Study "Physics / Quantum Theory" Essays 111-164

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Teleradiography Computer Technology and Medicine Revolutionary Combination Term Paper

… Teleradiography


Revolutionary Combination

The recent fusion of state-of-the-art computer technology and medicine, called teleradiography, has excited radiologists for its capabilities. The 2002 Akmerican Heritage Stedman's Medical Dictionary describes teleradiography or teleroentgenography as a procedure, which is… [read more]

Oedipus Rex in Oedipus the King Term Paper

… Oedipus Rex

In Oedipus the King by Sophocles, the central character is high-born, a king, and a man of power, but by the end of the play he has been destroyed. He loses his kingdom, his sight, and his place… [read more]

Milky Way Galaxy Term Paper

… Milky Way Galaxy, named for the hazy band of light that stretches across the dark skies of the night, is a very large structure made up of more than 200 billion stars (including our own Sun and planets) and a… [read more]

Newton's Three Laws of Motion Term Paper

… Newton's Three Laws Of Motion

Three laws of motion, published in 1687 by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, formed the basis of modern classical mechanics and dynamics. These laws were initially explained on the example of simple physical objects, but their application expands over objects of different nature and in general, classical physics of universe is based on them. Newton's three laws of motion supplemented knowledge of physics and mechanics and gave a deeper explanation of law of universal gravitation and Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Systematization of dynamics and motion knowledge, which is provided by these laws on the hand with mathematical apparatus of calculus, gave an impulse to the development of different branches of physics: mechanics and its brunches, electromagnetism, optics, molecular physics.

Three Newton laws are postulated as follows:

First Law: Objects in motion tend to stay in motion, and objects at rest tend to stay at rest unless an outside force acts upon them.

Second law: The rate of change of the momentum of a body is directly proportional to the net force acting on it, and the direction of the change in momentum takes place in the direction of the net force.

Third law: To every action (force applied) there is an equal but opposite reaction (equal force applied in the opposite direction).

The first law is also called law of inertia or principle of Galileo, saying that uniform motion is motion with constant velocity (constant speed in linear path). Constant velocity also implies that the object moves without acceleration and that the net force (or vector sum of forces which act on the object) equals to zero. The first law of motion states that a resting object will move only when forces acts upon it and moving object will not experience change in velocity until it experiences force upon it. The first law seems to be very easy for understanding and quite obvious, but at the same time it's impossible to prove it directly under usual conditions. There are not objects, which will be moving with constant velocity forever, and there are no objects, which are at rest forever: friction forces, microscopic dynamics and other factors contribute to interruption of inertia. It's a well-known fact that a launched ball or hockey puck will…… [read more]

George Orwell's 1984 Post-9/11 America Term Paper

… George Orwell's 1984

Post-9/11 America is an uncomfortably appropriate time to be taking a look at literature like George Orwell's 1984. Given the current political climate of the United States, Orwell's dark, repressive world hits close to home. As Winston… [read more]

Line Parabola Hyperbola Exponential Term Paper

… inear equations -- as shown by line graphs -- are used to describe two quantities that are directly proportional with each other by some amount. An example of this is the formula for computing distances and speed. The distance traveled by an object is directly related to its speed. The faster it moves, the farther it goes. The formula for computing the distance is D = S*T where'd = distance, S = speed, and T = time. For example, a person walking at a constant speed of 4 feet/second will traverse the distance for each second that passes:


Parabolas are produced using quadratic equations of the form y = Ax^2 + Bx + C. A real life example is the formula for acceleration: s = ut + 1/2(at^2), where'd = distance, t = time, and a = average acceleration. The distance traveled is proportional to the square of the time. Another interesting example is the path of an object thrown upward. It will travel up and fall down along a parabolic path as described by the equation y = v0t - 1/2 gt^2, where v0 is the initial velocity, g is the acceleration due to…… [read more]

Digital Video Production Term Paper

… ¶ … script was a democratic process i.e. It was the script that most of us elected to use. My personal reason for choosing this script was based on what I considered at the time to be the most fluent,… [read more]

Medical Uses of Electromagnetic Radiation Term Paper

… This form of radiation also kills germs and is widely used to sterilize rooms, exposed body tissues, blood plasma, and vaccines (Ultraviolet pp).

Gamma rays are used much the same way as X-rays, such as diagnostic purposes and as well as in the treatment of cancer (Gamma pp).

Infrared radiation is thermal, or heat, radiation, and was first discovered by Sir William Herschel in 1800, "who was attempting to determine the part of the visible spectrum with the minimum associated heat in connection with astronomical observations he was making" (Infrared pp). Then in 1847, A.H.L. Fizeau and J.B.L. Foucault proved that infrared radiation has the same properties as visible light, being reflected, refracted, and capable of forming an interference pattern (Infrared pp). Infrared radiation is used in a number of medical purposes, ranging from the simple heat lamp to thermal imaging, or thermography (Infrared pp). "A thermograph of a person can show areas of the body where the temperature is much higher or lower than normal, thus indicating some medical problem" (Infrared pp).

Works Cited

Electromagnetic radiation

Gamma rays



Ultraviolet… [read more]

Nanotechnology Is the Predictable Capability to Form Term Paper

… Nanotechnology is the predictable capability to form things from the base level by the application of the tools and methods that are being devised presently to set each of the atoms and molecules in its desire place. When such type… [read more]

Free Speech Controversy Term Paper

… Freedom of Speech

Although judges can declare any statute plain, they always have a variety of ways to declare it unclear. English has a multitude of ways to be vague. In his 1963 article "Vagueness and Legal Language," Christie argues that it is, in part, this vagueness in language that allows the law to perform many of its social functions. It is, he adds, an "important addition to the legal tool chest" (p. 886).

Before continuing, Christie makes it clear that he is going to specifically address vagueness, not ambiguity. The first usually pertains to general terms that have an open textured meaning. There is a doubt about the boundaries or scope of the word. He gives terms referring to colors as an example, because many shades exist. The second term, ambiguity, refers instead to an instance where the general term may be "clearly" true in some cases and "clearly" false in others. The word, itself, can be interpreted in more than one way. Is a "light" book light in color or light in weight?

Christie addresses two forms of vagueness. The first is the search for vagueness. Sometimes an interpreter may disagree with the remarks of a speaker but have to act upon them. In such cases, this provides a means for the interpreter to look for vagueness and say "he couldn't have meant this, so he must have meant this." The listener has the opportunity, then, to throw out one possibility for another one that conforms more with his/her personal standards. Language becomes the scapegoat. As John Adams said to J.H. Tiffany in 1819, "Abuse of words has been the great instrument of sophistry and chicanery, of party, faction, and division of society."

Christie then questions: who can disagree that this technique of using vagueness is not justified -- within reasonable bounds, that is. Legislatures and judges are not perfect and will make mistakes.

The second form of vagueness is when legislation is purposely written vaguely. Notes Christie:

The importance of the flexibility that vagueness gives to all normative methods of social control can scarcely be overestimated and is recognized by all. It allows man to exercise general control over his social development without committing himself in advance to any specific concrete course of action. Without such flexibility, man would have to choose between no regulation and the impossible task of minute specification of what is and what is not to be permitted. (p.890)

The best example of this, he says, is the "due process" provisions of the fifth and fourteenth amendments of the Constitution. Christie also gives the example of the Supreme Court ordering that integration of schools proceed "with all deliberate speed." It was left to the lower courts to decide what this meant in each specific case.

Here is where Christie makes his main point: Such "purposeful vagueness" can be a good thing in legislation. Christie further makes the point that vagueness in law may be desirable for the public good. For example, in the… [read more]

Killer Whales Term Paper

… Another theory indicates that killer whales dive deep down to feed on bottom fish like halibut, rock fish and greenling. The populations of these fishes are just 2% of what they were in the 1950s. (Ylitalo et al. 2000)

Toxic Exposure

PCBs or polychlorinated hydrocarbons via toxic waste dumps, oil spills and industrial and human refuse pollution is the main culprit for the high levels of toxicity in killer whales. Killer whales are predators at the top level of the food chain. Any toxic pollution would accumulate in high levels as we move up the food chain. The pollutants cause tissue contamination and infertility as well as a high probability of epizootic disease. ("Issues Affecting the Southern Resident Orcas" 2004)

Vessel Traffic

High boating activities in coastal areas reduce the breathing space of orcas which is an essential aspect of their habitat. There is a greater probability of collision between a vessel and an orca or on the other hand the orcas would avoid collision and change their routes. ("Issues Affecting the Southern Resident Orcas" 2004). When killer whales surface to breathe they are instead subjected to exhaust fumes of a vessel (Matkin et al. 1997)

Underwater noise

Underwater noise pollution caused by vessel traffic, sonar and various other activities and devices seriously harms the orca habitat.("Issues Affecting the Southern Resident Orcas" 2004) Orcas depend on echolocation for hunting and traveling, they chirp, click, squeak and whistle in order to communicate with other members of the pod. This vocal environment is disturbed by noise pollution. (Ylitalo et al. 2000)


As a result of all these harmful activities the status of northern residents is 'threatened', southern 'endangered', transient 'threatened' and off shore 'special concern'. ("British Columbia Killer Whale Adoption Program" 2004)During the last five years resident population has fallen by 4.9%. If all issues are accounted then the estimation for extinction of killer whales is 74 years, 95% confidence interval of 33 to 121 years. (Ylitalo et al. 2000; Taylor & Plater 2000)


Author not available], British Columbia Killer Whale Adoption Program, [Online] 2004 Available at Accessed 4/2/04

Author not available], Issues Affecting the Southern Resident Orcas, The Whale Museum, [Online] 2004 Available at Accessed 4/2/04

Author not available], OMPlace, The (Orca) Killer Whale, Whales in Danger Information Service, [Online] 2004 Available at Accessed 4/2/04

Lacey, RC, Hughes, KA and Miller, PS 2000. Vortex: a stochastic simulation of the extinction process. Chicago Zoological Soc.

Matkin, C.O., D. Schel, G. Ellis, L. Barrett-Lennard, H. Jurk and E. Saulitis. 1998. Comprehensive Killer Whale investigation, Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project annual report (Restoration Project 97012). North Gulf Oceanic Society, Homer, Alaska.

McCain, B.B., et al. 2000. National Benthic Surveillance Project: Pacific Coast. Organic Chemical Contaminants Cycles I to VII

1984-90). NOAA, Seattle.

A van Ginneken, A, D. Ellifrit and Balcomb K.C. 2000. Official Orca Survey Field Guide. Center for Whale Research, Friday Harbor,


Ylitalo et al. 2000. Contaminants in Killer Whales, The Science of the Total Environment… [read more]

Postmodernism Post Modernism and Individualism Term Paper

… Postmodern thought favors reflexivity, individual responses, and self-consciousness, fragmentation and discontinuity ambiguity, simultaneity, and an emphasis on the destructured, decentered, dehumanized subjects.

Modernism tended to present a fragmented view of human subjectivity and history, but presented that fragmentation as something… [read more]

Light Energy Illustrates the Techniques Term Paper

… "However, if you do not proceed systematically, you could spend days without achieving one observation" (The Speed Of Light). The complexities that Galilio and Roomer may have faced in their experiments could have been the distance. Another reason, which adds to the complexity involved in measuring the speed of light, is its value.

The value of the speed of light is considered to be very important because according to many scientists nothing can travel at a speed greater than the speed of light. According to Einstein, "Strange things happen to matter as it approaches the speed of light. Matter becomes compressed as it gets within 10% of the speed of light, such that a ruler would appear shortened. Also, the mass of the matter starts to increase" (Kurtus 2002, The Speed Of Light).

Hence, after continuous efforts, the speed of light was finally determined and thus resulted in a debate whether any matter could travel at a rate faster than that of light. Experiments are still being conducted by many scientists in determining various other techniques, which could be employed in determining the speed of light.


Botha A. (2002), The Speed Of Light, [Online], Available from:

[12 Feb. 2004].

Fowler M. (1996), The Speed Of Light, [Online] Available from:

[12 Feb. 2004].

Kurtus R. (2002), The Speed Of Light, [Online] Available from:

< > [12 Feb. 2004].

The Speed Of Light, [Online] Available from: [12 Feb. 2004].… [read more]

Age of the Universe Understanding Term Paper

… Butcher's experiment found that the Thorium to Neodymium conversion was negligible and most of the initial Thorium was still intact even in the oldest of the stars. So the result from butcher's experiment suggests that the age of the universe is around 8 billion years. But the problem with the radiometric approach is that the success of the method depends of our precision in assuming the initial concentrations of the isotopes. [Jon Covey]

Redshift Measurement and Age of the Universe

Redshift refers to the change in the apparent wavelength of light received from a moving astronomical source. As the distance of the light source increases there is a shift towards the red end of the spectrum. This is called the red shift. Edwin Hubble, the famous astronomer was the first to find the expansion of the galaxies using the shift in the spectrum. Presuming that the universe is expanding at a constant speed its age can be calculated by simply dividing the distance between any two galaxies by their speed. However the gravitation force between galaxies is under a constant flux and hence the speed of the galaxies also changes. To rectify this problem scientists used a value known as the Hubble's constant. [Author not Available]. The age of the universe is calculated using the following formula. v = H (o) r; where v is the velocity and r is the distance from earth. [Jon Covey] Current measurements using Hubble's redshift method indicate the age of the universe to be around 13 to 15 billion years which confirms well with the big bang theory.


The different techniques for arriving at the age of the universe are based upon different assumptions. For example the red shift method of calculating the age of the universe is dependent on the belief that the universe is continuously expanding. (Based on the Big bang theory). The radiometric dating method again depends on the correct appreciation of the initial concentration levels of the isotopes. In conclusion we can state that each method is dependent on certain assumptions, which we are yet to validate with any degree of accuracy. However there is no question of doubt that we are moving forward in our attempts at finding order in a chaotic universe.


Edward L. Wright, "Age of the Universe," Accessed on November 29th, 2003,

Jon Covey, "Age of the Universe," Accessed on November 30th, 2003,

Author not Available, "Redshift: A Measure of Distance," Accessed on November 29th, 2003,… [read more]

Baseball Bats Today Term Paper

… This is again due to the inflexibility of the wooden bat. A wooden bat actually bends and bows during a swing, then snaps back into place. Pitchers used to dealing with wooden bats may also purposely throw pitches inside to… [read more]

Ibn Sina the Great Avicenna Term Paper

… In addition, Shifa, his famous treatises in philosophy, includes al-Najat and Isharat (Philip K, 1970).

His contribution in music was an improvement over Farabi's work and was much more ahead of knowledge existing somewhere else on the subject. He doubled the fourth and fifth which was a 'great' step towards the harmonic system, while doubling with the third appeared to have also been acceptable (M.A, 1983).

Furthermore, Ibn Sina's Qanun has many of his anatomical findings that are even recognized now. Not only being the first physician he was also the first scientist who described the minute and graphic description of various parts of the eye, like cornea, conjunctive sclera, choroids, iris, layer lens, optic nerve, retina, aqueous humour, and optic chiasma (Watan Afghanistan).

Lastly but not the least in contribution to the scientific world, Ibn Sina condemned speculations and assumptions in anatomy and called upon physicians as well as surgeons to support their knowledge on a close study of human body (The Islamic World to 1600). His observations were that Aorta at its origin has three valves, which open as the blood flows into it from the heart during contraction and closes and during relaxation of the heart so that the blood may not be poured back into the heart. He also stated that the movements of muscles are possible due to the nerves supplied to them, as well as to the perception of pain in the muscles due to the nerves (The Islamic World to 1600).

Works Cited

Edward G. Browne (1921) Arabian Medicine, London, Cambridge University Press.

Philip K. Hitti (1970) History of the Arabs, 10th ed, London, Macmillan, pp 367-368

M.A. Martin (1983) in The Genius of Arab Civilization, 2nd ed, Edited by J.R. Hayes, London,

Eurabia Puplishing, pp 196-7

The Islamic…… [read more]

Math to Answer Everyday Imponderables Term Paper

… The three most important ideas that I got are rather simple in nature, yet they are interesting and at least appear free of serious errors. The first one is the calculation of capacity of phone lines between two given cities. This helps in finding out how telecommunication firms determine the capacity needed to handle phone calls between two cities. Obviously there has to be a formula to calculate this or otherwise busy routes would either get jammed or stop working altogether in the absence of appropriate capacity. The author explains that this can be calculated by a formula whereby the capacity is proportional to the product of the population of two given cities and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. However the rather weird part is the application FPS unit system. It must be borne in mind that most of us are familiar with metric unit system while FPS has become rather obsolete.

The other important idea is the calculation of windchill equivalent temperature, which helps in determining the possible effects of cold winds and temperature on our bodies. The author suggests that just the temperature is not enough to choose the appropriate clothing. It is important to find out the speed of winds too. Together they give us windchill equivalent temperature. Brookhart explains that if you were exposed to air that is 5 degrees Fahrenheit and wind that has a speed of 15 miles per hour, the total effect on the body would be the same as if you were exposed to -25 degrees F. air and no wind at all.

Apart from these two interesting concepts, the third significant one is lottery odds calculation. Through a slightly complex formula, the author suggests that the odds of selecting the correct six numbers drawn from 1 to 49 are 13,983,816 to 1. Certainly not a very good news for this lottery crazy nation.

The book also helped me recently when I got a chance to apply my improved problem solving skills to one of my friends asked for my help for one economics related problem. She wanted to know if there was some way we could predict which nations would thrive in the coming years based on the knowledge we already possess.

Referring to Clint Brookhart's book and subject of numeracy, I explained to her how development is intricately connected with proper use of mathematical concepts. Therefore we can predict that the nations more likely to thrive economically will be the ones with greater numeracy rate. Sadly that eliminates America. I based my conclusion on the fact that almost every major development of the past has mathematics ingrained in it. For example, computers and the Internet wouldn't have been possible had it not been for mathematics.

The very structure of computer is based on mathematical computations. Similarly computer interprets everything that we view or download from the Internet in Binary code. Without good understanding of mathematics, it would have been impossible to develop any computer application.… [read more]

Sir Isaac Newton: The Story Term Paper

… Ultimately, Newton was appointed master of the Mint, and made a considerable fortune as he profited directly from each coin minted (245).

However, Newton did not completely keep out of the world of academics, and was elected president of the Royal Society, which he ran with an iron hand. In a shameful incident he used his influence to conspire against John Flamsteed, an astronomer, who was attempting to publish a new atlas of the stars (261). Newton had blamed his inability to make certain calculations about the moon work out because of data Flamsteed had provided (262). Eventually, Flamsteed got his scholarship published but not before Newton showed fully the vindictive and petty side of his nature (265). It was around this time that the invention priority of calculus also became an all-consuming distraction (273). But all of Newton's life was not simply politics, he also embarked on a new edition of the Principia, at least partially because the first edition was difficult to find (274). This new edition expanded and strengthened Newton's ideas and cleared up several significant problems (275).

Eventually, near the end of his life, Newton left the scientific behind and returned to the theological interests that he had begun when he was younger (299). He wrote two papers that expounded on his idea of the two basic theories of religion -- love of God and love of neighbor (303). He went on to say that the advent of Jesus Christ did nothing to alter these ideas (304). He obviously died with this conviction on March 20, 1726 (311). Thus, in his Life of Isaac Newton, Westfall has documented the life of a solitary scholar, Trinity College professor, government administrator, and…… [read more]

Stop for Death by Emily Term Paper

… In a literary analysis of the meaning of immorality and the belief in life after death, written in 1900 the topic is given real and firm weight by hundreds of learned men from biblical prophets to Greek philosophers, some in belief and some outside of it. (Gordon)

Immortality is clearly one of the most-weighty questions ever debated yet, Dickinson discusses it like she would discuss an article of clothing.

Since then-tis-eternity, and yet, Feels shorter than the day, I first surmised that Horses; Heads, Were toward Eternity." (Dickinson) Noticing the imperceptible passing of time Dickinson expresses the idea of eternity as if it were simply a day, like any other day.

The other set of physical processes from which we derive our conceptions of time are of an entirely different nature: the growth of children, the changes in our own bodies and minds from hour to hour and from year to year, and, on a larger scale, the gradual changes in the earth's landscape of which we are dimly aware. None of these make accurate clocks; none are simple to understand.

(Park 60)

Concepts of time are again treated with so much complexity that many a literary work has been focused on the idea in theory and in reality.

Dickenson treats these very weighty ideals with the lightness an individual might give to planning a Sunday visit to the neighbors. Her imagery is light and whimsical. It is difficult to believe that this much peace might be felt by a person actually experiencing the real voyage she is taking through her life and through the landscape she describes. Dickinson gives the impression from her light treatment of Death, Immortality, and Eternity in Because I Could Not Stop For Death that she might welcome death. She seems to express her expectations of death as both trivial and easy to conceive of.

Works Cited

Dickens, Charles. A Christmas Carol. London: J.M. Dent & Sons Limited, 1914.

Dickinson, Emily. Because I Could Not Stop For Death,

Gordon, George A. The Witness to Immortality in Literature, Philosophy and Life. Boston:

Houghton Mifflin and Company, 1900.

Park, David. The Image of Eternity: Roots of Time in the Physical…… [read more]

Globalization Through the Internationalist Lens Essay

… Globalization

Defining the Concept

Globalization is understood as a concept of increasing integration of people and societies around the world. This condition has been brought about by the reduction of barriers that have traditionally divided people. Those divisions resulted in… [read more]

United Nations in East Timor Successes and Failures Essay

… ¶ … peacekeeping missions of the United Nations in East Timor ultimately turned out to be more or less unique in terms of the history of UN actions. A quick review of the specific details is necessary to analyze the… [read more]

Brazil Tunisia Egypt and Civil Unrest Essay

… Youth of Tunisia, Brazil and Egypt

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

Youth have a way of inspiring change. In developing countries like Brazil, Tunisia, and Egypt, working class individuals have made progress and joined an ever-growing… [read more]

How Vietnam Changed From a French Colony to Independence Research Paper

… Southeast Asia and Australia / Pacific Rim

How have outside influences in the form of arriving people and countries impacted the culture of Southeast Asia and the Australia/Pacific Realms? And what will be the most important influence (positive or negative) in the future? This paper covers those important cultural issues.

Indochina, the French and Americans

About the time the Americans were beginning to go to battle fighting the Civil War, in 1860, the French were just beginning to intrude into Southeast Asia, also known as Indochina. The U.S. History website points out that there were " ... riches to be harvested" in Indochina and those riches were " ... economically enticing to the French." In 1887 the French took total control over many regions of Southeast Asia, calling the area French Indochina. The region the French laid claim to included today's nations of Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam.

The polite translation of "colonie d'exploitation" -- "colony of economic interests" -- clearly pointed to France's reasons for this exploitation. The French colonial government made local people pay high taxes for goods like " ... salt, opium, and rice alcohol," which helped put money in French government's coffers; in fact 44% of the budget for France in Indochina came from those taxes ( Soon the French began serious exploitation of the resources: Vietnam was rich in zinc, tin, and coal, as well as crops like rubber, rice, coffee and tea; Cambodia also had rubber and rice; and Laos had "low-level timber harvesting" (

The Japanese invaded French Indochina in 1941 during WWII, and intended to exploit all its resources as well, but about that time Ho Chi Minh organized a guerrilla fighting force to liberate Vietnam from Japan. After WWII the French tried to reclaim their rights to Indochina but they met their final demise at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, led by Ho Chi Minh's guerrilla forces.…… [read more]

MDG Turkey Literature Review Research Paper

… Turkey

Varol, C., Ercoskun, O. & Gurer, N. (2011). Local participatory mechanisms and collective actions for sustainable urban development in Turkey. Habitat International Vol. 35 (1) 9-16.

This article outlines Turkish progress with respect to Local Agenda 21, which is the section of the Millennium Development Goals relating to sustainable development. Agenda 21 is a massive document, so there are many different definitions and standards by which the nation will be held under this agenda. The authors surveyed five cities in Turkey with respect to their participation in Agenda 21 and whether or not they are meeting the goals set out in that agenda. The authors found that Agenda 21 goals are not generally being met by the Turkish cities, and that the civic authorities feel as though they have had little input into the implementation of Agenda 21 obejctives.

The paper is moderately useful. The main positive is that it is one of the few that actually addresses the UN Millennium Development Goals with relation to Turkey to have been written in an academic journal. However, the methodology is weak, with only five cities being studied and the results of the survey being little more than subjective evaluations on the part of the cities. At some point the barely-controlled sprawl that most Turkish cities face is the responsibility of local government, so their claims that they have little input into or control over the process are specious. That said, there are valid points to be made about the level of cooperation between governments that is required to meet UN Millennium Development goals, and whether or not it is reasonably feasible for different layers of government, with their different interests, to effectively work together towards those goals.

UNDP (2014) The Millennium Development Goals Report 2014. United Nations Development Program. Retrieved October 31, 2015 from

Primary source material from the UN and NGOs will form some of the best material for…… [read more]

Maintaining an Optimal Temperature in the Workplace Term Paper

… Risk Management: Thermal Comfort

Because our homes and businesses exist in a continually temperature-controlled state, it is easy to forget the risks posed by improper temperature management. Risks may be posed to employees if internal heating and cooling systems break… [read more]

Inhibition Drives Early Feature-Based Attention Term Paper

… The second experiment focused on generating conclusions from the first experiment through comparison of the mean P1 amplitude in reaction to target and distractor color probes against baselines from neutral-colored probes. The third experiment focused on joining behavioral evidence that the luminance-detection task stimulated an inhibitory or excitatory feature-based attention block.

The authors found that the neural response induced by distractor colored probes was lessened depending on the response induced through neutral-colored probes at early stages in visual processing. The researchers did not find any evidence for an enhanced neural reaction to target-colored probes based on neutral-colored probes. The data suggest that feature-based attention can change incoming sensory input during an early phase of processing through inhibition of distractor features. Since they detected inhibition consistent with task goals in early stages of visual processing, the authors answer the research question by concluding that inhibition plays a significant role at an early phase of target selection that previously determined. Generally, the study shows the significance of understanding the role of inhibition and activation in attention. The findings of this research highlight the crucial role of inhibition that necessitates consideration in future analysis and models of attention (Moher et al., 2014, p.8).

Article Critique:

While the study highlights and provide insights regarding the critical role of inhibition in attention that can be used for future studies and models, the research design or experiments are relatively unclear. The processes that are used in each of these experiments are relatively the same with very minimal differences between them. It is relatively unclear why the authors used the three different experiments and the specific research design. Moreover, the researchers have not provided comprehensive information about each of the processes undertaken in each of the experiments carried out by the researchers. The other participant is that the researchers do not show how they ensured that the participants had relatively similar visual capacity with regards to normal vision or relatively normal vision. Since the authors provide insights on an issue that has not been previously recognized, further experiments should be conducted to determine the role of inhibition in analysis and models of attention. The future experiments should analyze this issue based on the impact of distractors in the role of inhibition in feature-based attention.

There are other studies that have been conducted regarding the role of inhibition in early feature-based attention. One of these researches was conducted by Liqiang Huang on the speed of feature-based attention with regards to selection. The researcher mainly focuses on examining the speed of attention in relation to processing optimization and the selection of information. After conducting experiments on a group of undergraduate students, the researcher concluded that feature-based attention works through the creation of a spatial representation. The representation is achieved through the stimulus of a feature and a processing optimization of visual information with the region of the spatial representation (Huang, 2010, p.1382). This study seems to imply that inhibition or activation drives early feature based attention.

In conclusion, the… [read more]

Chronic Fatigue in the Aviation Research Paper

… Increased concentration and effort might assist the workers for a few minutes, but this does not compensate for fatigue during the entire shift. People need to understand that fatigue is real and can have a detrimental impact especially on safety… [read more]

Philip Glass: The Light Essay

… The final two sections provide the sense of closure, reflection and the finality of overall achievement.

The piece, "The Poet Acts" is the first composition of Philip Glass's legendary score, The Hours. This is the piece which has the most profound sense of foreboding in perhaps the entire soundtrack to this film. The melody of this piece seems to be riddled with the most profound sense of sorrow: melodically the sounds work together to convey an almost palpable human emotion. This track is entitled "The Poet Acts" because it is used in the film against the moment when Virginia Woolf commits suicide by drowning herself. Thus, melodically, there needs to be a sense of not only palpable human sorrow, but also of a sense of the inevitability of all that is. The suicide is imminent and nothing can be done to stop it. Harmony is the connection between several pitches and is impacted by chord progression. In this regard Glass is able to keep a harmony which is able to adequately influence both the thematic and melodic elements. The rhythm helps to create variance in the accentuation of the sounds over time, while keeping a strong sense of the human heartbeat or pulse, which helps the listener to bear in mind the fact that so much is at stake. In this sense the rhythm is able to help create a clear picture of all that is going on; one is never able to forget just how high the stakes are. The quality of the sound and the color work together to strongly evoke this sense of melancholy. The texture of the piece is able to shimmer, eerily evocative almost of the intangible surface of the water that the protagonist ultimately drowns herself beneath. In this manner, all of the elements of the score are all able to work together to convey both action and human emotion in a manner that few pieces of music can.

Thus, these two pieces, The Light and The Poet Acts, composed by Philip Glass, are both testaments not just to his genius, but to his keen and rare understanding of music, a sense which some claim is both uptown and downtown (Thrasher, 2012). In this sense, Glass is able to harness all the different components of musical composition in one of the most complex ways possible and is able to both convey a meaning along with the specificities of human emotion. Glass uses factors like melody, harmony, timbre and texture to create an auditory canvas which is rich and unparalleled and which helps the listener to better understand an idea.


Glass, P. (1987). Philip Glass - The Light . Retrieved from

Glass, P. (2003). The Hours- Soundtrack. Retrieved from

Thrasher, S. (2012). Philip Glass's Life as an East Village Voice. Retrieved from… [read more]

Spontaneous Playfulness and the Instinctive Research Paper

… Spontaneous playfulness and the instinctive tendency to imitate manifested in children are traits that appear to linger into adult life. Theatre in the form it exists today was born somewhere along humanity's childish behavior combined with the profoundness of thought… [read more]

System Book Report

… ¶ … System Overview

The focus of this project is to design an EPUA (Electrically Powered Ultra-Light Aircraft) for a farmer in the Australia. The problem is to address the problem of tracking the feral animals on the properties. The… [read more]

Patriot Act and Current Developments Term Paper

… References

Bier, William C.S.J. Privacy: A Vanishing Value? New York: Fordham University Press, 1980.

Electronic Communications Privacy Act. Cornell University Law School. N.d. 2008

Kim Zetter, "Few Companies Fight Patriot Act Gag Orders, FBI Admits" Wired Online, 2012,

Privacy Rights Clearinghouse. Fact sheet no18: online privacy. 2007.

Slater, Derek. FBI's abuse of Patriot Act even worse than we thought. Electronic Frontier Foundation. 2007.

Bier, William C.S.J. Privacy: A Vanishing Value? New York: Fordham University Press, 1980


Privacy Rights Clearinghouse. Fact sheet no18: online privacy. 2008 ?

Electronic Communications Privacy Act. Cornell University Law School. N.d. 2008

Slater, Derek. "FBI's abuse of Patriot Act even worse than we thought." Electronic Frontier Foundation. 2007.

Kim Zetter, "Few Companies Fight Patriot Act Gag Orders, FBI Admits" Wired Online, 2012,… [read more]

1931, the Empire State Building Research Paper

… It was after World War II that the Empire State Building became ?an economic force in New York City, one large enough to throw its weight around with both bankers and tax collectors. (Lemire and Flowers 60) It has received a lot of interest and it is regarded, as Smith anticipated, as the landmark of New York City. It is important to notice that renovation work that has been conducted throughout time revealed some of the features that created the building in 1931. A restoration of the lobby revealed an ornate ceiling mural that had been covered in 1960. Likewise, the marble in the lobby had deteriorated in time and was not always substituted to resemble the original.

The efficiency of the working model was an innovative process that allowed a tall building to be built on the technical requirements of a regular edifice with adaptations in size. The materials and the equipment were not necessarily innovative but the manner in which they were used standardized a model. With the various repair works and restorations, the structure remains as majestic as it was in the 1930s.

Works Cited

Lemire, Elise, and Flowers, Benjamin. Skyscraper: The Politics and Power of Building New York City in the Twentieth Century. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania:…… [read more]

Medical Diagnostic Tools Research Paper

… However, it seems likely that a more careful analysis of the risks associated with irradiation might not be worth the relative benefits in other situations (such as in diagnostic uses in which other modalities provide comparable results but with lower radiation-related risks), especially to certain patient populations that have been identified as being more susceptible to radiation-related harm in that context.


Bleise, A., Danesi, P.R., and Burkart, W. (2003). Depleted uranium: Properties, use and health effects of depleted uranium (DU): a general overview. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 64(2/3): 93-112.

Brenner, D.J. And Hall, E.J. (2007). Computed Tomography -- An Increasing Source of Radiation Exposure. New England Journal of Medicine, 357:2277-2284.

Retrieved May 30, 2013, from

Cirincione, J. (2007). Bomb Scare: The History & Future of Nuclear Weapons. Columbia University Publishing: New York.

Einstein, A.J., Henzlova, M.J., and Rajagopalan, S. (2007). Estimating Risk of Cancer

Associated With Radiation Exposure From 64-Slice Computed Tomography

Coronary Angiography. JAMA, 298(3): 317-323. Retrieved May 30, 2013, from

Harbron, W.R. (2012). Cancer risks from low dose exposure to ionising radiation -- Is the linear no-threshold model still relevant. Radiography, 18(1), 28-33. Retrieved

May 19, 2013, from


Schanz, S., Schuler, N., Lorat, Y., Fan, L., Kaestner, L., Wennemuth, G., and Rube, C.E.

(2012). Accumulation of DNA damage in complex normal tissues after protracted low-dose radiation. DNA Repair, 11(10), 823-832. Retrieved May

19, 2013, from… [read more]

Stuxnet Worm Research Paper

… Stuxnet Threat

Cyber security appears to be more and more important as time marches forward. There are many vulnerable soft spots for a virus to attack and weaken any community, city, state or nation. This essay will evaluate some of these vulnerable areas that are susceptible to infrastructure attacking virus's such as Stuxnet. This essay will also present some ideas on how to best protect against these types of attacks.

Marks (2011) suggested that the Stuxnet worm that did some much damage is different. He wrote "it is the first piece of malware so far able to break into the types of computer that control machinery at the heart of industry, allowing an attacker to assume control of critical systems like pumps, motors, alarms and valves in an industrial plant. In the worst case scenarios, safety systems could be switched off at a nuclear power plant; fresh water contaminated with effluent at a sewage treatment plant, or the valves in an oil pipeline opened, contaminating the land or sea." This situation that governments and institutions are faced with presents some real dangers as the entire energy grid that supports and maintains civilization is at risk from a quiet digital virus that can take control from the inside out.

In order to protect these systems it is best to develop some contingency plans that allows the functioning of mandatory system in case of such attacks. If possible it may be wise to…… [read more]

Psychoacoustics on the Music Production and Engineer Field Term Paper

… Psychoacoustics on the Music Production and Engineer Field

The objective of this study is to describe what this course taught about the human auditory system and its relationship to sound. This work will additionally describe how this knowledge can be put to practical use in the chosen area of study or expertise. Psychoacoustics is the study of how one perceives sound. This is in terms of the psychological and physiological effects of sound on the human being's nervous system. (Leeds, 2013) Psychoacoustics is a reported as another "realm" where vibration, frequency, music, sound…all of these are "interchangeable" and according to Leeds (2013) this is because "…they are different approximations of the same essence."

Defining Psychoacoustics

Indeed, the inquiry of psychoacoustics is focused on the experience of listening. The focus of this field is on the use of music for therapy and this pertains to the response psychologically-based either on physiological or neurological reactions to sound. Sounds may be "filtered or gated" and when "tones are slightly detuned" the result is that the brainwaves either speed up or slow down in what is termed as a "sophisticated engineering process" resulting in a "random sonic event." (2013) Leeds states that this "triggers an active listening response and thus tonifies the auditory mechanism, including the tiny muscles of the middle ear. As a result, sounds are perceived more accurately, and speech and communication skills improve." (Leeds, 2013)

III. The Application of Psychoacoustics

The important of psychoacoustics is an important one in today's society. It is important to understand what types of experiences are best for a perceived specific group of individuals as playing music that invoked rage would not be the chosen projection. Rather, in a large crowd, a listening experience that invoked calmness and a relaxed atmosphere would be a likely aim of psychoacoustics applied. The application of psychoacoustics could be used in the treatment of various disorders and treatment by using tone is becoming recognized as effective therapy across many specialties in the field of medicine.

IV. The Many Variables in Psychoacoustic Research

Psychoacoustics takes into account the experience of listening and the fact that the brain is always working to disseminate among incoming stimuli. As well understanding that music and speech are more alike than different and psychoacoustics factors in the visual stimuli and the assignation of these into units that make the incoming stimuli meaningful. Psychoacoustics also factors in the impact of cognition on individual perception of incoming stimuli. It is possible to study psychoacoustics through observation and testing of hypotheses as well as though measurements and analysis and upon solid findings undergoing peer review. Psychoacoustics is very much still in the research stages with the field of many yet undiscovered treasures it is certain.

V. Advanced Psychoacoustics

Advanced uses of psychoacoustics include those related to psychophysics, which shows that sounds begin with a vibration resulting from energy that is mechanically driven. When sound is immersed in air or water the variations in energy are transferred to the space… [read more]

Development and Plasticity of the Brain Vision and Other Sensory Systems Term Paper

… Ch.5

Biologists can develop antibodies against nerve growth factor (i.e., molecules that inactivate nerve growth factor). What would happen if someone injected such antibodies into a developing nervous system?

The nerve growth factor is a neurotrophin that promotes the survival… [read more]

Digital Capture Essay

… Photography

"Photographs are perceived to represent reality in their reference to a subject in time," ("Analog to Digital"). Yet "digital photography challenges the historical belief that photography is representative of reality," ("Analog to Digital," p. 21). A whole new art form has been created, due to changes in the medium itself. Just as other visual arts, and also music, have changed in response to advancements in media, the meaning, form, function, and perception photography has also changed.

The photographer is more of an artist who can capture subjective experience than in the days of analog image capture. Creativity unleashed, the photographer can "edit and create images of objects that never existed in reality," ("Analog to Digital," p. 21). The manipulation of reality using digital tools is not limited to the outlandish or hyperbolic. Photographers can maximize the potential of their basic tools, representing reality in ways that are easier, more straightforward, and often more visually appealing than without digital tools. For example, rendering images in low light settings is relatively easy using even the most primitive digital camera. Analog cameras offered few options for manipulating light and color.

As the author of "Analog to Digital" points out, the fact that the medium has changed does not negate its value. "Just because a photograph is created or distributed with digital technology does not negate its indexical function," (p. 21). Digital photography can still capture objective reality as well as analog photography; and digital photography can also impart a sense of wonder, awe, and respect for the physical world. Photography has been and always will be an art form, made better with improvements to the media. Few would argue that the electric guitar diminished the talent of musicians or the quality of the musical product.

In "How to Do Things with Pictures," the author uses ironically cryptic…… [read more]

Bluetooth Technology in Detail. It Puts Light Term Paper

… ¶ … Bluetooth technology in detail. It puts light on the frequency range, topologies, security considerations, advantages and disadvantages of Bluetooth networking. It also discusses the Bluetooth networking devices as well. This paper aims to define Bluetooth technology and the… [read more]

Neurological Disorder Epilepsy Term Paper

… In some particular complicated cases, the lack of full standardization (devices, methods, etc.) also make difficult confrontation of two or more different cases, methods, devices, which ultimately reduces the extent of efficacy of this treatment for epilepsy.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy… [read more]

Expectations Customers Have With Regard to Responsiveness Research Paper

… ¶ … expectations customers have with regard to responsiveness and thoroughness of support changing as a result of social networks and the continual adoption of them by companies and marketing platforms?

Greenberg, P. (2009). CRM at the Speed of Light, Fourth Edition: Social CRM 2.0 Strategies, Tools, and Techniques for Engaging Your Customers. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Osborne Media Retrieved from

The premise of CRM at the Speed of Light, Fourth Edition: Social CRM 2.0 Strategies, Tools, and Techniques for Engaging Your Customers (Greenberg, 2009) is that enterprises have greater opportunities and potential for listening, understanding and aligning their enterprises to the preferences, needs and wants of customers. The foundation of this book is based on over a dozen case studies that the author has gathered through personal interviews and contacts throughout the CRM industry. The challenges of change management and clarity of customer relationships also pervade this book, which at over 400 pages, provides an exceptional level of depth and insight into how companies are re-evaluating and redesigning their value chains today. As Mr. Greenberg has subsequently written, the role of CRM systems is to establish a level of communication, collaboration and trust with customers to ensure congruity of customer expectations over time (Greenberg, 2010). The conclusions that the author reaches in the book and his subsequent articles also points to early adopters of integrated social media and CRM systems being able to track the level of adoption and long-term customer satisfaction as a result. Researchers across manufacturing and services industries continue to evaluate these specific aspects of customer relationships and have devices approaches to measuring customer satisfaction using a variety of service-based techniques. The inclusion of Service Quality (SERVQUAL) metrics in the measurement of social media-driven responses is now occurring in the hospitality industry as well (Luck, Lancaster, 2013). What emerges from this area of analysis is an aggregated set of expectations surrounding the customer experience, with specific…… [read more]

High Speed Rail Essay

… HS2: National Boost or Overzealous Spending?

When it comes to massively altering the transportational infrastructure of a city, it's important to examine all proposed changes with a fine-toothed comb. Luckily, this is exactly what has transpired in the case of… [read more]

Zygmut Bauman Markets Without Edges Book Report

… Zygmut Bauman

Markets without edges within the modern concept of capitalism and globalization take into account the fact that borders (edges) are no longer political boundaries. Secondly, in the developing world, many businesses operate outside the legal system, or outside the edges of what the developed world would call strict edged.

The term Unsicherheit means uncertainty, insecurity and lack of safety, and according to Bauman means the loss of livelihood, social entitlements, and place in society and human dignity.

The invidious paradox is the manner in which rabid patriotism comes into play based on a fear factor (e.g. terrorism).

The three strategies humans have used to overcome their temporality are an obsession with technology, with speed, and in the change between productive time and consumptive time.

A "peg-style" community is the formation of a group coming together as if finding a "peg" or cause that brings people together -- usually out of fear of something, designed to alleviate and make the individual feel more comfortable.

6. Bauman believes that market forces can cause some of these fears that engender pet-style communities; like asking for astrology to predict the future or purchasing lottery tickets as an investment. Instead, he believes that instead of cutting ourselves off from the social aspect of humanity (computers, inside activities) we should live more in a society in which we interact with people and form support networks. The idea may be sound, but the application is more theoretical -- as in Marx's idea that workers would band together in all countries. Once the technological bug has it, it is difficult to stop it.

7. Hospitality to critique -- a way to look at a new sense of critical invention in accommodation (the Way We Think, p. 100). Insecure to security -- the dichotomy of a lack of safety net (Public space, p.19).

8. Liquid modernity is Bauman's belief that we have moved away…… [read more]

Aircraft Purchasing Plan Research Paper

… This will prove to be advantageous since the company will increase the efficiency of the planes. By increasing the number of jets they operate, the company will maximize the performance of each plane.

The company uses its planes to conduct… [read more]

Streamlining Essay

… The fact that it is one vehicle also means that the two components of the vehicle and the transportation section are less likely to come apart on the roadway, thus making the design superior. Streamlining's focus on speed is manifested in my integrated camper's greater resistance to wind. Also, nothing about the construction of the camper is immediately apparent from the streamlined design -- there are no seams suggesting attachment and the windows are too small to suggest what the camper is concealing. This shows how streamlining was designed to convey forward progress. "Speed was the essence of the modern age and the shape which was most conducive to speed was the ovoid, or tear-drop."[footnoteRef:2] [2: Lisle]

A lamp is a relatively simple device, usually mainly consisting of a bulb, a shade, and something to hold both, but designs for lamps have grown increasingly ornate through the years. The bottom of the original lamp is almost rococo in design, with swirls of fake gold. The shade is so large and heavy it obscures the full illumination of the bulb. In seeking to add more, the designer actually adds less to the overall design, and makes the appearance of the furniture fairly pedestrian in nature. The streamlined lamp in contrast, has a relatively minimalist shade, extending out just enough to shade rather than obscure the light from the bulb. This allows considerably more illumination to extend from the lamp, fulfilling its overall function far better. Even the on and off switch is easier to reach on the streamlined lamp.

Rather than concealed beneath the shade, the hanging chain is prominently displayed, making it easier for the user to access the lamp. But although it is streamlined, my modernist incarnation of the lamp is not completely without aesthetic appeal. It has a cup-and-plate like stem holding up the bulb and the shade. And even this ornamentation has a functional purpose. The lamp is very sturdy as a result, and does not tip over easily. The form adds to the eye appeal of the lamp in the streamlined version, while still honoring the device's core functions.

The traditional stereo has many buttons and knobs to enable the user to operate it. It is clunky and often difficult to operate, given the confusion about which buttons fulfill which functions, and some of the circular knobs appear to be more ornamental than functional. My streamlined radio has the classic teardrop shape, and the buttons are greatly reduced and there is only one knob for tuning. The station number is more prominently displayed for ease of reading, and the viewing box is rounded in shape, rather than square.


Lisle, Ben. "Modern design and the machine aesthetic." References:… [read more]

Apollo Program on Technology Research Paper

… Clearly, the Apollo program has led to technological innovation in a wide range of fields. While most people may have realized that the space program contributed to R&D in computer science, they may not have realized the role that such R&D played in developing products in multiple other areas. One of the concerns about the modern U.S. space program, which no longer has any missions that are comparable to the Apollo program, is that it will not provide sufficient incentive for the type of R&D programs that enabled these major technological changes.


Bravo Technical Resources, Inc. (2010). Tales from IT history: The Apollo missions and tech innovation. Retrieved December 2, 2012 from Bravo Tech website:

Gaudin, S. (2009, July 20). NASA's Apollo technology has changed history. Retrieved December 2, 2012 from Computerworld website:

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2007). Benefits from Apollo: Giant leaps in technology. Retrieved December 2, 2012 from NASA website:

Sadeh, E. (Unk.). Societal impacts of the Apollo program. Retrieved December 2, 2012 from website:

Stine, D. (2009, June 30). The Manhattan Project, the Apollo Program, and federal energy technology R&D programs: A comparative analysis. Retrieved December 2, 2012 from Federation of American Scientists website:… [read more]

Red Lights Running Essay

… The FHWA also finds that improper signal design and/or operation might also be a contributing factor to some red light running.

There are considerable consequences to running a red light. As noted, there are three main crash types and these types result in a high level of injury, death and economic damage. These incidents will also result in psychological trauma to the victims, particularly where death and grievous injury are involved. For the person who was running the red light, it can be difficult to live with the consequences of having killed or maimed someone for something as stupid as a red light. While the law lets these people off without a manslaughter charge, this does not erase the feelings of guilt that they may have the rest of their days.

In addition, there are legal and financial consequences. As the FHWA (2003) notes, red light running in any form is a traffic violation. A common violation could result in a fine or other small sanction. If speed and/or alcohol are factors, the sanctions could be significantly stronger. Further, it is worth noting that the perpetrator could face increased insurance rates as a non-legal form of punishment for being a high-risk driver. Drivers who run red lights are likely to face civil action, even if there is no criminal legal action taken against them. In civil court, even a minor red light accident can lead to significant damages awards (Pines, 2012).

While many drivers seem to feel nonchalant about running red lights, the reality is that running red lights has deadly consequences. Whatever the cause, and whatever the accident type, people could be killed or seriously injured. Even a relatively minor accident can result in an expensive civil suit. This is not to speak of the consequences to the economy as a whole, which amount to some $14 billion in damages, lost wages and other trauma. If you kill or injure someone while running a red light, you are likely to have to live with that guilt for the rest of your life. To ruin your life and somebody else's over a 30-second stop makes no sense at all, and for that reason one really needs to take the consequences of running red lights into consideration when driving. It is simply better to obey the lights, stop even if abruptly, and be safe. Running red lights is dangerous and the consequences are too severe for it to even be remotely worth it.

Works Cited

FHWA (2003). Making intersections safer -- A toolbox of engineering. Federal Highways Administration. Retrieved November 30, 2012 from

Pines, M. (2012). Running red lights. Law Offices of Michael Pines. Retrieved November 30, 2012 from

Radzi, N. (2011). Effects of traffic volume on red-light running at fixed-time traffic signal system. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Retrieved November 30, 2012 from

Oberhauser, P & Oberhauser, S. (2012). Tragic consequences of running red light. Daily Herald. Retrieved November 30, 2012 from… [read more]

Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury Essay

… The type of information processed by these declarative memory networks is relatively lateralized, with verbal information mediated by the dominant hemisphere and visuospatial information mediated by the non-dominant hemisphere (Cozzarelli, 2010). Remembering (retrieval of) declarative information requires the activation of… [read more]

Microwave Ovens -- Construction Research Proposal

… Some waves go directly toward the food, others bounce off the metal walls and flooring; and, still others may reflect off the microwave door [2]. In this way, microwave energy reaches all surfaces of the food from every direction.

More than 60% of American households now have microwave ovens due to the speed and efficiency they offer [1]. Total cooking times are much shorter than traditional methods of food preparation and a greater number of food nutrients are retained. Microwaves do most of their work on the water held within food. Water molecules constitute dipoles which are akin to a bar magnet with both a positive pole and a negative pole. The microwave ovens electromagnetic field oscillates as it passes through the water molecules in the food, changing the polarity of the field and causing the dipole/water molecules to flip themselves in order to be aligned with the new polarity. Heat is created by the resulting friction of the water molecules reversing direction millions of times a second.

Conventional ovens rely on conduction to slowly spread the heat from the outside of the food to the inside. This is why over-cooked meals may sometimes be over-cooked only on the outside and nearly raw on the inside [1]. In microwave cooking, the energy reaches everywhere simultaneously which results in much more even heating [3]. Protein, fat, and starch molecules also absorb microwave energy but at much lesser degree. The presence of salt in foods can have a large influence on microwave heating. Salt molecules have a tendency to break apart in water. As a result sodium and chlorine ions create heat by colliding in the rapidly oscillating electromagnetic field, leaving less microwave energy available to heat the center of the food.


1. "60 Seconds to Safer Food." Prevention 64.6 (2012): 14. Academic Search Premier. Web. 19 July 2012.

2. Gibbs, W. Wayt, and Nathan Myhrvold. "Microwaves and the Speed of Light." Scientific American vol. 305,…… [read more]

Measure Term Paper

… Years ago, when employed as a pizza maker in a chain restaurant, I came across a number of performance measures that always seemed to be off target in a number of ways. One of these was the time between an order coming in and when the pizza came out of the oven -- a time that was supposed to be kept under a certain amount in all circumstances. This measure was supposed to reflect both the quality of service provided to the customers and the work efficiency in the kitchen, yet this measure failed on both counts. During extremely busy periods it was truly impossible to keep the allotted time interval between receiving an order and getting the pizza out of the oven, sometimes because the number of workers in the kitchen simply couldn't move fast enough to keep up with the orders, and sometimes because the oven did not physically have space for all of the pizzas that needed to cook. Customers were actually very understanding and very rarely complained about any wait, but the manager would constantly harangue the kitchen staff about speed and the fact that "customers were waiting." When it came to worker efficiency the measure was equally poor for the reasons stated above; pizzas could only come out at a certain maximum speed, and thus if more orders came in worker efficiency would seem to go down when truly it had simply plateaued at the maximum. This led to a lot of unnecessary stress for all involved.

Properly measuring performance is only more important as the stakes become higher. A minimum wage job at a pizza restaurant can bear some ongoing mismanagement and mis-measurment. The financial realm often cannot.… [read more]

Sarah Bakewell Montaigne How to Live or a Life Essay

… Letter to Friend: Imparting the Advice of Montaigne

Sussex, England

Haverfordshire Estate

Dear Katharine:

It's been too long since our last meeting, though it was good to see you then and how quickly the afternoon passed. You were indeed a… [read more]

Aluminum Shoes Introduction Animal Rights Introduction

… Performance racehorses have been shod with horseshoes made of aluminum for some time, as this metal is extremely lightweight, malleable, and also durable. Being such a light material, aluminum thus allows for faster speed of movement by the horses; they can run faster with less weight holding them down. The question then becomes whether or not aluminum horseshoes would prove a viable replacement for traditional steel horseshoes in other avenues than just racing. It is also imperative to take into consideration the fact that not all horses are physiologically similar and this may have an important impact on the way in which certain materials impact the particular breed of horse. Research into the use of aluminum horseshoes needs to take material and the breed into consideration before they can reach a conclusion. After examining all of these components, it can be stated unequivocally that aluminum horseshoes are at least superior to their steel counterparts.… [read more]

Science Misconception First Essay

… b. Condensation and evaporation is another form of energy transformation. Water falls to the earth from the clouds in the form of rain, sleet, hail or snow. It falls or leads to bodies of water where the drops are mixed with the other water content. The sun comes out and changes the energy in the water droplets so that the particles rise back up into the sky and form clouds. From there, the process repeats itself over and over again. The water molecules that constitute rain or rivers do not get created or destroyed. Instead the drops change form as their energy profile changes.

3. Also describe a mathematical equation that relates to this misconception and explain how the equation can help student understanding.

Formula for velocity: Velocity = distance divided by time or V = (d/t)

What this means is that velocity (speed) will increase over time as it crosses a greater distance. It is a means of measuring how kinetic energy in an object becomes working energy when the object is…… [read more]

E-Cards Health Promotion Settings Term Paper

… However, the other messages in the card are not reinforced. There is no instruction on how to test the brakes of a bicycle. The woman is shown alone, not riding with a friend. And although the colors are bright in terms of the palette of the card, card, she is not wearing the orange or yellow fluorescent colors that are really necessary to be detected when riding at night. Having a bike light is also advised, which the card does not even mention. I would send this card to someone I wanted to encourage to ride a bike for his or her health and entertainment, not to someone who I felt needed a reminder or information about bike safety.

Q5. Which of the 3 strategies for promoting health does it address?

The primary focus of the card is preventative medicine -- preventing bike injuries through appropriate safety measures, and preventing other forms of ill health through exercise.

Q6. How can health educators help assure the messages that health professionals convey to consumers are appropriate?

Greater detail -- such as explaining how to check bike brakes or providing a specific rather than a general link to a how-to website -- is essential when conveying messages to the public. Short but relevant statistics that show how bike helmets save lives would also be useful. Consumers must be convinced with the persuasive tools of logic as well as emotions.


Let's bike. (2012). e-Cards. Retrieved:… [read more]

Definitions Memo Computer Engineering and Information Systems Case Study

… Computer Engineering and Information Systems Case Study

Memo to Construction Company to Upgrade their High Speed LAN

Colin Tangeman

Choosing Between Wireless and Wired LAN Configurations

As your construction business continues to expand, your network traffic on the Local Area Network (LAN) you are running on is continuing to grow exponentially. You will need to expand your High Seed LAN using either of two options, each which has specific technology-based strengths and weaknesses associated with each. Your two options are a wireless LAN or wired LANs. You may have hard about wireless LANs or Wi-Fi, which is a technology that encodes your information into a radio wave, much the same used for sending music and new information to car stereos across broad distances. The greater the frequency of the radio wave, the more data it can carry from a broadcasting device to a receiver or router, which is what many laptops, tablet PCs and smartphones have in them today (Varshney, Vetter, 2000). Just like the units of measure in your construction business, radio waves that are the foundation of Wi-Fi communication have a very clear set of standards and also linearly scale in KHz levels. Think of the kHz as power measures in your business; they are similar. For example if you are building a new production plant and are wiring it for 220V, there will be much greater breadth of power for devices using that outlet. A 10 kHz wireless router will do the same; it will take 10 times the amount of data than its 1 kHz counterpart. And just as 220V lines are often designed for a very specific production purpose, the kHz ranges of wireless or Wi-Fi networks can do the same. Think of a Wi-Fi LAN technology as a very customized radio you can tune to deliver songs either as quickly or as slowly as you'd like, and at whatever level of sound fidelity you choose as well. For the 10 kHz Wi-Fi networks the songs would be arriving at your car or portable radio at 10 times that of a 1 kHz radio. To understanding how modulation works in a Wi-Fi network. Consider if you can encode up to four segments of a song in a single wave; this is comparable to how modulating methods work.

And just like each type of radio-controlled device, from a hi-fi stereo to a radio-frequency (RF) controlled plane respond to entirely different frequencies, the same holds true with the different standards and frequencies for Wi-Fi networks as well. And just like RF-controlled planes, a change…… [read more]

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