"Psychology / Behavior / Psychiatry" Essays

123. . .Last ›
X Filters 

Conceptualization of Psychological Distress Psychology Essay

7 pages (2,788 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… They suppose that other people are talking and are afraid of madness (Hayes, 2008).

Cross-cultural and historical evidence shows how the mainstream society feared and excluded the psychologically distressed persons. In the mid-eighteenth century, it is evident that fear emerged in medical terms but moral myths animated them. At the same time, the fear of madness developed as the dread… [read more]

Treatment of Women Diagnosed With Dysthymia Term Paper

48 pages (13,264 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Treatment of Women Diagnosed With Dysthymia

This proposal for a clinical case study of the treatment of a woman diagnosed with dysthymia employs a cognitive behavioral approach to identifying effective treatment modalities for patients with depressive disorders. In cognitive behavioral sessions, psychotherapists seek to help a patient identify his or her harmful thinking patterns in order to develop better coping… [read more]

Stress Faced by Probation Officers Literature Review Chapter

5 pages (1,786 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Stresses on Probation Officers

Stress is a serious topic for those in the criminal justice field, and that is true even in areas where it might not seem as significant. For example, there are many stresses placed on probation officers, and they often have to deal with issues and problems that would not necessarily be seen by others in the… [read more]

Behavior? Prejudice and Social Psychology Essay

6 pages (1,930 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

… Thus, we all tend to fulfill our psychological need of belongingness and distinction that is reflected in the amount of influence that we absorb from societal factors such as peers, parents, figures of authority, and other factors that shape behavior.


As quoted by renowned researcher Milgram, "Psychiatrists predicted that only a pathological fringe of about one in a thousand would administer the highest shock on the board" (Milgram, 1973; Pg. 62). With such popularly held notions and general perceptions regarding individual's behavior, Milgram refuted that we only act morally in given situations and held true that obedience to authority plays an important role in shaping behavior of individuals. The self-argued plausible explanation individuals such as Adolph Eichmann after committing crimes, provide is that they were only acting on behalf of an actually responsible person. This implies that individual behavior is significantly shaped by the level of obedience one shows to the figure of authority. Whereby eminent scholars have attributed behavioral aspects of an individual related to motivational and intrinsic factors, social psychologists have asserted that it one's environment and deference to authority that shapes the individual's behavior. The breakdown of tasks that we perform on daily basis, into small rather disconnected parts, enables one to shift responsibility in totality to figures of authority, as in case of WWI and WWII crimes. These are events like wars that compel psychologists to investigate the determinants of an individual's behavior.


Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). The silence of the library: Environment, situational norm, and social behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(1), 18-28.

Bearden, W.O., Netemeyer, R.G., & Teel, J.E. (1989). Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. Journal of consumer research, 15(4), 473-481.

Blass, T. (2009). The man who shocked the world: The life and legacy of Stanley Milgram. Basic Books (AZ).

Brewer, M.B., & Kramer, R.M. (1986). Choice behavior in social dilemmas: Effects of social identity, group size, and decision framing. Journal of personality and social psychology, 50(3), 543-549.

French, J.R., & Raven, B. (1959). The bases of social power. Studies in social power. Cartwright (Ed.), Ann Arbor, Mich.: Institute for Social Itcsearch, 259-269.

Milgram, S. (1973). The perils of obedience. Harper's magazine, 247(1483), 62-77.

Padilla, A.M., & Perez, W. (2003). Acculturation, social identity, and social cognition: A new perspective. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25(1), 35-55.

Smith, C., Organ, D.W., & Near, J.P. (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents. Journal of applied psychology, 68(4), 653-663.

Brown, R. (2011). Prejudice: Its social psychology. Wiley-Blackwell.

Lowery, B.S., Hardin, C.D., & Sinclair,…… [read more]

Culture Psych Culture and Human Essay

3 pages (893 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… , 2011).

A social psychological investigation of the gift giving in North America and particularly the United States, the behavior was found to be a way of almost ranking the significance and the intimacy that exists in various relationships (Cheal, 2011). In a culture where material wealth is not so much a matter of direct survival but of status, the wealth one invests in the gifts they give is turned to an expression of the intimacy and connection one feels with the gift recipient (Cheal, 2011). Emotional attachments related to gift giving and the psychological perception about the worth of relationships is thus impacted by/has an impact on the behavior of gift giving, with direct cultural and psychological interactions (Cheal, 2011).

Japan's celebration of Valentine's Day, a holiday taken directly from the United States following the end of World War II, provides a highly interesting take on gift giving. This highly ritualized culture, with a great respect for formality and adherence to tradition, has developed a five-part ritual of gift giving that includes consumer elements and the confession of romantic feelings in the (hoped for) establishment of an emotional bond between the two participants in the ritual (Minowa et al., 2010). The gifts themselves can vary somewhat but always include the giving of chocolate specifically, which is part of the consumerist tradition the Japanese directly adopted from the United States and now adheres to quite faithfully, and the similarity and rituality of the gifts diminish the status that might be associated with these gifts (Minowa et al., 2010). The gift itself, that is, is far less important than the ritual of the giving, and it is Japanese culture that changes this mental emphasis.

Culture can and does influence psychology in a wide variety of ways, from artistic expression to gift giving to the conducting of business and beyond. Understanding psychology and psychological issues, then, requires an understanding of the cultural context in which these elements are being examined, and just so an understanding of culture necessarily depends upon (or automatically creates) a certain understanding of the psychologies that might develop in a given culture. Placing behaviors and observed problems in their proper cultural context provides a key to more effective psychological understanding and practice.


Aktipis, C., Cronk, L. & Aguiar, R. (2011). Risk-Pooling and Herd Survival: An Agent-Based Model of a Maasai Gift-Giving System. Human Ecology 39(2): 131-40.

Cheal, D. (2011). "Showing them you love them": gift giving and the dialectic of intimacy. The Sociological Review 35(1): 150-69.

Minowa, Y., Khomenko, O. & Belk, R. (2010). Social Change and Gendered Gift-Giving Rituals: A…… [read more]

Group Addiction TX Theory Selection Term Paper

15 pages (5,755 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… For strict behaviorists addiction or compulsion are simply a terms for an operantly conditioned behavior. Other compulsive behaviors follow the same line of reasoning. The inability to refrain from using a drug or engaging in a compulsion merely indicates that a sufficient history of reinforcement has been acquired to drive a high rate of the behavior. Therefore, physical dependence, as… [read more]

Psychology Treatment Thesis

27 pages (8,451 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

… 29).

A crisis in mental health care funding is approaching rapidly given that the Baby Boomer generation will retire over the next twenty years and expenditures for older Americans with major psychiatric disorders will double. There will also be a serious lack of mental health services, providers and funding. About 20% of all adults over age 55 have major mental… [read more]

Clinical Psychology / Bulimia Nervosa Term Paper

11 pages (5,371 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… In the opinion of Hoshmand and Polinghorne in the year 1992, professional education must always be based on the development of a reflective judgment on the part of the student, who would then be able to effectively control the various existing biases that generally hamper or hinder their full comprehension of the issue, and also lessen their effectiveness as a… [read more]

Abnormal Psychology General Definition Term Paper

3 pages (918 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Abnormal Psychology general definition of Abnormal psychology is as follows: "Abnormal psychology can broadly be defined as the application of the principles of psychology to the study of mental disorders, including research into the causes and treatment of psychopathologies." (Introduction to Abnormal Psychology)

The central and most controversial aspect of abnormal psychology is the issue surrounding the meaning of the term 'abnormal'.

In other words, what precisely constitutes an abnormal psychological state? There is no single and conclusive view of what is 'abnormal' and each theoretical approach is determined by underlying assumptions about the meaning of this term.

For the statistician and scientist abnormal behavior is understood in terms of reason and logic. In this sense 'abnormal' means "...deviating from a norm, and the dictionary says that a norm is 'a rule or authoritative standard'. It is in this sense that logic and ethics are said to be 'normative' sciences -- they tell us how we ought to think or act. In this sense, the norm is a standard or model of high status, toward which we should strive, but which we can scarcely be expected to attain.

Hollingworth 11)

However, there are many divergent and opposing views of what can be defined as abnormal. The definition of abnormal psychology is part of the fascination of the subject. There is considerable debate with regard to the exact parameters of this field of psychology. There are a wide and often overlapping number of pathologies that are considered under the rubric of abnormal psychology and psychiatry. These include schizophrenia as well as various anxiety disorders, personality disorders and dissociative and somatoform disorders. The range of abnormal psychological disorders has in recent years been extended to include abuse and dependence disorders, as well as eating disorders; and sexual and gender identity complexes. All of these can be considered as being within the field of abnormal psychology.

From a purely medical or biological point-of-view, abnormal psychology is defined as a "belief that all, or at least most, abnormal behavior can be traced to medical factors, usually affecting the brain in some way. This model assumes that all psychological disorders are diseases." (What is abnormal?) in this definition and understanding all abnormal behavior is treated according to the same process and principles as a physical illness. Abnormal psychology is then seen as mental illness and is related to the study if genetics, neuroanatomy, chemical imbalance and infection. This is a scientific and objective view of abnormal behavior and is treated as another field of science. Psychologists using this model view the field of abnormal psychology as a purely scientific field and approach the understanding of abnormal behavior with the same logic as a biologist or mathematician. The study of abnormal psychology in this sense…… [read more]

Karen Carpenter and Christina Ricci Case Study

4 pages (1,460 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… ¶ … Karen Carpenter and Christina Ricci, both who present with anorexia nervosa are similar in many ways. For the most part both young women experienced early exposure to fundamentally critical messages about their appearance and both were to some degree neglected by parents and conversely controlled by them. In the case of Carpenter parents were controlling and Karen was… [read more]

Integration of Psychology and Theology Term Paper

11 pages (2,975 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … theology and psychology in Christian counseling and then establishes the benefits of combining these two disparate studies and practices. Following this determination, the paper presents ways in which Christian counselors may use these findings in order to better their practices and better heal their patients.

The paper relies on the most recent research possible, but also relies on… [read more]

Eating Disorders Among Adolescents Term Paper

6 pages (1,731 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Eating Disorders in Adolescents

Eating disorders are a big health care problem in the United States. Adolescents in particular, are a most vulnerable group and an increasing number suffer from anorexia, bulimia and other eating disorders. Primarily a psychiatric condition, eating disorders can lead to serious consequences if they are not properly identified and treated. Statistics indicate that around.5% of… [read more]

Counselling Cases of Violent Children Reaction Paper

4 pages (1,518 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… An example is that of identical monozygotic twins who have same DNA, they resemble each other but are different in degree of identity. Some might be completely identical while others display a significant behavioral and physical differences. For instance one can be a criminal while another is not. A practical standpoint is that both temperate and chaotic environments are the best predictor of criminality in children just as in adults.

Warning signs and solutions

It is not possible that a teen murder to have been a good child who has turned bad suddenly. Youth who have committed a murder to someone who does not abuse them typically have exhibited marked and consistent sign of criminality and violence. If evidence suggests that a cold emotional system in a child is as a result of maltreatment then focus should be on attention and assiduously on detection, prevention and remedies of a child who is suffering from neglect or abuse. A search should also be conducted on identifying youngsters who are at risk of violent behaviors. A draconian solution is also necessary; it involves abrogation of parents' custody and removing children from chaotic and violent homes that are likely to lead to criminal behaviors.


Jonatha K., (1999). Savage Spawn: Reflection of Violent Children. Balantine…… [read more]

Human Behavior Research Paper

6 pages (2,010 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… People with sex addiction are in some cases prescribed antidepressants, specifically selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Depression is a common coexisting condition with sex addiction. In some cases, a person with sex addiction is treated for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In these cases, medications such as Prozac and Anafranil may be prescribed by a psychiatrist to curb the compulsion." (Lacy, 2013)

The most appropriate means of treatment however is the one related to the core reasons for such behaviors, and that implies therapy, support groups, as well as education on the effects of such behavior. From all these three elements, education may seem to be the least effective in the sense that it does not attack the causes of the behavior but rather makes the recovery process more sustainable by allowing the person to understand his or her behavior, identify the elements that harm, and deal with them steadily through support groups or other types of therapy.

If such behavior is identified in couples, the therapy should also focus on this complex environment. In this sense, "couples counseling may be necessary (…) The sexual addiction of one spouse can be enough to break up a marriage, but if both partners are willing to put in the effort to help the addict recover, your marriage can again be strong" (CRC Health Group, 2009)

Finally anther point that must be taken into account is the fact that, as mentioned previously, sexual addiction is not a stand alone issue related strictly to the sexual behavior of the individual. Seeing that this is a neurological issue, it has severe consequences on the overall behavior and can even lead to criminal offenses, pornography, sexual offences, prostitution, child molestation (LPAC, 2013).

Overall, it can be concluded that, if sexual addiction can be labeled as a medical condition, the matter is a complex medical issue and implies a series of symptoms that are similar to drug addiction or other types of addiction. At the same time, the level of gravity for these kinds of behavior can reach extreme levels and can affect the society. On the other hand, there are numerous treatment approaches that could deal with such extreme behavior, yet, more or less, these reflect the general approach for any addiction. Regardless, in order to improve the treatment for this type of behavior, further research needs to be conducted.


CRC Health Group (2009) "Treating Sexual Addiction," available at http://www.crchealth.com/articles/addiction/treating-sexual-addiction/

Fong, T. (2006) "Understanding and Managing Compulsive Sexual Behaviors," Psychiatry (Edgmont). November; 3(11): 51 -- 58., available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2945841/

Herkov, M. (2013) "What causes sexual addiction," available online at http://psychcentral.com/lib/what-causes-sexual-addiction/000744

Innes, E. (2013) "Sorry Tiger, sex addiction probably DOESN'T exist: Scientists believe 'hypersexuality' could just be high libido," Online Mail, 19 July, Available at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2370211/Sex-addiction-Scientists-believe-hypersexuality-just-high-libido.html

Lacy, J. (2013),"Sex addiction," Good Therapy.org, available online at http://www.goodtherapy.org/therapy-for-sex-addiction.html

LPAC. (2013) "Sex Addiction" Canadian Bar Association. Available at http://www.lpac.ca/main/Courses_01/sex.aspx

Weiss, R. (2013). "Hypersexuality: Symptoms of Sexual Addiction," available online at http://psychcentral.com/lib/hypersexuality-symptoms-of-sexual-addiction/00011488… [read more]

Social Phobia in Children Research Paper

11 pages (3,594 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… Social phobia is quite different from shyness as the people who are shy do not completely avoid the situations that make them uncomfortable, whereas, those suffering from social phobia have a tendency to completely avoid social encounters and keep themselves aloof. The children suffering from social phobia have a disrupted normal life as this disorder deteriorates their school and social… [read more]

Criminal Psychology Forensic Psychologist Analyzing Term Paper

6 pages (2,092 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… Between the motives, needs, desires, on the one hand, and specific actions - on the other hand, is a series of mediating and intermediates that are amenable to conscious control. A person with a set of mental qualities, indicating the presence of his sexual desire disorder, may never realize these personal characteristics in practical matters, and all of its activity in this direction will be reduced to psychic experiences, dreams, fantasies, etc. In addition, features of the psychological motivations can be expressed in relatively harmless acts do not violate the criminal law. In other words, the range of possibilities for the implementation of the considered features of the psyche is extremely broad and not confined to certain forms of behavioral activity. From this perspective, it is obvious that all the statements of the expert on "the severity of criminal tendencies" C. are only hypothetical reasoning and cannot be considered as evidence in the case. Such statements are contrary to legal principle of presumption of innocence, because here the charge is supported by not reliably established facts, but on the basis of conclusions that are at best probabilistic. As one of the reasons appointment of forensic psychological evaluation in the case of K. was a clear discrepancy between his social status and the severity of the crimes for which he was charged, would be well advised in such cases not to resort to forensic psychological examination, and other forms of special of knowledge.

It would be appropriate version of the compilation of a psychologist in conjunction with a psychiatrist help, which would indicate that according to modern scientific ideas of psychology and psychiatry, between the mental characteristics of the defendant and the nature of the acts which He was charged, there is an irresistible psychological contradictions. It has no probative value on the commission or the commission of a specific response to specific actions, but gives only a general idea of?

some medical and psychological aspects of the criminal case under investigation (Walklate, 2005).

As an example involving a psychologist as well-informed person can be reduced and the compilation of "psychological portrait" wanted criminals according to psychological analysis of the collected materials of the case (witness testimony, physical evidence, etc.), which is especially important at the operational-search activities and the investigation so called "serial" crimes (murder and sexual assault rape) occurs when a number of similar criminal acts.


Anderson, J.F., Dyson, L., & Brooks, W. (2002). Preventing Hate Crime and Profiling Hate Crime Offenders. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 26(3), 140+. Retrieved November 9, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000644850

Chancer, L., & Donovan, P. (1994). A Mass Psychology of Punishment: Crime and the Futility of Rationally Based Approaches. Social Justice, 21(3), 50+. Retrieved November 9, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000301614

Hollin, C.R. (1989). Psychology and Crime: An Introduction to Criminological Psychology. London: Routledge. Retrieved November 9, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103529633

McGuire, J. (2004). Understanding Psychology and Crime: Perspectives on Theory and Action. Maidenhead, England: Open University Press. Retrieved… [read more]

Schizophrenia Is a Family Research Paper

7 pages (2,298 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… Such elements include strengths and vulnerabilities for dealing with stress. The term "vulnerability" is not a judgmental term that implies weakness but instead is an attempt to understand the variables involved in developing severe forms of mental illness. For instance, a person with an innate very low vulnerability could consequently withstand a great amount of stress; however, perhaps solitary confinement… [read more]

Future of Psychology Essay

2 pages (634 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… ¶ … future challenges to the field of professional psychology in contemporary society. What does the future hold for the field of psychology? It is always difficult to predict the future, but in the field of psychology, it seems many different things may be in store for the future.

The Internet has become much more than an information tool. Today, it is the key to just about every aspect of life for many people, from shopping to social networking. In the future, it seems possible that psychiatry could move to the Internet, in the form of 24/7 counseling available via credit card online. One company has already attempted to do this, but they are no longer online, but it would seem that as people become more accustomed to using the Internet, services like this would become more common. There is a huge wealth of medical data available online, and psych data as well, so why not online counseling? Two writers note, "A Harris Poll found online information concerning depression to be among the most sought after topics on the World Wide Web" (Fowler & Newman, 2004, p. 125). If people are diagnosing themselves online, it seems that eventually, counseling online would be quite common.

In other areas, it seems that psychology of the future may become much more global in nature, just as so much of everyday life has become globalized today. There will certainly be more international linking and discussion of psychology organizations and individuals, and more awareness and understanding of psychology around the world. Psychology is not as accepted in many countries as it is in the United States, so it appears that a greater awareness of the benefits of psychology could be spread more globally, too.

Many experts believe that psychology will spread into other areas, and that it will continue to grow into separate branches of psychology and psychiatry even more. Psychologists work…… [read more]

Language in Clients With Psychological Psychiatric Differences Schizophrenia Bipolar Disorders Term Paper

5 pages (1,736 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 9

… Language in Clients With Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

Whitehurst, G.J. Arnold, D.S. Smith, M. Fischel, J.E. Lonigan, C.J. Valdez-Menchaca, M.C. (October 1991) Family History in Developmental Expressive Language Delay. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research Vol.34 1150-1157.

Family history on several points, including familial history of language delays, presence of psychological disorders associated with language delays such as schizophrenia or… [read more]

Personality and Personality Disorders Causal Research Paper

9 pages (2,691 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… He has a weak and low self-esteem and is unable to perceive other people's perspectives. An antisocial personality violates the rights of others without remorse yet can be charming, intelligent or cruel. The borderline personality is impulsive, habitually angry, unstable, and unpredictable. He fails to complete the process of identity formation. The avoidant personality desires attention but is lonely. He… [read more]

Mentally Ill the Criminalization Term Paper

2 pages (675 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Moreover, the criminal justice system needs to focus on preventing crimes that are perpetrated by citizens who are not diagnosed as being mentally ill. Issues related to mental illness fall under the rubric of social work, public health, and the professions of psychology and psychiatry. It is therefore recommended that a team of specialists form a consultancy committee that advises the federal government as to a strategic intervention that will address the following target areas.

First, the committee will propose the construction of specialized mental health clinics throughout the United Stats. The clinics will be accessible to all citizens via free shuttle services, and will be highly visible. Moreover, the clinics will treat all citizens regardless of their ability to pay. The clinics will provide a safe, nonjudgmental and anonymous environment in which clients can learn about and treat their problems. This will help to eliminate some of the stigma associated with mental health issues. Material at the clinics will be published in a variety of languages, so that all communities are served. Cross-cultural awareness is crucial to the success of the proposed program.

Second, the committee will propose the means by which to construct special in-patient facilities for individuals who are currently in prison but who would be better served by being monitored by mental health professionals. Given the need to protect communities, mental health professionals can house and, when necessary, medicate the clients so that they cease to be a danger to themselves and others. At the same time, clients will become a valuable source of information to mental health and public health administrators related to etiology, treatment intervention, and disease prevalence.

Works Cited

Hefley, Diana. "Mentally Ill Often Adrift in the Criminal Justice System." Herald.net. 13 Sept 2009. Retrieved online: http://www.heraldnet.com/article/20090913/NEWS01/709139880

Stephey, M.J. "De-Criminalizing Mental Illness." Time. 8 Aug, 2007. Retrieved online: http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1651002,00.html… [read more]

Psychology - Counseling the Social Research Paper

2 pages (657 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… However, intervention, according to social constructionists, is a therapeutic conversation. It is also a linguistic event, a joint search and examination through dialogue, a two-way trade of ideas in which new meanings are recurrently evolving toward the dissolving of problems. In other words, the emphasis is not to solve or eliminate the problems but to open space for conversation (Lit & Shek, 2002).

In the eyes of social constructionists, therapists are the coauthors who engage in the coauthoring process with the client together. The therapeutic conversation is believed to be a linguistic event that takes place in the interaction process. Social constructionists further maintain that no one persons understanding could override the others. There is also nonexistence of theoretically formed truths and knowledge (Lit & Shek, 2002).

Social constructionism holds that information created in conversations between people is perhaps best understood inside the context of a conversational area. Social constructionism is, itself, a social structure that is always changing and subject to reconstruction. It has been disputed that some articulations of social constructionism exaggerate language and thus pay no attention to the overlap between relational knowing and that of biologically-based constructivism. The latter is an epistemological formulation that has succeeded and has been influenced by humanism. As a result of this transformation professionals in the field have come to distinguish the benefits and limitations that social constructionism has and admit that this faction is a fluid and developing framework of ideas (Rudes & Guterman, 2007).


Guterman, J.T. (1996). Doing mental health counseling: A social constructionist re-vision.

Journal Of Mental Health Counseling, 18(3), 228-252.

Lit, S., & Shek, D.L. (2002). Implications of Social Constructionism to Counseling and Social Work Practice. Asian Journal Of Counselling, 9(1-2), 105-130.

Rudes, J., & Guterman, J.T. (2007). The value of social constructionism for the counseling profession: A reply to…… [read more]

Spiritual Practices Beyond Religion Spirituality Term Paper

7 pages (2,101 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Although it has been hard to catch on to mainstream practices, modern applications see much more implementations of spiritual teachings and guidance as part of the psychologically healing process. It has been slow to catch on to the mainstream implementations of psychological practices, but still its development holds great promise for the future. Recently, the field of psychology has been embraced within indigenous cultures for centuries (Sue et al. 1999). Nowadays, it is a common conception that spirituality is an essential element of what it is to be human (Sue et al. 1999).

Elements of spiritual teachings have been implemented in psychological strategies mainly for methods of relaxation. According to the research, relaxation strategies "are frequently used interventions in counseling and therapy that can foster personal development as well as spiritual development," (Chandler et al. 2001 p 184). Meditation has long been one major element of acceptable spiritual practice within other genres of metal health. It is a common spiritual practice that is found in a number of religious traditions and backgrounds, most notably many Eastern cultures. Essentially, meditation represents another realm of consciousness, where the individual experiences an almost hypotonic sense of sleep without dreaming (Murphy et al. 2011). Many modern psychological practices are focusing on using meditation to tap into a larger spiritual structure that helps individuals heal both physically and mentally. Here, the research states that "Meditation -- that great and mysterious subject which in the past has always conjured up the image of the solitary Asian ascetic sitting in deep trance -- is fast appearing in unexpected places throughout modern American culture," (Murphy et al. 2011 p 1). As a practice, it can help augment other integrated healing strategies meant to work on healing both the physical body and the cognitive structures of the mind. Although its origins may be disputed, meditation has become a popular element even in secular healing practices. It can be an incredibly successful strategy in helping those who suffer from anxiety find some peace in their every day lives. According to the research, "meditation practices can be broken down and understood in terms of traditional constructs in experimental psychology, such as vigilance, attention, and concentration," (Murphy et al. 2011 p 12). New trends in cognitive therapy have been continually incorporating meditation practices and guidance as a relaxation strategy (Murphy et al. 2011). Psychology is also adapting physical training of meditation, with the incorporation of breathing exercises and yoga stretches in order to augment the maximum relaxation experienced by patients enduring such treatment practices.

Spirituality is still often confused because of a lack of clear definition and distinction through psychological practice. Although modern psychology is still beginning to incorporate elements, it is still relatively new and unknown within the larger genre. Therefore, it is important to continue research into how spiritual teachings can impact individuals and their psychological states.


Chandler, Cynthia K.; Holden, Janice Miner; & Kolander, Cheryl A. (2001). Counseling for spiritual wellness: Theory and practice. Journal of Counseling and… [read more]

Sociology/Social Work Questions Research Paper

8 pages (3,101 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

… The development of intimacy is associated strongly with the development of individual independence, independence from structures and systems that have supported and aided a young person up to this point. Most believe that individuals who fail to develop positive intimate relationships are limited in the capacity to thrive as adults, in a myriad of ways, including but not limited to… [read more]

Beyond Autism Treatment: The Application Article Review

3 pages (1,076 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Behavior is viewed by traditional psychologists as a symptom of a disorder or condition and not as a functional response that enables one to escape, avoid or mitigate exposure to this unpleasant condition. Conversely, behavior analysts describes what the child does and does not do, and what specific skills need to be developed and then establishes the process of effective treatment. This is a motor task and not a change in verbal behavior. Practitioners in the fields of psychology and psychiatry are still primarily attempting to treat behavior by changing "thoughts" of that person. This is a change in verbal behavior.

A further difference is that behavior analysts look for precision in descriptions of human behavior and instead find terms that have no single agreed-upon meaning in psychological literature. These terms are unhelpful and highly misleading. The difference can be eroded by shifting from an objective description of the behavior occurring to a subjective categorization of the behavior (complete with hypothesized cause) to create a pathology and a rationalization that flows directly from the subjective interpretations. The child can also provide insight into his or her behavior. Rather than abandoning these vague terms behavior analysts can simply define what they mean for a particular person by describing the behaviors that lead to that label for that particular person and then come up with an effective treatment (New York State Department of Health Early Intervention Program, 1999).

The traditional approach is that the solution to the problems or condition lies in getting the child to have a better understanding of the past. However if the problem and its causes are very complex, treatment would not be readily accessible and effective in solving the problem. The author rejects this approach and suggests the readers to first reduce complexity by providing objective descriptions of specific behaviors and then building more complex behaviors by establishing simple skills and expanding on those basic skills. If the problem is one of skill deficits then the solution should be one of skill development (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2005).

The author finally concludes that it is imperative that behavior analysts move beyond autism and apply the technology to a broader range of conditions. For this to materialize close collaboration is required with psychologists and differences between two schools of thought needs to be eliminated. Precise criteria for the use of terms to describe emotional behavior would need to be established that are both observable and measurable and have acceptable inter-observer reliability. Skill building procedures would then be developed from these descriptions. Once these critical initial actions occur ABA could be easily used for treatment of children with emotional or psychological problems.


Behavior Analyst Certification Board. (2005). Behavior analyst task list, third edition.

Tallahassee, FL: author. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from http://www.bacb.com/consum_frame.html

Lovaas, O.I. & Smith, T. (1987). Intensive behavioral treatment for young autistic children. In B.B. Lahey & A.E. Kazdin (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol.11,pp.285-

324). New York: Plenum

New York State Department of Health… [read more]

Defense Styles of Pedophiles Essay

4 pages (1,275 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Defense Styles of Pedophilic Offenders

In their article, Drapeau et al. (2007) examine the defense styles of pedophiles. They were prompted do so because so many pedophiles use denial to either deny committing an offense or as a means of minimizing an offense. It is important to recognize that by defense mechanisms, Drapeau et al. are not necessarily referring to methods by which the pedophiles could legally or morally defend their crimes. Instead, they are talking about regulatory processes used by individuals to help ease cognitive dissonance and alter their own perceptions of events. These types of defense mechanisms are used by people to help increase their psychological adjustment and physical health. However, patients who fail to comply with their suggested medical treatments are more likely to use defenses. This changes as a patient grows increasingly aware of how their defenses function. They suggest that, even though defenses mechanisms have made a resurgence in mainstream psychology and psychiatry, they have not been adequately examined in specific regards to sexual abuse. Therefore, they began by examining the defense mechanisms used in pedophiles

The research compared a group of pedophiles with a group of non-pedophiles seeking counseling for disorders with low-diagnostic severity. The pedophiles consisted of people between the age of 25 and 46, meeting DMS-IV criteria for pedophilia, convicted of sexual abuse, having molested people outside of the family, having never committed murder, and having not committed hebephilia (Drapeau et al., 2007). In order to assess defense mechanisms, the researchers used the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scale, which is an observer-rated method that can applied to recorded forms versions of interviews or therapy sessions (Drapeau et al., 2007).

The researchers did uncover significant differences between the defenses used by the controls and the defenses used by the pedophiles. First, pedophiles used significantly less obsessional-level defenses than the control group but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses (Drapeau et al., 2007). Though the researchers acknowledged that small sample size made it difficult to analyze those differences, they found that pedophiles "used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive-aggressive behaviour but less intellectualization and rationalization" Drapeau et al., 2007). The researchers reached the preliminary conclusion that these pedophiles used less mature defense mechanisms than those mechanisms used by the controls. The fact that they so frequently failed to use intellectualization or rationalization was significant. Intellectualisation "is a cognitive strategy where the individual deals with emotional conflicts or stressors through the excessive use of abstract thinking. This is done to avoid distressing feelings and to distance oneself from a negative or undesirable thought, affect, or impulse" (Drapeau et al., 2007). Furthermore, the child-abusers were less likely to use rationalization, "which involves devising plausible-sounding and self-serving excuses and reasons to cover up facts and motives that one wishes to hide" (Drapeau et al., 2007). Instead of these more-mature defenses, the pedophiles used strategies such as dissociation, which implies that their actions were occurring outside of their normal consciousness… [read more]

Counseling Theories Thesis

8 pages (2,699 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… Counseling Theories

"…There is no single, definitive, unchanging, final narrative that can qualify as the correct understanding of the patient's psychic life"

Schafer (as cited in Wolitzky, 2007, Definitions of…section, ¶ 2).

In 1896, at the age of 40, Sigmund Freud, Austrian physician who lived from 1856-1939, perceived to be the founder of psychoanalysis, coined this term, still used today.… [read more]

Child Sexual Abuse Thesis

15 pages (4,327 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 20


Child sexual abuse is a major social and familial issue that has impacted the lives of many people throughout the world. Although the maltreatment of children in any form is deplorable, sexual abuse of children has a particularly cruel stigma. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the impact sexual abuse has on victims and the interventions for… [read more]

Psychosocial Assessment on an Unquiet Mind by Kay Readfield Jamison Research Proposal

8 pages (2,602 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Psychosocial Assessment Of

A Person With Bipolar Disorder

psychosocial assessment of a person with bipolar disorder

"Personal accounts of mood disorders are an undervalued asset in understanding the manifestations of mental illness and in drawing attention to current issues"

Kay Redfield Jamison, Ph.D (Jamison, as cited in Evans, 2006)

One Personal Account

In the article, "Personal accounts of mood disorders… [read more]

What Makes a Good Counselor? Thesis

9 pages (2,432 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… ¶ … Counselor

Reasons for NOT Seeking a Counseling Degree

First, it is important to discuss reasons NOT to seek a counseling degree. Many people enter this profession because they want to help others. But combined with that, there are personal desires stated by students that indicate they want to counsel others because it offers them a sense of power… [read more]

Freud Sigmund Term Paper

3 pages (1,019 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Freud

Sigmund Freud, who is one of the earliest psychologists, theorized personality development derived from his theories of the id, ego and superego and which focused on the unconscious and subconscious as agents of human behavior. In addition, he suggested theories of neuroses involving childhood relationships to one's parents and emphasized the importance of sexuality in behavior (World Book Encyclopedia). Today, other forms of psychology other than psychoanalysis, which was begin by Freud, still rely on his teachings to combine the best of all types of therapy.

Freud believed that each personality has a three-prong psychological structure: the id, or the unconscious emotions, desires and fears that may surface in dreams or madness; the ego, or the conscious rationalizing section of the mind; and the superego, which often is compared to the conscience. Based on Freud's interpretation, an infant or toddler's behavior is largely based on id, or driven by unchecked and unquestioned desires; the ego develops from this id, allowing the child to negotiate effectively with the external world it is the arbiter between the selfish needs of the id and the idealistic demands of the superego; and the superego evolves as the child learns and accepts societal norms and values. Nye noted that this process, exemplifies a boy's connection with his father and suggests he internalize his father's values and norms. It also allows social functioning so that family and cultural values are passed on through the generations. Similarly, a young girl may unconsciously incorporate her mother's value system.

One of the key concepts that is included in the id, ego, superego theory is that the mind possesses several defense mechanisms that try to keep conflicts from becoming too harmful. These include repression (pushing conflicts back from the conscious to the unconscious), sublimation (converting sexual drives into socially acceptable goals), fixation (the lack of ability to progress beyond a developmental stage), and regression (a setback to an earlier form of behavior) Repression appears to be the most important of these defense mechanism. Freud states this importance as follows: When an individual experiences an instinctual desire to act in a way that the super-ego believes to be totally unacceptable, then the mind can mind push it away and send it back to the unconscious. Through repression the ego looks to avoid internal conflict and pain and balance reality with the demands of both id and super-ego (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy).

Likewise, is the importance of the ego personality structure as it relates to cognitive moral judgment and the development of values. Allen (2000), for example, stated that the ego has the ability to postpone providing pleasure to the id's demands until the right representative object is found to permit personal gratification without dangerous side effects. Allen also argued that this ego functioning takes place through conscious processes, which includes intellectual behavior such as reflection, evaluation, planning, and decision making. This more cognitive and mindful process for making moral judgments better represents Freud's ego prong, as well as the pivotal… [read more]

Theory Classical Psychoanalysis Term Paper

12 pages (3,827 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… "

Another characteristic assumption to the strengths approach is that people also have the necessary information that is relevant to them in defining their personal situations, both with reference to the problematic aspects, as well as to the potential solutions. This knowledge may be useful in prefiguring a patient's future. The social worker sees an opportunity when observing a client's… [read more]

Sexual Counseling Approach Theoretical Term Paper

2 pages (793 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Sexual Counseling Approach

Theoretical Overview:

Depending on the therapist, and their prescribed philosophies, a number of counseling related therapies tend to alleviate symptoms. Standard cognitive therapy often shows positive results; talking with the therapist and sharing issues, attending group therapy to reduce isolation and social stigma, variations of exposure therapy and stress inoculation training. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) which is an approach that attempts to change the patterns of thinking or behavior that are responsible for an individual's negative emotions, thus changing the way they feel about themselves and present to the external world. Essentially, behavioral therapy is an approach to psychological interaction that reinforces desired and eliminates undesired, behaviors in the subject. This theory focuses on the behaviors, not the thoughts that produce them and is broken down into therapy and modification. Of course, there are overlaps in the manner in which the therapy is conducted, but all are designed specifically to address the quality of the event (or overt behavior) exhibited. In general, CBT patients learn to identify thoughts that might trigger feelings of fear or anxiety and replace them with different thoughts -- simply replacing the memories of the trauma with new, more positive ones (SOURCE, YEAR, p. 22; Follette and Ruzek, eds., 2007).

CBT originated with classical conditioning and operant learning, combined with social learning theory and the role of cognitive experiences in determining behavior, CBT merges into a model that assumes most psychological and psycho-social problems derive from a fault coping or thinking process. This approach, though, also recognizes latent or observable factors that contribute to the individual's dysfunction. CBT tends to be more valuable because it uses an integrated approach that takes a more realistic and multidimensional approach. This also allows for a broader range of therapeutic interventions -- self-efficacy, individual thought and meditation about events, etc. (SOURCE, pp. 22-3; Wright, 2004).

Because CBT addresses the dysfunction or maladaptation, the therapist can focus on behavior, not the personality of the client. This makes CBT attractive for compulsive sexual behaviors, or addictions like excessive masturbation, addictions to pornography, etc. Focusing on changing the behavior, whether that is from a bad experience, an addiction, or simply the way one approaches family during stressful issues is a way to help the client get back on track more quickly, and help them function again. CBT is also appropriate as a first therpeutical intervention in…… [read more]

Electroshock vs. Adepressants Term Paper

6 pages (1,704 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… In the future, treatment with ECT followed by antidepressants has been shown to be the most effective because it treats the symptoms and eliminates some of the lasting negative effects of ECT alone.


Breggin, P.R. (2007). ECT damages the brain: Disturbing news for patients and shock doctors alike. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, 9(2), 83-85.

Elin, J.P. (2011). Treating postpartum psychosis. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, 13(1), 16-20.

Engqvist, I., Ahlin, A., Ferszt, G., & Nilsson, K. (2011). Comprehensive treatment of women with postpartum psychosis across healthcare systems from Swedish psychiatrists' perspectives. The Qualitative Report, 16(1), 66-75.

Frank, L.R. (2006). The electroshock quotationary. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, 8(2), 157-176.

Gagne, G.G., Furman, M.J., Carpenter, L.L., & Price, L.H. (2000). Efficacy of continuation ECT and antidepressant drugs compared to long-term antidepressants alone in depressed patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1960-1965.

Hagen, B., Wong-Wylie, G., & Pijl-Zeiber, E. (2010). Tablet or talk? A critical review of the literature comparing antidepressants and counseling for treatment of depression. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 32(2), 102-120.

Keltner, N.L. (2002). Mechanisms of antidepressant action: In brief. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 36(2), 69-71.

Kragh, J.V.…… [read more]

Nature Nurture Controversy Related to Aggression Reaction Paper

5 pages (1,720 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Nature/Nurture and Mental Illness

The nature/nurture debate has sparked a deluge of research over the last five decades or so. The findings have been applied to many different areas of human life, including the propensity for intelligence and aptitude, as well as the less positive aspects of life such as aggression and criminal activity. Other factors that have been subject… [read more]

Visitation in the Intensive Care Unit Term Paper

5 pages (1,611 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

… Visitation in the Intensive Care Unit

The intensive care unit can be a place of extreme disquietude and trauma to the patient. Far from relaxing the patient and assisting in his or her recovery, many patients find the ward to be moderately to extremely bothersome with pain, fear, anxiety, tension, loneliness, lack of sleep, inability to communicate, and vulnerability being… [read more]

Cg Jung Term Paper

6 pages (1,834 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Carl Gustav Jung was born July 26, 1875 in Switzerland, where he lived for the entirety of his life. A trained physician, Jung "came to see that the different forms of mental illness were not existence in themselves, with distinctive psychology, but disturbances of the normal working of the mind" (Bennet, 1966, 7). His "unhappy and unstable" mother,… [read more]

Business Plan for Sleep Lab Business Plan

30 pages (8,375 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 30

… Business Plan for a Sleep Lab

National Institutes of Health - National Center on Sleep

Disorders Research

Necessity of Sleep Reviewed

Sleep Industry

Types of Sleep Lab Business Structures

Mission Statement

Keys to Success

Market Analysis




Business Plan for a Sleep Lab

National Institutes of Health - National Center on Sleep Disorders Research

According to the National… [read more]

Suicide Term Paper

5 pages (1,736 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Richard Chapman and Kathleen M. Foley. New York: Raven Press, 1993. xvii, 441.

Bruera, Eduardo, and Russell K. Portenoy. Cancer Pain. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Carr, Daniel B., and Ada Jacox. Acute Pain Management: Operative or Medical Procedures and Trauma. Clinical Practice Guideline. 1992. Retrieved March, 4 2003

Doheny, Kathleen. Why Terminally Ill Seek Assisted Suicide. 2002. Principal Health News. Retrieved March, 4 2003 from. http://www.principalhealthnews.com/article/hscoutn/102690744

Fawcett, J., D.C. Clark, and K.A. Busch. "Assessing and Treating the Patient at Risk for Suicide." Psychiatric Annals 23 (1993): 244-55.

Hendin, H., and G. Klerman. "Commentary: Physician-Assisted Suicide: The Dangers of Legalization." American Journal of Psychiatry 150 (1993): 143-45.

Long, Phillip W. Guideline: Depression Co-Occurring with Other General Medical Disorders. 1997. Depression Guideline Panel. Retrieved March, 4 2003 from. http://pni.unibe.ch/Depression_Guidelines/AHCPR/p44-d1a.html#Head50

Marshall, R.D., et al. "Comorbidity, Impairment, and Suicidality in Subthreshold Ptsd." Am J. Psychiatry 158.9 (2001): 1467-73.

Merskey, Harold, Nikolai Bogduk, and International Association for the Study of Pain. Task Force on Taxonomy. Classification of Chronic Pain: Descriptions of Chronic Pain Syndromes and Definitions of Pain Terms. 2nd ed. Seattle: IASP Press, 1994.

A olde Scheper, T.M., and S.A. Duursma. "Euthanasia: The Dutch Experience." Age Ageing 23.1 (1994): 3-8.

Shneidman, E.S. "Some Essentials for Suicide and Some Implications for Response." Suicide. Ed. A. Roy. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1986. 1-16.

Suicidology.ORG. American Association of Suicidology Web Site. 2003. Retrieved March, 4 2003 from. http://www.suicidology.org

Von Roenn,…… [read more]

Self-Conception Social Psychology Conceptualization Term Paper

3 pages (1,114 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Since the human being has that constant sense of self in their lives, the emotional events therefore normally involve the complex self. It is worth noting though that there are some emotional events that do not need complex evaluation of self for instance fear at the sight of danger or joy upon receiving a call of having won lottery. However, taking into account the ever-present nature of the self, the winner of the lottery is bound to reappraise their win and make corresponding self-evaluation and come with conclusions like they are good in picking the numbers or tag some lucky number to an event in their daily lives hence creating some self-esteem out of the joy turning it into pride (a self-conscious emotion).

Taking the other example of man running away at the sight of danger say a bear at a camping sight, the feeling of fear will definitely be the first emotional reaction, but the presence of the wife or girlfriend will invoke the self-representation in the scenario particularly taking into account the gender stereotypes hence making self-evaluations that lead to alternative emotions as well. The man may choose after self-evaluation to fight the bear which would generate self-esteem of pride if he manages to fend off the bear or degenerate into shame or guilt if he runs away and leaves the wife. These examples indicate that the self can significantly change the emotions experienced in events that may not necessarily appear to involve complex self processes. Jessica L & Richard W (n.d: 189) note that every emotion that man experiences will be uniquely influenced by the self process and consequently shape our self-esteem. For instance, fear can easily turn to be shame when we contemplate what our fear in that particular circumstance means. Anger can easily turn into hostility or aggression when that anger is directed towards someone who has threatened our livelihood.

Self and behavior as related to self-presentation

It has been noted that the self-conception that one displays will definitely influence the behavior put firth to the society. For instance, people whose conception of self ends in depicting low self-esteem are more likely to display aggressive behavior than those whose self-conception points towards high self-esteem (Missouri Western State University, 2009). The way an individual will present himself within the society or among peers will widely depend on the self-perception which in return shapes behavior. For instance, if someone has the self-concept of being persistent, the individual will inevitable behave in a manner that is far from being clumsy hence present himself as a respectable hardworking person.


Baumeister, R.F. (Ed.) (1999). The Self in Social Psychology. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press (Taylor & Francis).

Psychology Press, (2012). Constructing the self-concept: What we know about ourselves (pp. 96 -- 107). Retrieved October 21, 2012 from http://psypress.co.uk/smithandmackie/resources/topic.asp?topic=ch04-tp-01

Jessica L & Richard W, (n.d: 189). Self-Conscious Emotions: Where Self and Emotion Meet. Retrieved October 21, 2012 from http://ubc-emotionlab.ca/wp-content/files_mf/sedikidesbookchapterproofs22.pdf

MacLeod S. (2008). Self-Concept. Retrieved October 21, 2012 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/self-concept.html

Missouri Western… [read more]

Psychology of the Consumer Behavior Essay

4 pages (1,270 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… These were the things which are the ultimate needs of the life and without them survival is almost not possible or extremely difficult. 21st century has introduced a new set of mind in the people and that has shattering consequences in the form of psychological complexes aka disorders. The common one is dissatisfaction. You will easily find the people who would be urging for the things they do not need, or without which a nice survival is possible. Being a part of the society, you have a natural urge to being on the equal status of your peeps hence if you can get all that, you will be psychologically vulnerable. Thus the importance of material possessions has greatly been increased due to the IT revolution and technological advancement (Steven, 1995) and this is the very reason why rich are getting richer and poor are getting poorer. The examples can be mobile phone, Mp3/mp4 players, laptop, iPhones, iPods, tablets, own car, and things of this sort. Every young mind is inclined towards getting them regardless of the resources they have. There is a psychological push. Or else they will keep feeling guilty and hiding the low profiles.

Apart from all that, material possessions also depict social values and cultural norms. An individual normally go for the things which have the social approval or cultural support. They also reveal about the personality to some extent. They are also responsible for the healthy or rough relationships. So all these things collectively put the psychological pressure on the human mind and the only way to get the satisfaction is to get them. (Appadurai, 1986)

Now going to the consequences of 'if not'; the individual after trying his best to get moves to the illegal ways which are not socially accepted. But in order to satisfy his conscience he does it. Another factor can be suicide. Since it is now the third major reason of death worldwide, the reasons can be the high rate of anxiety and depressions particularly due to these aspects. As a result the crime rate has greatly been increased by now and it is till increasing. The unequal distribution of the wealth and psychological urge of material possessions has pushed the poor or low profile people off their thresholds.

Critical analysis

One of the major reasons for inculcating a psychological feeding of material possessions is the media. An eye which keeps on watching the ads on the TV of different and expensive brands does convey the message to the brain that it wants to covet it. The continuous process of desiring and not getting puts them under the impression of being inferior, having no identity, showable status, wealth, appreciable profile and etc. things hence they either start hiding the reality or try to find escapes like isolation from the people and society or suicide. Unfortunately, nowadays people are judged by the material possessions and not by the behaviors. It is the social crisis, practiced almost in every part of the world.… [read more]

Psychology Criminal Behavior Term Paper

3 pages (1,023 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Psychology

Criminal behavior has been the subject of interest for psychologists for a very long time. In a manner, it is quite intriguing question that what are the reasons and causes that lead a person to display criminal behavior. Many theories have been presented over the decades to answer this question. Most theories tend to focus on the factors that make a person indulge in committing crimes. While many factors are argued to be the main reasons for such criminal behavior, none can be proved with surety as behavior depends upon the way the brain and the psychology of a person works. Only the understanding of the human mind can assist psychologists greatly to investigate the structure of the mind and the way it operates (Barkow, Cosmides, & Tooby, 1992). Therefore, several biological theories have been presented by psychologists who attempt to explain the criminal behavior of a person's mind.

One theory that suggests the links between biology and the criminal behavior is that the human brain adapts the biological traits of the human body into processes and mechanism of psychology. This theory explains that psychology is quite closely linked to the human physiology and the neuroscience functions of the brain. According to the psychologists who support this biological theory, the development of the behavioral conduct of a person depends upon the biological effects on the brain. Due to various biological factors in the human body such as increase in blood flow, rise in testosterone levels, etc. They explain that the brain adapts these physical signals into determining the behavior the person has to present by converting these signals into phenomena such as emotions, attitudes, core concepts of self value and motives (Bartol & Bartol, 2007). The behavior is discussed as a part of the evolutionary psychology of a person as suggested by the Darwinian selection. This selection theory says that the selection created the existing biological adaptations in living species to act as a solution for the problems that have recurred among the many generations of a species' ancestors (Dawkins, 1986). Therefore, the outlay of this theory suggests that the violent behavior in humans relates to the biological operations of the human physiology. For example, the feeling of pain when a person punched by another person urges the brain to generate the emotion of anger and to satisfy that emotion the first person engages into violent actions. Therefore, upon evaluation, this theory provides strong evidence that associate with the impact of biology on the criminal behavior.

A different theory suggests that the human mind is impacted by the social motives and society at large; to determine the behavior it will display through its host. Studies relating to social behavior have presented the ideas that the psychological functions such as the emotions, motives and attitudes of a person are molded by the evolutionary natural selection to act in a nepotistic manner i.e. To perform actions that uphold the perseverance and growth of the genetic elements such as reproduction and survival… [read more]

Organizational Psychology Productive and Counterproductive Essay

3 pages (905 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… It involved observing and recording systematically the employees' behaviors. Archival data is another popular method of studying behavior. In organizational psychology archival data is most prevalent when comparison is made to other observational methods. This is mainly because there is an absolute abundance of sources that are available to researcher from archival data.

In applied social research, the method known to be most important is survey research. It has a broad area that includes the basic questionnaires, asking direct questions to respondents, determining respondent's behaviors, attitudes, and personalities. Surveys are mainly used when gathering a wide variety of information and they use interviews or questionnaires.

Use of organizational psychology in organizations

Using the various research methods available, an organization can use organizational psychology to establish the reason why employees are not able to function as a team, or work together. Obtaining information regarding each employee on their attitude, opinion, personal growth, feedback loops, and adaptations will provide the employer with crucial insights regarding the employees' interactions with each other especially when they are working on a group task. Organizational psychology can also be used to enlighten individual job performances. An organization can be able to control the fate of an employee within the organization when the employee's responsibilities are well understood.

Some of the things that the employer should consider during this strategic method are the employee's efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity, which all lead to the overall utilization of their position. Using organizational psychology an organization can also be able to make hiring decisions Shams & Jackson, 2006.

Currently many human resource employees make use of observational methods and research surveys when selecting the qualified candidates for the workplace. In order to predict an employee's job performance they will use structured interviews, personality test, and knowledge tests. Organizational psychology can also be used when determining if a specific employee has work behavior that is counterproductive. Some of the counterproductive behaviors are absenteeism and ineffective job performance. These behaviors can be discovered by observation or experiments, which are better referred to as empirical data.

Currently organizational psychology is mostly used by human resource consultants and coordinators, but in the past organizational psychology was used by scientists. The methods of organizational psychology can be used to get information from workplaces and non-workplaces. Using the strategy of organizational psychology, the behavior of individuals and organizations can be discovered to be interesting.


Guion, R.M. (1965). Personnel testing. 2445 McCabe Way: McGraw-Hill.

Jex, S.M. (2002). Organizational Psychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Miner, J.B. (2007). Organizational Behavior 4: From Theory to Practice. Armonk, NY 10504: M.E. Sharpe.

Shams, M., & Jackson, P.R. (2006). Developments in Work and Organization Psychology: Implications…… [read more]

Humanistic Psychology Critique of Mainstream Term Paper

7 pages (2,210 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

… Humanistic Psychology

Critique of Mainstream Psychology

Humanistic and transcendental perspectives of psychology have been making inroads into psychology to alter the assumptions and practices of mainstream psychology. The humanistic perspective highlights the primacy of human experiences in forming any assumptions and theories of the human mind whereas the transcendental perspective encourages psychologists to consider peak experiences and higher states of… [read more]

Three Theoretical Perspectives Essay

3 pages (843 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Theoretical Perspectives to Human Behavior

Over the last several years, there have been a number of theories introduced to explain human behavior. To fully understand the most effective approaches requires focusing on psychology, genetics and neuroscience. This will be accomplished by studying each perspective in relation to human conduct and which theory is most valid. Together, these different elements will highlight the underlying influences on the thoughts and actions of a person.

The Three Perspectives on Human Behavior

Like what was stated previously, there are three areas that are focused on these include: psychology, behavioral genetics and behavioral neuroscience. Psychology is when there is a focus on how the thoughts of an individual will influence their behavior. This is because the environment will shape the way that someone reacts to different events. (Robbins, 1991)

Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Robbins (1991) who said, "Everything that happens in your life -- both what you are thrilled with and challenged by -- began with a decision. it's in your moments of decision that your destiny is shaped. The choices that you are making right now, every day, will shape how you feel today as well as who you are going to become in the future and beyond." This is illustrating how psychology will have a direct impact on the decisions that are made by everyone. When this happens, it will determine the levels of happiness and other challenges that are affecting the person (based upon these views). (Robbins, 1991)

The way that this can explain human behavior is to focus on how the thoughts of the individual and the way they are reacting to events are influencing their actions. When this happens, mental health professionals will have a greater understanding as to what factors are impacting the person. This is the point that they can begin working with them to address these challenges and changing how they are looking at various events. In the future, this will result in positive transformations with their behavior. (Robbins, 1991)

Behavioral genetics is when there is focus on how biological factors are influencing the way that someone is reacting to different events. During this process, there is a concentration on how certain inherited traits will impact the way a person sees themselves and their role in the world. This will influence their behavior by causing them to react in a manner that is in line with various genetic attributes. (Plomin, 2008)

For example, the Irish are known for drinking and fighting. Using behavioral…… [read more]

Sociology Evolutionary Psychology Article Review

3 pages (785 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Finally, we conclude by suggesting that mismatches between our evolved emotional responses and the novel modern environments in which they currently operate often lead to outcomes we can legitimately view as suboptimal.

They spend the article elaborating upon this main set or intersection of ideas and theories. Cultural messages throughout time have sent mixed messages about emotions. Evolutionary psychology can help explain how the paradox evolved and why all the advice regarding emotions is valid, not just half or some. They argue within the context of evolutionary psychology that humans have to embrace the paradoxical nature of emotions and learn how to sometimes let emotions take over and sometimes attempt to control them, yet always value and appreciate their validity. This article indirectly is a strong argument for or advocate for emotional intelligence. Gardner (1989) first argued for the theory of multiple intelligences within every human -- emotional intelligence being one of them. This article indirectly argues for the use of evolutionary psychology as a strategy to develop and apply emotional intelligence to the daily human experience.

The authors conclude that the use of evolutionary psychology with respect to the topic of emotions, behavior, and emotional intelligence is functional approach or strategy. They ultimately argue the validity for the use of this particular theory because of the fundamentally adaptive nature or core of evolutionary psychology. They additionally propose that in the present and near future, the application of evolutionary psychology will occur in areas of counseling/therapy, life coaching, anthropology, sociology, neurology, and others. Evolutionary psychology, then, would prove useful within psychology with respect to social disorders, anxieties, trauma, and compulsion, for example. The authors chose to view emotions and behavior through a Darwinian lens of adaptation. They want to leave readers with the sense that the irrational and often uncontrollable nature of emotions enables reason and does serve to obstruct it.


Haselton, M.G. (2005). Irrational Emotions of Emotional Wisdom? Evolutionary Psychology of Emotions and Behavior. Forgas, J. (ed) Hearts and minds: Affective influences on social cognition and behavior. Psychology Press: New York.… [read more]

Behavioral Psychology the Main Link Term Paper

7 pages (2,139 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… (Signmund, 1925)

In the oral stage, the oral cavity is the primary focus of libidal energy. During this period, the infant is preoccupied with nursing and bringing objects to the mouth. Infants who have been refused nursing at this stage, or who have truncated nursing sessions early are characteristically pessimists, filled with envy, suspicion and sarcasm. On the other hand, infants who have over-indulged oral character, through prolonged nursing, are optimistic and gullible. (Sigmund, 1925)

By approximately one and a half years of age, the child enters the anal stage, which is the toilet training period. This stage reflects a conflict between the id, which is the pleasure of getting rid of bodily wastes, and the ego and superego, which is the practical and societal pleasure of controlling body functions. At this stage, the child may develop an anal expulsive behavior by wanting to take pleasure in defecation, or he may develop an anal retentive behavior if he opts to retain his feces. The anal expulsive behavior is generally messy and unorganized, unlike the anal retentive behavior, which is neat, orderly and stingy. (Signmund, 1925)

The third stage is the phallic stage. This stage involves the child's unconscious desire to possess the opposite sex parent and repel the same sex parent. For boys, castration anxiety represses this desire and he passes into the phase of "libido dormancy." Girls, on the other hand, are struck with "penis envy," which is the apparent counterpart of boys' castration anxiety. Eventually, girls learn their role by identifying with their mothers, just like how boys learn their role by identifying with the father. Fixation at this stage leads to the development of a phallic character, identified as being reckless, narcissistic and proud. (Sigmund, 1925)

The individuals proceed from this stage, they enter a latent period and finally to the Genital Stage. The focus at this stage is again towards the genitals and interest turns to heterosexual development. Fixation at any of the stages will cause the individual to become stuck at that stage, until the conflict is resolved. For example, a person fixed at the oral stage may over indulge in oral stimulation through excessive eating or smoking. Moreover, the lesser the energy that the child has left invested in unresolved psychosexual stages, the greater will be his capacity to lead a normal relationship with the opposite sex. (Sigmund, 1925)

Even though, proving Freud's theory on psychosexual development may not be possible, one report published by Paul Cameron (1964) revealed agreeable results. He tried to confirm the psychosexual stages by checking preferences of Freudian inspired shapes of masculinity and feminity presented to children in each of the different stages. Choices supported Freud's theories. The outcomes of the first three stages were revealed in shape preferences. Individuals 13-year or older preferred masculine shapes, regardless of gender, due to male dominance of the society. However, children, in the phallic stage, are ignorant of the male dominance and therefore, preferred opposite sex shapes. (Cameron, 1964)

Freud's theory on… [read more]

Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Term Paper

16 pages (5,609 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… However, some have questioned whether these results would have been the same if the groups of people had known one another. In the experiment, the boys were not acquainted with one another prior to the experiment. Believing that such a scenario is too artificial to make it generalizable to the population at large, Tyerman and Spencer conducted a similar experiment,… [read more]

Motivation in Behavior Research Paper

4 pages (1,331 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Simultaneous prompting on the other hand ensures that each response will be 100% correct after the instructions are given, and is always followed by positive reinforcement. It the past, it has been used successfully to teach autistic children basic skills such as dressing, hand washing, and expressive and receptive language skills (Leaf et al., p. 215). No-no prompting gives the child "the opportunity to respond independently" with 'no' or 'try again' for incorrect answers, and then only gives a simultaneous prompt on the third try (Leaf et al., p. 216). Past studies have shown that it is useful for teaching verbs, expressive labeling of words and matching-to-sample tasks in autistic children.

DCI has often been criticized by its Pavlovian-behaviorist premises centering on stimulus and response in autistic children. This method, used in isolation from other therapies, can simply reinforce and reproduce the rigid, stereotyped behavior of autistic children as well as "rote and inflexible behavior." For this reason, it is "controversial and frequently denounced" by therapists who prefer to less much less structured methods like natural environment teaching (Lund 2009). Moreover, DCI has often been poorly designed and inconsistently used, although that was definitely not the case in this study. If the work of Leaf et al. can be replicated consistently on a larger scale, than this type of no-no prompt should become part of the standard treatment in early intensive behavioral intervention in autistic children. Indeed, it proved to be effective even with a boy who had very high levels of noncompliance and aberrant behaviors.

Contemporary educational theories have also been more influenced by the humanistic ideas of Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget, who are the most influential child psychologists of the 20th Century. Erikson revised the stages of development in Freudian psychoanalysis away from the emphasis on gratification of the basic drives and instincts of the id to gratification and development of the ego, and therefore like most of the later Freudians has been considered an ego psychologist. Social demands on the ego force it to mature and develop progressively, from the time infants first learn to feed and small children undergo toilet training and first learn to walk. Over time, society's demands on the ego increase, up until the stage of adulthood when individuals are expected to become productive, contributing members of the community. For this reason "new behaviors must" emerge in order for the person to mature into a healthy, functioning ego (Lerner, 2002, p. 418). With Erikson's stages "there are no second chances in development, once part of one's ego fails to appropriately develop, one will never be able to regain it" (Lerner, p. 419). This will lead to frustration, a sense of failure and despair, inability to form intimate relationships and perhaps even mental illness and antisocial behavior. Erikson remains very influential today because of their pioneering work, even if contemporary development theorists reject the concept of rigid and inflexible stages of life. Youth development in contemporary times is considered far more fluid and… [read more]

Anxiety Disorder and Subjective Distress Term Paper

4 pages (1,401 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Pathologizing Anxiety: When is it Healthy to be Anxious?

Psychiatry and psychology have a history of confusing normal behavior that is outside of the average with pathology. Anyone with any familiarity with the history of the DSM can look at conditions that were previously considered disorders, such as homosexuality, to see that there has been a push to pathologize the… [read more]

Social Psychology: Examining the Principles Essay

9 pages (3,075 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… The pervasive nature of social influence can be seen through its role in the formation of social identity, collective action, social movements, the diffusion of innovations, and group productivity and cohesion among others.

"Social influence is defined as a change in an individual's thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behaviors that results from interaction with another individual or group" (Rashotte 2006:4427). There… [read more]

History of Psychology Over the Centuries Western Essay

3 pages (965 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… History Of Psychology

Over the centuries Western societies have constantly wrestled with: various ailments surrounding human behavior and why an individual will engage in the actions they take. This would give rise to the field of modern day psychology, where various thinkers and philosophers were attempting to understand these issues. As a result, a variety of theories were developed, to provide a more in depth picture of how the human mind works. Where, a number of different psychologists would have a profound impact on understanding human behavior to include: Benjamin Rush, Henry Wegrocki, Karen Horney, Evelyn Hooker Thomas Szasz and Samuel Guze. This is significant, because the different ideas presented by these thinkers would provide the basic foundation for the psychology. To fully understand the impact that of each of these individuals had requires: looking at a summary of the different ideas. Once this takes place, it will provide the greatest insights, as to how each of these individuals would help to shape modern day psychology.

Benjamin Rush

Benjamin Rush was considered to be the father of American Psychiatry. Where, he would classify the different diseases of the mind, while believing that mental illness was caused by a blood disorder. He was the first person to describe and catalogue the symptoms of Savant Syndrome. This would help Rush be able to identify a number of mental disorders, which would allow him to develop the therapeutic approach for treating addiction. This is where he believed that someone who is addicted to a chemical substance (such as alcohol), will lose control over their behaviors. At the same time, Rush would help to establish the modern day mental institution, as place where someone who is suffering from mental illness can be able to receive specific treatment for their ailments. (Gentile, 2008)

Henry Wegrocki

Henry Wegrocki argued that a statistical approach should be used in the study of abnormality. As the different ideas he presented would differ from other philosophers, with him believing in monitoring the observable behavior of the individual. This is where you would examine the actions of the individual, based upon how they are reacting to various situations, without making any kind of inferences as to the possible motives. Instead, the mental health professional would want to monitor the behavior of the individual, to determine what they are suffering from. (Gentile, 2008)

Karen Horney

Karen Horney believed that in probing the deep recesses of the mind, you can determine what specific factors from the childhood are affecting the behavior of an individual. Where, understanding the individual's perception of these events; will help to provide insights as to their deepest thoughts and desires. She then identified ten different needs that would affect the behavior of all individuals to include: moving toward people, moving against people, moving away from people, aggression, detachment, compliance and mature theory. At the same time, Horney identified to different views…… [read more]

Abnormal Behavior and Psychopathology Although the Science Essay

4 pages (1,250 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… ¶ … Abnormal Behavior and Psychopathology

Although the science of psychopathology is relatively modern, it is reasonable to posit that there ancient mankind was afflicted by mental illness and that there has always been a need for effective ways to treat it. In the not-too-distant past, these problems were understood in terms of magic and religion, but these perspectives have been replaced in Western medicine by a more scientific view of mental illness and abnormal behavior that seeks to understand abnormal behaviors based on their biological, psychosocial and sociocultural origins. To determine how this transition from the magic and religious to the scientific has taken place over the years, this paper provides a description of the origins of abnormal psychology, a brief overview concerning how abnormal psychology has evolved into a scientific discipline and an assessment of the theoretical viewpoints and interpretations of the biological, psychosocial, and sociocultural models. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

a. Describe the origins of Abnormal Psychology.

People have always suffered from mental illness and there have always been efforts by humans to understand and treat these disorders. According to Kimble and Schlesinger (1985), "The very early history of psychopathology is scant in the extreme and we must be extremely hesitant to draw inferences from the few available data. There are a few records of psychological therapy dating from 3000 B.C. In Egypt and Mesopotamia" (p. 267). What is known for certain is that magic and religion were the primary ways that ancient peoples understood and sought to treat mental illness. For instance, Kimble and Schlesinger note that, "Illness was believed to be of divine origin and it followed that treatment consisted largely of magical-religious practices. Dream interpretations, incantations, religious rituals, and suggestion were employed" (p. 267). These points are also made by other historians of psychopathology. For example, in their seminal work, The Psychodynamics of Abnormal Behavior, Brown and Menninger (1940), report that, "Magic [and] religion are the chief methods through which man has tried to understand his place in the cosmos and to better it" (p. 23). Indeed, magical and religious views were highly influential in the manner in which mental illness was perceived by ancient peoples. In this regard, Kimble and Schlesinger note that, "Early views about madness have been inferred from Biblical references. For example, Deuteronomy 28:23, 34 views madness as punishment for disobeying the commandments" (p. 267). By any measure, the past two centuries have not been kind to humans and it is little wonder that mental illness is commonplace, but as the adage suggests, "The more things change, the more they stay the same" and this is the case with mental illness as well. For instance, Brown and Menninger add that, "Despite the fact that there is a widespread belief that mental disorder is a modern problem, we can be fairly sure that it has always existed. Although social anthropological research shows that among primitive people the psychoses and… [read more]

Organizational Behavior (Psychology) Applied Comprehension Organizational Psychologists Term Paper

16 pages (4,268 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

… Organizational Behavior (Psychology)

Applied Comprehension

Organizational Psychologists continually seek the creation of relevant approaches for the application of organizational psychological principles. Central to the application of Industrial Organizational psychological principles, as an emergent approach, has been the elevation of consultation psychology as a primary approach for the application of organizational psychology. Theoretically, the tension between business, clinical psychology and Industrial… [read more]

Psychology and Behavior Discuss Antipsychotic Drugs Term Paper

5 pages (1,555 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Psychology and Behavior

Discuss antipsychotic drugs, and mention a few typical side effects. Briefly describe the category of anti-anxiety drugs called benzodiazepines, including side effects.

Antipsychotic drugs are a group of drugs used to treat psychosis in patients. They are often used to treat disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, or delusional disorder, but the drugs can be used in many… [read more]

Humanistic Psychology Term Paper

7 pages (2,803 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 13

… Humanistic Psychology

Theoretical and practical applications in psychology, especially in clinical psychology, have been dominated by a small number of major paradigms. The major paradigms have related offshoots but typically historians consider the first two major paradigms in psychology to have been the psychodynamic and behavioral paradigms respectively (Hall, Lindzey, & Campbell, 1998). The "third force" in psychology was the… [read more]

Specific Mental Disorder Analysis: Cluster B Personality Research Paper

8 pages (2,809 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

… There are a number of methods through which the health of these patients can be improved by the family physicians. Some of these methods are pharmacotherapy, brief interventions and psychotherapy. There are three clusters that the personality disorders are divided into, these are A, B and C. Schizoid, paranoid and schizotypal personality disorders are included in cluster A; antisocial, borderline,… [read more]

Personality Theory Term Paper

6 pages (2,389 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 17

… In a way the domains of individual differences which have similar surface manifestations are differentiated by the Big Five. Although it has only just started that we have begun to explicate the processes and structures which are underlying them. "Explication in explanatory and mechanistic terms will change the definition and assessment of the Big Five dimensions as we know them… [read more]

Social Psychology One Point Research Paper

2 pages (893 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… The current event is that the Chilean judges, who held office during Pinochet's brutal reign, came forward and apologized. Judges during Pinochet's rule, who had to have played a part in Pinochet's grip on power, publically apologized. They apologized publically to the victims during this military rule around the 40th anniversary of the coup that occurred in 1973 and brought nearly two decades of corruption and brutality to the Chilean people. No specific judge was quoted as the press statement was meant to reflect the words of all the judges coming forward to apologize. We may consider the judges as a body or group, distinctive from other public officials who came forward. In that sense, their actions and statements are individual.

This current event as an example could be a reflection of a change in social motives or the acquisition of new social motives. Or perhaps the social motives remained the same, but because time passed (forty years), then their perspectives on their social motives changed. For example, the social motives to cooperate and conform. In the 1970s, the judges may have felt the social motives to cooperate with Pinochet and conform to his changes. In the 2010s, the social motive to conform and cooperate may still be present, but the judges changed with whom they would like to cooperate with and to what standards they will conform. We live in a time when many people around the world are coming forward against the crimes of their governments and no longer remaining complicit in their participation in those crimes. We also live in a time where there is a lot of political and social violence between the people and government officials. The violence is brutal, and though the people suffer the worst of the injuries, those they fight do not always come away unscathed. Corrupt officials are going to prison, are getting humiliated via the press, and more, and sometimes worse.

In my profession, the need for affiliation is a social motivation is strong and present. It is a universal experience to know people or be a person who will do anything in the name of affiliation with a social group or other kind of formal group. This is a social motive I think I could use to predict some individual behaviors in my field, higher education.


BBC. (2013). Chile's judges apologise after coup. BBC News, Web, Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-23967816. 2013 September 04.

Preserve Articles. (2013). Brief notes on Social Motives from psychological point-of-view. Preserve Articles, Web, Available from: http://www.preservearticles.com/201104165507/brief-notes-on-social-motives-from-psychological-point-of-view.html. 2013 September 03.… [read more]

Social Psychology Differ When Applied Term Paper

7 pages (2,408 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

… For example in the Japanese culture the employees tend to identify themselves by the companies that they belong to rather than their own individual identities (Nakane, 1970)such as, if they meet someone instead of introducing themselves by talking about their position at the firm they will say that 'they belong to ABC firm' etc. In Japanese culture more importance is… [read more]

Social Psychology Cognitive Dissonance Term Paper

4 pages (1,659 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Social Psychology

Cognitive dissonance

This is the feeling that one has within them when they hold two conflicting feelings or thoughts within them at the same time. This usually highlights the importance of the subject within us. Dissonance is said to be strongest when we believe one thing within us and do directly the opposite. It is also said to… [read more]

Brain Dysfunction and Criminal Behavior Research Paper

3 pages (1,041 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… The frontal lobe is a very important part of the human brain because of its function not only in individual function of the body, but in terms of understanding social, legal, and moral rules and regulations within the society and disruption leads to misconduct and very often to criminal behaviors by the afflicted person which will end in tragedy. It is in this particular region of the brain where social morays are interpreted and the individual's ability to differentiation right and wrong is also located (Brower 2001,-page 720). Therefore, damage to this region of the brain either through congenital deformity or severe injury will logically impede the ability to understand right and wrong or also inhibit the ability to internalize social morays. If this particular part of the brain is damaged, then it will be difficult, if not impossible for the afflicted individual to conform to society's demands for behavior, but rather make the opposite situation far more likely.

There are physiological factors which can contribute to delinquency particularly in members of the youth population, such as mental retardation or psycho or sociopathy. However, most researchers agree that the most influential aspect of a child's life will be the psychological attitude in which it is raised (Shoemaker 2009,-page 95). Those who are raised in homes with violence or substance abuse are far more likely to descend into crime themselves than children who are reared in more functional homes. Children who are born into poor locations are more likely to commit robberies and to engage in gang-related criminality. One of the reasons behind this statistic, according to researchers, is that children who are raised in low income areas are more likely to have single-parent households and those adults are more likely to spend limited amounts of time in the house, either because of work hours or their own socialization. This means that their offspring have limited supervision. Without an adult telling their children what types of behavior are or are not appropriate, young people will very often get into trouble. Logically, those who engage in crime at a younger age will be more likely to engage in a lifetime of crime and be more resilient to rehabilitation.

Given the information currently available, it has been proven that dysfunction of the brain does indicate a high likelihood for criminal behavior. Individuals who have brain dysfunction, either through nature or accident should be monitored, particularly if they have indicated an interest in criminality. However, it must also be noted that a lack of brain dysfunction does not meant that the person will not become a criminal. The research is therefore important but by no means conclusive.

Works Cited

Brower, M.C. & Price, B.H. (2001). Neuropsychiatry of frontal lobe dysfunction in violent and criminal behavior: a critical review. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 71. 720-26.

Moskowitz, C. (2011). Criminal minds are different from yours, brain scans reveal. Live Science.

(2010, August 17). Secrets of Your Mind: the Brain and Violence [Web Video]. Retrieved… [read more]

Evolution of Cognitive Psychology as a Discipline Essay

4 pages (1,131 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Evolution of Cognitive Psychology as a Discipline

The advancement of cognitive psychology since the era of Thomas Aquinas, who was the foremost person to divide behavior into two distinct areas; cognitive and affective has tremendously evolved. The lodging of research on the field provides practitioners a clear view of the subject matter. Cognitive psychology has been existent for centuries in diverse forms based on its defining culture (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). As science progressively gets sophisticated, numerous theories and beliefs have fallen aside in favor of more legitimate evidence towards contemporary developments in the discipline. Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes. During the nineteenth century, cognitive psychology became an emergent theme of concern in the discipline of psychology. This epoch saw numerous psychologists and scholars concentrate on the study of human behavior as it emanates from internal states such as moods, thoughts and feelings (Goldstein, 2008).


Cognition is the method of obtaining, keeping, using and applying knowledge and intelligence. It is typically the science of knowing. Cognition means all the processes through which the sensory input goes under transformation, reduction, elaboration, storage, recovery, and eventual application. Cognition is inclusive of the processing of information (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). It slightly excludes emotions processing. Cognition inculcates all mental processes. For instance, gaining knowledge, comprehending, recalling, assuming, analytical problem solving, and perceiving are all components of cognition.

Cognitive psychologists examine behavior as an avenue to decipher the underlying mental activities, same to how physicists decipher the existent gravitational force referencing from object behaviors on earth. Studying mental activities covers a large ground. They include an understanding of languages, problem solving, remembrance, attention and making decisions as expounded.

Since time immemorial, cognitive psychologists have applied the above concept applying scientific methods as their fundamental tool. These researchers assume that the mind is a machine type from where they elucidate how the machine works internally. Thinking is a process that all people undertake daily. This makes cognitive psychology a pertinent discipline (Goldstein, 2008).

Such a comprehensive definition shows that cognition encompasses everything all human beings would do; all psychological experiences are cognitive experiences. Though cognitive psychology relates to all human activities rather than segments, the apprehension is that it originates from a specific point-of-view yet other viewpoints are overtly necessary and justifiable.

The Interdisciplinary Perspective & Emergence of Cognitive Psychology

Being an essential part of psychology as a whole, cognitive psychology is also a component of the general interdisciplinary discipline of cognitive science. Cognitive science is the cross-disciplinary examination of intellect and psyche. It appreciates various fields such as neuroscience, anthropology, linguistics, philosophy and psychology (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). These other fields have had a consummate influence on cognitive psychology as it has influenced them.

These disciplines apply cognition based on psychology. Cognitive psychology is the interdisciplinary field that scholars apply to understand the mind. Researchers derive their conclusions from experiments. All the related fields share the same factors such as memory, attention, thinking and linguistics. This makes cognitive psychology an… [read more]

Psychology Essay

10 pages (2,806 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… Both positive and cognitive psychology uses the scientific technique to clarify the association that is among reasoning and behavior. Meanwhile positive psychology could couple with any other methods, cognitive psychology has lived without argument for practically four periods (Sweetland, 2009). In the 21st century, progress and technology go hand-in-hand; as a result, the formation of artificial intelligence will probable outcome… [read more]

Criminal Behavior Has Been Practiced Term Paper

10 pages (2,923 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… Criminal behavior has been practiced for as long as one can recall. However, it would not be wrong to say that not much importance has been given to the forensic mental health assessment of the people who go for any acts that fall in the category of criminal behavior. When the word criminal behavior is mentioned, the first thing that… [read more]

Theoretical Perspective of the Biological Term Paper

11 pages (3,177 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

… An individual nature is the vehicle by which one expresses his/her values and emotions to others (Coon & Mitterer, 2008). The human brain processes the four major biochemicals in different manner, and this mixture determines ones nature and personality. The chemical behavioral foundations comprise of hormones and neurotransmitters, which play a major role in interaction and nervous system's cells stimulation.… [read more]

Clinical Focused the Humanistic Psychology Essay

5 pages (1,584 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

… He demonstrated his hypothesis and techniques via lecturing, teaching workshops, audiovisual recordings and live demonstrations. He developed the client-centered approach in between 1940. In the course of development of Rogerian theory, Rogers demonstrated that social learning is paramount in establishment of a good therapeutic environment. Through development of the Rogerian theory, Rogers ascertained that social transmission must be faithful enough, and requires clients to weed out their maladaptive culture through assessing their own conducts (Magnus, Kimmo & Stefano, 2007). His theory is subjective in temperament and requires psychologists to comprehend clients, their worldviews and experiences. The Rogerian theory postulates that an individual realizes his/her final potential when not blocked by environmental aspects as well as personal experiences. The objective of the Rogerian therapy is to permit patients to identify their sense of worth. Rogers's person-centered or client-centered approach continues to exert an important power on the psychotherapy and counseling world besides serving as a basis for the counseling profession (Kirschenbaum, 2004).


Carducci, B. (2009). The psychology of personality: Viewpoints, research and applications. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

DeRobertis, E. (2006). Deriving a humanistic theory of child development from the works of Carl.R. Rogers and Karen Horney. The Humanistic Psychologist, 34 (2), 177-199.

Fernald, P. (2002). Carl Rogers: Body-centered counselor. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78 (2), 172-178.

Kirschenbaum, H. (2004). Carl Roger's life and work: An assessment on the 100th Anniversary of his birth. Journal of Counseling and Development, 82 (1), 116-124.

Magnus, E., Kimmo, E., & Stefano, G.(2007). Critical social learning: A solution to Roger's paradox of nonadaptive culture. American Anthropologist, 109 (4), 727-734.

Thyler, B., Dulmus, C. (2012). Human behavior in the social environment: Theories…… [read more]

Biopsychological Approach? A Physiological Assumption Multiple Chapters

2 pages (712 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… What are the major underlying assumptions of physiological psychology? First, behavior is a result of physiological processes. Second, animal models of behavior can mimic or approximate the behavior of humans. Third, human behavior is inferred via a comparative method. Fourth, the understanding of neural control of behavior can be inferred from animal models (Pinel, 2012).

What effect do these assumptions have on psychology? Nearly every field of psychology now considers the neural mechanisms that are involved in behavior due to the influence of physiological psychology. The neural control behavior is considered to result from a combination of inherit or genetic factors as well as experience that influences neural development and neural proliferation (plasticity). The nature vs. nurture debate has been largely replaced by an interactive model (Pinel, 2011).

What are some techniques or research methods used to examine the link between the brain and behavior?

Experiments are used to determine causal inferences in biological psychology. Much of the experimental research is performed on animals as ethical issues in stunning brain damage or performing brain surgery on humans for research purposes can arise, but simple noninvasive experiments are also performed on human participants. Quasi-experimental studies investigate biological foundations of behavior in intact groups of people such as people with brain damage or some other condition. Case studies focus on a single participant and are often used for rare and unusual conditions. Correlational research cannot infer cause but can look at associations between variables of interest to biological psychologists (Pinel, 2011).

What are some findings in biological psychology that can result or have resulted from these techniques or research methods?

Experimental studies of animals have identified key areas of the brain involved in addictive behaviors. Quasi-experimental studies with alcoholics have investigated how intellectual functions are affected by chronic alcohol use. Case studies of people with rare types of color blindness or aphasia have indicated the brain areas are involved in these functions. Correlational research has been able to identify risk factors for certain things like addictions, certain brain diseases, and other behaviors (Pinel, 2011).


Pinel, J. (2011). Biopsychology 8th ed.). Boston: Allyn and…… [read more]

Organizational Psychology an Interesting Subfield Term Paper

3 pages (871 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Organizational has now become a scientific discipline in its own right and is recognized as an invaluable tool within organizations.

Factors giving more credence to the discipline of Organizational Psychology in the 1980's and the 1990's were multiple (Christine, 2011). The 'economy was becoming increasingly globalized' (Christine, 2011). The 'demographics within the workforce were changing' (Christine, 2011). Temporary employees and contract employees were being utilized more frequently (Christine, 2011). Essentially, because of increasing awareness of the workforce and management the term "job" took on a new conception (Christine, 2011).

While Organizational Psychology was developing, so were other related disciplines such as Organizational Behavior and Social Psychology (Koppes and Pickren, No Date). Organizational Behavior is concerned with a number of factors, but what differentiates it from Organizational Psychology is that it is concerned with the structure and strategies of the organization itself (Jex, 2002). Social Psychology is obviously a related discipline but differs in that it does not limit its focus to individual behavior within organizations (Koppes and Pickren, No date). Thus, though many fields share commonalities with Organizational Psychology, they have variations which make them distinguishable.

An extremely important aspect of Organizational Psychology is its application of the scientific method in studying organizations (Jex, 2002) . In fact, research and statistics are so important to this field that some would argue that they should be a subset of the discipline itself (Jex, 2002). Without quantifiable research methods and results, this discipline would not exist and it is impossible to apply Organizational Psychology without a thorough understanding of statistics and scientific research methodology (Jex, 2002).

As Christine documented, the evolution of Organizational Psychology was steered by the cultural and industrial changes which occurred over a relatively short time span (Christine, 2011). However, one must also consider that there were numerous advances prior to the twentieth century which also contributed to its rise as a respected and necessary discipline (Koppes and Pickren, No date). It was this combination of knowledge which allowed for significant advances in this field (Koppes and Pickren, No date). These advances, as well as the significant changes in the twentieth century, led to the modern conception of Organizational Psychology which enhances the efficiency within organizations and therefore benefits all effected by those organizations, be they business organizations or non-business related organizations (Koppes and Pickren, No date).


Christine, J. (2011). History of Organizational Psychology. Retrieved December 21, 2012 from Slideshare.net website: http://www.slideshare.net/jeelchristine/history-of-organizational-psychology

Jex, S. (2002). Organizational Psychology: A scientist-Practitioner Approach. New York:

John Wiley & Sons

Koppes, L. And Pickren, W. ( No…… [read more]

Sit-Down With an Experience Psychologist Term Paper

10 pages (2,790 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… This can lead to a quandary when trying to talk to the person in therapy because it's more of a relationship issue and/or a problem the other person has rather than something that is wrong with the person in the office. Even so, she said that it's still possible to gently nudge someone in the seemingly right direction without giving… [read more]

Structural Therapy Positive Psychology (PP) Literature Review Chapter

6 pages (1,758 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

… Structural Therapy

Positive Psychology (PP) and Structural Family Therapy (SFT): A Literature Review

Abelsohn, D. & Saayman, G.S. (1991). Adolescent Adjustment to Parental Divorce: An Investigation from the Perspective of Basic Dimensions of Structural Family Therapy Theory. Family Process, 30(2), 177-191.

The study by Abelsohn & Saayman provides some empirical evidence of the need for Structural Family Therapy (SFT) for… [read more]

Psychology Theories of Personality Focus Essay

3 pages (884 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Erikson presented eight different stages of personality growth and development. These included the infancy stage, where a person develops trust. The second stage is between ages one and three. At this stage, the individual develops autonomy, and if not, shame and doubt. Therefore, these early stages roughly correspond with Sigmund Freud's notions of how individuals develop shame and doubt feelings early in their psychosocial development. The way the person moves through these stages is shaped by the environmental factors, and then influences the personality.

Social learning theory was presented by Alfred Bandura. Alfred Bandura's social learning theory focuses on learning, just as the behaviorists did. However, unlike the behaviorists, Bandura's social learning theory suggests that people develop their personality as they watch others. For example, a child learns his or her behaviors from observing parents and older siblings. Bandura borrowed directly from some of the behaviorism ideas such as positive and negative reinforcement. Because Bandura was concerned more with outward expressions of personality such as behaviors, his theory is closer to behaviorism than to psychodynamic personality theories. But because social learning theory is based on social interactions more than anything else, it stands alone as a personality theory.

Humanistic personality theories are holistic in nature. Instead of reducing an individual to behaviors or measurable outcomes, the humanistic psychologist looks at the whole person. Carl Rogers was a humanistic psychologists, who believed that personality was related to the development of the person's self-image. Maslow's theory of self-actualization is a representative of humanistic personality theory. Maslow suggested that people are motivated by a need for self-actualization and finding meaning in life. This is also related to existential psychological theories of personality.

Finally, evolutionary personality theory is unique in that it encompasses a wider range of ideas than psychodynamic theory, Freudian theory of personality, humanistic, or behavioral personality theories. Evolutionary personality theory is the newest of all the personality theories. It is focused on broad patterns in human expressions and behaviors and explains personality in terms of why these phenomenon occur. Looking cross-culturally, evolutionary personality theory can show ways a person develops in relationship to the environment, culture, and other people. It is not like any of the other personality theories, but is as holistic as humanistic theories of personality.


Cherry, K. (n.d.). Theories of Personality. About.com. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologystudyguides/a/personalitysg_3.htm

McLeod, S. (2007). Psychodynamic approach. Simply Psychology. Retrieved online: http://www.simplypsychology.org/psychodynamic.html

"Psychodynamic Theories of Personality," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://explorable.com/psychodynamic-theories-of-personality.html… [read more]

Coaching Color Psychology Term Paper

5 pages (1,511 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Research on color psychology shows that coaching clients will respond to stimuli. For example, marketers use color regularly to alter consumer behavior. The same principles used in marketing can be applied to life coaching.


Adams, F.M. & Osgood, C.E. (1973). A cross-cultural study of the affective meanings of color. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 4(2): 135-156.

Bellizzi J.A., Crowley, A.E. & Hasty, R.W. (1983). The effects of color in store design. Journal of Retailing 59(1).

Cherry, K. (2012). Color psychology: How colors impact moods, feelings, and behaviors. About.com. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/sensationandperception/a/colorpsych.htm

"Color Psychology: The Emotional Effects of Colors," (2012). Art Therapy. Retrieved online: http://www.arttherapyblog.com/online/color-psychology-psychologica-effects-of-colors/#.UIruWGn-vZw

"Color Psychology to Empower and Inspire You," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.empower-yourself-with-color-psychology.com/

Elliot, A.J. & Maier, M.A. (2007). Color and psychological functioning. Current Decisions in Psychological Sciences 16(5): 250-254.

Johnson, D. (2012). Color psychology: Do different colors affect your mood? Infoplease. Retrieved online: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/colors1.html

"Lesson 5: Color Psychology," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.uvsc.edu/disted/decourses/dgm/2740/IN/steinja/lessons/05/l05_08.html

Singh, S. (2006). Impact of color on marketing. Management Decision 44(6):783 -- 789

Stone, N.J. (2001). Designing effective study environments. Journal of Environmental Psychology 21(2): 179-190.… [read more]

Sociopath or Psychopath Psychology Term Paper

6 pages (2,015 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Family nurture does play a vital role. In addition to the family environment, the other very strong social force is the culture from which a person belongs to. Researches have pointed out that the incidence of psychopath and sociopath individuals is much higher in United States of America than in Japan. The reasons of these varying percentages of psychopaths and sociopaths are quite contingent on the culture they are part of. In Japanese culture, the family members share a tight bond with each other and there is lot of love and respect for one another. In contrary, higher percentages of American family consists of single parents who raise their kids alone. The negative influence of being part of a single parent family does influence the child and may enforce his or her negative behavior.


This paper has briefly identified some obvious differences that exist between a psychopath and a sociopath. However, both the disorders are opposite sides of the coin, but the root causes that are behind these personality disorders are different. Psychopath is a person who is born with a disorder while a sociopath person definitely has a history of lack of socialization and other social factors. In addition to this, the social forces present in the environment as well as the nature do play a vital role in making of these individuals. In fact, their presence condition can be improved or worsen due to the social variables present in the environment. Psychologists often a With reference to the material and text presented in this paper, and the personal insight that I have developed while researching for this topic, I would like to share my personal experience too. I was labeled as a psychopath while I was serving in the military. I was diagnosed with PSTD, an abbreviation of Post-traumatic stress disorder, MM, Bi polar and others that I wish not to disclose. My point of arguments is that all the disorders I have just mentioned, of which of was diagnosed of, tend to run concurrently and often overlap. For example, many symptoms of PSTD are similar to that of a psychopath. Through medications and therapy, I know today that I am as healthy, both physically and mentally as any other normal person. My basic argument is that it is very difficult to differentiate between a psychotic people from a non-psychotic one. Psychologists should work on drawing a clear line that can help them to differentiate between the two of them, rather than jumping conclusions at once.


Hare, R.D. (1993). Without conscience: The disturbing world of the psychopaths among us. New York: The Guilford Press.

Lykken, D.T. (1995). The antisocial personalities. New Jersey: Library of CongressCataloging-in-Publication data.

Pescosolido, B.A., Martin, J.K., McLeod, J.D., & Rogers, A. (2011). Handbook of the sociology of health, illness, and healing. London: Springer.

Psychopath vs. sociopath. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.diffen.com/difference/Psychopath_vs_Sociopath… [read more]

Ethical Issues in Family Research Paper

10 pages (3,218 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

… Family marriage and therapy and is more than just a new technique or excellent treatment technique - it comprises a whole tolerant of human behavior and the conceptualization of problems (Scher, 2012). Despite the fact all of the helping professions share a shared heritage, there are vital theoretical and methodological changes that need moral codes of behavior and consecutive training… [read more]

Psychology of Learning Summarize a Classic Experiment A-Level Coursework

2 pages (987 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Psychology of Learning

Summarize a classic experiment in the Psychology of Learning.

One of the most interesting and profound experiments in all of psychology must be the Ivan Pavlov's work with the conditioning of dog's. Nearly every source surveyed makes some humorous reference to Pavlov and his dog experiments. For example, the official site of the Nobel Prize, an award that Pavlov himself won was awarded, titles an introductory section "Pavlov's drooling dogs" (Prize, 2001). His eeliest work was not dedicated on understanding behavior. Rather he worked to understand how the digestive system worked in mammals and used canines as subjects. Pavlov actually kind of stumbled on his behavioral work by noting that the dogs did not always salivate when expected. He later realized that it was the lab coat that was triggering the dog's response to salivate.

After noticing the response the dogs had to the lab coats somewhat by chance, Pavlov set out to further understand the signals that triggered the salivation of the responses of the dogs. Pavlov used a bell as a trigger which was timed in conjunction with the dogs regular feeding. The normal feedings would naturally trigger saliva to ooze from the dogs respective glands. However, after enough time had passed, the dogs would salivate with the sound of the bell alone with no food in sight. Pavlov's experiment is considered one of the "classic' experiments in psychology because it opened the door for a new way to study behavior.

2. Define CS, U.S., UR, and CR. Explain how advertisers can use classical conditioning to give consumers a positive feeling about their product and how they could use classical conditioning to give consumers a negative feeling about other products.

Unconditioned Stimulus -- this means that without any learning, a stimulus can elicit a reflex (Experiment Resouirces, N.d.). For example, in Pavlov's experiment it was the dog's food that served as the unconditional stimulus.

Unconditioned Response -- is the response to a stimulus that requires no learning. Again, in Pavlov's experiment, the unconditioned response was the drooling of the dogs which required no learning on their part since this is a natural phenomenon.

Conditioned Stimulus -- this is the artificial stimulus that is paired with the U.S. that has the potential to eventually lead to a conditioned response; this requires learning. In Pavlov's experiment, the conditioned stimulus was the bell.

Conditioned Response -- this is the response that is generated through learning to the conditioned stimulus. In this case the U.S. can no longer be present and the subject has learned the conditioned response to the conditioned stimulus. In the experiment it was the dog's reacting solely to the bell being rung.

An advertisement for a Vodka brand was found to illustrate what effects conditioning can have on consumers. In the ad an attractive female is positioned behind a clear vodka bottle. Behind the bottle there is an image of a snake that does not appear anywhere else…… [read more]

Child Clinical Psychology Research Paper

7 pages (2,204 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 12

… Child Psychology

Child Clinical Psychology

Clinical child psychology as a practice field directly addresses the mental health needs of children and their families by providing professional services that seek to improve the effects of life events when these experiences dispute the anticipated course of development. The main role of clinical child psychologists is to provide therapeutic services for the wide… [read more]

123. . .Last ›
NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.