMG (r = -.451, P = .026), and hip-abduction strength (r = .455, P = .022) correlated with frontal-plane projections of the knee valgus" [HOLLMAN et al. 2009]. Hollman et al. suggested that the correlation of hip muscle strength and knee valgus flexion could be stronger in women than it is in men, however no men were included in the study and this suggestion is therefore open-ended. What is clear from the five studies examined is that hip muscle strength directly affects the knee valgus, particularly during exercises such as squatting, stair climbing, and non-weight-bearing knee extensions.


Cowan, S.M., Bennell, K.L., Crossley, K.M., Hodges, P.W., McConnell, J. (2002). Physical Therapy Alters Recruitment of the Vasti in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 1879-1885.

Hollman, J.H., Ginos, B.E., Kozuchowski, J., Vaughn, A.S., Krause, D.A., Youdas, J.W. (2009).… [read more]

Toshiba's Assembly Line Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,432 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Toshiba's Assembly Line

In business, one of the basic principals is to reduce costs as much as possible, in an effort to maximize profits. For manufacturing companies, this can be particularly challenging, as the costs associated with producing various goods can be become very volatile. To address this issue many companies have implemented the concept of the assembly line, by… [read more]

Cause and Effects of Cell Phone Radiation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,129 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Cell Phone Radiation

The whole world has experienced an increase in the use of wireless mobile telephones and this has consequently raised health concerns since a very slight effect on the health of humans can spell a serious public health concern. Many investigations have been carried out both for specific effects and general effects of the use of… [read more]

Decision-Making Across Cultures Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,306 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Decision Making Across Cultures

The art of negotiation is in its structure a simple process. However, the factors involved transformed it into a complex practice, with elements which can turn it from a successful endeavor to a major failure if not practiced with thorough knowledge for sensitive issues such as culture, or negotiation skills. Therefore, when engaging into a negotiation process, due consideration must be given to risk management, the actual negotiation, and the decision making part. However, all these must be considered in the context of cultural diversity which combines both standard negotiation techniques with the specificities of cultural differences throughout the world.

In order to better describe the above, the American negotiation style is compared to the Chinese and the Japanese one. This endeavor better reveals the way in which culture transforms and personalizes the process of negotiation.

The American style of negotiation is rather unique because the cultural aspects are based on a mix of European culture. At the same time, given the worldwide knowledge of the United States as the biggest country in the world, with global recognition, the American style may be prone to self sufficiency. More precisely, it may be that one of the characteristics of American negotiation styles is relaxation. The American negotiator is most of the time a very self sufficient friendly individual (Lourie, 2003). This attitude almost always comes from the belief of representing a major country, if not the greatest country in the world. This is reflected in the way in which the negotiator, now presented as a generic individual, behaves. Given the friendly, opened type of character, the American style of negotiation seems to follow that path.

By comparison, the Chinese type of negotiation is of different nature. In general terms, as with the American situation, the Chinese do not enjoy a fast pace of the negotiation process. The Chinese are overall a people for whom the speed of development must be one to be controlled very thoroughly and one which can be adjusted on the way. Similar to this, the negotiation process in their terms must have a starting point of general affairs, where individuals meet and develop the ideas about their respective businesses. The Chinese style of negotiation is by no means a fast one, but rather a very calculated one.

Finally, the Japanese style of negotiation is mostly based on teams. As in China, the process of negotiation is a great endeavor. It implies a prior approval from one of the piers and thus a great honor. Especially the Japanese, they take great pride in being the representative of an idea, company, or leadership. One of the most important aspects of the Japanese style of negotiation is the respect he or she offers and the respect he or she demands in return. This is the basic principle of Japanese negotiation. From this point-of-view, if the counterpart fails to respect basic elements of the cultural practice of the Japanese, such as being late for the meeting, automatically… [read more]

Transit Projects a Guide for Practitioners" Chapters Essay

Essay  |  10 pages (3,806 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


¶ … Transit projects a guide for practitioners" chapters 10 -11 provide two modeling approaches and explain how they could be used in the study of transportation problems? Define and explain each approach that you have chosen. 2) Explain the New Starts program and its potential benefits and weaknesses. Would you implement such a program if you were the president?… [read more]

Reaction to the Life of Augustus Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (619 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Second Caesar:

Suetonius and Augustus

What's immediately interesting about Suetonius' rehearsal of the life of Augustus is the speed with which this otherwise expansive writer treats the protracted period of civil turmoil that followed the assassination of Julius Caesar and ended the Roman Republic. While the imperial birth crisis dragged on for 14 years -- nearly a third of Augustus' life -- and spanned the Roman world, Suetonius spends less than 11 relatively terse paragraphs lingering on the details. As it is, a reader who takes The Twelve Caesars as an encyclopedic source on the era may come away thinking of the "five civil wars" that Augustus fought in order to secure the imperium as something of a running battle that broke out immediately after the death of Caesar and quickly installed a near-adolescent on the throne, or left with a confused idea of where to place the Augustan triumvirate in the chronology.

Given Suetonius' reputation for "astringent" equipoise (viii), it is difficult to read the apparent elision as deliberately pro-Augustan suppression of a painful phase of Roman history. However, modern interpretations of the emperor as an extraordinarily cunning political animal are still impossible to reconcile with baldfaced assertions like "When the people would have forced a dictatorship upon him he fell on his knee and, throwing back his gown to expose his naked breast, implored their silence" (76). Does the author really believe that this highly sentimental scene actually took place, or is he simply reporting a pious legend that accumulated around Augustus during a century of state worship?

Of course, as an informed historian, Suetonius is within his rights to portray his subject in admirable terms if the evidence warrants it. In light of the cast of characters found in The Twelve Caesars, we would be more surprised if Augustus did not come off looking…… [read more]

Comparison of Techniques Used for Measuring Arterial Stiffness Dissertation

Dissertation  |  14 pages (3,813 words)
Bibliography Sources: 35


¶ … Measuring Arterial Stiffness

Arterial Stiffness

Intermittent blood flow converts to steady blood flow due to arteries cushioning the pulsation. The expanding and contracting of the aorta promote steady forward flow of blood. Figure 1 show the design and muscle type of the arterial wall.

Figure 1 (Arnett, 2001)

When arterial stiffness becomes increased, the pressure of the systolic… [read more]

Use of High Strength Steel's in Automobiles Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,068 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … High Strength Steels in Automobiles:

The use of high strength steels by automakers has become the fastest growing automotive lightweight material in the automotive industry in the past two decades. The use of the high strength steels and ultra high strength steels has overtaken aluminum's growth rate by 13%. While the use of all grades of aluminum has… [read more]

Humanitarianism Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,494 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Edkins, Campbel and Malkki all discuss issues of humanitarian principle, contrasting the ideal of humanitarianism with the reality of real affirmation of the human in the humanitarian aid experience. Each in his or her own way argues that the only real way to provide humanitarian intervention is by separating such from the idea of the political, or in one case… [read more]

Fiber Optics Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,260 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Fiber Optics

Assessing the Uses and Benefits of Fiber Optics

Designed and engineered for high-speed data transfer applications, fiber optic cabling technologies use a modulated light source across 50m of glass cable to achieve 500 Kbps to 6.4 Tbps transfer rates, among the fastest of any interface and communications technology (Davey, Nesset, Rafel, Payne, Hill, 13). Using a transmitter, regenerator and receiver, fiber optical networks are designed to support high burst types of transmissions and data transactions. Cable television, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), data-intensive local area networks and CCTV-based networks use fiber optic cabling as this technology has inherent advantages over copper and other network transport materials (Johnson, Gilfedder, 63, 64). This analysis presents the unique attributes of fiber optics technology, its advantages over copper cabling and networks, and an analysis of this networking technology based on fiber configuration and key characteristics. Fiber optic technologies are also pervasively used throughout disk drive interfaces for bandwidth-intensive applications as well (Ferelli, 15, 16).

Comparing Copper and Fiber Optic Cables

Compared to copper, fiber optic network technologies have significantly greater bandwidth, higher transfer speeds, significantly lower maintenance costs, greater security and stability of messaging as well. The most fundamental difference however is the variation in how the electronics that manage fiber optic interfaces use a modulated signal per fiber in the cable. There are single and multi-model fiber cables which are significantly different than those found in copper cabling, which rely on just a single configuration. Single mode fiber cables transmit one signal per filter and have small cores of approximately 9 microns which are used for transmitting infrared light (Ferelli, 23, 24). Single-mode fibers are often used in telephone and cable television systems as they are relatively inexpensive to produce from a mass production standpoint, have significantly greater levels of reliability than copper, and also have exceptional agility in being used in more complex configurations (Davey, Nesset, Rafel, Payne, Hill, 13). Multi-mode fibers are the second type of fiber optic cable produced, and this specific cabling technology supports many signals per fiber being sent in full synchronous and asynchronous modes (Davey, Nesset, Rafel, Payne, Hill, 13). An essential part of this technology is that the cores are 62.5 microns and transmit data in infrared light bursts over the fiber optic cable (Hunt, 28, 29) ensuring signal accuracy through the use of Carrier Sense Multiple Detection / Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) carrier arbitration which is inherent in a TCP/IP network's structure. The ability to operate at significantly higher speeds and not have to content with interference form the attributes of the cabling is another significant advantage of fiber optic over copper as well.

Multimode fiber optic networks are now the technology of choice for Local Area Network (LAN) and wide-area network (WAN) configurations that often must interlink operating centers, manufacturing centers, and most commonly, it centers (Hunt, 30). Copper cable has a longer range that fiber optic cabling, yet has significant disadvantages in terms of security, scalability as a network cabling standard, cost,… [read more]

Mechanical Alloying and the Milling Process Facilitate Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,371 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 18


¶ … Mechanical Alloying and the Milling Process Facilitate the Production of Supersaturated Solids and Solutions of Two or More Elements

Today, nanomaterials hold an enormous amount of promise in delivering innovations in construction, healthcare and manufacturing process of all types, but in order to yield these positive outcomes, they must first be produced in a cost-efficient fashion. Although there… [read more]

Political Photography Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,979 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


Political Photography

The objective of this work is to answer the question of how changing shutter speeds and lenses on cameras through the 19th and 20th centuries affect use of photography in American public media or political photography? Toward this end, this work will conduct an extensive review of literature in this area of study including peer-reviewed academic and professional… [read more]

on Australian Telecommunications Case Study

Case Study  |  10 pages (3,029 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Australian Telecommunications

The merger of Vodafone and Hutchison Whampoa's Australian operations has created VHA, a firm with 27% share in the Australian mobile market, good for #3 out of 3 players. The company needs to determine how to best leverage its competencies in order to take advantage of opportunities in the market place.

Consumers tend to be price sensitive, although… [read more]

Monique and the Mango Rains Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,594 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Monique and the Mango Rains

Answer to Question ONE: What makes rare connections possible?

The fact that Kris Holloway had joined the Peace Corps and was willing to give up two years of her life to leave Ohio and travel to troubled Africa for an assignment that would be challenging speaks volumes about her as a person. Had she stayed… [read more]

Computer Tech in Laser Eye Surgery Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,082 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Computer Technology in Laser Eye Surgery

Laser eye surgery was first approved by the Food and Drug Administration in October 1995.

Since that time, the procedures have evolved to help a variety of people overcome several different eye disorders. This paper overviews the use of computer technology in laser eye surgery, as I feel this is still an… [read more]

When I Consider How My Light Is Spent by John Milton Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (860 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Milton-"When I Consider How my Light Is Spent"

John Milton, "When I consider how my light is spent."

When I consider how my light is spent,

Ere half my days in this dark world and wide,

And that one talent which is death to hide

Lodged with me useless, though my soul more bent

To serve therewith my Maker, and present

My true account, lest He returning chide;

"Doth God exact day-labor, light denied?"

I fondly ask. But Patience, to prevent

That murmur, soon replies, "God doth not need

Either man's work or His own gifts. Who best

Bear His mild yoke, they serve Him best. His state

Is kingly: thousands at His bidding speed,

And post o'er land and ocean without rest;

They also serve who only stand and wait.

The lyric poem, "When I Consider How My Light is Spent," also known as John Milton's Sonnet XIX, is reflective verse that seems to be about his blindness, but, like many great works of art that have endured for centuries, has numerous and complex meanings, depending on the point-of-view from the reader. John Milton (1608-1674) was, of course, a English poet of the Elizabethan Era most famous for his work Paradise Lost and his treatise condemning censorship, the Areopagitica. During his lifetime, England was in a religious and political flux, and Milton's poetry and prose often reflect the dual nature of his political and social views, certainly they try to make some sense out of the conundrum of English and European culture of the era ("John Milton," 2008; Lace, 2005).

The poem opens with a narrator reflecting on the sad notion that he has lost his sight before even half his life is over. He is distressed, and wonders if the Creator is somehow displeased with him and actually punishing him for not properly using his "talents." In the Biblical parable quoted, God punished the servant who had not used the money (wealth) entrusted to him, perhaps God expected the same of him?

Questions continue to be personified by Milton -- and the resultant answers remind the reader that it is not necessarily a reciprocal relationship in which God or Humans depend on the gifts to survive. Instead, those who serve the creator best are those who "Bear his mild yoke." Indeed, the overriding them seems to be that the individual must look inside themselves and find what it is they do best that will allow them to be good citizens of the temporal as well as on the proper path towards the spiritual. "His state Is kingly//thousands at…… [read more]

Politics of Life Itself Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,445 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


The Biomedical Debate According to Rose
Human evolution has produced an increasingly perceptive understanding
of the inner-workings of the human body. A more detailed comprehension of
both physiology and genetic makeup have offered remarkable new insights
into ways to remove human beings from suffering, act to preventatively
address conditions which have previously been seen as chronic and serve to
lengthen… [read more]

Visions of Papal and Ecclesiastical Supremacy: Michelangelo Thesis

Thesis  |  16 pages (4,743 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Visions of Papal and Ecclesiastical Supremacy:

Michelangelo, Raphael, St. Peter's Basilica, the Sistine Chapel, and the Tempietto

The traditional world was one of connection and unity. The medieval church represented the intersection of the mundane with the sacred, the coming together of the institutions of humankind with the institutions of God. Like God on high, the Church was a focal… [read more]

Edmund Blair Leighton Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (1,072 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Edmund Blair Leighton was a Pre-Raphaelite Victorian painter who painted highly finished and decorative works. He became well-known for his elegant depictions of Victorian life as well as for his history paintings. The subjects of his works were highly romanticized and idealized, and this has led to modern criticism of his work as being merely decorative and somewhat irrelevant in relation to more 'serious' art.

While his works are not considered to be "great" art today they are still extremely popular. Little is known or remembered about the life of the artist, but his works and reproductions continue to be seen and bought today. The reason for this continuing popularity of a rather obscure artist leads to the central thesis of this paper. The contention that will be explored is that while Edmund Blair Leighton's works can be described as being merely decorative and without any real artistic depth, yet they still retrain a certain quality that is recognized by the modern art public. It is suggested that this quality refers essentially to nostalgia for a world of heroism, romantic elegance and poise and higher values that are possibly missing from the modern world.

In this light it is therefore not surprising that, in a world which has become often mechanistic and mundane, that paintings which espouse romantic and higher ideals are still admired. In other words, we still find value and have an attraction for paintings which appeal to our sense of order, proportion and harmony. What also should be taken into account is the nostalgia for the heroic and romantic past, which could also go a long way to explaining the contemporary popularity of his works.

Leighton grew up in an artistic family and environment and adopted many of the norms and conventions of an artist of this time. He was the son of an artist, Charles Blair Leighton, and he studied at the Royal Academy Schools. (Edmund Blair Leighton. English Pre-Raphaelite (2nd wave) painter born 1853 - died 1922). He also regularly exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1878 to 1920. (Edmund Blair Leighton. English Pre-Raphaelite (2nd wave) painter born 1853 - died 1922).

During his life he was well respected in art circles, particularly for his history genre paintings and portraits. He was also admired for his meticulous and detailed style and for his romantic realism. This can be seen in the painting entitled "God Speed!."

(God Speed! Source: http://www.artrenewal.org/asp/database/image.asp?id=5210)

The romantic idealism and the combination of heroism and beauty are meticulously rendered in the above painting. This painting also hearkens back to the age of chivalry and decorum. As one commentator notes; "His luxurious canvasses of valiant knights, golden tressed ladies and romanticized royalty in dramatic costume and idyllic settings made him popular in his time and account for his renewed popularity in recent years." (Parker)

This style and mood also applies to the non-historical works. Leighton painted many Victorian scenes and depicted courtship and weddings, among other subjects. All of these works evoke the… [read more]

Detecting Deception From Nonverbal Cues Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (2,876 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Detecting Deception

The Detection of Deliberate Concealment of Intentions and Deception

Psychology professor Paul Ekman pioneered the use of facial expression recognition for the purpose of detecting deliberate deception. According to a large volume of work by Ekman dating back to 1974 (Ekman, 2001; 2003) as well as collaborative work in conjunction with O'Sullivan and Frank (1999; 1991), human facial… [read more]

Culture and Society in the Age of the Scientific Revolution Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (671 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Culture and Society in the Age of the Scientific Revolution

The scientific revolution did not happen all at once, nor did it begin at any set date. Realistically speaking, the scientific revolution that we associate with Galileo, Francis Bacon, and Isaac Newton, began much earlier. You can push the date back to the work of Nicolaus Copernicus at the beginning of the sixteenth century. Even then, you haven't included all the factors that contributed to the set of transformations of the world of knowledge that we call the scientific revolution (Hooker).

Nicolaus Copernicus: Copernicus (1473-1543) was the first major astronomer to challenge the Ptolemaic universe. His book did not revise Ptolemy's system, as all previous criticisms had, but rather challenged the fundamental assumption of the Ptolemaic universe: that the earth was the center point of the revolution of the heavens. Copernicus also argued that the planets moved in circular orbits. His system, though, was a far more accurate predictor of planetary motion than any that had been previously put forth (Hooker).

Johannes Kepler: Like Copernicus, Kepler (1571-1630) believed that the sun represented the spiritual essence and presence of God and should be placed at the center of the universe.

In the Keplerian universe, the planets orbited around the sun and remained in their orbital paths; these paths, however, were elliptical rather than circular. This was the big prize: by revising Copernicus's model through the use of Brahe's calculations, he produced a mathematical model of the universe that perfectly predicted planetary motions (Hooker).

Galileo Galilei: Galileo (1564-1642) combined the two roles of observer and theorist and, more than anyone else, provided the empirical discoveries that cinched the Copernican-Keplerian universe. In 1609, bought a curious new Dutch invention, the telescope. While the telescope had been around for a few years, he was the first to use it to systematically look the heavens. Galileo insisted that all physical description of the universe would of necessity be a mathematical description. His revolutionary argument was this: if a physical model…… [read more]

Solar Flares Affect Planet Earth March 13 Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (953 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Solar Flares Affect Planet Earth

March 13, 2009 marked the twenty-year anniversary of solar flares that impacted the earth. The sun may not seem like a place with weather phenomenon but the Earth's closest star does experience frequent storms and the occasional flares that radiate to Earth. NASA defines a solar flare as "a sudden, rapid, and intense variation in brightness" that "occurs when magnetic energy that has built up in the solar atmosphere is suddenly released," ("What is a Solar Flare?"). In a recent Scientific American article, Adam Hadhazy describes what took place twenty years ago and how solar flares generally affect planet Earth.

In "A Scary 13th: 20 Years Ago, Earth Was Blasted with a Massive Plume of Solar Plasma," Hadhazy notes that solar flares could "pose a serious threat to satellite operations and even to power grids on the ground." The flares release energy "the equivalent of millions of 100-megaton hydrogen bombs exploding at the same time," ("What is a Solar Flare?"). Although regular flares are common and relatively innocuous for earthlings, a coronal mass ejection (CME) is a more severe and intense spewing of a billion tons of plasma or ionized gas (Hadhazy). On March 13, 1989, a CME entered the Earth's magnetosphere, "crashing into it," as Hadhazy describes. Usually the magnetosphere shields the earth from solar wind and "solar jetsam," but the March 13, 1989 CME set of a geomagnetic superstorm. The 1989 CME was "the size of 36 Earths" and "ripped through space at a million miles (1.6 million kilometers) per hour," (Hadhazy).

The sun experiences cyclical weather patterns much like the earth does, except the sun's cycle lasts about 11 years. Currently the solar cycle is at its nadir or "solar minimum," (Hadhazy). The next peak of the solar cycle will be in the year 2012, and is likely to cause intense solar activity. Peaks are referred to as "solar maximums," (O'Neill). The 2012 solar maximum could release a flare as large as "the energy of 100 billion Hiroshima-sized atomic bombs," (O'Neill). At the other end of the spectrum are the mild solar winds that continually emit from the sun and hardly affect the earth, largely because of its protective magnetosphere.

Solar flares and CMEs are relatively predictable because of the cyclical nature of solar storms. The Space Weather Prediction Center and the Space Weather Web site offer daily updates on solar conditions. Flare prediction involves observation from Earth using telescopes and equipment that can detect radiation signatures, but the detection of x-rays and gamma rays demands equipment staged outside of the Earth's atmosphere ("What is a Solar Flare?"). Several such systems are set up for solar flare prediction at the Earth-Sun Lagrangian Point such as the Advanced Composition Explorer (O'Dell). Unfortunately, x-ray flares that emit from the sun are extremely difficult to predict because x-rays travel…… [read more]

Krimer, L. &amp Goldman-Rakic, P. ) "Prefrontal Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,290 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Krimer, L. & Goldman-Rakic, P. (2001) "Prefrontal microcircuits: Membrane proper ties and excitatory input of local, medium, and wide arbor interneurons." The journal of neuroscience 21(11), pp. 3788-96.

This study incorporates advances in mathematical modeling as well as technological improvements in measuring capabilities to identify heretofore unknown differentiations in axon form and functions, specifically in regards to their arbor size.

Research conducted by the authors also confirmed the results and deepened the understanding of other neural identifiers and functions, especially an understanding of the relationship axon differentiations in size/structure to function and transmission speed of axons (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). Of overriding importance to the authors of this study was the role that lateral inhibition plays in neural transmission throughout the cortex; to this end, research was focused on the relationship of primary neurons to adjacent local neurons in areas known from previous research to be involved with memory formation, storage, and retrieval in an attempt to determine the overall role of pyramidal-neurons in neural transmission (Krimer & GOlcman-Rakic, 2001).

The role of pyramidal neurons as signal neurons for adjacent neurons to fire in the visual cortex had been previously discovered and described, and the authors of this study wished to determine to what extent the same functions occurred in other cortical functions, specifically memory (Sillito, 1975; Eysel et al., 1998; ctd. In Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). To achieve this, three groups of inteneurons with predominantly horizontal axonal arbors were classified based on the size of these arbors, and measurements relating to activity were conducted (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001).

Similar studies had previously been carried out on primates and in rats, but this study relied on ferrets (Lund & Lewis, 1993; Kawaguchi, 1995; ctd. In Krimer & Goldman-Rikac, 2001). This required the decapitation of the ferrets and the quick cold storage of their brains. Preparation of the cortical tissue for measurement and analysis was a complex process; neuron pairs could only be identified visually after removal of the frontal cortex and the cutting of this portion into sagittal sections only four hundred micrometers thick (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). Samples were then incubated at approximately thirty-five degrees Celsius for at least one-and-a-half hours before submersion in a perfusion chamber with a complex liquid and gas mixture at a temperature of thirty-one to thirty-two degrees Celsius (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). All of this was in preparation for the actual visualization of the neurons.

This was accomplished using infrared differential interference contrast video microscopy, greatly enhancing the contrast of materials in the prepared samples and enabling the researchers to identify and select eighteen usable neural pairs with which to begin their measurements and the real heart of their research (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). In order to identify neural pairs that would fit the specific needs of the research question at hand, the authors of this study were examined for certain physiological features. Those with a smaller cell size (in comparison to nearby pyramidal neurons) and lacking apical dendrites were identified as laminae II/III… [read more]

Nature's Second Eye Photography and the Camera Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,992 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5



Photography and the Camera through the Years

Photography has gone a long way in recording and visualizing natural phenomena, with the camera as the device. Both have evolved through the centuries.

The precursor was the camera obscura in the 1700s. The first photograph was taken in 1835, the first patent for photography awarded in 1840. The first… [read more]

Peasant Life During the Meiji Restoration Thesis

Thesis  |  20 pages (5,967 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Peasant Life During the Meiji Restoration

The Meiji Restoration brought political, social and economic changes in the life of Japan that needed a period of sacrifice, like most of the changings following a revolution or a change of system in the life of a country. The transition from the Tokugawa to the Meiji period is considered a period of abrupt… [read more]

Scientific Method Thesis

Thesis  |  3 pages (947 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Scientific Method in Thought and Deed

The scientific method consists of five main steps: observation, formation of a question, a hypothetical answer to that question, a prediction of events based on the hypothesis, and finally, a test of that prediction. In this paper, I will outline the process for an experiment concerning plants' response to light, explaining each step of the scientific method. Following that is a brief example of how a friend and I recently used the scientific method to settle a friendly dispute, again in a step-by-step explanation.

The Plant Experiment


Plants growing near windows tend to grow towards the window, getting leafier and taller on the side nearer the glass, and sometimes actually leaning towards the window.


What makes plants behave like this -- that is, grow towards a window as opposed to neutrally or in any other direction?


Because plants rely on light for photosynthesis, the process by which they produce their energy, plants respond to and actually reach out for light. It is the light coming through the window that causes the plants growth to be uneven, and that causes the leaning in some cases.


Plants whose light source was specifically limited to one side or another would show significant changes in growth pattern, growing towards the light source both in overall volume of leaves and other matter, as well as the entire plant leaning from the stem towards the light source.

The Experiment (Testing the Hypothesis/Prediction):

To set u this experiment, the ideal set up would be a dark room with an individual darkened compartment for each plant, each with an identical light source differing only in its placement. These compartments would need to be large enough to allow growing room, and be well-ventilated without letting external light through. The interior of the compartments would ideally be black, to minimize reflection from the light source. Each plant would have a unique light source, shining on it from a unique angle -- some from the north, some south, etc. -- to control for any directional growth tendencies plants might have. The plants should all be of the same species, ideally from the same seed batch, and all aspects of plant care aside from light must be exactly the same for every plant. The experiment must control watering levels, soil the and density, and nutrients administered to minimize any effects these influences would have on the results.

Several control plants would also be useful -- one in a darkened compartment with light shining directly down on the plant, perhaps in a more reflective (white) compartment, several with multiple light sources shining from different directions, some grown in a controlled environment outside the compartments entirely, in full ambient light. All other conditions for the control plants (i.e. water, soil, etc.) should be identical to the plants…… [read more]

Flat Thomas L. Friedman's First Books Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,978 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Flat

Thomas L. Friedman's first books on globalization, such as the Lexus and the Olive Tree, written in 1998, focused on the second era of globalization, that according to the author lasted from 1800 to 2000, when "the Internet and e-commerce were just taking off." The more recent "The World is Flat," on the other hand, focuses on… [read more]

Choosing Copiers, Scanners, &amp Printers for Law Offices Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,459 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Copier/Scanner/Printer Comparison for Law Offices

Selecting Copiers, Scanners and Printers for Different Sized Law Offices

One of the harsh realities of modern jurisprudence is the amount of paper that continues to be generated for almost any type of activity undertaken by lawyers today. Notwithstanding the promises of a paperless office that accompanied the introduction of word processing technology in the… [read more]

Relationship Between Moralities and American Society Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,126 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … moralities and American society

The school and the family are the two primary sources the Americans get their teachings about how to discern between what is right and what is wrong in their early stages of life. Religious institutions play their role, too in the educational process of the American children. On one hand, they are taught the importance of distinguishing between right and wrong and acting rightly. On the other, society is showing them different meanings of acting "correctly" everywhere and all the time. Steven Carter has written a whole book on the topic of integrity and he was determined to write a whole book about it because of the dilemma he and the entire American society faces when it comes to such a sensitive subject. He is explaining in the opening chapter of his book, titled the Rules about the Rules how he came to the idea of this object of study. Sports and cheating in football offered him the opportunity to ask himself how he should explain to his children the decision of a football player to fake the catching of a ball in order for his team to win points.

The author tells the story of his first successful (up to a point) attempt to chat that happened in his childhood, when participating in a school game. The child was not aware of the consequences of his misconduct. He only knew that he was acting so that he could win the game. The teacher exposed him in the end and the feelings of shame and guilt staid with him his entire life. The author sets thus an example of how children learn at some point about the importance of following the rules. The internet and the satellite transmission, the whole victories of the present high tech that is making the life of Americans so easy today are also powerful tools in proliferating with the speed of light success stories of people who won the game by putting their personal interests above those of the society and even bragging about their success. Carter's opinion on the state of morality of our nation is rather categorical. Among his examples to support his opinion that the Americans lack integrity is that of a book such as one teaching the readers how to win video games by breaking the rules of the games:..."it captures precisely what is wrong with America today: we care far more about winning than about playing by the rules." (Carter, 179). His examples about contemporary Americans cheating at a national scale continue with some winners of different kinds of contests that are supposed to set a positive example to the nation and in fact have just the opposite goal since the winners break the rules and take shortcuts in order to win. They were exposed in the end and disqualified, but that only makes one wonder how many others have done the same and never been exposed. Some nations have a saying claiming that… [read more]

Victorian Period Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,834 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Journal Exercise 5.1A: Morality Then and Now

The literature of the Victorian Period expressed fascination and fear
with technology and machinery. Thomas Carlyle stated that man's ability to
use tools is all he is in his philosophical work Sartor Resartus. In John
Stuart Mill's On Liberty, the author stresses the idea that the individual
is supreme and sovereign over all… [read more]

Fire Protection Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,677 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Fire Science - Firefighting Equipment


Firefighting in organized form began in New Amsterdam in 1648, sixteen years before the colony was renamed New York. In those days, firefighting equipment consisted of nothing more than leather buckets, hooks, and ladders all transported by hand and horse-drawn carriage. At that time, the primary duty of the… [read more]

Birth of a Star Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,029 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Birth and Life of Stars and Dwarfs

Stars twinkle and shine pretty in the night sky but they are actually complicated heavenly bodies. They are like us in that they are born, live their stellar lives, and then die. The early phases of a star's life begins when an "early phase of gravitational collapse," (Dasch) forms a "stellar embryo" (Dasch). Gas falls into the embryo, heating it up and when the embryo becomes warm enough, it begins resisting gravity. At this point, the embryo is called a "protostar" (Dasch). Grace Wolf-Chase maintains that this gas is "vast agglomerations of gas and dust" (Chase). Some of matter around the protostar begins to accumulate in a disk shape, rotating around it. Forces of gravity cause the disk to pick up speed and move toward the center. However, the gas and dust must slow down in order to fall onto the protostar. Chase notes, "Recent theoretical work suggests that this is accomplished through the interaction of the material with magnetic fields that thread the disks of protostars" (Chase). The protostar's magnetic field is eventually bent into an hourglass shape, which throws off gas, which slows down the disk. Matter from the disk is now able to fall onto the protostar. Chase surmises, "Planets may eventually form within the disk" (Chase). The resulting mass of the protostar will shape how it evolves. Stars evolve in patterns, which is also associated with their mass. There are generally three types of stars, which are high-mass stars, intermediate mass stars, and low-mass stars. In early stages, stars produce energy through a "stage of nuclear fusion called hydrogen-burning" (Dasch). Again, depending on the star's mass and density, more stages may follow this first stage. All stars finally stop burning and explode, an act that completes the star's evolution.

Jeffrey Hall observes, "Nature is filled with symmetries, and this is one of the most enchanting symmetries. The death of one star triggers the birth of new stars" (Hall). Stars die as a result of the hydrogen-burning process. As hydrogen burns, the star's core grows. Stars that have less than half of our Sun's mass will eventually burn off all of their hydrogen and "end their lives as helium white dwarfs" (Dasch). Stars that have larger masses will experience a growth in their core, which increases its temperature until nuclear fusion begins to take place. This takes place in the form of burning helium and when this starts, the star does not expand but instead becomes hotter. When all of the helium is burned away, the core of the star will shrink and its outer layers will expand and cool.

This process will eventually turn the star into a super giant. The star is still expanding, forcing the outer layers to drift from the stars gravitational force. This loss is continuous and when the star's mass becomes less than times as massive as our Sun's mass, we call it a carbon-oxygen white dwarf. White dwarfs are just one… [read more]

Sony Camera Functionalism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,039 words)
Style: Chicago  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Sony Cybershot digital camera exhibits a blend of form and function. Formal elements convey function, and function is communicated via form. The features that the Sony Cybershot shares with pre-digital cameras include all the elements that make a camera what it is: a lens; some kind of viewfinder; and a trigger to take shots. However, the digital camera possess several features that demonstrate the different functions between a digital and film camera. The Sony Cybershot in particular offers user-friendly functions specific to the art, hobby, and science of photography. Moreover, many of the Sony Cybershot functions are hidden, embedded in the camera's hardware and firmware or simply invisible.

For example, image stabilization is a feature the Sony Cybershot boasts. The feature enhances the ability of the digital camera to withstand shaking or any other instability that might affect picture quality. Image stabilization is a function that is not necessarily conveyed through form; the feature is built into the camera's hardware and firmware. Similarly, many of the camera's features are not apparent functions; the user needs to become familiar with the links between form and function on this particular model.

The circular dial is the form used to alert the user to the various photographic functions for the Sony Cybershot. Auto record mode is a function that makes the Sony Cybershot easy to use for novices. The setting is accessed via the mode dial, and auto record essentially transforms the Sony Cybershot into a point-and-shoot camera. The function of a point-and-shoot is to simplify the act of taking pictures. The user simply turns on the camera, points the lens at the desired object, and "shoots" by pressing what used to be known as a shutter button on a non-digital camera. The regular program mode is also accessible via the mode dial. On the regular program mode, the user has access to the full range of functions that the Sony Cybershot has to offer. All of the programmed functions are embedded into camera firmware or software. They are not visible and are accessible only via the digital menu. The form that menu takes is projected on the LCD screen. That same screen is used when taking photographs: whatever item is within the camera's lens range is viewable in the LCD monitor. The monitor is the form; its function is to show the viewer what the lens is picking up.

As with all cameras, the lens is its eye. Its form is a small piece of convex glass. When the camera is on, a lens cover is removed and light enters the lens. Its primary function is to let in light and capture visual reality the same way the human eye does. In addition to a lens, the Sony Cybershot also has a built-in microphone. Its form is a tiny, barely noticeable aperture that lets in sound. Just as the lens is the necessary form for letting in light to accurately capture visual reality, the microphone is the necessary form by which the… [read more]

Red Light Cameras Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,994 words)
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Red Lights Camera


Red-Light Cameras

Department of Transportation reported that more than 92,000 crashes have resulted in 900 deaths every year by drivers beating red traffic lights (Harvey 2005). Red light running or beating the red light has been identified as a significant cause of accidents at signalized intersections (Hakkert 2004). Studies on accidents at such intersections… [read more]

Speedy Harold Lloyd's 1928 Film Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,083 words)
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Harold Lloyd's 1928 film "Speedy" -- a study of its cinematography, lighting and characters

The 1928 film "Speedy" starring Harold Lloyd at first seems like a curiosity piece for a 21st century viewer. The black-and-white film starring the silent film comedian, the bespectacled Harold Lloyd, is about the conflict between progress and the values of an older age, embodied in the grandfather of the film's heroine Jane Dillon and a group of Civil War veterans who take Pop Dillon's side as he fights to get a fair price for his horse and buggy route from the city transportation syndicate. The film upholds the glory of American technological progress, even while it shows respect to Pop. It emphasizes the joyous, rollicking life of the title character, played by Lloyd, who is often at the wheel of an automobile, and is always in motion, as he bounces from job to job. Speedy's zest for life and his flapper girlfriend command the viewer's laughter and love. To contemporary viewers, the film is silent, and its visual humor and cartoon-like motions and plot make it look like something from the past, but the theme and style of the film is brash, action-packed, and sees modernity and glory of the automobile as benign, not dangerous.

One of the notable features of the cinematography of the silent era is the way that it emphasizes physical action, rather than sustained close-ups. Lloyd's features command the viewer's attention because of the stark black glasses he wears, which are a sharp contrast against his white face. He looks almost like a cartoon character, and the camera usually focuses on large, exciting images and movements throughout the film, rather than on detailed close-ups. This is especially true during the final series of car chases and fights. The action scenes make use of frequent jump cuts, but most of the shots focus on 'wide' action, rather than on small details, unless a close-up is necessary to illustrate a sight gag.

The first job the audience sees Speedy performing is that of a soda jerk. The scene is filled with comic machinations about serving his various customers. The title character is also a Yankee fan. In a wonderful touch of old New York Americana Speedy uses the soda fountain telephone to get updates of the Yankees-White Sox game (which was apparently just as contentious a baseball rivalry then as it is today). Speedy keeps the customers updated on the score by taking bites in various pastries in a display case, in another striking visual. During his next job, he is a taxi driver, and gets to take Babe Ruth in his cab on a high-speed chase, terrifying even the famous baseball player. Then, the Babe himself is seen slugging it out in Coney Island at Yankee stadium, in a shot taken from a stadium-dweller's vantage point. Whether driving a cab or running the gamut of strange-looking rides at Coney Island, Speedy is always one of 'us,' the viewers, as the film… [read more]

Shadow Collective Archetypes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,409 words)
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¶ … Collective Cultural Shadow and Confrontation with the Archetypal

During the 1960s, a musical group called Jefferson Airplane created a popular song called White Rabbit, based on the Lewis Carroll children's fantasy Alice in Wonderland. In the book, Alice follows a white rabbit down a rabbit hole into a world that is bizarre, where she has an adventure of… [read more]

Nursing Religion and Nursing How Did God Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,186 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0




How did God become real in your life?

My family instilled my Christian values ever since I can remember. I was always taught that all of my actions are visible to God and that I should conduct myself in ways that would make God proud of me even if no other people knew what I was doing. This realization has always helped me do the right thing, especially when there would have been no negative consequences (on Earth) of doing the wrong thing.

In several instances, I believe God has helped me avoid the consequences of my own mistakes, in particular, where those mistakes would have caused my family undeserved grief and sorrow, and possibly also because God intended my life to accomplish something meaningful later. One example that comes to mind was the day that I was driving inattentively. I was not paying close enough attention to the road and accidentally drove right through a very busy intersection through a red traffic light. As I entered the four-way intersection at approximately 30 MPH, vehicles with the right of way did the same in both directions perpendicular to my direction of travel. A large tractor trailer passed within inches of my front bumper from the left side and at least three other vehicles did the same from the other direction just behind me, all at approximately the same speed as my car.

By the time I realized what I had done, I was already safely through the entire intersection and I had to stop for a few minutes to compose myself. As I sat there thinking about how lucky I was, I realized that I had stopped directly opposite a church of God. I took this as a sign from God that there is no such thing as "blind luck" but that my salvation on Earth on that occasion was an act of God's mercy. I believe God revealed himself to me in this manner to remind me that He is always with me as well as to remind me that my continued good fortune on Earth is a joint venture with God doing His part to motivate me and me doing my part to conduct my life responsibly, both to myself as well as where others are concerned, since my carelessness could have caused tremendous harm and grief to others through no fault of their own.

2. How has being a Christian affected your life?

Being a Christian has given my life meaning in the sense that I know that my life has a much larger purpose than my personal happiness. My religious faith in God's expectations of me (as I understand them) has helped me persist through difficult situations as well as to conduct myself in a manner consistent with my commitment to Christian ideals when my natural impulse might have been less consistent with those values.

For example, as a human being, I cannot help but to experience impulses that might cause me… [read more]

Tragedy and Comedy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,496 words)
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Tragedy and Comedy

The theater can be considered as a reproduction of the fundamental conditions of human existence. The theater can be seen as a set of symbols reconstructing the conditio humana as a basic theater representation contains all the trials and tribulations of life. Acting can be deciphered as the attempt to assume a different identity. In this sense,… [read more]

Fiber Optics Technologies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,207 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Fiber optic technologies are typically used within local (LAN) and wide-area networks (WANS) as this specific type of cabling is capable of very high transfer rates while at the same time not requiring repeaters to strengthen signals as they go across the cable from one location to another on a network. Fiber optic cabling is typically used for those networks… [read more]

Culturally Relevant Metaphors From My Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (726 words)
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¶ … Culturally relevant metaphors

Metaphors from my culture rule of thumb" is a common metaphor for an inexact measurement. It is a means of estimation made according to a rough and ready practical rule, not based in science or exact requirements. Although, apocryphally it was supposed to refer to an old English law that "allowed a man to beat his wife with a stick so long as it is was no thicker than his thumb" the real origin is unclear, and likely "refers to one of the numerous ways that thumbs have been used to estimate things," in England such as "judging the alignment or distance of an object by holding the thumb in one's eye-line, the temperature of brews of beer, [and] measurement using the estimated inch from the joint to the nail" ("Rule of Thumb," 2007, the Phrase Finder).

This phrase actually reinforces how so many of our current measurements, like the foot, are historically based upon the human body, and actually only became a standardized measurement later on in our culture. It also illustrates our belief that it is sometimes acceptable and good to use our own judgment as a rough, reliable guide, and to obey intuitive common sense, and the common sense of others when measuring things.

Another, more recent phrase; "cut to the chase," which means to get to the point and leave out unnecessary things, has purely American origins. It has roots in the film industry, reflecting hidden impact of cinema on American life. "Many early silent films ended in chase sequences preceded by obligatory romantic storylines" ("Cut to the Chase," 2007, the Phrase Finder). It is even noted in early silent screenplays: "Jannings escapes... Cut to chase,' is a common direction. The phrase was included in a manual on screenwriting and then got picked up by newspaper editorial writers as a metaphor for other issues ("Cut to the Chase," 2007, the Phrase Finder). It became popular because it satisfies the American demand for speed, and also plain-spokenness and action.

A metaphor from another culture

In her essay "The difficulty of adjusting to American culture for Japanese business executives, Diane Choi explains a common metaphor in…… [read more]

Shakespeare Land of Enchantment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,360 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1



Land of enchantment

From the very beginning the play imposes a visual spectacle. The actual representation of the storm and of the shipwreck comes as a challenge.Even if it is possible on paper, its incarnation on the stage requires a lot of effort. For the time when it was written, it stands as remarkably experimental. Shakespeare forces the limits… [read more]

Sales and Sales Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (947 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Sales and Sales Management

Article Summary
In the article, Avoid the Four Perils of CRM[1], authors Darrell K. Rigby,
Frederick F. Reichheld and Phil Schefter provide insightful analysis and
guidance from their collective experience advising companies on how to
augment their marketing, selling and service strategies more effectively
using Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software. Collectively the
authors concur that the need for companies to first define their strategies
and the processes required to accomplish their goals is the first step to
effectively layering in CRM as an IT investment.
The four perils the authors mention include implementing CRM before
creating a customer strategy, rolling out CRM before changing your
organization to match, assuming the more CRM technology the better, and
stalking, not wooing your customers. These four perils all either directly
or indirectly relate to change management, a key lesson the authors expand
upon in their examples of how CRM implementations can typically fail. An
excellent insight from the article is that the mere automating of customer-
facing processes does not guarantee success of a strategy; in fact this is
another point of failure. Instead, the authors contend, it is better to
focus on the entire series of systems and their integration together, all
aligned with customer-driven strategies for CRM to be successful. The
mentioning of order fulfillment, a core process of ERP systems and
manufacturing processes, exemplifies this point of the authors as well.
Relating this article to the textbook, there are many supporting points
made by the authors that in turn illustrate the need to first have a solid
market and customer segmentation strategy in place, and this includes a
consistent prospecting and selling strategy as well. Simply applying Sales
Force Automation (SFA) applications to a sales force can just speed up the
alienation and even anger of prospects, unless time has been taken to
device sales strategies that approach these critical groups as they want to
be communicated with. For example if a prospect opts into an online
newsletter out of interest in its content, or decides to download a white
paper on a subject of interest, CRM systems must be used to provide the
customer information and content that aligns with their interests first.
Just because a prospect opts into a newsletter or white paper download
doesn't not give the marketing department a license to spam them with
everything the company can think of sending. That is a key lesson learned
from this article when considered in light of the books' many excellent
insights into selling. Prospects have specific ways they choose to gather
information, learn about and evaluate alternative products, and finally,
have widely divergent approaches to how they specifically want to purchase
products. The book makes many excellent recommendations of how to create
lasting and value-driven relationships for customers, and the point of the
article in light…… [read more]

Security Vulnerability Assessment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (935 words)
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Facial recognition technology has improved drastically in recent years, and is becoming a viable method for augmenting traditional security measures. It has been implemented and tested (although with varying degrees of success) by a variety of government agencies and private institutions in an effort to provide more reliable security and identity confirmation, as it is not as prone to fraud like traditional, non-biometric identification. Facial recognition is a type of biometric that relies on recording "the spatial geometry of distinguishing features of the face" (John D. Woodward, Horn, Gatune, & Thomas, 2003, p. 3). In terms of security, biometric authentication affords the strongest method of identity verification, since ID cards and/or passwords can be transferable between persons, or forged by malicious third parties.

Facial recognition relies on the capturing of facial images, which are then referenced and compared against an existing database of images. It is in this regard that facial recognition has an advantage, since it can effectively utilize legacy image databases, and does not need, for the most part, a new infrastructure. This type of biometric security can be helpful in supplementing traditional surveillance measures, as it can reliably and quickly locate criminals or terrorists with more accuracy and speed than even the most highly trained security personnel. The advantage of facial recognition technology over other forms of biometric authentication are that facial recognition surveillance relies on public images, the capturing of which is a non-intrusive and contact-free process, and integrates with existing camera surveillance equipment (John D. Woodward et al., 2003, p. 7).

II. Past Uses

Biometric-based surveillance relying on facial recognition technology has been employed in the past, with varying degrees of success. In 2002, the NIST conducted a large-scale test of the accuracy of facial recognition technology at the U.S. Naval facility in Dahlgren, VA. The test was primary used to gauge the reliability of facial recognition technology for access control, with successful results. In an NIST brief, it was noted that the probability of correct verification with a sample of 33,000 individuals was roughly 89%, with a false alarm rate of 1%. The difficultly in interpreting this result to support the viability of wide-scale surveillance, however, arises from the controlled nature of the test. When facial recognition technology was used to test the viability of biometric access control with no ambient light control, such as outdoor conditions, the accuracy for facial recognition is only 47% (Summary of NIST Standards for Biometric Accuracy, Tamper Resistance, and Interoperability, 2002, pp. 15-16).

Another recent field test assessing the viability of facial recognition technology was conducted by the German government, to determine the accuracy for photo identification at points of entry. This test was started in April 2003, and ended in July 2003 at the BKA (Federal Criminal Police Office) in Wiesbaden, Germany. The results…… [read more]

Intercity or Intercontinental Rail System Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,369 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


St. Petersburg, Russia Metro

What would St. Petersburg Russia be without its metro system?

Rail travel is of incredible importance in today's world. Around for
200 years, recent 20th century develops have contributed to this importance
as in numerous metropolitan areas throughout the world, travel on high
speed railways are critical to functioning. Contributing greatly to
urbanization and increased growth of existing metropolitan areas, urban
metro or subway systems are preferable means of transportation. Recognized
for their convenience, energy efficiency, safety, and low cost (even self
sustaining financially at times), railways within metropolitan cities will
continue to be of great importance to transporting people (Japan Fact
Sheet). Daily life would be incredibly inefficient in countless cities
throughout the world without the benefits of high speed travel within a
city, which is often located underground for extra convenience and
contributing to their practical functioning as a primary means of
transportation. This is particular evident in St. Petersburg, Russia,
where the metros are continuously in use and both cost and time efficient,
yet still packed and often people's primary means of travel throughout the
city. According to recent articles on the St. Petersburg Metro, primarily
a 2004 article by Irina Titova, the St. Petersburg Metro, despite its
incredible high rate of usage, still can and needs to be expanding.
Because of this, a case study of the St. Petersburg Metro illustrates the
importance and long-term viability of underground railway systems within
metropolitan areas. The St. Petersburg Metro exemplifies the importance of
rail travel within a metropolitan area, as St. Petersburg, Russia would be
unable to function properly without an adequate and extensive metro system
that is of paramount importance in moving people throughout the city.
The St. Petersburg metro is an adequate system that is used
extensively by most of the inhabitants of St. Petersburg because it offers
numerous benefits. The St. Petersburg Metro is the easiest, cost friendly,
and most effective way to get around the metropolitan area (Bennett 1993).
Any guide of the city for a foreigner illustrates this point emphasizing
the need for the Metro to see the city. In an August 8th, 1993 article
entitled "The Daily Drama of St. Petersburg," author Philip Bennett makes
very clear the importance and necessity of traveling on the metro in a fast
paced and large city such as St. Petersburg. Constructed in the 1950s and
one of the deepest in the world, this metro is usually packed as it is
necessary for many of the residents of St. Petersburg. Rush hour in the
metro, as busy as it may be, is important for the movement of people, as
without it there would be an incredible overabundance of people traveling
above ground, so much so that the city could not function properly. This
trend is showing no signs of declining, and the St. Petersburg Metro's
availability and benefits contribute to it being an adequate system that is
an integral aspect of transportation in the 300 year old city.
In fact, a more… [read more]

Greek Drama Represented a Melding of Art Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,517 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Greek Drama represented a melding of art, religion, and philosophy, and the form of the drama evolved as the playwrights of the time expressed themselves in this medium. In examining drama, Aristotle considers the most successful dramas of his time and decides what it is that they have in common. It is this analysis that leads to his concept of… [read more]

Oceanography Identifying the Current Location New York Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,030 words)
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Identifying the current location

New York belongs to the state bearing the same name and is situated on the north-eastern coast of the U.S.A., at the point where the Hudson River flows into the Atlantic Ocean. The city's geographical coordinates are latitude 40047'N and longitude 73058' W. The city is renown for its cultural aura, but also for its… [read more]

Cell Phone Radiation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,758 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Cell Phone Radiation

The Silent Enemy



Concerns for All Ages

In Light on Concerns

The Big Question

The Privilege to Listen


The Silent Enemy


Cover-up? Conspiracy? Cancer? These three words, according to Brown (59) conceivably could denote concerns not loudly proclaimed due to.".. major government cover-ups and big business hush-ups, with the poor, innocent… [read more]

Peary Cook Controversy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,078 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Peary and Cook: The 100-year battle for the North Pole

In 1891, polar explorer Robert E. Peary was on one of the many failed attempts to reach the North Pole that defined his early career when disaster struck. He injured his leg, which could have been a life-threatening condition in the severe arctic cold. Fortunately, a young doctor on… [read more]

Willa Cather Lost Lady Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Willa Cather

Lost Lady" was written by Willa Cather as the fruit of her pondering the changes brought in by the extinction of the old society when facing the rise a of new order.

The action is taking place in a small and peaceful town in Virginia, named Sweet Water. We are introduced to the main characters in an almost heavenly set up of a property consisting of a house built on a hill in a lane. The owners are the Forresters, husband and wife: Marian Forrester and Captain Forrester.

The captain is the character who impersonates the old world with its old fashioned cavalry and sense of duty and honor. To this character, present during the whole story, the author opposes another type, representing the triumph of the new order: Ivy Peters. This is the new man who has all it takes in order to succeed in the new society where the sense of duty and the love for fair play are replaced by greed, lack of scruples, the will to win by any means. There is a single character caught up between these two worlds, struggling to survive by the means she had at the time. This woman-character is the best impersonation of the relationship between change and loss. Usually, change means evolution and is seen in a positive light. In this case, change meant loosing identity and commonsense.

The story unfolds little by little and the keys are given only by the end of the story. There are hints all over it, but only the explanations given in the last ten pages bring some light into the readers mind when it comes to understanding the meanings of the actions and the very existence of the characters. There is no doubt left when in chapter seven of part two, Captain Forrester's widow, by then, Mrs. Forrester is brought in the merciless light by the author's blade cutting all the way, sharply, handled with the precision of a surgeon, unveiling the plain truth: "It was Mrs. Forrester herself who had changed. Since her husband's death she seemed to have become another woman. For years, Neil and his uncle, the Dalzells and all her friends, had thought of the captain as a drag upon his wife; a care that drained her and dimmed her and kept her from being all that she might be. But without him she was like a ship without ballast, driven hither and thither by every wind. She was flighty and perverse. She seemed to have lost her faculty of discrimination; her power of easily and graciously keeping everyone in his proper place."(A Lost lady, pag. 56) These words are describing not only the main woman character, but also the society suffering big changes at the beginning of the 20th Century.

This book is all about changes. Mrs. Forrester's husband, the captain, the railroad contractor, the character who saves from death a stranger who letter becomes his wife, the man who chooses to loose his fortune… [read more]

Nanotechnology Development and Uses Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (806 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The objective of this work is to research and examine the development and uses of Nanotechnology.

The basic definition of 'nanotechnology' is: "Engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale." (Center for Responsible Nanotechnology, 2006) According to the Center for the Responsible Nanotechnology "Molecular manufacturing means the ability to build devices, machines, and eventually whole products with every atom in its specified place." (2006) In 1959 an after-dinner talk described molecular use of machine building thorough means that were atomically precise. Nanotechnology was referred to again in 1974 by Taniquichi in a paper relating to the ion-machining process. In 1977 concepts of molecular nanotechnology are formed by Drexler at MIT. In 1982 the first technical paper on molecular engineering was presented. The first 'Think Tank' report was published and the first nanotechnology company 'Zyvex' was founded. The first nanotech industry report was released in 2001 jut one year after President Clinton had announced the U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative. Congressional hearings on the societal implications took place during the year 2003.


According to the article entitled: "Small Wonders" (2004) published in The Economist: "Nanotechnology does not derive from a single scientific discipline. Although it probably has most in common with materials science, the properties of atoms and molecules underpin many areas of science, so the field attracts scientists of different disciplines." (Ibid) Some of the developments and uses of nanotechnology are manufacture of burn bandages which are made antimicrobial through an "addition of the nanoparticiles of silver." (Ibid) further stated is that."..fabrics have been stain- and odor-proofed by attaching molecules to cotton fibres that create a protective barrier. Tennis rackets have been strengthened by adding tiny particles that improve torsion and flex resistance. Other applications include coatings for the hulls of boats, sunscreen, car parts and refrigerators. In the longer term nanotechnology may produce much bigger innovations, such as new kinds of computer memory, improved medical technology and better energy-production methods such as solar cells." (Ibid)


Those who support nanotechnology state a claim that."..it will lead to clean energy, zero-waste manufacturing and cheap space travel, if not immortality..." while those opposed state a fear that it."..will bring universal surveillance and harm to the poor, the environmental and human health through self-replicating 'grey goo'." (Ibid) Nanotechnology is in its infancy but promises to all areas of life because it."..cuts across many scientific disciplines…… [read more]

Video Surveillance Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,715 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Video Surveillance

In today's highly technical post 9/11 society, a new industry is developing, particularly in more developed nations such as the United States, China, Japan, and across Europe. This industry, commonly known as the video surveillance industry, has developed dramatically over the course of the last ten years, and with this development has come many obstacles, including technological, governmental,… [read more]

Fiber Optics New Advances Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,398 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Fiber Optics

History of Fibre Optics

Advantages and Disadvantages)

Advancement of Fiber Optic Technology

Fiber Optics

The later half of the twentieth century has witnessed dramatic developments in the field of data communication. The tremendous growth in telephone traffic as well as the ever-increasing demands for radio and television transmissions, forced the search for alternative and more efficient data transmission systems. The idea of using light as a carrier of data created a paradigm shift to the telecommunications domain. Simply, the higher frequency of light waves implied that more data could be packed. Being a digital transmission technology, fiber optics became the much preferred communication technique in today's digital world. Fiber optic networks are fast replacing the traditional copper wires in telecommunication networks throughout the world. Let us have a brief overview of the history, the science, the advancements and the application areas for this new age technology.

History of Fibre Optics

John Tyndal, the famous British physicist, discovered the phenomenon of total internal reflection of light in 1870. This discovery is widely regarded as the key to the science of fiber optics. But Alexander Graham Bell's Photophone was the first practical application of light as a medium for carrying data. Graham Bell's photophone transmitted sound waves using light up to a distance of 200 meters. Then in the early fifties the development of the fiberscope, and the introduction of cladding technique to minimize loss of signal made optical transmission a more promising possibility. However, the discovery of laser technology in 1960 was the first major breakthrough in fiber optics. [David R. Goff]. The high power and precision of the laser diode enabled the possibility of focusing a minute area with intense light energy. Gradually in the 1970's the improvement in glass purification process made it possible to limit optical signal loss to less than 20db/km making fiber optics telecommunication systems a practical possibility. Further improvements in the technology of light emitters, as well as fiber production, gradually lessened the signal attenuation below 2db/km and present day optical fibers reach a theoretical minimum optical loss of.2db/km, making optical fibers the most efficient signal transmission medium. [Jeff Hecht]


Optical fibres are nothing but thin strands of highly purified glass that transmit data in the form of light. These individual glass strands have a diameter of around 120 micrometers and are bundled together as optical cables that can transmit data upto 50 Km without the need for repeaters. Each optic fiber can be divided into three distinct layers namely the innermost layer or the core, the cladding layer that immediately covers the core and the outermost buffer coating made of plastic that is designed to protect the fiber from weather and other external damages. While the core is the glass medium on which light travels the cladding layer is used to reflect the escaping light back into the core and thus minimize the optical signal loss. The lower refractive index of the cladding material facilitates reflection of light back into the… [read more]

Anatomy and Function of Vision Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,729 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Anatomy and Function of Vision

This report is about the human sensory system and perception function of seeing or vision. The report delves into the physical anatomy of the specific areas involved for a person to see and therefore appreciate his or her immediate external environment. We humans often take vision for granted but it is truly a crucial aspect… [read more]

Historical Underdogs as Demonstrated in Malcolm X And Seabiscuit Films and Books Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,320 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … traditional story of the underdog in American culture is of an individual who is continually underestimated, yet eventually comes out on top because of his or her pluck and determination. America is a nation where, the ideology of one of its Founding Fathers suggested, every citizen is entitled to the right to the pursuit of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. The advent of modern capitalism further conspired to create a culture where the ideology of the self-made entrepreneur held sway, the individual who could fashion his or her self out of whole cloth, guts, tenacity, and ingenuity -- and make a handsome profit off of these qualities, as well as making 'good' as a person.

Of course, there are many fissures in this ideology, the most notable of which was the 3/5ths compromise. This early part of the Constitution suggested that every enslaved Black man was only worth 3/5ths of a white man on American soil -- it enshrined the perpetuation of the institution of slavery into the Constitution until the end of the Civil War nearly a century later. But even after the Civil War, institutionalized and non-institutionalized racism limited the social and economic advancement of African-Americans. For example, the memory of being terrorized by the Klan was a searing image in the mind and memory of the young Malcolm X

Malcolm X stated that he hated, even in his own face, seeing the heritage and parentage of the white slave owners who raped his maternal relations, in the form of his red hair and paler skin tone than some of his fellow Black brothers. When Malcolm X (then called Malcolm Little) was six years old, his father Earl Little was killed by a group of white supremacists that opposed his father's work for Black Nationalist groups. After Earl's life insurance company refuses to pay what it legally owed the family, by claiming that Earl's death was a suicide, the Little family was split apart. Malcolm, at an early age, was cast upon the mercy of a world that valued him, in the prophetic words of his first given surname, very little.

Malcolm did not give up on himself, at first. But one searing event nearly destroyed his confidence. When Malcolm was thirteen years old, then temporarily living with a white foster family and going to a white school, Malcolm was elected president of his class, and had top grades in all of his subjects. However, the principal of his school mocked Malcolm's desire to be a lawyer when Malcolm grew up. The principal said it was unrealistic for a Black man to dream of such an accomplishment. Later, Malcolm X was to trace that event as one of the events that precipitated into his eventual life of drugs, crime, and prison. The most democratic of American institutions, the school, which was supposed to provide every American child with the tools to better him or herself in mind and spirit, cut Malcolm rather than cured… [read more]

Impact of Modern Telecommunications on Diplomacy Term Paper

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Telecommunications and Diplomacy

Telecommunications is the science and technology of communications at a distance by electronic transmission of impulses, as by telegraph, cable, telephone, radio or television (Lexico Publishing Group 2005). Up to the 1800s, information was sent through pigeons and horse-driving couriers and visual systems, based on observation of flags, lanterns, heliographs and semaphore signals (Caslon 2005). But these… [read more]

Older Adults and Physical Disabilities Motor Impairment Wheel Chair Bound Term Paper

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Older Adults With Disabilities

Life expectancy is the number of years a person or given group can expect to live from a given period until death (Osir 1999). Life expectancy in the U.S. At birth was 25 years for men and 30 for women in 1900 and grew to 72.5 for men and 78.9 for women in 1995. This was first attributed to decreasing infant mortality, improved sanitation and living conditions, more effective treatment of disease and then to better medical management of chronic disease, lifestyle changes and improved nutrition. Life expectancy figures among older people have been projected at 18.5% of the U.S. population in the 2025 from 12.8% in 1996, with the 85 and above bracket as the fastest growing sector. This trend has posed important quality-of-life issues, such as whether this increase in longevity will be active or disability-free expectancy.

Research findings provide sufficient evidence that people are now living longer but there is no sufficient evidence that longevity, among all ethnic groups, will be matched by future increases in health delivery (Ostir 1999). Medical advances in early detection and prevention of chronic disease, especially heart disease, and the increasing awareness on how to maintain a healthy lifestyle have combined to enhance longevity. Moderate physical exercise, such as aerobic conditioning, improves flexibility, strength and balance and reduces or prevents disability. The findings noted ethnic or racial disability differences according to socioeconomic status, health care awareness and access to health care. Some studies trace a genetic component to the predisposition of certain ethnic groups to certain diseases, such as diabetes mellitus among Mexican-Americans, and, in turn, predict an increase in future disability among them..

Another study examined the relationship between environmental factors and community mobility in older adults and the environmental problems that affect their access to goods and services (Cook 2002), which health care professionals concerned with these older adults' mobility training. The study said that older adults, with or without disabilities, walk an average of 300 meters in shopping or visiting a health care practitioner. The current standard of independent walking at 45.7 meters without assistance seriously undermines the distance walked by older adults with and without disability in obtaining goods and services within the community. Temporal factors include the ability to cross the street according to the time allotted by traffic light or density and the maintenance of an appropriate speed in walking. Trips to the community were associated with only a few street crossings. People who walk very slowly put themselves and others at risk for collision. Some tasks also require a reasonable time for which a minimum walking speed is needed. According to the Three-Minute Walk Test, the gait speed in older adults with disabilities was half that of those without disabilities and should explain why those with disabilities performed only one activity in each trip.

Visual defects and other problems also lead the older community to prefer daytime trips (Cook 2002). Their ability to detect edges, size of objects and surface properties… [read more]

Security Issues in IEEE Wlan's 802.11 Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (6,613 words)
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¶ … Security Issues in IEEE WLAN 802.11

In geek speak, the IEEE 802.11b standard is the family of specifications created by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. For wireless, Ethernet local area networks in 2.4 gigahertz bandwidth space. The rest of us English-language users should think of IEEE 802.11b as a way to connect our computers and… [read more]

Global Positioning System GPS Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,286 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The receiver resets its own clock to synchronize with the satellite clock. Thus the latitudinal and longitudinal position coordinates are easily calculated. [Marshall Brain]. These receivers are available in different forms and shapes and are typically hand held devices that can be mounted on planes, ships, automobiles, etc.

Errors and Corrections

Errors in GPS signals may be of different types like noise errors, Bias errors, clock errors and signal transmission errors due to atmospheric interference. Noise errors may result from the PRN code noise and the noise surrounding the receiver. The PRN code noise is an inherent problem in wireless devices using spread spectrum technique of signal dissemination. The GPS transmitters transmit the GPS data along with PRN code as one big spectrum and hence at the receiver's end the PRN code needs to be generated and synchronized. (locked) Each satellite has its own unique PRN code and the receiver has to uniquely identify these satellites from these PRN codes. [Eurofix] Other errors include SV clock errors and other atmospheric interactions on the signal propagation. Also, at the receiver's end signals may get reflected off big structures creating interference and consequent delays. (Multipath errors) For high precision navigation aids differential positioning GPS can be used which gives an accuracy of around 1 to 10 meters. [Peter H. Dana]

GPS Applications

GPS finds newer and newer applications everyday. The most standard uses for GPS include surveying and mapping of land and water regions and providing accurate details for airborne geophysical surveys for resources locations. GPS is an accurate and precise navigational tool for sailors, ships, cargo movers, aircrafts and also for land-based transportation vehicles. Vehicles fitted with GPS receivers can be accurately traced for location. GPS offers an easy means of hunting down vehicle thieves and serves as a deterrent. GPS is an indispensable tool in the hands of rescue operators particularly those engaged in rescuing mountaineers who are trapped in inaccessible areas. Researchers doing archeological surveys find GPS to be an indispensable tool. From military perspective GPS is immensely useful for 'Photo reconnaissance' and 'military intelligence purposes'. Modern Spy planes and unmanned vehicles use GPS signals for automatic navigation purposes. GPS is at the heart of 'Automatic Weapon guidance' system using which missiles navigate and strike the target with accuracy.[ Chris Rizos] Recreational applications include monitoring of gliders, parachuters and lighter aircraft fliers. However, as mentioned above the fields of application of GPS is literally unlimited as more and more new application areas are emerging. For example GPS currently finds application in the field of distributed computing in calculating the delays in network analyzers and in synchronous optical networks.


GPS is a revolutionary breakthrough in the field of navigation making every possible position on the planet to be traced with accuracy. An indispensable navigational aid for aircrafts, ships and for those traveling in remote locations of the earth, the GPS also finds numerous applications in diverse fields. From the simple surveying, and transport applications to the more important military… [read more]

Royal Navy and German Navy in 1904 and the Dreadnought Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,909 words)
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¶ … Royal Navy and the German Navy in 1904 and the Dreadnought

By 1904, Great Britain was so concerned about German naval capabilities that it began to devote more and more of its national budget to military preparedness in general and expansion of its naval fleet in particular. What is the significance of the word 'Dreadnought' in this context?… [read more]

Beachcraft 1900d and Gulfstream 4: Detailed Aircraft Comparison Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,821 words)
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Beachcraft 1900D/Gulfstream IV

L. Jones

The Beachcraft 1900D and the Gulfstream IV:

Characteristics and Utility

Whenever one examines the features, capabilities, and functions of a particular aircraft, be it designed for commercial or private use, it is important to consider several factors. Of course, high among those are the particular "specs" of the aircraft or aircrafts in question, the performance… [read more]

Romeo and Juliet: Act II Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (869 words)
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One cannot really see clearly in a night lit by lightening. Juliet notes that as soon as one says that the lightening has provided a bit of light by which to see clearly, the light is gone. Thus, we are told, will be the light giving love of the two lovers -- it will be nothing like the love of the day, of sunlight. Again, this underlines the theme that is a love of quick light, like the stars, and love of the night, like the stars or a lightening storm, not of a nourishing, life-generating light.

Juliet's sense of foreboding is so strong, she admits she does not even delight in the verbal contract or betrothal of the two lovers that night, although she delights in Romeo's nearby presence. Because their love is forbidden, even the contract must be formed by night, in secret. The stress upon "good night" expresses gratefulness for night's ability to give her love, and of how the night alters the appearance of Romeo, giving him cover in her family's orchard. Still, it also suggests that night is, unlike the love of the day, the star-crossed romance of Juliet and Romeo exists outside of the day-by-day social institutions that can provide a stable framework for a permanent romantic alliance.

Juliet briefly compares their love to a flower as well, first budding then in bloom. It will become fully open when the two of them next meet. The sexual implications are clear -- these two young buds will be ripened and mature and ready for marriage and physical enjoyment, when they meet next. But the quick, verbal bud to flower progression also suggests the theme of a star-crossed, hasty speed once again, a kind of speeded-up film of romance, to use an anachronistic metaphor borrowed from time-stop film frequently employed in documentaries about flowers coming to maturity.

Even the way that Juliet says good-bye to Romeo suggests foreboding on the part of this astute yet rash young woman -- she wishes his heart good rest, as if he is already heading to a sweet and final resting place. Her reference to her own rest in her breast will later take on a terrible foreshadowing of its own, as the young woman, awakening in her own tomb, uses her beloved's dagger to commit suicide and bring her to a final rest, through death, next to Romeo.

Work Cited

Shakespeare, William. "Romeo and Juliet." Text available online at The Literature Network. . http://www.online-literature.com/shakespeare/romeo_and_juliet/10//… [read more]

Tattoo Removal the History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,266 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


For this reason, Tylenol is recommended for any pain relief required in the days prior to laser treatment. Since lasers are a bloodless methods, the side effects are minimal, and infection is not the concern it is with excision, dermabrasion or salabrasion. However, since individual treatments require time to heal, tattoo removal via laser methods are often done in several… [read more]

Data Input, Output, Storage Devices Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,671 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


5 inches and 5.25 inches. The latter has become totally obsolete, it being used on large mainframes and XT computers now. 3.25-inch floppy disks are still being used today. They provide storage capacity of about 1.44 MB of data. The single most benefit of floppy disks is that they provide for easy transfer of data from one place to another.


CD ROM is the newest form of secondary storage device that is here to stay but somewhat its use would be considered obsolete in the coming years. DVD ROMs would take their place. CD ROM stands for Compact Disk Read Only Memory. It means that they can only be written at once and their data cannot be changed. But in certain cases like that of CD RW the data can be read and changed back and forth. They can store up to as much as 700 MB of data.


Tape has seen the light of the day in its heydays when the use of XT computers was on the rise. It, of late, has become obsolete in the computer world.

Role of each in determining the speed of the computer

RAM: This brings to the user fast available data. This is quicker than the hard disk. RAM is also called the primary storage within the computer.

Clock Speed: The clock speed determines the number of revolutions that the hard disk rotates within a second.

Data on Hard Disk: If the data is aplenty, then the speed of the computer would be slow but this can be aided by increasing the RAM or getting in a new hard disk.

Data on CD-ROM: This data can just be viewed and read but cannot be written (changed) to. It also is an important factor in determining the speed of the computer.

Data on Floppy Disk: Floppy disks slow down the activity of a normal running computer when they are being used. This is due to the less revolutions per second capability of the floppy disks as compared with hard disk and the RAM. [Author Unknown, 2004]

Works Cited

Author Unknown, 2004 General Computer Basic Input/Output System Overview URL 1: http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=299697

Tyson, Jeff, 2004 How BIOS Works URL 2:…… [read more]

Wireless Local Area Network Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,716 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Since Wireless LANs use the air as their data transport medium, they are vulnerable to unauthorized use and eavesdropping. The hawkers sometimes use a network "sniffer" to monitor and steal network information from Wireless LANs with much ease than a wired LAN.

Moreover the range and connectivity of the Wireless Network depends on the strength of RF signal which is adversely affected by the complicated factors like building, structure, room layout wall construction, RF emitting devices like microwaves etc. This has a direct effect on the throughput of the wireless connection. It is also essential to carefully coordinate the wireless frequency in order to avoid malfunction and signal washout. The location of Access Points also determines the performance of the Wireless LANs. Irrespective of so much worries, the Wireless LANs have their own beauty in terms of flexibility, scalability, mobility which can not be undermined and of extremely useful to a particular Mobile Group of users. [What wireless is/is not]


1. Prem, Edward C. "Wireless Local Area Network" Retrieved at http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu / Accessed on 04/01/2004

2. Wireless local area networking an introduction http://www.tomsnetworking.com/network/20010822/wlan-01.html Accessed on 04/01/2004

3. What wireless is / is not retrieved at http://bits.eller.arizona.edu/services/resources/WLAN / whatiswireless. Aspx Accessed on 04/01/2004… [read more]

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