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Conceptualization of Psychological Distress Psychology

They suppose that other people are talking and are afraid of madness (Hayes, 2008). Cross-cultural and historical evidence shows how the mainstream society feared and excluded the psychologically distressed persons. In the mid-eighteenth century, it is evident that fear emerged in medical terms but moral myths animated them. At the same time, the fear of madness developed as the dread…

Pages: 7  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Treatment of Women Diagnosed With Dysthymia This

Treatment of Women Diagnosed With Dysthymia This proposal for a clinical case study of the treatment of a woman diagnosed with dysthymia employs a cognitive behavioral approach to identifying effective treatment modalities for patients with depressive disorders. In cognitive behavioral sessions, psychotherapists seek to help a patient identify his or her harmful thinking patterns in order to develop better coping…

Pages: 48  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Stress Faced by Probation Officers

Stresses on Probation Officers Stress is a serious topic for those in the criminal justice field, and that is true even in areas where it might not seem as significant. For example, there are many stresses placed on probation officers, and they often have to deal with issues and problems that would not necessarily be seen by others in the…

Pages: 5  |  "Literature Review" Chapter  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Behavior? Prejudice and Social Psychology

Thus, we all tend to fulfill our psychological need of belongingness and distinction that is reflected in the amount of influence that we absorb from societal factors such as peers, parents, figures of authority, and other factors that shape behavior. Conclusion As quoted by renowned researcher Milgram, "Psychiatrists predicted that only a pathological fringe of about one in a thousand would administer the highest shock on the board" (Milgram, 1973; Pg. 62). With such popularly held notions and general perceptions regarding individual's behavior, Milgram refuted that we only act morally in given situations and held true that obedience to authority plays an important role in shaping behavior of individuals. The self-argued plausible explanation individuals such as Adolph Eichmann after committing crimes, provide is that they were only acting on behalf of an actually responsible person. This implies that individual behavior is significantly shaped by the level of obedience one shows to the figure of authority. Whereby eminent scholars have attributed behavioral aspects of an individual related to motivational and intrinsic factors, social psychologists have asserted that it one's environment and deference to authority that shapes the individual's behavior. The breakdown of tasks that we perform on daily basis, into small rather disconnected parts, enables one to shift responsibility in totality to figures of authority, as in case of WWI and WWII crimes. These are events like wars that compel psychologists to investigate the determinants of an individual's behavior. References Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). The silence of the library: Environment, situational norm, and social behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(1), 18-28. Bearden, W.O., Netemeyer, R.G., & Teel, J.E. (1989). Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. Journal of consumer research, 15(4), 473-481. Blass, T. (2009). The man who shocked the world: The life and legacy of Stanley Milgram. Basic Books (AZ). Brewer, M.B., & Kramer, R.M. (1986). Choice behavior in social dilemmas: Effects of social identity, group size, and decision framing. Journal of personality and social psychology, 50(3), 543-549. French, J.R., & Raven, B. (1959). The bases of social power. Studies in social power. Cartwright (Ed.), Ann Arbor, Mich.: Institute for Social Itcsearch, 259-269. Milgram, S. (1973). The perils of obedience. Harper's magazine, 247(1483), 62-77. Padilla, A.M., & Perez, W. (2003). Acculturation, social identity, and social cognition: A new perspective. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25(1), 35-55. Smith, C., Organ, D.W., & Near, J.P. (1983). Organizational citizenship…

Pages: 6  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 8


Culture Psych Culture and Human

, 2011). A social psychological investigation of the gift giving in North America and particularly the United States, the behavior was found to be a way of almost ranking the significance and the intimacy that exists in various relationships (Cheal, 2011). In a culture where material wealth is not so much a matter of direct survival but of status, the wealth one invests in the gifts they give is turned to an expression of the intimacy and connection one feels with the gift recipient (Cheal, 2011). Emotional attachments related to gift giving and the psychological perception about the worth of relationships is thus impacted by/has an impact on the behavior of gift giving, with direct cultural and psychological interactions (Cheal, 2011). Japan's celebration of Valentine's Day, a holiday taken directly from the United States following the end of World War II, provides a highly interesting take on gift giving. This highly ritualized culture, with a great respect for formality and adherence to tradition, has developed a five-part ritual of gift giving that includes consumer elements and the confession of romantic feelings in the (hoped for) establishment of an emotional bond between the two participants in the ritual (Minowa et al., 2010). The gifts themselves can vary somewhat but always include the giving of chocolate specifically, which is part of the consumerist tradition the Japanese directly adopted from the United States and now adheres to quite faithfully, and the similarity and rituality of the gifts diminish the status that might be associated with these gifts (Minowa et al., 2010). The gift itself, that is, is far less important than the ritual of the giving, and it is Japanese culture that changes this mental emphasis. Culture can and does influence psychology in a wide variety of ways, from artistic expression to gift giving to the conducting of business and beyond. Understanding psychology and psychological issues, then, requires an understanding of the cultural context in which these elements are being examined, and just so an understanding of culture necessarily depends upon (or automatically creates) a certain understanding of the psychologies that might develop in a given culture. Placing behaviors and observed problems in their proper cultural context provides a key to more effective psychological understanding and practice. References Aktipis, C., Cronk, L. & Aguiar, R. (2011). Risk-Pooling and Herd Survival: An Agent-Based Model of a Maasai Gift-Giving System. Human Ecology 39(2): 131-40. Cheal,…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Group Addiction TX Theory Selection

For strict behaviorists addiction or compulsion are simply a terms for an operantly conditioned behavior. Other compulsive behaviors follow the same line of reasoning. The inability to refrain from using a drug or engaging in a compulsion merely indicates that a sufficient history of reinforcement has been acquired to drive a high rate of the behavior. Therefore, physical dependence, as…

Pages: 15  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 10


Abnormal Psychology General Definition of Abnormal Psychology

Abnormal Psychology general definition of Abnormal psychology is as follows: "Abnormal psychology can broadly be defined as the application of the principles of psychology to the study of mental disorders, including research into the causes and treatment of psychopathologies." (Introduction to Abnormal Psychology) The central and most controversial aspect of abnormal psychology is the issue surrounding the meaning of the term 'abnormal'. In other words, what precisely constitutes an abnormal psychological state? There is no single and conclusive view of what is 'abnormal' and each theoretical approach is determined by underlying assumptions about the meaning of this term. For the statistician and scientist abnormal behavior is understood in terms of reason and logic. In this sense 'abnormal' means "...deviating from a norm, and the dictionary says that a norm is 'a rule or authoritative standard'. It is in this sense that logic and ethics are said to be 'normative' sciences -- they tell us how we ought to think or act. In this sense, the norm is a standard or model of high status, toward which we should strive, but which we can scarcely be expected to attain. Hollingworth 11) However, there are many divergent and opposing views of what can be defined as abnormal. The definition of abnormal psychology is part of the fascination of the subject. There is considerable debate with regard to the exact parameters of this field of psychology. There are a wide and often overlapping number of pathologies that are considered under the rubric of abnormal psychology and psychiatry. These include schizophrenia as well as various anxiety disorders, personality disorders and dissociative and somatoform disorders. The range of abnormal psychological disorders has in recent years been extended to include abuse and dependence disorders, as well as eating disorders; and sexual and gender identity complexes. All of these can be considered as being within the field of abnormal psychology. From a purely medical or biological point-of-view, abnormal psychology is defined as a "belief that all, or at least most, abnormal behavior can be traced to medical factors, usually affecting the brain in some way. This model assumes that all psychological disorders are diseases." (What is abnormal?) in this definition and understanding all abnormal behavior is treated according to the same process and principles as a physical illness. Abnormal psychology is then seen as mental illness and is related to the study if genetics, neuroanatomy, chemical imbalance…

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Clinical Psychology / Bulimia Nervosa

In the opinion of Hoshmand and Polinghorne in the year 1992, professional education must always be based on the development of a reflective judgment on the part of the student, who would then be able to effectively control the various existing biases that generally hamper or hinder their full comprehension of the issue, and also lessen their effectiveness as a…

Pages: 11  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Psychology Treatment for Most of

29). A crisis in mental health care funding is approaching rapidly given that the Baby Boomer generation will retire over the next twenty years and expenditures for older Americans with major psychiatric disorders will double. There will also be a serious lack of mental health services, providers and funding. About 20% of all adults over age 55 have major mental…

Pages: 27  |  Thesis  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 15


Karen Carpenter and Christina Ricci, Both Who

¶ … Karen Carpenter and Christina Ricci, both who present with anorexia nervosa are similar in many ways. For the most part both young women experienced early exposure to fundamentally critical messages about their appearance and both were to some degree neglected by parents and conversely controlled by them. In the case of Carpenter parents were controlling and Karen was…

Pages: 4  |  Case Study  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Eating Disorders Among Adolescents

Eating Disorders in Adolescents Eating disorders are a big health care problem in the United States. Adolescents in particular, are a most vulnerable group and an increasing number suffer from anorexia, bulimia and other eating disorders. Primarily a psychiatric condition, eating disorders can lead to serious consequences if they are not properly identified and treated. Statistics indicate that around.5% of…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Integration of Psychology and Theology

¶ … theology and psychology in Christian counseling and then establishes the benefits of combining these two disparate studies and practices. Following this determination, the paper presents ways in which Christian counselors may use these findings in order to better their practices and better heal their patients. The paper relies on the most recent research possible, but also relies on…

Pages: 11  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Future of Psychology

¶ … future challenges to the field of professional psychology in contemporary society. What does the future hold for the field of psychology? It is always difficult to predict the future, but in the field of psychology, it seems many different things may be in store for the future. The Internet has become much more than an information tool. Today, it is the key to just about every aspect of life for many people, from shopping to social networking. In the future, it seems possible that psychiatry could move to the Internet, in the form of 24/7 counseling available via credit card online. One company has already attempted to do this, but they are no longer online, but it would seem that as people become more accustomed to using the Internet, services like this would become more common. There is a huge wealth of medical data available online, and psych data as well, so why not online counseling? Two writers note, "A Harris Poll found online information concerning depression to be among the most sought after topics on the World Wide Web" (Fowler & Newman, 2004, p. 125). If people are diagnosing themselves online, it seems that eventually, counseling online would be quite common. In other areas, it seems that psychology of the future may become much more global in nature, just as so much of everyday life has become globalized today. There will certainly be more international linking and discussion of psychology organizations and individuals, and more awareness and understanding of psychology around the world. Psychology is not as accepted in many countries as it is in the United States, so it appears that a greater awareness of the benefits of psychology could be spread more globally, too. Many experts believe that psychology will spread into other areas, and that it will continue to grow into separate branches of psychology and psychiatry even more. Psychologists work……

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 1


Language in Clients With Psychological Psychiatric Differences Schizophrenia Bipolar Disorders

Language in Clients With Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder Whitehurst, G.J. Arnold, D.S. Smith, M. Fischel, J.E. Lonigan, C.J. Valdez-Menchaca, M.C. (October 1991) Family History in Developmental Expressive Language Delay. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research Vol.34 1150-1157. Family history on several points, including familial history of language delays, presence of psychological disorders associated with language delays such as schizophrenia or…

Pages: 5  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 9


Social Phobia in Children it

Social phobia is quite different from shyness as the people who are shy do not completely avoid the situations that make them uncomfortable, whereas, those suffering from social phobia have a tendency to completely avoid social encounters and keep themselves aloof. The children suffering from social phobia have a disrupted normal life as this disorder deteriorates their school and social…

Pages: 11  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 10


Criminal Psychology Forensic Psychologist Analyzing

Between the motives, needs, desires, on the one hand, and specific actions - on the other hand, is a series of mediating and intermediates that are amenable to conscious control. A person with a set of mental qualities, indicating the presence of his sexual desire disorder, may never realize these personal characteristics in practical matters, and all of its activity in this direction will be reduced to psychic experiences, dreams, fantasies, etc. In addition, features of the psychological motivations can be expressed in relatively harmless acts do not violate the criminal law. In other words, the range of possibilities for the implementation of the considered features of the psyche is extremely broad and not confined to certain forms of behavioral activity. From this perspective, it is obvious that all the statements of the expert on "the severity of criminal tendencies" C. are only hypothetical reasoning and cannot be considered as evidence in the case. Such statements are contrary to legal principle of presumption of innocence, because here the charge is supported by not reliably established facts, but on the basis of conclusions that are at best probabilistic. As one of the reasons appointment of forensic psychological evaluation in the case of K. was a clear discrepancy between his social status and the severity of the crimes for which he was charged, would be well advised in such cases not to resort to forensic psychological examination, and other forms of special of knowledge. It would be appropriate version of the compilation of a psychologist in conjunction with a psychiatrist help, which would indicate that according to modern scientific ideas of psychology and psychiatry, between the mental characteristics of the defendant and the nature of the acts which He was charged, there is an irresistible psychological contradictions. It has no probative value on the commission or the commission of a specific response to specific actions, but gives only a general idea of? some medical and psychological aspects of the criminal case under investigation (Walklate, 2005). As an example involving a psychologist as well-informed person can be reduced and the compilation of "psychological portrait" wanted criminals according to psychological analysis of the collected materials of the case (witness testimony, physical evidence, etc.), which is especially important at the operational-search activities and the investigation so called "serial" crimes (murder and sexual assault rape) occurs when a number of similar criminal acts. References Anderson, J.F.,…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 6


Schizophrenia Is a Family of

Such elements include strengths and vulnerabilities for dealing with stress. The term "vulnerability" is not a judgmental term that implies weakness but instead is an attempt to understand the variables involved in developing severe forms of mental illness. For instance, a person with an innate very low vulnerability could consequently withstand a great amount of stress; however, perhaps solitary confinement…

Pages: 7  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 6


Human Behavior Has Often Been

People with sex addiction are in some cases prescribed antidepressants, specifically selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Depression is a common coexisting condition with sex addiction. In some cases, a person with sex addiction is treated for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In these cases, medications such as Prozac and Anafranil may be prescribed by a psychiatrist to curb the compulsion." (Lacy, 2013) The most appropriate means of treatment however is the one related to the core reasons for such behaviors, and that implies therapy, support groups, as well as education on the effects of such behavior. From all these three elements, education may seem to be the least effective in the sense that it does not attack the causes of the behavior but rather makes the recovery process more sustainable by allowing the person to understand his or her behavior, identify the elements that harm, and deal with them steadily through support groups or other types of therapy. If such behavior is identified in couples, the therapy should also focus on this complex environment. In this sense, "couples counseling may be necessary (…) The sexual addiction of one spouse can be enough to break up a marriage, but if both partners are willing to put in the effort to help the addict recover, your marriage can again be strong" (CRC Health Group, 2009) Finally anther point that must be taken into account is the fact that, as mentioned previously, sexual addiction is not a stand alone issue related strictly to the sexual behavior of the individual. Seeing that this is a neurological issue, it has severe consequences on the overall behavior and can even lead to criminal offenses, pornography, sexual offences, prostitution, child molestation (LPAC, 2013). Overall, it can be concluded that, if sexual addiction can be labeled as a medical condition, the matter is a complex medical issue and implies a series of symptoms that are similar to drug addiction or other types of addiction. At the same time, the level of gravity for these kinds of behavior can reach extreme levels and can affect the society. On the other hand, there are numerous treatment approaches that could deal with such extreme behavior, yet, more or less, these reflect the general approach for any addiction. Regardless, in order to improve the treatment for this type of behavior, further research needs to be conducted. References CRC Health Group (2009) "Treating Sexual Addiction,"…

Pages: 6  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Counselling Cases of Violent Children

An example is that of identical monozygotic twins who have same DNA, they resemble each other but are different in degree of identity. Some might be completely identical while others display a significant behavioral and physical differences. For instance one can be a criminal while another is not. A practical standpoint is that both temperate and chaotic environments are the best predictor of criminality in children just as in adults. Warning signs and solutions It is not possible that a teen murder to have been a good child who has turned bad suddenly. Youth who have committed a murder to someone who does not abuse them typically have exhibited marked and consistent sign of criminality and violence. If evidence suggests that a cold emotional system in a child is as a result of maltreatment then focus should be on attention and assiduously on detection, prevention and remedies of a child who is suffering from neglect or abuse. A search should also be conducted on identifying youngsters who are at risk of violent behaviors. A draconian solution is also necessary; it involves abrogation of parents' custody and removing children from chaotic and violent homes that are likely to lead to criminal behaviors. References Jonatha K., (1999). Savage Spawn: Reflection of Violent Children. Balantine……

Pages: 4  |  Reaction Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 1


Counseling Theories

Counseling Theories "…There is no single, definitive, unchanging, final narrative that can qualify as the correct understanding of the patient's psychic life" Schafer (as cited in Wolitzky, 2007, Definitions of…section, ¶ 2). In 1896, at the age of 40, Sigmund Freud, Austrian physician who lived from 1856-1939, perceived to be the founder of psychoanalysis, coined this term, still used today.…

Pages: 8  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 10


Child Sexual Abuse

CSA Child sexual abuse is a major social and familial issue that has impacted the lives of many people throughout the world. Although the maltreatment of children in any form is deplorable, sexual abuse of children has a particularly cruel stigma. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the impact sexual abuse has on victims and the interventions for…

Pages: 15  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 20


Psychosocial Assessment on an Unquiet Mind by Kay Readfield Jamison

Psychosocial Assessment Of A Person With Bipolar Disorder psychosocial assessment of a person with bipolar disorder "Personal accounts of mood disorders are an undervalued asset in understanding the manifestations of mental illness and in drawing attention to current issues" Kay Redfield Jamison, Ph.D (Jamison, as cited in Evans, 2006) One Personal Account In the article, "Personal accounts of mood disorders…

Pages: 8  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 3


What Makes a Good Counselor?

¶ … Counselor Reasons for NOT Seeking a Counseling Degree First, it is important to discuss reasons NOT to seek a counseling degree. Many people enter this profession because they want to help others. But combined with that, there are personal desires stated by students that indicate they want to counsel others because it offers them a sense of power…

Pages: 9  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 2


Freud Sigmund Freud, Who Is One of

Freud Sigmund Freud, who is one of the earliest psychologists, theorized personality development derived from his theories of the id, ego and superego and which focused on the unconscious and subconscious as agents of human behavior. In addition, he suggested theories of neuroses involving childhood relationships to one's parents and emphasized the importance of sexuality in behavior (World Book Encyclopedia). Today, other forms of psychology other than psychoanalysis, which was begin by Freud, still rely on his teachings to combine the best of all types of therapy. Freud believed that each personality has a three-prong psychological structure: the id, or the unconscious emotions, desires and fears that may surface in dreams or madness; the ego, or the conscious rationalizing section of the mind; and the superego, which often is compared to the conscience. Based on Freud's interpretation, an infant or toddler's behavior is largely based on id, or driven by unchecked and unquestioned desires; the ego develops from this id, allowing the child to negotiate effectively with the external world it is the arbiter between the selfish needs of the id and the idealistic demands of the superego; and the superego evolves as the child learns and accepts societal norms and values. Nye noted that this process, exemplifies a boy's connection with his father and suggests he internalize his father's values and norms. It also allows social functioning so that family and cultural values are passed on through the generations. Similarly, a young girl may unconsciously incorporate her mother's value system. One of the key concepts that is included in the id, ego, superego theory is that the mind possesses several defense mechanisms that try to keep conflicts from becoming too harmful. These include repression (pushing conflicts back from the conscious to the unconscious), sublimation (converting sexual drives into socially acceptable goals), fixation (the lack of ability to progress beyond a developmental stage), and regression (a setback to an earlier form of behavior) Repression appears to be the most important of these defense mechanism. Freud states this importance as follows: When an individual experiences an instinctual desire to act in a way that the super-ego believes to be totally unacceptable, then the mind can mind push it away and send it back to the unconscious. Through repression the ego looks to avoid internal conflict and pain and balance reality with the demands of both id and super-ego (Internet Encyclopedia of…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 4


Defense Styles of Pedophiles

Defense Styles of Pedophilic Offenders In their article, Drapeau et al. (2007) examine the defense styles of pedophiles. They were prompted do so because so many pedophiles use denial to either deny committing an offense or as a means of minimizing an offense. It is important to recognize that by defense mechanisms, Drapeau et al. are not necessarily referring to methods by which the pedophiles could legally or morally defend their crimes. Instead, they are talking about regulatory processes used by individuals to help ease cognitive dissonance and alter their own perceptions of events. These types of defense mechanisms are used by people to help increase their psychological adjustment and physical health. However, patients who fail to comply with their suggested medical treatments are more likely to use defenses. This changes as a patient grows increasingly aware of how their defenses function. They suggest that, even though defenses mechanisms have made a resurgence in mainstream psychology and psychiatry, they have not been adequately examined in specific regards to sexual abuse. Therefore, they began by examining the defense mechanisms used in pedophiles The research compared a group of pedophiles with a group of non-pedophiles seeking counseling for disorders with low-diagnostic severity. The pedophiles consisted of people between the age of 25 and 46, meeting DMS-IV criteria for pedophilia, convicted of sexual abuse, having molested people outside of the family, having never committed murder, and having not committed hebephilia (Drapeau et al., 2007). In order to assess defense mechanisms, the researchers used the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scale, which is an observer-rated method that can applied to recorded forms versions of interviews or therapy sessions (Drapeau et al., 2007). The researchers did uncover significant differences between the defenses used by the controls and the defenses used by the pedophiles. First, pedophiles used significantly less obsessional-level defenses than the control group but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses (Drapeau et al., 2007). Though the researchers acknowledged that small sample size made it difficult to analyze those differences, they found that pedophiles "used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive-aggressive behaviour but less intellectualization and rationalization" Drapeau et al., 2007). The researchers reached the preliminary conclusion that these pedophiles used less mature defense mechanisms than those mechanisms used by the controls. The fact that they so frequently failed to use intellectualization or rationalization was significant. Intellectualisation "is…

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Beyond Autism Treatment: The Application

Behavior is viewed by traditional psychologists as a symptom of a disorder or condition and not as a functional response that enables one to escape, avoid or mitigate exposure to this unpleasant condition. Conversely, behavior analysts describes what the child does and does not do, and what specific skills need to be developed and then establishes the process of effective treatment. This is a motor task and not a change in verbal behavior. Practitioners in the fields of psychology and psychiatry are still primarily attempting to treat behavior by changing "thoughts" of that person. This is a change in verbal behavior. A further difference is that behavior analysts look for precision in descriptions of human behavior and instead find terms that have no single agreed-upon meaning in psychological literature. These terms are unhelpful and highly misleading. The difference can be eroded by shifting from an objective description of the behavior occurring to a subjective categorization of the behavior (complete with hypothesized cause) to create a pathology and a rationalization that flows directly from the subjective interpretations. The child can also provide insight into his or her behavior. Rather than abandoning these vague terms behavior analysts can simply define what they mean for a particular person by describing the behaviors that lead to that label for that particular person and then come up with an effective treatment (New York State Department of Health Early Intervention Program, 1999). The traditional approach is that the solution to the problems or condition lies in getting the child to have a better understanding of the past. However if the problem and its causes are very complex, treatment would not be readily accessible and effective in solving the problem. The author rejects this approach and suggests the readers to first reduce complexity by providing objective descriptions of specific behaviors and then building more complex behaviors by establishing simple skills and expanding on those basic skills. If the problem is one of skill deficits then the solution should be one of skill development (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2005). The author finally concludes that it is imperative that behavior analysts move beyond autism and apply the technology to a broader range of conditions. For this to materialize close collaboration is required with psychologists and differences between two schools of thought needs to be eliminated. Precise criteria for the use of terms to describe emotional behavior would need to…

Pages: 3  |  Article Review  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Spiritual Practices Beyond Religion Spirituality

Although it has been hard to catch on to mainstream practices, modern applications see much more implementations of spiritual teachings and guidance as part of the psychologically healing process. It has been slow to catch on to the mainstream implementations of psychological practices, but still its development holds great promise for the future. Recently, the field of psychology has been embraced within indigenous cultures for centuries (Sue et al. 1999). Nowadays, it is a common conception that spirituality is an essential element of what it is to be human (Sue et al. 1999). Elements of spiritual teachings have been implemented in psychological strategies mainly for methods of relaxation. According to the research, relaxation strategies "are frequently used interventions in counseling and therapy that can foster personal development as well as spiritual development," (Chandler et al. 2001 p 184). Meditation has long been one major element of acceptable spiritual practice within other genres of metal health. It is a common spiritual practice that is found in a number of religious traditions and backgrounds, most notably many Eastern cultures. Essentially, meditation represents another realm of consciousness, where the individual experiences an almost hypotonic sense of sleep without dreaming (Murphy et al. 2011). Many modern psychological practices are focusing on using meditation to tap into a larger spiritual structure that helps individuals heal both physically and mentally. Here, the research states that "Meditation -- that great and mysterious subject which in the past has always conjured up the image of the solitary Asian ascetic sitting in deep trance -- is fast appearing in unexpected places throughout modern American culture," (Murphy et al. 2011 p 1). As a practice, it can help augment other integrated healing strategies meant to work on healing both the physical body and the cognitive structures of the mind. Although its origins may be disputed, meditation has become a popular element even in secular healing practices. It can be an incredibly successful strategy in helping those who suffer from anxiety find some peace in their every day lives. According to the research, "meditation practices can be broken down and understood in terms of traditional constructs in experimental psychology, such as vigilance, attention, and concentration," (Murphy et al. 2011 p 12). New trends in cognitive therapy have been continually incorporating meditation practices and guidance as a relaxation strategy (Murphy et al. 2011). Psychology is also adapting physical training of meditation, with…

Pages: 7  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Psychology - Counseling the Social

However, intervention, according to social constructionists, is a therapeutic conversation. It is also a linguistic event, a joint search and examination through dialogue, a two-way trade of ideas in which new meanings are recurrently evolving toward the dissolving of problems. In other words, the emphasis is not to solve or eliminate the problems but to open space for conversation (Lit & Shek, 2002). In the eyes of social constructionists, therapists are the coauthors who engage in the coauthoring process with the client together. The therapeutic conversation is believed to be a linguistic event that takes place in the interaction process. Social constructionists further maintain that no one persons understanding could override the others. There is also nonexistence of theoretically formed truths and knowledge (Lit & Shek, 2002). Social constructionism holds that information created in conversations between people is perhaps best understood inside the context of a conversational area. Social constructionism is, itself, a social structure that is always changing and subject to reconstruction. It has been disputed that some articulations of social constructionism exaggerate language and thus pay no attention to the overlap between relational knowing and that of biologically-based constructivism. The latter is an epistemological formulation that has succeeded and has been influenced by humanism. As a result of this transformation professionals in the field have come to distinguish the benefits and limitations that social constructionism has and admit that this faction is a fluid and developing framework of ideas (Rudes & Guterman, 2007). References Guterman, J.T. (1996). Doing mental health counseling: A social constructionist re-vision. Journal Of Mental Health Counseling, 18(3), 228-252. Lit, S., & Shek, D.L. (2002). Implications of Social Constructionism to Counseling and Social Work Practice. Asian Journal Of Counselling, 9(1-2), 105-130. Rudes, J., & Guterman, J.T. (2007). The value of social constructionism for the counseling profession: A reply to……

Pages: 2  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Theory Classical Psychoanalysis Is the

" Another characteristic assumption to the strengths approach is that people also have the necessary information that is relevant to them in defining their personal situations, both with reference to the problematic aspects, as well as to the potential solutions. This knowledge may be useful in prefiguring a patient's future. The social worker sees an opportunity when observing a client's…

Pages: 12  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Personality and Personality Disorders Causal

He has a weak and low self-esteem and is unable to perceive other people's perspectives. An antisocial personality violates the rights of others without remorse yet can be charming, intelligent or cruel. The borderline personality is impulsive, habitually angry, unstable, and unpredictable. He fails to complete the process of identity formation. The avoidant personality desires attention but is lonely. He…

Pages: 9  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Mentally Ill the Criminalization of

Moreover, the criminal justice system needs to focus on preventing crimes that are perpetrated by citizens who are not diagnosed as being mentally ill. Issues related to mental illness fall under the rubric of social work, public health, and the professions of psychology and psychiatry. It is therefore recommended that a team of specialists form a consultancy committee that advises the federal government as to a strategic intervention that will address the following target areas. First, the committee will propose the construction of specialized mental health clinics throughout the United Stats. The clinics will be accessible to all citizens via free shuttle services, and will be highly visible. Moreover, the clinics will treat all citizens regardless of their ability to pay. The clinics will provide a safe, nonjudgmental and anonymous environment in which clients can learn about and treat their problems. This will help to eliminate some of the stigma associated with mental health issues. Material at the clinics will be published in a variety of languages, so that all communities are served. Cross-cultural awareness is crucial to the success of the proposed program. Second, the committee will propose the means by which to construct special in-patient facilities for individuals who are currently in prison but who would be better served by being monitored by mental health professionals. Given the need to protect communities, mental health professionals can house and, when necessary, medicate the clients so that they cease to be a danger to themselves and others. At the same time, clients will become a valuable source of information to mental health and public health administrators related to etiology, treatment intervention, and disease prevalence. Works Cited Hefley, Diana. "Mentally Ill Often Adrift in the Criminal Justice System." Herald.net. 13 Sept 2009. Retrieved online: http://www.heraldnet.com/article/20090913/NEWS01/709139880 Stephey, M.J. "De-Criminalizing Mental Illness." Time. 8 Aug, 2007. Retrieved online: http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1651002,00.html…

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Sociology/Social Work Questions Explain Why

The development of intimacy is associated strongly with the development of individual independence, independence from structures and systems that have supported and aided a young person up to this point. Most believe that individuals who fail to develop positive intimate relationships are limited in the capacity to thrive as adults, in a myriad of ways, including but not limited to…

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Cg Jung

C.G. JUNG Carl Gustav Jung was born July 26, 1875 in Switzerland, where he lived for the entirety of his life. A trained physician, Jung "came to see that the different forms of mental illness were not existence in themselves, with distinctive psychology, but disturbances of the normal working of the mind" (Bennet, 1966, 7). His "unhappy and unstable" mother,…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 4


Business Plan for Sleep Lab

Business Plan for a Sleep Lab National Institutes of Health - National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Necessity of Sleep Reviewed Sleep Industry Types of Sleep Lab Business Structures Mission Statement Keys to Success Market Analysis Equipment Supplies Technicians Business Plan for a Sleep Lab National Institutes of Health - National Center on Sleep Disorders Research According to the National…

Pages: 30  |  Business Plan  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 30


Nature Nurture Controversy Related to Aggression

Nature/Nurture and Mental Illness The nature/nurture debate has sparked a deluge of research over the last five decades or so. The findings have been applied to many different areas of human life, including the propensity for intelligence and aptitude, as well as the less positive aspects of life such as aggression and criminal activity. Other factors that have been subject…

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Visitation in the Intensive Care Unit the

Visitation in the Intensive Care Unit The intensive care unit can be a place of extreme disquietude and trauma to the patient. Far from relaxing the patient and assisting in his or her recovery, many patients find the ward to be moderately to extremely bothersome with pain, fear, anxiety, tension, loneliness, lack of sleep, inability to communicate, and vulnerability being…

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Sexual Counseling Approach Theoretical Overview: Depending on

Sexual Counseling Approach Theoretical Overview: Depending on the therapist, and their prescribed philosophies, a number of counseling related therapies tend to alleviate symptoms. Standard cognitive therapy often shows positive results; talking with the therapist and sharing issues, attending group therapy to reduce isolation and social stigma, variations of exposure therapy and stress inoculation training. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) which is an approach that attempts to change the patterns of thinking or behavior that are responsible for an individual's negative emotions, thus changing the way they feel about themselves and present to the external world. Essentially, behavioral therapy is an approach to psychological interaction that reinforces desired and eliminates undesired, behaviors in the subject. This theory focuses on the behaviors, not the thoughts that produce them and is broken down into therapy and modification. Of course, there are overlaps in the manner in which the therapy is conducted, but all are designed specifically to address the quality of the event (or overt behavior) exhibited. In general, CBT patients learn to identify thoughts that might trigger feelings of fear or anxiety and replace them with different thoughts -- simply replacing the memories of the trauma with new, more positive ones (SOURCE, YEAR, p. 22; Follette and Ruzek, eds., 2007). CBT originated with classical conditioning and operant learning, combined with social learning theory and the role of cognitive experiences in determining behavior, CBT merges into a model that assumes most psychological and psycho-social problems derive from a fault coping or thinking process. This approach, though, also recognizes latent or observable factors that contribute to the individual's dysfunction. CBT tends to be more valuable because it uses an integrated approach that takes a more realistic and multidimensional approach. This also allows for a broader range of therapeutic interventions -- self-efficacy, individual thought and meditation about events, etc. (SOURCE, pp. 22-3; Wright, 2004). Because CBT addresses the dysfunction or maladaptation, the therapist can focus on behavior, not the personality of the client. This makes CBT attractive for compulsive sexual behaviors, or addictions like excessive masturbation, addictions to pornography, etc. Focusing on changing the behavior, whether that is from a bad experience, an addiction, or simply the way one approaches family during stressful issues is a way to help the client get back on track more quickly, and help them function again. CBT is also appropriate as a first therpeutical intervention in……

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Electroshock vs. Adepressants Electroshock vs.

In the future, treatment with ECT followed by antidepressants has been shown to be the most effective because it treats the symptoms and eliminates some of the lasting negative effects of ECT alone. References Breggin, P.R. (2007). ECT damages the brain: Disturbing news for patients and shock doctors alike. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, 9(2), 83-85. Elin, J.P. (2011). Treating postpartum psychosis. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, 13(1), 16-20. Engqvist, I., Ahlin, A., Ferszt, G., & Nilsson, K. (2011). Comprehensive treatment of women with postpartum psychosis across healthcare systems from Swedish psychiatrists' perspectives. The Qualitative Report, 16(1), 66-75. Frank, L.R. (2006). The electroshock quotationary. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, 8(2), 157-176. Gagne, G.G., Furman, M.J., Carpenter, L.L., & Price, L.H. (2000). Efficacy of continuation ECT and antidepressant drugs compared to long-term antidepressants alone in depressed patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1960-1965. Hagen, B., Wong-Wylie, G., & Pijl-Zeiber, E. (2010). Tablet or talk? A critical review of the literature comparing antidepressants and counseling for treatment of depression. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 32(2), 102-120. Keltner, N.L. (2002). Mechanisms of antidepressant action: In brief. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 36(2), 69-71. Kragh, J.V.……

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Suicide Involves the Taking of

Richard Chapman and Kathleen M. Foley. New York: Raven Press, 1993. xvii, 441. Bruera, Eduardo, and Russell K. Portenoy. Cancer Pain. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Carr, Daniel B., and Ada Jacox. Acute Pain Management: Operative or Medical Procedures and Trauma. Clinical Practice Guideline. 1992. Retrieved March, 4 2003 Doheny, Kathleen. Why Terminally Ill Seek Assisted Suicide. 2002. Principal Health News. Retrieved March, 4 2003 from. http://www.principalhealthnews.com/article/hscoutn/102690744 Fawcett, J., D.C. Clark, and K.A. Busch. "Assessing and Treating the Patient at Risk for Suicide." Psychiatric Annals 23 (1993): 244-55. Hendin, H., and G. Klerman. "Commentary: Physician-Assisted Suicide: The Dangers of Legalization." American Journal of Psychiatry 150 (1993): 143-45. Long, Phillip W. Guideline: Depression Co-Occurring with Other General Medical Disorders. 1997. Depression Guideline Panel. Retrieved March, 4 2003 from. http://pni.unibe.ch/Depression_Guidelines/AHCPR/p44-d1a.html#Head50 Marshall, R.D., et al. "Comorbidity, Impairment, and Suicidality in Subthreshold Ptsd." Am J. Psychiatry 158.9 (2001): 1467-73. Merskey, Harold, Nikolai Bogduk, and International Association for the Study of Pain. Task Force on Taxonomy. Classification of Chronic Pain: Descriptions of Chronic Pain Syndromes and Definitions of Pain Terms. 2nd ed. Seattle: IASP Press, 1994. A olde Scheper, T.M., and S.A. Duursma. "Euthanasia: The Dutch Experience." Age Ageing 23.1 (1994): 3-8. Shneidman, E.S. "Some Essentials for Suicide and Some Implications for Response." Suicide. Ed. A. Roy. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1986. 1-16. Suicidology.ORG. American Association of Suicidology Web Site. 2003. Retrieved March, 4 2003 from. http://www.suicidology.org Von Roenn,……

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Self-Conception Social Psychology Conceptualization of

Since the human being has that constant sense of self in their lives, the emotional events therefore normally involve the complex self. It is worth noting though that there are some emotional events that do not need complex evaluation of self for instance fear at the sight of danger or joy upon receiving a call of having won lottery. However, taking into account the ever-present nature of the self, the winner of the lottery is bound to reappraise their win and make corresponding self-evaluation and come with conclusions like they are good in picking the numbers or tag some lucky number to an event in their daily lives hence creating some self-esteem out of the joy turning it into pride (a self-conscious emotion). Taking the other example of man running away at the sight of danger say a bear at a camping sight, the feeling of fear will definitely be the first emotional reaction, but the presence of the wife or girlfriend will invoke the self-representation in the scenario particularly taking into account the gender stereotypes hence making self-evaluations that lead to alternative emotions as well. The man may choose after self-evaluation to fight the bear which would generate self-esteem of pride if he manages to fend off the bear or degenerate into shame or guilt if he runs away and leaves the wife. These examples indicate that the self can significantly change the emotions experienced in events that may not necessarily appear to involve complex self processes. Jessica L & Richard W (n.d: 189) note that every emotion that man experiences will be uniquely influenced by the self process and consequently shape our self-esteem. For instance, fear can easily turn to be shame when we contemplate what our fear in that particular circumstance means. Anger can easily turn into hostility or aggression when that anger is directed towards someone who has threatened our livelihood. Self and behavior as related to self-presentation It has been noted that the self-conception that one displays will definitely influence the behavior put firth to the society. For instance, people whose conception of self ends in depicting low self-esteem are more likely to display aggressive behavior than those whose self-conception points towards high self-esteem (Missouri Western State University, 2009). The way an individual will present himself within the society or among peers will widely depend on the self-perception which in return shapes behavior. For instance,…

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