"Psychology / Behavior / Psychiatry" Essays

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Conceptualization of Psychological Distress Psychology Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,788 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


They suppose that other people are talking and are afraid of madness (Hayes, 2008).

Cross-cultural and historical evidence shows how the mainstream society feared and excluded the psychologically distressed persons. In the mid-eighteenth century, it is evident that fear emerged in medical terms but moral myths animated them. At the same time, the fear of madness developed as the dread… [read more]

Treatment of Women Diagnosed With Dysthymia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  48 pages (13,264 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Treatment of Women Diagnosed With Dysthymia

This proposal for a clinical case study of the treatment of a woman diagnosed with dysthymia employs a cognitive behavioral approach to identifying effective treatment modalities for patients with depressive disorders. In cognitive behavioral sessions, psychotherapists seek to help a patient identify his or her harmful thinking patterns in order to develop better coping… [read more]

Stress Faced by Probation Officers Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  5 pages (1,786 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Stresses on Probation Officers

Stress is a serious topic for those in the criminal justice field, and that is true even in areas where it might not seem as significant. For example, there are many stresses placed on probation officers, and they often have to deal with issues and problems that would not necessarily be seen by others in the… [read more]

Behavior? Prejudice and Social Psychology Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,930 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Thus, we all tend to fulfill our psychological need of belongingness and distinction that is reflected in the amount of influence that we absorb from societal factors such as peers, parents, figures of authority, and other factors that shape behavior.


As quoted by renowned researcher Milgram, "Psychiatrists predicted that only a pathological fringe of about one in a thousand would administer the highest shock on the board" (Milgram, 1973; Pg. 62). With such popularly held notions and general perceptions regarding individual's behavior, Milgram refuted that we only act morally in given situations and held true that obedience to authority plays an important role in shaping behavior of individuals. The self-argued plausible explanation individuals such as Adolph Eichmann after committing crimes, provide is that they were only acting on behalf of an actually responsible person. This implies that individual behavior is significantly shaped by the level of obedience one shows to the figure of authority. Whereby eminent scholars have attributed behavioral aspects of an individual related to motivational and intrinsic factors, social psychologists have asserted that it one's environment and deference to authority that shapes the individual's behavior. The breakdown of tasks that we perform on daily basis, into small rather disconnected parts, enables one to shift responsibility in totality to figures of authority, as in case of WWI and WWII crimes. These are events like wars that compel psychologists to investigate the determinants of an individual's behavior.


Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). The silence of the library: Environment, situational norm, and social behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(1), 18-28.

Bearden, W.O., Netemeyer, R.G., & Teel, J.E. (1989). Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. Journal of consumer research, 15(4), 473-481.

Blass, T. (2009). The man who shocked the world: The life and legacy of Stanley Milgram. Basic Books (AZ).

Brewer, M.B., & Kramer, R.M. (1986). Choice behavior in social dilemmas: Effects of social identity, group size, and decision framing. Journal of personality and social psychology, 50(3), 543-549.

French, J.R., & Raven, B. (1959). The bases of social power. Studies in social power. Cartwright (Ed.), Ann Arbor, Mich.: Institute for Social Itcsearch, 259-269.

Milgram, S. (1973). The perils of obedience. Harper's magazine, 247(1483), 62-77.

Padilla, A.M., & Perez, W. (2003). Acculturation, social identity, and social cognition: A new perspective. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25(1), 35-55.

Smith, C., Organ, D.W., & Near, J.P. (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents. Journal of applied psychology, 68(4), 653-663.

Brown, R. (2011). Prejudice: Its social psychology. Wiley-Blackwell.

Lowery, B.S., Hardin, C.D., & Sinclair,…… [read more]

Culture Psych Culture and Human Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (893 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


, 2011).

A social psychological investigation of the gift giving in North America and particularly the United States, the behavior was found to be a way of almost ranking the significance and the intimacy that exists in various relationships (Cheal, 2011). In a culture where material wealth is not so much a matter of direct survival but of status, the wealth one invests in the gifts they give is turned to an expression of the intimacy and connection one feels with the gift recipient (Cheal, 2011). Emotional attachments related to gift giving and the psychological perception about the worth of relationships is thus impacted by/has an impact on the behavior of gift giving, with direct cultural and psychological interactions (Cheal, 2011).

Japan's celebration of Valentine's Day, a holiday taken directly from the United States following the end of World War II, provides a highly interesting take on gift giving. This highly ritualized culture, with a great respect for formality and adherence to tradition, has developed a five-part ritual of gift giving that includes consumer elements and the confession of romantic feelings in the (hoped for) establishment of an emotional bond between the two participants in the ritual (Minowa et al., 2010). The gifts themselves can vary somewhat but always include the giving of chocolate specifically, which is part of the consumerist tradition the Japanese directly adopted from the United States and now adheres to quite faithfully, and the similarity and rituality of the gifts diminish the status that might be associated with these gifts (Minowa et al., 2010). The gift itself, that is, is far less important than the ritual of the giving, and it is Japanese culture that changes this mental emphasis.

Culture can and does influence psychology in a wide variety of ways, from artistic expression to gift giving to the conducting of business and beyond. Understanding psychology and psychological issues, then, requires an understanding of the cultural context in which these elements are being examined, and just so an understanding of culture necessarily depends upon (or automatically creates) a certain understanding of the psychologies that might develop in a given culture. Placing behaviors and observed problems in their proper cultural context provides a key to more effective psychological understanding and practice.


Aktipis, C., Cronk, L. & Aguiar, R. (2011). Risk-Pooling and Herd Survival: An Agent-Based Model of a Maasai Gift-Giving System. Human Ecology 39(2): 131-40.

Cheal, D. (2011). "Showing them you love them": gift giving and the dialectic of intimacy. The Sociological Review 35(1): 150-69.

Minowa, Y., Khomenko, O. & Belk, R. (2010). Social Change and Gendered Gift-Giving Rituals: A…… [read more]

Group Addiction TX Theory Selection Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (5,755 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


For strict behaviorists addiction or compulsion are simply a terms for an operantly conditioned behavior. Other compulsive behaviors follow the same line of reasoning. The inability to refrain from using a drug or engaging in a compulsion merely indicates that a sufficient history of reinforcement has been acquired to drive a high rate of the behavior. Therefore, physical dependence, as… [read more]

Abnormal Psychology General Definition Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (918 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Abnormal Psychology general definition of Abnormal psychology is as follows: "Abnormal psychology can broadly be defined as the application of the principles of psychology to the study of mental disorders, including research into the causes and treatment of psychopathologies." (Introduction to Abnormal Psychology)

The central and most controversial aspect of abnormal psychology is the issue surrounding the meaning of the term 'abnormal'.

In other words, what precisely constitutes an abnormal psychological state? There is no single and conclusive view of what is 'abnormal' and each theoretical approach is determined by underlying assumptions about the meaning of this term.

For the statistician and scientist abnormal behavior is understood in terms of reason and logic. In this sense 'abnormal' means "...deviating from a norm, and the dictionary says that a norm is 'a rule or authoritative standard'. It is in this sense that logic and ethics are said to be 'normative' sciences -- they tell us how we ought to think or act. In this sense, the norm is a standard or model of high status, toward which we should strive, but which we can scarcely be expected to attain.

Hollingworth 11)

However, there are many divergent and opposing views of what can be defined as abnormal. The definition of abnormal psychology is part of the fascination of the subject. There is considerable debate with regard to the exact parameters of this field of psychology. There are a wide and often overlapping number of pathologies that are considered under the rubric of abnormal psychology and psychiatry. These include schizophrenia as well as various anxiety disorders, personality disorders and dissociative and somatoform disorders. The range of abnormal psychological disorders has in recent years been extended to include abuse and dependence disorders, as well as eating disorders; and sexual and gender identity complexes. All of these can be considered as being within the field of abnormal psychology.

From a purely medical or biological point-of-view, abnormal psychology is defined as a "belief that all, or at least most, abnormal behavior can be traced to medical factors, usually affecting the brain in some way. This model assumes that all psychological disorders are diseases." (What is abnormal?) in this definition and understanding all abnormal behavior is treated according to the same process and principles as a physical illness. Abnormal psychology is then seen as mental illness and is related to the study if genetics, neuroanatomy, chemical imbalance and infection. This is a scientific and objective view of abnormal behavior and is treated as another field of science. Psychologists using this model view the field of abnormal psychology as a purely scientific field and approach the understanding of abnormal behavior with the same logic as a biologist or mathematician. The study of abnormal psychology in this sense…… [read more]

Clinical Psychology / Bulimia Nervosa Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (5,371 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In the opinion of Hoshmand and Polinghorne in the year 1992, professional education must always be based on the development of a reflective judgment on the part of the student, who would then be able to effectively control the various existing biases that generally hamper or hinder their full comprehension of the issue, and also lessen their effectiveness as a… [read more]

Psychology Treatment Thesis

Thesis  |  27 pages (8,451 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15



A crisis in mental health care funding is approaching rapidly given that the Baby Boomer generation will retire over the next twenty years and expenditures for older Americans with major psychiatric disorders will double. There will also be a serious lack of mental health services, providers and funding. About 20% of all adults over age 55 have major mental… [read more]

Karen Carpenter and Christina Ricci Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,460 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Karen Carpenter and Christina Ricci, both who present with anorexia nervosa are similar in many ways. For the most part both young women experienced early exposure to fundamentally critical messages about their appearance and both were to some degree neglected by parents and conversely controlled by them. In the case of Carpenter parents were controlling and Karen was… [read more]

Eating Disorders Among Adolescents Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,731 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Eating Disorders in Adolescents

Eating disorders are a big health care problem in the United States. Adolescents in particular, are a most vulnerable group and an increasing number suffer from anorexia, bulimia and other eating disorders. Primarily a psychiatric condition, eating disorders can lead to serious consequences if they are not properly identified and treated. Statistics indicate that around.5% of… [read more]

Integration of Psychology and Theology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (2,975 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … theology and psychology in Christian counseling and then establishes the benefits of combining these two disparate studies and practices. Following this determination, the paper presents ways in which Christian counselors may use these findings in order to better their practices and better heal their patients.

The paper relies on the most recent research possible, but also relies on… [read more]

Future of Psychology Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (634 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … future challenges to the field of professional psychology in contemporary society. What does the future hold for the field of psychology? It is always difficult to predict the future, but in the field of psychology, it seems many different things may be in store for the future.

The Internet has become much more than an information tool. Today, it is the key to just about every aspect of life for many people, from shopping to social networking. In the future, it seems possible that psychiatry could move to the Internet, in the form of 24/7 counseling available via credit card online. One company has already attempted to do this, but they are no longer online, but it would seem that as people become more accustomed to using the Internet, services like this would become more common. There is a huge wealth of medical data available online, and psych data as well, so why not online counseling? Two writers note, "A Harris Poll found online information concerning depression to be among the most sought after topics on the World Wide Web" (Fowler & Newman, 2004, p. 125). If people are diagnosing themselves online, it seems that eventually, counseling online would be quite common.

In other areas, it seems that psychology of the future may become much more global in nature, just as so much of everyday life has become globalized today. There will certainly be more international linking and discussion of psychology organizations and individuals, and more awareness and understanding of psychology around the world. Psychology is not as accepted in many countries as it is in the United States, so it appears that a greater awareness of the benefits of psychology could be spread more globally, too.

Many experts believe that psychology will spread into other areas, and that it will continue to grow into separate branches of psychology and psychiatry even more. Psychologists work…… [read more]

Language in Clients With Psychological Psychiatric Differences Schizophrenia Bipolar Disorders Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,736 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 9


Language in Clients With Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

Whitehurst, G.J. Arnold, D.S. Smith, M. Fischel, J.E. Lonigan, C.J. Valdez-Menchaca, M.C. (October 1991) Family History in Developmental Expressive Language Delay. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research Vol.34 1150-1157.

Family history on several points, including familial history of language delays, presence of psychological disorders associated with language delays such as schizophrenia or… [read more]

Social Phobia in Children Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (3,594 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Social phobia is quite different from shyness as the people who are shy do not completely avoid the situations that make them uncomfortable, whereas, those suffering from social phobia have a tendency to completely avoid social encounters and keep themselves aloof. The children suffering from social phobia have a disrupted normal life as this disorder deteriorates their school and social… [read more]

Criminal Psychology Forensic Psychologist Analyzing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,092 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Between the motives, needs, desires, on the one hand, and specific actions - on the other hand, is a series of mediating and intermediates that are amenable to conscious control. A person with a set of mental qualities, indicating the presence of his sexual desire disorder, may never realize these personal characteristics in practical matters, and all of its activity in this direction will be reduced to psychic experiences, dreams, fantasies, etc. In addition, features of the psychological motivations can be expressed in relatively harmless acts do not violate the criminal law. In other words, the range of possibilities for the implementation of the considered features of the psyche is extremely broad and not confined to certain forms of behavioral activity. From this perspective, it is obvious that all the statements of the expert on "the severity of criminal tendencies" C. are only hypothetical reasoning and cannot be considered as evidence in the case. Such statements are contrary to legal principle of presumption of innocence, because here the charge is supported by not reliably established facts, but on the basis of conclusions that are at best probabilistic. As one of the reasons appointment of forensic psychological evaluation in the case of K. was a clear discrepancy between his social status and the severity of the crimes for which he was charged, would be well advised in such cases not to resort to forensic psychological examination, and other forms of special of knowledge.

It would be appropriate version of the compilation of a psychologist in conjunction with a psychiatrist help, which would indicate that according to modern scientific ideas of psychology and psychiatry, between the mental characteristics of the defendant and the nature of the acts which He was charged, there is an irresistible psychological contradictions. It has no probative value on the commission or the commission of a specific response to specific actions, but gives only a general idea of?

some medical and psychological aspects of the criminal case under investigation (Walklate, 2005).

As an example involving a psychologist as well-informed person can be reduced and the compilation of "psychological portrait" wanted criminals according to psychological analysis of the collected materials of the case (witness testimony, physical evidence, etc.), which is especially important at the operational-search activities and the investigation so called "serial" crimes (murder and sexual assault rape) occurs when a number of similar criminal acts.


Anderson, J.F., Dyson, L., & Brooks, W. (2002). Preventing Hate Crime and Profiling Hate Crime Offenders. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 26(3), 140+. Retrieved November 9, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000644850

Chancer, L., & Donovan, P. (1994). A Mass Psychology of Punishment: Crime and the Futility of Rationally Based Approaches. Social Justice, 21(3), 50+. Retrieved November 9, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000301614

Hollin, C.R. (1989). Psychology and Crime: An Introduction to Criminological Psychology. London: Routledge. Retrieved November 9, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103529633

McGuire, J. (2004). Understanding Psychology and Crime: Perspectives on Theory and Action. Maidenhead, England: Open University Press. Retrieved… [read more]

Schizophrenia Is a Family Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,298 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Such elements include strengths and vulnerabilities for dealing with stress. The term "vulnerability" is not a judgmental term that implies weakness but instead is an attempt to understand the variables involved in developing severe forms of mental illness. For instance, a person with an innate very low vulnerability could consequently withstand a great amount of stress; however, perhaps solitary confinement… [read more]

Human Behavior Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,010 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


People with sex addiction are in some cases prescribed antidepressants, specifically selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Depression is a common coexisting condition with sex addiction. In some cases, a person with sex addiction is treated for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In these cases, medications such as Prozac and Anafranil may be prescribed by a psychiatrist to curb the compulsion." (Lacy, 2013)

The most appropriate means of treatment however is the one related to the core reasons for such behaviors, and that implies therapy, support groups, as well as education on the effects of such behavior. From all these three elements, education may seem to be the least effective in the sense that it does not attack the causes of the behavior but rather makes the recovery process more sustainable by allowing the person to understand his or her behavior, identify the elements that harm, and deal with them steadily through support groups or other types of therapy.

If such behavior is identified in couples, the therapy should also focus on this complex environment. In this sense, "couples counseling may be necessary (…) The sexual addiction of one spouse can be enough to break up a marriage, but if both partners are willing to put in the effort to help the addict recover, your marriage can again be strong" (CRC Health Group, 2009)

Finally anther point that must be taken into account is the fact that, as mentioned previously, sexual addiction is not a stand alone issue related strictly to the sexual behavior of the individual. Seeing that this is a neurological issue, it has severe consequences on the overall behavior and can even lead to criminal offenses, pornography, sexual offences, prostitution, child molestation (LPAC, 2013).

Overall, it can be concluded that, if sexual addiction can be labeled as a medical condition, the matter is a complex medical issue and implies a series of symptoms that are similar to drug addiction or other types of addiction. At the same time, the level of gravity for these kinds of behavior can reach extreme levels and can affect the society. On the other hand, there are numerous treatment approaches that could deal with such extreme behavior, yet, more or less, these reflect the general approach for any addiction. Regardless, in order to improve the treatment for this type of behavior, further research needs to be conducted.


CRC Health Group (2009) "Treating Sexual Addiction," available at http://www.crchealth.com/articles/addiction/treating-sexual-addiction/

Fong, T. (2006) "Understanding and Managing Compulsive Sexual Behaviors," Psychiatry (Edgmont). November; 3(11): 51 -- 58., available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2945841/

Herkov, M. (2013) "What causes sexual addiction," available online at http://psychcentral.com/lib/what-causes-sexual-addiction/000744

Innes, E. (2013) "Sorry Tiger, sex addiction probably DOESN'T exist: Scientists believe 'hypersexuality' could just be high libido," Online Mail, 19 July, Available at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2370211/Sex-addiction-Scientists-believe-hypersexuality-just-high-libido.html

Lacy, J. (2013),"Sex addiction," Good Therapy.org, available online at http://www.goodtherapy.org/therapy-for-sex-addiction.html

LPAC. (2013) "Sex Addiction" Canadian Bar Association. Available at http://www.lpac.ca/main/Courses_01/sex.aspx

Weiss, R. (2013). "Hypersexuality: Symptoms of Sexual Addiction," available online at http://psychcentral.com/lib/hypersexuality-symptoms-of-sexual-addiction/00011488… [read more]

Counselling Cases of Violent Children Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  4 pages (1,518 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


An example is that of identical monozygotic twins who have same DNA, they resemble each other but are different in degree of identity. Some might be completely identical while others display a significant behavioral and physical differences. For instance one can be a criminal while another is not. A practical standpoint is that both temperate and chaotic environments are the best predictor of criminality in children just as in adults.

Warning signs and solutions

It is not possible that a teen murder to have been a good child who has turned bad suddenly. Youth who have committed a murder to someone who does not abuse them typically have exhibited marked and consistent sign of criminality and violence. If evidence suggests that a cold emotional system in a child is as a result of maltreatment then focus should be on attention and assiduously on detection, prevention and remedies of a child who is suffering from neglect or abuse. A search should also be conducted on identifying youngsters who are at risk of violent behaviors. A draconian solution is also necessary; it involves abrogation of parents' custody and removing children from chaotic and violent homes that are likely to lead to criminal behaviors.


Jonatha K., (1999). Savage Spawn: Reflection of Violent Children. Balantine…… [read more]

Counseling Theories Thesis

Thesis  |  8 pages (2,699 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Counseling Theories

"…There is no single, definitive, unchanging, final narrative that can qualify as the correct understanding of the patient's psychic life"

Schafer (as cited in Wolitzky, 2007, Definitions of…section, ¶ 2).

In 1896, at the age of 40, Sigmund Freud, Austrian physician who lived from 1856-1939, perceived to be the founder of psychoanalysis, coined this term, still used today.… [read more]

Child Sexual Abuse Thesis

Thesis  |  15 pages (4,327 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 20



Child sexual abuse is a major social and familial issue that has impacted the lives of many people throughout the world. Although the maltreatment of children in any form is deplorable, sexual abuse of children has a particularly cruel stigma. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the impact sexual abuse has on victims and the interventions for… [read more]

Psychosocial Assessment on an Unquiet Mind by Kay Readfield Jamison Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,602 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Psychosocial Assessment Of

A Person With Bipolar Disorder

psychosocial assessment of a person with bipolar disorder

"Personal accounts of mood disorders are an undervalued asset in understanding the manifestations of mental illness and in drawing attention to current issues"

Kay Redfield Jamison, Ph.D (Jamison, as cited in Evans, 2006)

One Personal Account

In the article, "Personal accounts of mood disorders… [read more]

What Makes a Good Counselor? Thesis

Thesis  |  9 pages (2,432 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Counselor

Reasons for NOT Seeking a Counseling Degree

First, it is important to discuss reasons NOT to seek a counseling degree. Many people enter this profession because they want to help others. But combined with that, there are personal desires stated by students that indicate they want to counsel others because it offers them a sense of power… [read more]

Freud Sigmund Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,019 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4



Sigmund Freud, who is one of the earliest psychologists, theorized personality development derived from his theories of the id, ego and superego and which focused on the unconscious and subconscious as agents of human behavior. In addition, he suggested theories of neuroses involving childhood relationships to one's parents and emphasized the importance of sexuality in behavior (World Book Encyclopedia). Today, other forms of psychology other than psychoanalysis, which was begin by Freud, still rely on his teachings to combine the best of all types of therapy.

Freud believed that each personality has a three-prong psychological structure: the id, or the unconscious emotions, desires and fears that may surface in dreams or madness; the ego, or the conscious rationalizing section of the mind; and the superego, which often is compared to the conscience. Based on Freud's interpretation, an infant or toddler's behavior is largely based on id, or driven by unchecked and unquestioned desires; the ego develops from this id, allowing the child to negotiate effectively with the external world it is the arbiter between the selfish needs of the id and the idealistic demands of the superego; and the superego evolves as the child learns and accepts societal norms and values. Nye noted that this process, exemplifies a boy's connection with his father and suggests he internalize his father's values and norms. It also allows social functioning so that family and cultural values are passed on through the generations. Similarly, a young girl may unconsciously incorporate her mother's value system.

One of the key concepts that is included in the id, ego, superego theory is that the mind possesses several defense mechanisms that try to keep conflicts from becoming too harmful. These include repression (pushing conflicts back from the conscious to the unconscious), sublimation (converting sexual drives into socially acceptable goals), fixation (the lack of ability to progress beyond a developmental stage), and regression (a setback to an earlier form of behavior) Repression appears to be the most important of these defense mechanism. Freud states this importance as follows: When an individual experiences an instinctual desire to act in a way that the super-ego believes to be totally unacceptable, then the mind can mind push it away and send it back to the unconscious. Through repression the ego looks to avoid internal conflict and pain and balance reality with the demands of both id and super-ego (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Likewise, is the importance of the ego personality structure as it relates to cognitive moral judgment and the development of values. Allen (2000), for example, stated that the ego has the ability to postpone providing pleasure to the id's demands until the right representative object is found to permit personal gratification without dangerous side effects. Allen also argued that this ego functioning takes place through conscious processes, which includes intellectual behavior such as reflection, evaluation, planning, and decision making. This more cognitive and mindful process for making moral judgments better represents Freud's ego prong, as well as the pivotal… [read more]

Defense Styles of Pedophiles Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,275 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Defense Styles of Pedophilic Offenders

In their article, Drapeau et al. (2007) examine the defense styles of pedophiles. They were prompted do so because so many pedophiles use denial to either deny committing an offense or as a means of minimizing an offense. It is important to recognize that by defense mechanisms, Drapeau et al. are not necessarily referring to methods by which the pedophiles could legally or morally defend their crimes. Instead, they are talking about regulatory processes used by individuals to help ease cognitive dissonance and alter their own perceptions of events. These types of defense mechanisms are used by people to help increase their psychological adjustment and physical health. However, patients who fail to comply with their suggested medical treatments are more likely to use defenses. This changes as a patient grows increasingly aware of how their defenses function. They suggest that, even though defenses mechanisms have made a resurgence in mainstream psychology and psychiatry, they have not been adequately examined in specific regards to sexual abuse. Therefore, they began by examining the defense mechanisms used in pedophiles

The research compared a group of pedophiles with a group of non-pedophiles seeking counseling for disorders with low-diagnostic severity. The pedophiles consisted of people between the age of 25 and 46, meeting DMS-IV criteria for pedophilia, convicted of sexual abuse, having molested people outside of the family, having never committed murder, and having not committed hebephilia (Drapeau et al., 2007). In order to assess defense mechanisms, the researchers used the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scale, which is an observer-rated method that can applied to recorded forms versions of interviews or therapy sessions (Drapeau et al., 2007).

The researchers did uncover significant differences between the defenses used by the controls and the defenses used by the pedophiles. First, pedophiles used significantly less obsessional-level defenses than the control group but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses (Drapeau et al., 2007). Though the researchers acknowledged that small sample size made it difficult to analyze those differences, they found that pedophiles "used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive-aggressive behaviour but less intellectualization and rationalization" Drapeau et al., 2007). The researchers reached the preliminary conclusion that these pedophiles used less mature defense mechanisms than those mechanisms used by the controls. The fact that they so frequently failed to use intellectualization or rationalization was significant. Intellectualisation "is a cognitive strategy where the individual deals with emotional conflicts or stressors through the excessive use of abstract thinking. This is done to avoid distressing feelings and to distance oneself from a negative or undesirable thought, affect, or impulse" (Drapeau et al., 2007). Furthermore, the child-abusers were less likely to use rationalization, "which involves devising plausible-sounding and self-serving excuses and reasons to cover up facts and motives that one wishes to hide" (Drapeau et al., 2007). Instead of these more-mature defenses, the pedophiles used strategies such as dissociation, which implies that their actions were occurring outside of their normal consciousness… [read more]

Beyond Autism Treatment: The Application Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (1,076 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Behavior is viewed by traditional psychologists as a symptom of a disorder or condition and not as a functional response that enables one to escape, avoid or mitigate exposure to this unpleasant condition. Conversely, behavior analysts describes what the child does and does not do, and what specific skills need to be developed and then establishes the process of effective treatment. This is a motor task and not a change in verbal behavior. Practitioners in the fields of psychology and psychiatry are still primarily attempting to treat behavior by changing "thoughts" of that person. This is a change in verbal behavior.

A further difference is that behavior analysts look for precision in descriptions of human behavior and instead find terms that have no single agreed-upon meaning in psychological literature. These terms are unhelpful and highly misleading. The difference can be eroded by shifting from an objective description of the behavior occurring to a subjective categorization of the behavior (complete with hypothesized cause) to create a pathology and a rationalization that flows directly from the subjective interpretations. The child can also provide insight into his or her behavior. Rather than abandoning these vague terms behavior analysts can simply define what they mean for a particular person by describing the behaviors that lead to that label for that particular person and then come up with an effective treatment (New York State Department of Health Early Intervention Program, 1999).

The traditional approach is that the solution to the problems or condition lies in getting the child to have a better understanding of the past. However if the problem and its causes are very complex, treatment would not be readily accessible and effective in solving the problem. The author rejects this approach and suggests the readers to first reduce complexity by providing objective descriptions of specific behaviors and then building more complex behaviors by establishing simple skills and expanding on those basic skills. If the problem is one of skill deficits then the solution should be one of skill development (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2005).

The author finally concludes that it is imperative that behavior analysts move beyond autism and apply the technology to a broader range of conditions. For this to materialize close collaboration is required with psychologists and differences between two schools of thought needs to be eliminated. Precise criteria for the use of terms to describe emotional behavior would need to be established that are both observable and measurable and have acceptable inter-observer reliability. Skill building procedures would then be developed from these descriptions. Once these critical initial actions occur ABA could be easily used for treatment of children with emotional or psychological problems.


Behavior Analyst Certification Board. (2005). Behavior analyst task list, third edition.

Tallahassee, FL: author. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from http://www.bacb.com/consum_frame.html

Lovaas, O.I. & Smith, T. (1987). Intensive behavioral treatment for young autistic children. In B.B. Lahey & A.E. Kazdin (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol.11,pp.285-

324). New York: Plenum

New York State Department of Health… [read more]

Spiritual Practices Beyond Religion Spirituality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,101 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Although it has been hard to catch on to mainstream practices, modern applications see much more implementations of spiritual teachings and guidance as part of the psychologically healing process. It has been slow to catch on to the mainstream implementations of psychological practices, but still its development holds great promise for the future. Recently, the field of psychology has been embraced within indigenous cultures for centuries (Sue et al. 1999). Nowadays, it is a common conception that spirituality is an essential element of what it is to be human (Sue et al. 1999).

Elements of spiritual teachings have been implemented in psychological strategies mainly for methods of relaxation. According to the research, relaxation strategies "are frequently used interventions in counseling and therapy that can foster personal development as well as spiritual development," (Chandler et al. 2001 p 184). Meditation has long been one major element of acceptable spiritual practice within other genres of metal health. It is a common spiritual practice that is found in a number of religious traditions and backgrounds, most notably many Eastern cultures. Essentially, meditation represents another realm of consciousness, where the individual experiences an almost hypotonic sense of sleep without dreaming (Murphy et al. 2011). Many modern psychological practices are focusing on using meditation to tap into a larger spiritual structure that helps individuals heal both physically and mentally. Here, the research states that "Meditation -- that great and mysterious subject which in the past has always conjured up the image of the solitary Asian ascetic sitting in deep trance -- is fast appearing in unexpected places throughout modern American culture," (Murphy et al. 2011 p 1). As a practice, it can help augment other integrated healing strategies meant to work on healing both the physical body and the cognitive structures of the mind. Although its origins may be disputed, meditation has become a popular element even in secular healing practices. It can be an incredibly successful strategy in helping those who suffer from anxiety find some peace in their every day lives. According to the research, "meditation practices can be broken down and understood in terms of traditional constructs in experimental psychology, such as vigilance, attention, and concentration," (Murphy et al. 2011 p 12). New trends in cognitive therapy have been continually incorporating meditation practices and guidance as a relaxation strategy (Murphy et al. 2011). Psychology is also adapting physical training of meditation, with the incorporation of breathing exercises and yoga stretches in order to augment the maximum relaxation experienced by patients enduring such treatment practices.

Spirituality is still often confused because of a lack of clear definition and distinction through psychological practice. Although modern psychology is still beginning to incorporate elements, it is still relatively new and unknown within the larger genre. Therefore, it is important to continue research into how spiritual teachings can impact individuals and their psychological states.


Chandler, Cynthia K.; Holden, Janice Miner; & Kolander, Cheryl A. (2001). Counseling for spiritual wellness: Theory and practice. Journal of Counseling and… [read more]

Psychology - Counseling the Social Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (657 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


However, intervention, according to social constructionists, is a therapeutic conversation. It is also a linguistic event, a joint search and examination through dialogue, a two-way trade of ideas in which new meanings are recurrently evolving toward the dissolving of problems. In other words, the emphasis is not to solve or eliminate the problems but to open space for conversation (Lit & Shek, 2002).

In the eyes of social constructionists, therapists are the coauthors who engage in the coauthoring process with the client together. The therapeutic conversation is believed to be a linguistic event that takes place in the interaction process. Social constructionists further maintain that no one persons understanding could override the others. There is also nonexistence of theoretically formed truths and knowledge (Lit & Shek, 2002).

Social constructionism holds that information created in conversations between people is perhaps best understood inside the context of a conversational area. Social constructionism is, itself, a social structure that is always changing and subject to reconstruction. It has been disputed that some articulations of social constructionism exaggerate language and thus pay no attention to the overlap between relational knowing and that of biologically-based constructivism. The latter is an epistemological formulation that has succeeded and has been influenced by humanism. As a result of this transformation professionals in the field have come to distinguish the benefits and limitations that social constructionism has and admit that this faction is a fluid and developing framework of ideas (Rudes & Guterman, 2007).


Guterman, J.T. (1996). Doing mental health counseling: A social constructionist re-vision.

Journal Of Mental Health Counseling, 18(3), 228-252.

Lit, S., & Shek, D.L. (2002). Implications of Social Constructionism to Counseling and Social Work Practice. Asian Journal Of Counselling, 9(1-2), 105-130.

Rudes, J., & Guterman, J.T. (2007). The value of social constructionism for the counseling profession: A reply to…… [read more]

Theory Classical Psychoanalysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,827 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Another characteristic assumption to the strengths approach is that people also have the necessary information that is relevant to them in defining their personal situations, both with reference to the problematic aspects, as well as to the potential solutions. This knowledge may be useful in prefiguring a patient's future. The social worker sees an opportunity when observing a client's… [read more]

Personality and Personality Disorders Causal Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,691 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


He has a weak and low self-esteem and is unable to perceive other people's perspectives. An antisocial personality violates the rights of others without remorse yet can be charming, intelligent or cruel. The borderline personality is impulsive, habitually angry, unstable, and unpredictable. He fails to complete the process of identity formation. The avoidant personality desires attention but is lonely. He… [read more]

Mentally Ill the Criminalization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (675 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Moreover, the criminal justice system needs to focus on preventing crimes that are perpetrated by citizens who are not diagnosed as being mentally ill. Issues related to mental illness fall under the rubric of social work, public health, and the professions of psychology and psychiatry. It is therefore recommended that a team of specialists form a consultancy committee that advises the federal government as to a strategic intervention that will address the following target areas.

First, the committee will propose the construction of specialized mental health clinics throughout the United Stats. The clinics will be accessible to all citizens via free shuttle services, and will be highly visible. Moreover, the clinics will treat all citizens regardless of their ability to pay. The clinics will provide a safe, nonjudgmental and anonymous environment in which clients can learn about and treat their problems. This will help to eliminate some of the stigma associated with mental health issues. Material at the clinics will be published in a variety of languages, so that all communities are served. Cross-cultural awareness is crucial to the success of the proposed program.

Second, the committee will propose the means by which to construct special in-patient facilities for individuals who are currently in prison but who would be better served by being monitored by mental health professionals. Given the need to protect communities, mental health professionals can house and, when necessary, medicate the clients so that they cease to be a danger to themselves and others. At the same time, clients will become a valuable source of information to mental health and public health administrators related to etiology, treatment intervention, and disease prevalence.

Works Cited

Hefley, Diana. "Mentally Ill Often Adrift in the Criminal Justice System." Herald.net. 13 Sept 2009. Retrieved online: http://www.heraldnet.com/article/20090913/NEWS01/709139880

Stephey, M.J. "De-Criminalizing Mental Illness." Time. 8 Aug, 2007. Retrieved online: http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1651002,00.html… [read more]

Sociology/Social Work Questions Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (3,101 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


The development of intimacy is associated strongly with the development of individual independence, independence from structures and systems that have supported and aided a young person up to this point. Most believe that individuals who fail to develop positive intimate relationships are limited in the capacity to thrive as adults, in a myriad of ways, including but not limited to… [read more]

Cg Jung Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,834 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4



Carl Gustav Jung was born July 26, 1875 in Switzerland, where he lived for the entirety of his life. A trained physician, Jung "came to see that the different forms of mental illness were not existence in themselves, with distinctive psychology, but disturbances of the normal working of the mind" (Bennet, 1966, 7). His "unhappy and unstable" mother,… [read more]

Business Plan for Sleep Lab Business Plan

Business Plan  |  30 pages (8,375 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 30


Business Plan for a Sleep Lab

National Institutes of Health - National Center on Sleep

Disorders Research

Necessity of Sleep Reviewed

Sleep Industry

Types of Sleep Lab Business Structures

Mission Statement

Keys to Success

Market Analysis




Business Plan for a Sleep Lab

National Institutes of Health - National Center on Sleep Disorders Research

According to the National… [read more]

Nature Nurture Controversy Related to Aggression Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  5 pages (1,720 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Nature/Nurture and Mental Illness

The nature/nurture debate has sparked a deluge of research over the last five decades or so. The findings have been applied to many different areas of human life, including the propensity for intelligence and aptitude, as well as the less positive aspects of life such as aggression and criminal activity. Other factors that have been subject… [read more]

Visitation in the Intensive Care Unit Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,611 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Visitation in the Intensive Care Unit

The intensive care unit can be a place of extreme disquietude and trauma to the patient. Far from relaxing the patient and assisting in his or her recovery, many patients find the ward to be moderately to extremely bothersome with pain, fear, anxiety, tension, loneliness, lack of sleep, inability to communicate, and vulnerability being… [read more]

Sexual Counseling Approach Theoretical Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (793 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Sexual Counseling Approach

Theoretical Overview:

Depending on the therapist, and their prescribed philosophies, a number of counseling related therapies tend to alleviate symptoms. Standard cognitive therapy often shows positive results; talking with the therapist and sharing issues, attending group therapy to reduce isolation and social stigma, variations of exposure therapy and stress inoculation training. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) which is an approach that attempts to change the patterns of thinking or behavior that are responsible for an individual's negative emotions, thus changing the way they feel about themselves and present to the external world. Essentially, behavioral therapy is an approach to psychological interaction that reinforces desired and eliminates undesired, behaviors in the subject. This theory focuses on the behaviors, not the thoughts that produce them and is broken down into therapy and modification. Of course, there are overlaps in the manner in which the therapy is conducted, but all are designed specifically to address the quality of the event (or overt behavior) exhibited. In general, CBT patients learn to identify thoughts that might trigger feelings of fear or anxiety and replace them with different thoughts -- simply replacing the memories of the trauma with new, more positive ones (SOURCE, YEAR, p. 22; Follette and Ruzek, eds., 2007).

CBT originated with classical conditioning and operant learning, combined with social learning theory and the role of cognitive experiences in determining behavior, CBT merges into a model that assumes most psychological and psycho-social problems derive from a fault coping or thinking process. This approach, though, also recognizes latent or observable factors that contribute to the individual's dysfunction. CBT tends to be more valuable because it uses an integrated approach that takes a more realistic and multidimensional approach. This also allows for a broader range of therapeutic interventions -- self-efficacy, individual thought and meditation about events, etc. (SOURCE, pp. 22-3; Wright, 2004).

Because CBT addresses the dysfunction or maladaptation, the therapist can focus on behavior, not the personality of the client. This makes CBT attractive for compulsive sexual behaviors, or addictions like excessive masturbation, addictions to pornography, etc. Focusing on changing the behavior, whether that is from a bad experience, an addiction, or simply the way one approaches family during stressful issues is a way to help the client get back on track more quickly, and help them function again. CBT is also appropriate as a first therpeutical intervention in…… [read more]

Electroshock vs. Adepressants Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,704 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


In the future, treatment with ECT followed by antidepressants has been shown to be the most effective because it treats the symptoms and eliminates some of the lasting negative effects of ECT alone.


Breggin, P.R. (2007). ECT damages the brain: Disturbing news for patients and shock doctors alike. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, 9(2), 83-85.

Elin, J.P. (2011). Treating postpartum psychosis. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, 13(1), 16-20.

Engqvist, I., Ahlin, A., Ferszt, G., & Nilsson, K. (2011). Comprehensive treatment of women with postpartum psychosis across healthcare systems from Swedish psychiatrists' perspectives. The Qualitative Report, 16(1), 66-75.

Frank, L.R. (2006). The electroshock quotationary. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, 8(2), 157-176.

Gagne, G.G., Furman, M.J., Carpenter, L.L., & Price, L.H. (2000). Efficacy of continuation ECT and antidepressant drugs compared to long-term antidepressants alone in depressed patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1960-1965.

Hagen, B., Wong-Wylie, G., & Pijl-Zeiber, E. (2010). Tablet or talk? A critical review of the literature comparing antidepressants and counseling for treatment of depression. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 32(2), 102-120.

Keltner, N.L. (2002). Mechanisms of antidepressant action: In brief. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 36(2), 69-71.

Kragh, J.V.…… [read more]

Suicide Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,736 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Richard Chapman and Kathleen M. Foley. New York: Raven Press, 1993. xvii, 441.

Bruera, Eduardo, and Russell K. Portenoy. Cancer Pain. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Carr, Daniel B., and Ada Jacox. Acute Pain Management: Operative or Medical Procedures and Trauma. Clinical Practice Guideline. 1992. Retrieved March, 4 2003

Doheny, Kathleen. Why Terminally Ill Seek Assisted Suicide. 2002. Principal Health News. Retrieved March, 4 2003 from. http://www.principalhealthnews.com/article/hscoutn/102690744

Fawcett, J., D.C. Clark, and K.A. Busch. "Assessing and Treating the Patient at Risk for Suicide." Psychiatric Annals 23 (1993): 244-55.

Hendin, H., and G. Klerman. "Commentary: Physician-Assisted Suicide: The Dangers of Legalization." American Journal of Psychiatry 150 (1993): 143-45.

Long, Phillip W. Guideline: Depression Co-Occurring with Other General Medical Disorders. 1997. Depression Guideline Panel. Retrieved March, 4 2003 from. http://pni.unibe.ch/Depression_Guidelines/AHCPR/p44-d1a.html#Head50

Marshall, R.D., et al. "Comorbidity, Impairment, and Suicidality in Subthreshold Ptsd." Am J. Psychiatry 158.9 (2001): 1467-73.

Merskey, Harold, Nikolai Bogduk, and International Association for the Study of Pain. Task Force on Taxonomy. Classification of Chronic Pain: Descriptions of Chronic Pain Syndromes and Definitions of Pain Terms. 2nd ed. Seattle: IASP Press, 1994.

A olde Scheper, T.M., and S.A. Duursma. "Euthanasia: The Dutch Experience." Age Ageing 23.1 (1994): 3-8.

Shneidman, E.S. "Some Essentials for Suicide and Some Implications for Response." Suicide. Ed. A. Roy. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1986. 1-16.

Suicidology.ORG. American Association of Suicidology Web Site. 2003. Retrieved March, 4 2003 from. http://www.suicidology.org

Von Roenn,…… [read more]

Self-Conception Social Psychology Conceptualization Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,114 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Since the human being has that constant sense of self in their lives, the emotional events therefore normally involve the complex self. It is worth noting though that there are some emotional events that do not need complex evaluation of self for instance fear at the sight of danger or joy upon receiving a call of having won lottery. However, taking into account the ever-present nature of the self, the winner of the lottery is bound to reappraise their win and make corresponding self-evaluation and come with conclusions like they are good in picking the numbers or tag some lucky number to an event in their daily lives hence creating some self-esteem out of the joy turning it into pride (a self-conscious emotion).

Taking the other example of man running away at the sight of danger say a bear at a camping sight, the feeling of fear will definitely be the first emotional reaction, but the presence of the wife or girlfriend will invoke the self-representation in the scenario particularly taking into account the gender stereotypes hence making self-evaluations that lead to alternative emotions as well. The man may choose after self-evaluation to fight the bear which would generate self-esteem of pride if he manages to fend off the bear or degenerate into shame or guilt if he runs away and leaves the wife. These examples indicate that the self can significantly change the emotions experienced in events that may not necessarily appear to involve complex self processes. Jessica L & Richard W (n.d: 189) note that every emotion that man experiences will be uniquely influenced by the self process and consequently shape our self-esteem. For instance, fear can easily turn to be shame when we contemplate what our fear in that particular circumstance means. Anger can easily turn into hostility or aggression when that anger is directed towards someone who has threatened our livelihood.

Self and behavior as related to self-presentation

It has been noted that the self-conception that one displays will definitely influence the behavior put firth to the society. For instance, people whose conception of self ends in depicting low self-esteem are more likely to display aggressive behavior than those whose self-conception points towards high self-esteem (Missouri Western State University, 2009). The way an individual will present himself within the society or among peers will widely depend on the self-perception which in return shapes behavior. For instance, if someone has the self-concept of being persistent, the individual will inevitable behave in a manner that is far from being clumsy hence present himself as a respectable hardworking person.


Baumeister, R.F. (Ed.) (1999). The Self in Social Psychology. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press (Taylor & Francis).

Psychology Press, (2012). Constructing the self-concept: What we know about ourselves (pp. 96 -- 107). Retrieved October 21, 2012 from http://psypress.co.uk/smithandmackie/resources/topic.asp?topic=ch04-tp-01

Jessica L & Richard W, (n.d: 189). Self-Conscious Emotions: Where Self and Emotion Meet. Retrieved October 21, 2012 from http://ubc-emotionlab.ca/wp-content/files_mf/sedikidesbookchapterproofs22.pdf

MacLeod S. (2008). Self-Concept. Retrieved October 21, 2012 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/self-concept.html

Missouri Western… [read more]

Psychology of the Consumer Behavior Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,270 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These were the things which are the ultimate needs of the life and without them survival is almost not possible or extremely difficult. 21st century has introduced a new set of mind in the people and that has shattering consequences in the form of psychological complexes aka disorders. The common one is dissatisfaction. You will easily find the people who would be urging for the things they do not need, or without which a nice survival is possible. Being a part of the society, you have a natural urge to being on the equal status of your peeps hence if you can get all that, you will be psychologically vulnerable. Thus the importance of material possessions has greatly been increased due to the IT revolution and technological advancement (Steven, 1995) and this is the very reason why rich are getting richer and poor are getting poorer. The examples can be mobile phone, Mp3/mp4 players, laptop, iPhones, iPods, tablets, own car, and things of this sort. Every young mind is inclined towards getting them regardless of the resources they have. There is a psychological push. Or else they will keep feeling guilty and hiding the low profiles.

Apart from all that, material possessions also depict social values and cultural norms. An individual normally go for the things which have the social approval or cultural support. They also reveal about the personality to some extent. They are also responsible for the healthy or rough relationships. So all these things collectively put the psychological pressure on the human mind and the only way to get the satisfaction is to get them. (Appadurai, 1986)

Now going to the consequences of 'if not'; the individual after trying his best to get moves to the illegal ways which are not socially accepted. But in order to satisfy his conscience he does it. Another factor can be suicide. Since it is now the third major reason of death worldwide, the reasons can be the high rate of anxiety and depressions particularly due to these aspects. As a result the crime rate has greatly been increased by now and it is till increasing. The unequal distribution of the wealth and psychological urge of material possessions has pushed the poor or low profile people off their thresholds.

Critical analysis

One of the major reasons for inculcating a psychological feeding of material possessions is the media. An eye which keeps on watching the ads on the TV of different and expensive brands does convey the message to the brain that it wants to covet it. The continuous process of desiring and not getting puts them under the impression of being inferior, having no identity, showable status, wealth, appreciable profile and etc. things hence they either start hiding the reality or try to find escapes like isolation from the people and society or suicide. Unfortunately, nowadays people are judged by the material possessions and not by the behaviors. It is the social crisis, practiced almost in every part of the world.… [read more]

History of Psychology Over the Centuries Western Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (965 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


History Of Psychology

Over the centuries Western societies have constantly wrestled with: various ailments surrounding human behavior and why an individual will engage in the actions they take. This would give rise to the field of modern day psychology, where various thinkers and philosophers were attempting to understand these issues. As a result, a variety of theories were developed, to provide a more in depth picture of how the human mind works. Where, a number of different psychologists would have a profound impact on understanding human behavior to include: Benjamin Rush, Henry Wegrocki, Karen Horney, Evelyn Hooker Thomas Szasz and Samuel Guze. This is significant, because the different ideas presented by these thinkers would provide the basic foundation for the psychology. To fully understand the impact that of each of these individuals had requires: looking at a summary of the different ideas. Once this takes place, it will provide the greatest insights, as to how each of these individuals would help to shape modern day psychology.

Benjamin Rush

Benjamin Rush was considered to be the father of American Psychiatry. Where, he would classify the different diseases of the mind, while believing that mental illness was caused by a blood disorder. He was the first person to describe and catalogue the symptoms of Savant Syndrome. This would help Rush be able to identify a number of mental disorders, which would allow him to develop the therapeutic approach for treating addiction. This is where he believed that someone who is addicted to a chemical substance (such as alcohol), will lose control over their behaviors. At the same time, Rush would help to establish the modern day mental institution, as place where someone who is suffering from mental illness can be able to receive specific treatment for their ailments. (Gentile, 2008)

Henry Wegrocki

Henry Wegrocki argued that a statistical approach should be used in the study of abnormality. As the different ideas he presented would differ from other philosophers, with him believing in monitoring the observable behavior of the individual. This is where you would examine the actions of the individual, based upon how they are reacting to various situations, without making any kind of inferences as to the possible motives. Instead, the mental health professional would want to monitor the behavior of the individual, to determine what they are suffering from. (Gentile, 2008)

Karen Horney

Karen Horney believed that in probing the deep recesses of the mind, you can determine what specific factors from the childhood are affecting the behavior of an individual. Where, understanding the individual's perception of these events; will help to provide insights as to their deepest thoughts and desires. She then identified ten different needs that would affect the behavior of all individuals to include: moving toward people, moving against people, moving away from people, aggression, detachment, compliance and mature theory. At the same time, Horney identified to different views…… [read more]

Abnormal Behavior and Psychopathology Although the Science Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,250 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Abnormal Behavior and Psychopathology

Although the science of psychopathology is relatively modern, it is reasonable to posit that there ancient mankind was afflicted by mental illness and that there has always been a need for effective ways to treat it. In the not-too-distant past, these problems were understood in terms of magic and religion, but these perspectives have been replaced in Western medicine by a more scientific view of mental illness and abnormal behavior that seeks to understand abnormal behaviors based on their biological, psychosocial and sociocultural origins. To determine how this transition from the magic and religious to the scientific has taken place over the years, this paper provides a description of the origins of abnormal psychology, a brief overview concerning how abnormal psychology has evolved into a scientific discipline and an assessment of the theoretical viewpoints and interpretations of the biological, psychosocial, and sociocultural models. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

a. Describe the origins of Abnormal Psychology.

People have always suffered from mental illness and there have always been efforts by humans to understand and treat these disorders. According to Kimble and Schlesinger (1985), "The very early history of psychopathology is scant in the extreme and we must be extremely hesitant to draw inferences from the few available data. There are a few records of psychological therapy dating from 3000 B.C. In Egypt and Mesopotamia" (p. 267). What is known for certain is that magic and religion were the primary ways that ancient peoples understood and sought to treat mental illness. For instance, Kimble and Schlesinger note that, "Illness was believed to be of divine origin and it followed that treatment consisted largely of magical-religious practices. Dream interpretations, incantations, religious rituals, and suggestion were employed" (p. 267). These points are also made by other historians of psychopathology. For example, in their seminal work, The Psychodynamics of Abnormal Behavior, Brown and Menninger (1940), report that, "Magic [and] religion are the chief methods through which man has tried to understand his place in the cosmos and to better it" (p. 23). Indeed, magical and religious views were highly influential in the manner in which mental illness was perceived by ancient peoples. In this regard, Kimble and Schlesinger note that, "Early views about madness have been inferred from Biblical references. For example, Deuteronomy 28:23, 34 views madness as punishment for disobeying the commandments" (p. 267). By any measure, the past two centuries have not been kind to humans and it is little wonder that mental illness is commonplace, but as the adage suggests, "The more things change, the more they stay the same" and this is the case with mental illness as well. For instance, Brown and Menninger add that, "Despite the fact that there is a widespread belief that mental disorder is a modern problem, we can be fairly sure that it has always existed. Although social anthropological research shows that among primitive people the psychoses and… [read more]

Organizational Behavior (Psychology) Applied Comprehension Organizational Psychologists Term Paper

Term Paper  |  16 pages (4,268 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Organizational Behavior (Psychology)

Applied Comprehension

Organizational Psychologists continually seek the creation of relevant approaches for the application of organizational psychological principles. Central to the application of Industrial Organizational psychological principles, as an emergent approach, has been the elevation of consultation psychology as a primary approach for the application of organizational psychology. Theoretically, the tension between business, clinical psychology and Industrial… [read more]

Anxiety Disorder and Subjective Distress Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,401 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Pathologizing Anxiety: When is it Healthy to be Anxious?

Psychiatry and psychology have a history of confusing normal behavior that is outside of the average with pathology. Anyone with any familiarity with the history of the DSM can look at conditions that were previously considered disorders, such as homosexuality, to see that there has been a push to pathologize the… [read more]

Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Term Paper

Term Paper  |  16 pages (5,609 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


However, some have questioned whether these results would have been the same if the groups of people had known one another. In the experiment, the boys were not acquainted with one another prior to the experiment. Believing that such a scenario is too artificial to make it generalizable to the population at large, Tyerman and Spencer conducted a similar experiment,… [read more]

Psychology and Behavior Discuss Antipsychotic Drugs Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Psychology and Behavior

Discuss antipsychotic drugs, and mention a few typical side effects. Briefly describe the category of anti-anxiety drugs called benzodiazepines, including side effects.

Antipsychotic drugs are a group of drugs used to treat psychosis in patients. They are often used to treat disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, or delusional disorder, but the drugs can be used in many… [read more]

Three Theoretical Perspectives Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (843 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Theoretical Perspectives to Human Behavior

Over the last several years, there have been a number of theories introduced to explain human behavior. To fully understand the most effective approaches requires focusing on psychology, genetics and neuroscience. This will be accomplished by studying each perspective in relation to human conduct and which theory is most valid. Together, these different elements will highlight the underlying influences on the thoughts and actions of a person.

The Three Perspectives on Human Behavior

Like what was stated previously, there are three areas that are focused on these include: psychology, behavioral genetics and behavioral neuroscience. Psychology is when there is a focus on how the thoughts of an individual will influence their behavior. This is because the environment will shape the way that someone reacts to different events. (Robbins, 1991)

Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Robbins (1991) who said, "Everything that happens in your life -- both what you are thrilled with and challenged by -- began with a decision. it's in your moments of decision that your destiny is shaped. The choices that you are making right now, every day, will shape how you feel today as well as who you are going to become in the future and beyond." This is illustrating how psychology will have a direct impact on the decisions that are made by everyone. When this happens, it will determine the levels of happiness and other challenges that are affecting the person (based upon these views). (Robbins, 1991)

The way that this can explain human behavior is to focus on how the thoughts of the individual and the way they are reacting to events are influencing their actions. When this happens, mental health professionals will have a greater understanding as to what factors are impacting the person. This is the point that they can begin working with them to address these challenges and changing how they are looking at various events. In the future, this will result in positive transformations with their behavior. (Robbins, 1991)

Behavioral genetics is when there is focus on how biological factors are influencing the way that someone is reacting to different events. During this process, there is a concentration on how certain inherited traits will impact the way a person sees themselves and their role in the world. This will influence their behavior by causing them to react in a manner that is in line with various genetic attributes. (Plomin, 2008)

For example, the Irish are known for drinking and fighting. Using behavioral…… [read more]

Humanistic Psychology Critique of Mainstream Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,210 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Humanistic Psychology

Critique of Mainstream Psychology

Humanistic and transcendental perspectives of psychology have been making inroads into psychology to alter the assumptions and practices of mainstream psychology. The humanistic perspective highlights the primacy of human experiences in forming any assumptions and theories of the human mind whereas the transcendental perspective encourages psychologists to consider peak experiences and higher states of… [read more]

Organizational Psychology Productive and Counterproductive Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (905 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


It involved observing and recording systematically the employees' behaviors. Archival data is another popular method of studying behavior. In organizational psychology archival data is most prevalent when comparison is made to other observational methods. This is mainly because there is an absolute abundance of sources that are available to researcher from archival data.

In applied social research, the method known to be most important is survey research. It has a broad area that includes the basic questionnaires, asking direct questions to respondents, determining respondent's behaviors, attitudes, and personalities. Surveys are mainly used when gathering a wide variety of information and they use interviews or questionnaires.

Use of organizational psychology in organizations

Using the various research methods available, an organization can use organizational psychology to establish the reason why employees are not able to function as a team, or work together. Obtaining information regarding each employee on their attitude, opinion, personal growth, feedback loops, and adaptations will provide the employer with crucial insights regarding the employees' interactions with each other especially when they are working on a group task. Organizational psychology can also be used to enlighten individual job performances. An organization can be able to control the fate of an employee within the organization when the employee's responsibilities are well understood.

Some of the things that the employer should consider during this strategic method are the employee's efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity, which all lead to the overall utilization of their position. Using organizational psychology an organization can also be able to make hiring decisions Shams & Jackson, 2006.

Currently many human resource employees make use of observational methods and research surveys when selecting the qualified candidates for the workplace. In order to predict an employee's job performance they will use structured interviews, personality test, and knowledge tests. Organizational psychology can also be used when determining if a specific employee has work behavior that is counterproductive. Some of the counterproductive behaviors are absenteeism and ineffective job performance. These behaviors can be discovered by observation or experiments, which are better referred to as empirical data.

Currently organizational psychology is mostly used by human resource consultants and coordinators, but in the past organizational psychology was used by scientists. The methods of organizational psychology can be used to get information from workplaces and non-workplaces. Using the strategy of organizational psychology, the behavior of individuals and organizations can be discovered to be interesting.


Guion, R.M. (1965). Personnel testing. 2445 McCabe Way: McGraw-Hill.

Jex, S.M. (2002). Organizational Psychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Miner, J.B. (2007). Organizational Behavior 4: From Theory to Practice. Armonk, NY 10504: M.E. Sharpe.

Shams, M., & Jackson, P.R. (2006). Developments in Work and Organization Psychology: Implications…… [read more]

Psychology Criminal Behavior Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,023 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



Criminal behavior has been the subject of interest for psychologists for a very long time. In a manner, it is quite intriguing question that what are the reasons and causes that lead a person to display criminal behavior. Many theories have been presented over the decades to answer this question. Most theories tend to focus on the factors that make a person indulge in committing crimes. While many factors are argued to be the main reasons for such criminal behavior, none can be proved with surety as behavior depends upon the way the brain and the psychology of a person works. Only the understanding of the human mind can assist psychologists greatly to investigate the structure of the mind and the way it operates (Barkow, Cosmides, & Tooby, 1992). Therefore, several biological theories have been presented by psychologists who attempt to explain the criminal behavior of a person's mind.

One theory that suggests the links between biology and the criminal behavior is that the human brain adapts the biological traits of the human body into processes and mechanism of psychology. This theory explains that psychology is quite closely linked to the human physiology and the neuroscience functions of the brain. According to the psychologists who support this biological theory, the development of the behavioral conduct of a person depends upon the biological effects on the brain. Due to various biological factors in the human body such as increase in blood flow, rise in testosterone levels, etc. They explain that the brain adapts these physical signals into determining the behavior the person has to present by converting these signals into phenomena such as emotions, attitudes, core concepts of self value and motives (Bartol & Bartol, 2007). The behavior is discussed as a part of the evolutionary psychology of a person as suggested by the Darwinian selection. This selection theory says that the selection created the existing biological adaptations in living species to act as a solution for the problems that have recurred among the many generations of a species' ancestors (Dawkins, 1986). Therefore, the outlay of this theory suggests that the violent behavior in humans relates to the biological operations of the human physiology. For example, the feeling of pain when a person punched by another person urges the brain to generate the emotion of anger and to satisfy that emotion the first person engages into violent actions. Therefore, upon evaluation, this theory provides strong evidence that associate with the impact of biology on the criminal behavior.

A different theory suggests that the human mind is impacted by the social motives and society at large; to determine the behavior it will display through its host. Studies relating to social behavior have presented the ideas that the psychological functions such as the emotions, motives and attitudes of a person are molded by the evolutionary natural selection to act in a nepotistic manner i.e. To perform actions that uphold the perseverance and growth of the genetic elements such as reproduction and survival… [read more]

Sociology Evolutionary Psychology Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (785 words)
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Finally, we conclude by suggesting that mismatches between our evolved emotional responses and the novel modern environments in which they currently operate often lead to outcomes we can legitimately view as suboptimal.

They spend the article elaborating upon this main set or intersection of ideas and theories. Cultural messages throughout time have sent mixed messages about emotions. Evolutionary psychology can help explain how the paradox evolved and why all the advice regarding emotions is valid, not just half or some. They argue within the context of evolutionary psychology that humans have to embrace the paradoxical nature of emotions and learn how to sometimes let emotions take over and sometimes attempt to control them, yet always value and appreciate their validity. This article indirectly is a strong argument for or advocate for emotional intelligence. Gardner (1989) first argued for the theory of multiple intelligences within every human -- emotional intelligence being one of them. This article indirectly argues for the use of evolutionary psychology as a strategy to develop and apply emotional intelligence to the daily human experience.

The authors conclude that the use of evolutionary psychology with respect to the topic of emotions, behavior, and emotional intelligence is functional approach or strategy. They ultimately argue the validity for the use of this particular theory because of the fundamentally adaptive nature or core of evolutionary psychology. They additionally propose that in the present and near future, the application of evolutionary psychology will occur in areas of counseling/therapy, life coaching, anthropology, sociology, neurology, and others. Evolutionary psychology, then, would prove useful within psychology with respect to social disorders, anxieties, trauma, and compulsion, for example. The authors chose to view emotions and behavior through a Darwinian lens of adaptation. They want to leave readers with the sense that the irrational and often uncontrollable nature of emotions enables reason and does serve to obstruct it.


Haselton, M.G. (2005). Irrational Emotions of Emotional Wisdom? Evolutionary Psychology of Emotions and Behavior. Forgas, J. (ed) Hearts and minds: Affective influences on social cognition and behavior. Psychology Press: New York.… [read more]

Behavioral Psychology the Main Link Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,139 words)
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(Signmund, 1925)

In the oral stage, the oral cavity is the primary focus of libidal energy. During this period, the infant is preoccupied with nursing and bringing objects to the mouth. Infants who have been refused nursing at this stage, or who have truncated nursing sessions early are characteristically pessimists, filled with envy, suspicion and sarcasm. On the other hand, infants who have over-indulged oral character, through prolonged nursing, are optimistic and gullible. (Sigmund, 1925)

By approximately one and a half years of age, the child enters the anal stage, which is the toilet training period. This stage reflects a conflict between the id, which is the pleasure of getting rid of bodily wastes, and the ego and superego, which is the practical and societal pleasure of controlling body functions. At this stage, the child may develop an anal expulsive behavior by wanting to take pleasure in defecation, or he may develop an anal retentive behavior if he opts to retain his feces. The anal expulsive behavior is generally messy and unorganized, unlike the anal retentive behavior, which is neat, orderly and stingy. (Signmund, 1925)

The third stage is the phallic stage. This stage involves the child's unconscious desire to possess the opposite sex parent and repel the same sex parent. For boys, castration anxiety represses this desire and he passes into the phase of "libido dormancy." Girls, on the other hand, are struck with "penis envy," which is the apparent counterpart of boys' castration anxiety. Eventually, girls learn their role by identifying with their mothers, just like how boys learn their role by identifying with the father. Fixation at this stage leads to the development of a phallic character, identified as being reckless, narcissistic and proud. (Sigmund, 1925)

The individuals proceed from this stage, they enter a latent period and finally to the Genital Stage. The focus at this stage is again towards the genitals and interest turns to heterosexual development. Fixation at any of the stages will cause the individual to become stuck at that stage, until the conflict is resolved. For example, a person fixed at the oral stage may over indulge in oral stimulation through excessive eating or smoking. Moreover, the lesser the energy that the child has left invested in unresolved psychosexual stages, the greater will be his capacity to lead a normal relationship with the opposite sex. (Sigmund, 1925)

Even though, proving Freud's theory on psychosexual development may not be possible, one report published by Paul Cameron (1964) revealed agreeable results. He tried to confirm the psychosexual stages by checking preferences of Freudian inspired shapes of masculinity and feminity presented to children in each of the different stages. Choices supported Freud's theories. The outcomes of the first three stages were revealed in shape preferences. Individuals 13-year or older preferred masculine shapes, regardless of gender, due to male dominance of the society. However, children, in the phallic stage, are ignorant of the male dominance and therefore, preferred opposite sex shapes. (Cameron, 1964)

Freud's theory on… [read more]

Motivation in Behavior Research Paper

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Simultaneous prompting on the other hand ensures that each response will be 100% correct after the instructions are given, and is always followed by positive reinforcement. It the past, it has been used successfully to teach autistic children basic skills such as dressing, hand washing, and expressive and receptive language skills (Leaf et al., p. 215). No-no prompting gives the child "the opportunity to respond independently" with 'no' or 'try again' for incorrect answers, and then only gives a simultaneous prompt on the third try (Leaf et al., p. 216). Past studies have shown that it is useful for teaching verbs, expressive labeling of words and matching-to-sample tasks in autistic children.

DCI has often been criticized by its Pavlovian-behaviorist premises centering on stimulus and response in autistic children. This method, used in isolation from other therapies, can simply reinforce and reproduce the rigid, stereotyped behavior of autistic children as well as "rote and inflexible behavior." For this reason, it is "controversial and frequently denounced" by therapists who prefer to less much less structured methods like natural environment teaching (Lund 2009). Moreover, DCI has often been poorly designed and inconsistently used, although that was definitely not the case in this study. If the work of Leaf et al. can be replicated consistently on a larger scale, than this type of no-no prompt should become part of the standard treatment in early intensive behavioral intervention in autistic children. Indeed, it proved to be effective even with a boy who had very high levels of noncompliance and aberrant behaviors.

Contemporary educational theories have also been more influenced by the humanistic ideas of Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget, who are the most influential child psychologists of the 20th Century. Erikson revised the stages of development in Freudian psychoanalysis away from the emphasis on gratification of the basic drives and instincts of the id to gratification and development of the ego, and therefore like most of the later Freudians has been considered an ego psychologist. Social demands on the ego force it to mature and develop progressively, from the time infants first learn to feed and small children undergo toilet training and first learn to walk. Over time, society's demands on the ego increase, up until the stage of adulthood when individuals are expected to become productive, contributing members of the community. For this reason "new behaviors must" emerge in order for the person to mature into a healthy, functioning ego (Lerner, 2002, p. 418). With Erikson's stages "there are no second chances in development, once part of one's ego fails to appropriately develop, one will never be able to regain it" (Lerner, p. 419). This will lead to frustration, a sense of failure and despair, inability to form intimate relationships and perhaps even mental illness and antisocial behavior. Erikson remains very influential today because of their pioneering work, even if contemporary development theorists reject the concept of rigid and inflexible stages of life. Youth development in contemporary times is considered far more fluid and… [read more]

Social Psychology: Examining the Principles Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (3,075 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


The pervasive nature of social influence can be seen through its role in the formation of social identity, collective action, social movements, the diffusion of innovations, and group productivity and cohesion among others.

"Social influence is defined as a change in an individual's thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behaviors that results from interaction with another individual or group" (Rashotte 2006:4427). There… [read more]

Compare and Contrast Psychoanalytic, Behavior, and Existential Theories Research Paper

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Psychology Models

Since Sigmund Freud first introduced his psychoanalytic theory, numerous other theoretical models of psychopathology have been suggested with certain similarities and differences. They all share the same fundamental beliefs that each person is born with certain innate tendencies and psychological functions; that everyone's environment contributes to the type of person one becomes; that as a result of some… [read more]

Psychology History of Psychology Max Weitheimer (Laws Essay

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Bibliography Sources: 1+



History of Psychology

Max Weitheimer (Laws of Organization in Perceptual Forms)

Max Wertheimer was one of the principal proponents of Gestalt theory which emphasized higher-order cognitive processes in the midst of behaviorism. The center of Gestalt premise was the concept of grouping. The chief aspects that determine grouping include: proximity which involves elements being grouped together according to their nearness, similarity, where items of similar respect tend to be grouped together, closure where items are grouped together if they tend to complete some entity and simplicity where items will be organized into simple figures according to symmetry, regularity, and smoothness. These factors are referred to as the laws of organization and are explained in the context of awareness and problem-solving. The fundamental character of successful problem-solving behavior according to Wertheimer is that of being able to envision the overall construction of the problem.

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (Conditioned Reflexes: An investigation of the Physiological Activity of the Cerebral Cortex)

Pavlov was a Nobel Prize-winning physiologist, whose research into the process of the conditioned reflex is considered a landmark discovery in both modern physiology and behavioral psychology. Pavlov was recognized by the Nobel Committee for his work with mammalian digestion; however, later experiments with canine salivation led to his theorization of the learned or conditioned reflex, a physiological response to associated but otherwise unrelated stimuli. Pavlov saw that when dogs were offered some additional stimulus accompanied by regular feedings, such as a flash of light, could be made to salivate when only the added stimulation, and no food, was given. During experimentation, Pavlov ascertained the physiological basis of certain types of learned behavior. He also related his discovery of the conditioned reaction to humans.

Kurt Lewin (Experiments in Social Space)

Kurt Lewin's field theory was using the concept of fields of force to explain behavior in terms of one's field of social influences. His areas of interest included human motivation, which was involved describing human behavior in its total physical and social perspective. He paid close attention mainly to social problems that affect how people live and work. He worked hard to make factories more personal instead of industrial in order to make work more personally satisfying to the employees. His understanding of field theory in physics led him to the breakthrough of the life space. Lewin thought that a person's psychological activities happen within a kind of psychological field. He called this field the life space. The life space is made up of all events in a persons past, present and future that help shape and affect them. Each of the events is thought to help determine a person's behavior in any given situation. The life space is also made up of a person's needs in dealings with the psychological environment.

Edward…… [read more]

Positive Psychology Optimism Term Paper

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Positive Psychology: Optimism

The purpose of the present paper is to define and discuss the concept of "optimism" within the realms of positive psychology, exploring its relevance in this area. Positive psychology is a branch of psychology which has been developed only recently. Its declared purpose is to understand the psychological mechanisms and instruments which could be used in order… [read more]

Social Psychology and Note Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (849 words)
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¶ … social psychology and note how it is different from other, similar fields.

Unlike psychology, which tends to focus on the individual in the context of his or her immediate environment, social psychology focuses on how larger social forces affect the individual. Sociology, the study of individuals in groups, focuses on aggregates rather than individuals.

Discuss three ways in which the presence of others can affect the likelihood that people will help someone in need.

If an individual is being watched, he or she may be more likely to bestow aid. Also, if others immediately try to give help, groupthink may active the impulse to participate. However, there is also the bystander effect, whereby an individual not wanting to get involved assumes that 'someone else' has already called for help.

Q14. Describe how the self-concept develops from the perception of one's own behavior and from comparisons with other people.

Self-concept can be shaped by social forces. For example, some social scientists attribute the increase in obesity to the fact that the social norm of weight has increased, as all of America (and the world) grows fatter. However, it is impossible to see the 'self' exactly as others perceive it. For example, someone with social anxiety or low self-esteem may dread speaking in public because 'everyone is looking at me" and believe that he or she seems incompetent, when others do not judge him or her nearly as harshly.

15. Characterize modern racism. Describe when it is most, and least, likely to be evident.

Modern racism tends to be less overt than previous manifestations of racism. Individuals are less likely to engage in overt acts of discrimination, although unconscious or subtle acts of discrimination are far from uncommon.

Part B.

Television program: Network news

Physical assaults that involve using a weapon or object: 1

Physical assaults that do not involve a weapon or object: 0

Verbal threats of harm: 0

Insults or derogatory remarks: 10

Violent deaths: 0

Accidents in which someone is hurt: 2

On the particular edition of the network news I screened, the main news story was the upcoming health summit between President Obama and congressional leaders. The main acts of violence were the insults used by the Republicans against the president. There was also some coverage of the 'wild weather' sweeping the nation and the injuries caused by snow and ice. Had the focus of the news been upon Iraq, the tally may have been different. The network news is not consistently violent every night, although it can be, unlike…… [read more]

Clinical Disorder Clinical Psychology and Categorical Mental Thesis

Thesis  |  12 pages (3,626 words)
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Clinical Disorder

Clinical Psychology and Categorical Mental Disorders

Clinical psychology is a field constructed on the intent to treat disorders and dysfunctions and to promote mental health and stability in its subject. Therefore, it is centered on the processes of diagnosis and therapy, with the various disorders to which individuals are subject falling under a set of classifications discussed in… [read more]

Humanistic Psychology Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  12 pages (3,336 words)
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Humanistic Psychology


Psychologists found that a Third Force filled the void left by earlier approaches to understanding the workings of the human mind in its pursuit of genuine fulfillment and personal happiness. This Third Force centers on the unconditional worth of the individual, which guides him in his journey to optimal self-discovery and… [read more]

Depression and Addictive Behavior Thesis

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Depression and Addictive Behavior

Double Cruel Hand

Comobid Conditions

Contemporary, Challenging Concerns Worldwide

Derangement of the Volition 7 Contemporary Addictions



Role of Cocaine Use in Depression

Clinical Techniques of Helping



Tried and True" Techniques


Points for Treatment Consideration

Clients' Reported Med Use When Admitted to Substance Abuse Clinics

Personal Growth and Maintenance (adapted from Daley,… [read more]

Human Interaction From a Psychology Perspective Thesis

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Psychology - Human Interaction


Human Behavior in Social Situations:

Human behavior reflects a complex interrelationship between elements of individual psychological development and external circumstances. In that regard, social situations involving other people is among the most significant external circumstances that influence the behavior of the individual. Normal psychological responses to social circumstances have the potential to be exploited and in the most extreme examples, may produce a social psychosis capable of transforming a society entirely.

Experiments into the Impact of Perceived Deferred Responsibility:

Stanley Milgram conducted an infamous series of experiments before the era where ethical guidelines prohibited certain types of experiments capable of traumatizing participants (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). The experimental design consisted of a mock laboratory in which volunteers believed they were assisting an experimenter conduct a study on human learning. In reality, the purpose of the experiment was to determine the limits of deference to authority.

Specifically, participants believed they were administering painful electric shocks to unseen subjects as a punishment for providing incorrect responses to test questions.

Many of the participants continued administering what they believed to be extremely painful shocks to subjects who screamed out in apparent pain and demanded to be released fro the experiment. Any appeals on behalf of the hidden subjects were met with verbal assurance fro official-looking experimenters dressed in white lab coats that they and not the study participants were fully responsible for any resulting harm to the supposed study subjects. Years later, even the participants expressed their own surprise and disappointment that they were capable of ignoring their own consciences by virtue of assurances that someone in higher authority was responsible for their actions (Macionis 2003).

The Significance of the Phenomenon of Deference to Authority:

In principle, the Milgram experiments demonstrated the degree to which normal individuals are susceptible to blind obedience and deference to authority. The implications of the experiment were that large-scale incidents of societal atrocities such as witnessed in connection with Nazi ideology during World War II are functions of normal human psychology rather than to a pathological psychosis as many had suggested previously (Henslin 2002)

While most individuals are susceptible to elements of this principle, different people vary substantially in their resistance to following directions that violate their sense of morality and their perception of the distinction between right and wrong. In that respect, higher levels of self-esteem are associated with greater psychological independence (Branden 1999). The Stanford Prison Experiment and the Impact of Social Situations and Groupthink:

In 1970, Stanford University Psychology professor Phillip Zimbardo conducted an experiment known as the Stanford Prison Experiment (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005) in which he randomly assigned student-participants to be either "prison guards" or "prisoners" in a jail that he set up in the basement of the Psychology building on the Stanford campus. Whereas the subjects in the Milgram experiments received verbal instructions and encouragement from individuals they perceived to be authority figures, Zimbardo provided no specific instructions to his… [read more]

Child Psychology Child Development Term Paper

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Child Psychology

Child development is a constantly changing psycho/social discipline with almost countless theories associated with it. The fundamental nature of children and how they develop to become either successful adults or unsuccessful adults to varying degrees is the essential question of the future and therefore the study of child development is a mass of information encompassing theories of all… [read more]

Abnormal Psychology: OCD Diagnosis and Treatment Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 3


Abnormal Psychology: OCD Diagnosis and Treatment

In this case, the reader is asked to evaluate the case of "Jake," who has an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) which has reemerged after the birth of his child. Jake grew up in a relatively sheltered environment, close to his mother and distant from his father. Always uncomfortable with outside stimuli, Jake pursued a cautious… [read more]

Mental Illness: What's in a Label? Term Paper

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Mental Illness: What's in a Label?

In a civil society, everyone is expected to adhere to certain set of "norms." Those that do not adhere to the prescribed norms are labeled and abnormal. Public knowledge about mental illness is at a level never before experienced in any society. The mass media promotes societal norms, that may not be considered all… [read more]

Psychology to Me, the Most Interesting Thing Term Paper

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To me, the most interesting thing about psychology is the deeper understanding of people that can be found with it. I know that people are very complex and psychology does not give all the answers, but it gives such insight into human behavior, and that is something that I find very fascinating. Human beings are not only interesting, but they can be charming, frightening, dangerous, confused, and a thousand other things. Because of this, it seems as though it is important to understand why people do what they do. While this does not mean that the problems that people cause for themselves and others can be prevented, it does appear that a greater understanding of humanity would be very beneficial in determining the cause of some behaviors and therefore looking for ways to stop or at least understand the behaviors.

In a beginning psychology course, I would not expect to learn a really in-depth study of people and why they act the way they do. Instead, I would…… [read more]

Relation of Nonverbal Behavior to Client Reactions Term Paper

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Psychology of Nonverbal Behavior and Therapy Client Reactions

For therapists, developing a clear sense of their clients' reactions to therapy, whether positive or negative, is a crucial component in improving the quality of the therapy provided. One of the more significant problems facing therapists who are interested in the evaluation of their own methods is that many clients are reluctant… [read more]

Psychotherapy Comparing it to Behavior Therapy Term Paper

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Psychotherapy vs. Behavior Therapy

Psychotherapy is a form of therapy that helps treat mental and behavioral disorders by talking about these disorders with a professional trained in mental health and psychotherapy. The therapy can be one-on-one or group oriented. Often, participants just call it "therapy' (Editors, 2006). Psychotherapy can help an individual deal with emotional issues, such as anger or aggression, and it helps understand relationships and reactions to people and situations, as well. Often, psychotherapy does not last a long time, and participants can choose when they feel they have gotten enough results from their therapy. Psychotherapy can help people deal with negative behaviors, but it also teaches them to set realistic goals, enjoy life, and solve problems effectively.

Behavior therapy, on the other hand, treats mental and behavioral disorders by attempting to teach alternate or acceptable behaviors to replace the disruptive or destructive behaviors. For example, an overly aggressive person may undergo behavior therapy to address their anger and dangerous behavior toward others. By changing their behaviors, they hope to…… [read more]

Psychology Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Cognitive Behavioral Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


It is thought that more than seventeen million adults go through at least one incident of major depression every year. Of those who seek help, just forty to sixty percent will react to initial therapy. Cognitive behavior therapy is a type of psychotherapy that is often utilized to take care of patients with depression, anxiety or other issues. It entails helping people to recognize negative patterns of thinking and reacting, and then replacing them with more productive options. Study findings have shown that CBT has a very precise action on the brain's control of its emotional reaction. While health professionals have known that psychotherapy was normally helpful for depression, they have not known before how targeted its effects have been (Fahy, 2006).

According to a study published in the January 2004 issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry, health professionals have been using Positron emission tomography (PET) to show the diverse effects of depression treatments on the brain. People who recuperate after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) show a model of brain alterations that is different from that of people who respond to medication. "By modifying attention and memory functions, affective bias, and maladaptive information processing, CBT teaches patients cognitive strategies to reduce automatic reactivity to negative thoughts. Unlike this top-down approach, which focuses on cortical brain areas and uses thought processes to change abnormal mood states; drug therapy is considered to be a bottom-up approach because it changes neurochemistry in the brain stem and limbic regions effecting basic emotional and circadian behaviors" (Barclay, 2004).


Barclay, Laurie. (2004). Brain PET Shows Different Effects of Depression Treatments. Retreived from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/466497

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. (2011). Retreived from http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=About_Treatments_and_Supports&template


Fahy, Joe. (2006). Study finds brain imaging could predict best depression therapy. Retrieved http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/06095/679334-114.stm

Neurological Changes Associated with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy. (2008). Retrieved

from http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/exchange/node/2441… [read more]

Health Psychology Committee Report Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,250 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Health Psychology Committee Report

Health care reform plan

Duty list:

This would be the ideal assignment for a child psychologist. A child psychologist possesses intimate knowledge of childhood development issues and can help schools deal with psychological and academic challenges with children in a more effective manner. Children are not 'small adults.' Children have specific needs based upon the biology of their brains. That is why developmental psychology is a unique subfield of psychology: developmental psychologists "study the physiological, cognitive, and social development that takes place throughout life," which change depending on the life phase of the person (Psychologists, 2011, BLS).

Provide psychological preparation methods for children prior to medical procedures: Likewise, a child psychologist can help prepare children before procedures in an age-appropriate manner. A child's perception of a surgery, or a painful test, for example, will not be the same as an adult's who more fully understands what is going on. The in-patient therapist could also provide assistance in helping parents deal with the illnesses of their child.

Provide treatment for chronic pain: This would seem to be best-suited for an adult psychologist. He or she could combine psychological and medical ways to deal with pain that would be administered both in an in-patient and out-patient setting. "A psychologist can help you address the emotional impact of chronic pain. Using behavioral therapy techniques, a psychologist can help you identify and change negative thoughts -- thoughts that can exacerbate your pain. The psychologist can help you deal with any depression, anxiety, or other mood disorders often associated with chronic pain" (Walker 2011).

Provide psychological preparation methods for adults prior to medical procedures and surgery: This would be best-suited for an in-patient psychologist. The psychologist would be specifically charged with the duties of preparing adult patients for in-house procedures and surgery, focusing on short-term rather than long-term needs (Department of Psychology, 2011, Mass General Hospital).

Coordinate the use of recovery programs and structured programs for substance abuse, in conjunction with social worker: Dealing with the psychological and medical needs of substance abusers requires specific preparation and would be best delegated to a substance abuse counselor. Most major research hospitals have departments specifically devoted to the treatment of substance-abuse related complaints, given the expanding knowledge we now possess about how addition changes the addict's brain. "Despite the availability of many forms of effective treatment for addiction, the problem of relapse remains the major challenge to achieving sustained recovery. People trying to recover from drug abuse and addiction are often doing so with altered brains, strong drug-related memories and diminished impulse control" (Volkow 2011).

Diagnose stress disorders and aid in stress-relief interventions: These generalized psychological treatments would best be allocated to an adult psychologist who could help patients use such stress-reduction techniques outside of the facility in their daily lives. Stress relief can be helpful for both psychologically normal patients as well as individuals suffering from psychological complaints. Recently, a study in the Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging reported that all participants in an… [read more]

Dialectical Behavior Therapy Dbt Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,722 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Dialectical Behavior Therapy


Dialectical Behavior Therapy is a medication meant to treat persons with mental health disorders especially borderline personality disorder. These patients normally have a history of urges to induce self-harm, self-mutilation, suicidal ideation among others. This therapy uses a cognitive-behavioral approach that deals with the psychological aspect of treatment (Heard, 2009). The theory depends on the approach… [read more]

Social Psychology Statement Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,591 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Interviewing 262 undergraduate students the authors learned that in terms of feminine vs. unfeminine athletes, males are less interested in articles about female athletes are more masculine but males like women's volleyball (women wear shorts and tend to be more attractive). Female students reported more interest in more masculine sports players. There is a fascinating social psychological study within that subject.

Other writers are investigating the social psychological aspects of attitudes toward serious mental illness, about the behavioral control (or lack of control) young people have with respect to information technology, and the role social psychology plays with reference to customer retention for a particular cellular company.

The learner's response to the research

My original ideas were very narrowly focused, and I really had little comprehension as to the depth and width of the subject. Moreover, I did not realize that this field is as yet not widely used in schools environments, and that teachers are among those that should become proficient with the concepts and with the importance of understanding social psychology. For the benefit of minority students, and all students, instructors should be on the front line when it comes to understanding social psychology and how it can bring enlighten attitudes and ideas.

Works Cited

Cherry, Kendra. (2008) What is Social Psychology? About.com. Retrieved February 27, 2012,

From http://psychology.about.com/od/socialpsychology/f/socialpsych.htm?p=1.

Gehlbach, Hunter. The Social Side of School: Why Teachers Need Social Psychology.

Educational Psychological Review, 22(3), 349-362.

Jones, Amy, and Greer, Jennifer. (2011). You Don't Look Like an Athlete: The Effects of Feminine Appearance on Audience Perceptions of Female Athletes and Women's Sports.

Journal of Sport Behavior, 34(4), 358-377.

McCall,…… [read more]

Evolution of Cognitive Psychology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,097 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In his work, Wundt embraced introspection as a research methodology based on his belief that adequately trained psychologists should make observations of their experiences in similar ways to those of properly trained physicists. By using objective measures of performance like reaction time, the main focus of this psychologist was on the conscious experience that heralded the response. However, he was not concerned with the unconscious processes that are used to respond to simple stimuli i.e. The speedy information-processing operations because he regarded these factors as aspects of physiology rather than psychology (Braisby & Gellatly, n.d.).

Kulpe, the leader of Wurzburg school of introspection opposed Wundt's perspective by developing the other concept of conscious experience that could be revealed by introspection. Unlike Wundt's perspective, Kulpe stated that the contents of consciousness are determined in a top-down means depending on the task that the individual is engaged upon. Together with his colleagues, the psychologists examined simple tasks though they favored more complex tasks that were mainly based on mental acts like recognizing, attending, willing, and discriminating.

In the first two decades of the 20th Century, introspectionism approach went into a terminal decline through the various unresolved disagreements in the two schools of this approach. During this period, the introspectionists increased complex classifications of conscious experience despite of the declining interests in consciousness.

Gestalt psychology:

The seeming failure and decline in introspectionism stimulated several reactions by various intellectuals such as gestalt psychologists developed the work of Kulpe or Wurzburg school by stating that consciousness cannot be examined into minor components sensations. These psychologists stressed the significance of perception of stimulus that patterns people's conscious experience.

These works were also accompanied by the attempts by William James to oppose introspectionism through his functionalist psychology. The psychologist affirmed that the various ways of humans' feelings and thinking are products of people's utility in developing their interactions with the outside world. In addition to being regarded as an exponent of modern evolutionary psychology, James considered these functions of the mind as the suitable subject matter in psychology. Nonetheless, these ideas were quickly and largely brushed off by the emergence of a new thought in the United States known as behaviorism.


While this approach contributed to the terminal decline of Gestalt and functionalist psychology, the basis of behaviorism was not shared in common since its founders were driven by divergent motives. The main founder of behaviorism focused on moving psychological research from the laboratory and into the real world. Through public observation, behaviorism reflected a broad philosophical consensus as the actual nature of scientific analysis. As various psychologists become dissatisfied with the emphasis on external behavior by behaviorism, cognitive psychology developed to focus on internal processes.


Cognitive psychology has developed as a discipline in the field of psychology through various antecedents instead of a specific event. Some of the major antecedents that contributed to the evolution of the discipline include introspectionism, Gestalt psychology, and behaviorism.


Braisby, N. & Gellatly, A. (n.d.). Chapter 1 --… [read more]

Evolution and Development of Behavioral Term Paper

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Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


While Pavlov and his students may have been the first people to really describe conditioning, they failed to translate that into an active and thriving treatment modality. That does not mean that learning theories were not used in behavior modification. Perhaps one of the most famous studies was a clinical demonstration conducted by Mary Cover Jones, a student of Watson. "Jones speculated that if fears could be established by conditioning, perhaps they could be eliminated by use of the same principles. Her famous study was conducted with 3-year-old Peter, who was afraid of a variety of furry objects like rabbits, fur coats, and cotton. As Peter sat eating his favorite foods, a caged rabbit was brought into the room at sufficient distance not to interfere with his eating. Over time, the rabbit was brought progressively closer until it was close enough for him to touch" (Glass & Arnkoff, Year). This eventually led to extinction of the fear reaction, and may have been the first clinical description of behavior modification in a human subject.

Despite that early success, "it was not until the 1950s that behavior therapy as we know it today began to emerge" (Fishman & Franks, Year). That does not, however, mean that people were ignorant of some of the underlying principles in behavior therapy. For example, at a basic level, any person who trained an animal probably used some form of reward or punishment-based behavior modification to do so. Furthermore, many people had contemplated learning theory and how the human mind assimilated information. By the 1950s, these theories were combined with what was being learned about conditioning and then used that to engage in therapeutic behavior modification. However, these efforts were not always seen as welcome or beneficial. There were ethical issues surrounding the use of behavior modification, with the suggestion that behavior modification methods were generally cruel or coercive, which did not reflect the reality of the field, but did impact public perception of its acceptability. Moreover, it must be recognized that some behavior therapists have engaged in ethically questionable behavior. "For example, in the early 1970s a prominent method for attempting to change the sexual preference of homosexuals was orgasmic reconditioning, which involved gradually shifting the fantasies used in masturbation from same-sex to opposite-sex images"(Glass & Arnkoff). While mainstream behaviorists have largely abandoned attempts to change traits that are now seen as innate rather than learned, one can see the remainders of some of this early behavioral therapy overreaching in modern anti-gay therapy, making some of the concerns about behaviorism and its goals appear valid. Of course, the same can be said about much of psychology, as the definition of normal and adaptive behavior has certainly changed with shifts in societal norms.

Modern behavior therapy is no longer focused specifically on conditioned responses, but has branched out into the area of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). These new treatment modalities take the basic building blocks of behaviorism and apply them to specific scenarios. Those scenarios can be relatively… [read more]

Philosophical, and Empirical Foundations of Psychology Argument Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,427 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Philosophical, and Empirical Foundations of Psychology


Pre-Modern Period (to 1650's)

Classical Period

Western Civilization, its intellectual and social aspects, was still dominated by Christianity, as it had been throughout the dark ages. Christianity was chiefly concerned with the "why," the question of why we exist. It held that we exist in order to do God's willing, follow… [read more]

Behavior Social Influences Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (836 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


, 2010; Voncken et al., 2010). Severe cases of the disorder lead to a complete shut-down of social interactions, with behavioral changes in the way people hold themselves, make eye contact, speak, and even think, all based on a social context of unfamiliarity or in encountering unknown people, or simply a lack of control (Kashdan et al., 2010; Voncken et al., 2010).

The precursors of true social anxiety disorder can vary greatly, though many cases are brought on by histories of specific instances of trauma or ongoing environmental forces that lead to a reduced ability to make and maintain social connections or simply engage in social interactions (Kashdan et al., 2010). Consequences of social anxiety disorder, on the other hand, are fairly well documented, with changes in behavior so profound and fundamental that individuals will actually make themselves less likable through their behaviors in a self-fulfilling belief of their own inadequacy (Voncken et al., 2010). People that in comfortable and chosen social settings are normal, intelligent, and capable of full interactions can severally limit their opportunities and the quality of their lives through he behavioral changes that occur when they are in other social settings. Because of the extreme level of detriment that can be caused by social anxiety, including a real inability to care for oneself or lead a self-sufficient life in some extreme circumstances, true social anxiety is a socially-caused behavioral change that most certainly warrants a therapeutic intervention.


Code switching, social anxiety, and many other socially-caused changes in behavior can have varying degrees of extremity, and are experienced differently by different people. Some patterns of change are like social anxiety disorder in that they are limited only to certain individuals, not occurring at all for many. Like code switching, though, there are many behavioral changes that occur for almost everyone, every day.


Auer, P. (1999). Code Switching in Conversation. New York: Routledge.

Kashdan, T., Breen, W., Afram, A. & Terhar, D. (2010). Experiential avoidance in idiographic, autobiographical memories: Construct validity and links to social anxiety, depressive, and anger symptoms. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 24(5): 528-34.

Voncken, M., Dijk, C., de Jong, P., Roelofs, J. (2010). Not self-focused attention but negative beliefs affect poor social performance in social anxiety: An investigation…… [read more]

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