Study "Psychology / Behavior / Psychiatry" Essays 1-52

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Conceptualization of Psychological Distress Psychology Essay

… They suppose that other people are talking and are afraid of madness (Hayes, 2008).

Cross-cultural and historical evidence shows how the mainstream society feared and excluded the psychologically distressed persons. In the mid-eighteenth century, it is evident that fear emerged… [read more]


Treatment of Women Diagnosed With Dysthymia Term Paper

… Treatment of Women Diagnosed With Dysthymia

This proposal for a clinical case study of the treatment of a woman diagnosed with dysthymia employs a cognitive behavioral approach to identifying effective treatment modalities for patients with depressive disorders. In cognitive behavioral… [read more]


Stress Faced by Probation Officers Literature Review

… Stresses on Probation Officers

Stress is a serious topic for those in the criminal justice field, and that is true even in areas where it might not seem as significant. For example, there are many stresses placed on probation officers,… [read more]


Behavior? Prejudice and Social Psychology Essay

… Thus, we all tend to fulfill our psychological need of belongingness and distinction that is reflected in the amount of influence that we absorb from societal factors such as peers, parents, figures of authority, and other factors that shape behavior.

Conclusion

As quoted by renowned researcher Milgram, "Psychiatrists predicted that only a pathological fringe of about one in a thousand would administer the highest shock on the board" (Milgram, 1973; Pg. 62). With such popularly held notions and general perceptions regarding individual's behavior, Milgram refuted that we only act morally in given situations and held true that obedience to authority plays an important role in shaping behavior of individuals. The self-argued plausible explanation individuals such as Adolph Eichmann after committing crimes, provide is that they were only acting on behalf of an actually responsible person. This implies that individual behavior is significantly shaped by the level of obedience one shows to the figure of authority. Whereby eminent scholars have attributed behavioral aspects of an individual related to motivational and intrinsic factors, social psychologists have asserted that it one's environment and deference to authority that shapes the individual's behavior. The breakdown of tasks that we perform on daily basis, into small rather disconnected parts, enables one to shift responsibility in totality to figures of authority, as in case of WWI and WWII crimes. These are events like wars that compel psychologists to investigate the determinants of an individual's behavior.

References

Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). The silence of the library: Environment, situational norm, and social behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(1), 18-28.

Bearden, W.O., Netemeyer, R.G., & Teel, J.E. (1989). Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. Journal of consumer research, 15(4), 473-481.

Blass, T. (2009). The man who shocked the world: The life and legacy of Stanley Milgram. Basic Books (AZ).

Brewer, M.B., & Kramer, R.M. (1986). Choice behavior in social dilemmas: Effects of social identity, group size, and decision framing. Journal of personality and social psychology, 50(3), 543-549.

French, J.R., & Raven, B. (1959). The bases of social power. Studies in social power. Cartwright (Ed.), Ann Arbor, Mich.: Institute for Social Itcsearch, 259-269.

Milgram, S. (1973). The perils of obedience. Harper's magazine, 247(1483), 62-77.

Padilla, A.M., & Perez, W. (2003). Acculturation, social identity, and social cognition: A new perspective. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25(1), 35-55.

Smith, C., Organ, D.W., & Near, J.P. (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents. Journal of applied psychology, 68(4), 653-663.

Brown, R. (2011). Prejudice: Its social psychology. Wiley-Blackwell.

Lowery, B.S., Hardin, C.D., & Sinclair,…… [read more]


Culture Psych Culture and Human Essay

… , 2011).

A social psychological investigation of the gift giving in North America and particularly the United States, the behavior was found to be a way of almost ranking the significance and the intimacy that exists in various relationships (Cheal, 2011). In a culture where material wealth is not so much a matter of direct survival but of status, the wealth one invests in the gifts they give is turned to an expression of the intimacy and connection one feels with the gift recipient (Cheal, 2011). Emotional attachments related to gift giving and the psychological perception about the worth of relationships is thus impacted by/has an impact on the behavior of gift giving, with direct cultural and psychological interactions (Cheal, 2011).

Japan's celebration of Valentine's Day, a holiday taken directly from the United States following the end of World War II, provides a highly interesting take on gift giving. This highly ritualized culture, with a great respect for formality and adherence to tradition, has developed a five-part ritual of gift giving that includes consumer elements and the confession of romantic feelings in the (hoped for) establishment of an emotional bond between the two participants in the ritual (Minowa et al., 2010). The gifts themselves can vary somewhat but always include the giving of chocolate specifically, which is part of the consumerist tradition the Japanese directly adopted from the United States and now adheres to quite faithfully, and the similarity and rituality of the gifts diminish the status that might be associated with these gifts (Minowa et al., 2010). The gift itself, that is, is far less important than the ritual of the giving, and it is Japanese culture that changes this mental emphasis.

Culture can and does influence psychology in a wide variety of ways, from artistic expression to gift giving to the conducting of business and beyond. Understanding psychology and psychological issues, then, requires an understanding of the cultural context in which these elements are being examined, and just so an understanding of culture necessarily depends upon (or automatically creates) a certain understanding of the psychologies that might develop in a given culture. Placing behaviors and observed problems in their proper cultural context provides a key to more effective psychological understanding and practice.

References

Aktipis, C., Cronk, L. & Aguiar, R. (2011). Risk-Pooling and Herd Survival: An Agent-Based Model of a Maasai Gift-Giving System. Human Ecology 39(2): 131-40.

Cheal, D. (2011). "Showing them you love them": gift giving and the dialectic of intimacy. The Sociological Review 35(1): 150-69.

Minowa, Y., Khomenko, O. & Belk, R. (2010). Social Change and Gendered Gift-Giving Rituals: A…… [read more]


Group Addiction TX Theory Selection Term Paper

… For strict behaviorists addiction or compulsion are simply a terms for an operantly conditioned behavior. Other compulsive behaviors follow the same line of reasoning. The inability to refrain from using a drug or engaging in a compulsion merely indicates that… [read more]


Psychology Treatment Thesis

… 29).

A crisis in mental health care funding is approaching rapidly given that the Baby Boomer generation will retire over the next twenty years and expenditures for older Americans with major psychiatric disorders will double. There will also be a… [read more]


Clinical Psychology / Bulimia Nervosa Term Paper

… In the opinion of Hoshmand and Polinghorne in the year 1992, professional education must always be based on the development of a reflective judgment on the part of the student, who would then be able to effectively control the various… [read more]


Abnormal Psychology General Definition Term Paper

… Abnormal Psychology general definition of Abnormal psychology is as follows: "Abnormal psychology can broadly be defined as the application of the principles of psychology to the study of mental disorders, including research into the causes and treatment of psychopathologies." (Introduction to Abnormal Psychology)

The central and most controversial aspect of abnormal psychology is the issue surrounding the meaning of the term 'abnormal'.

In other words, what precisely constitutes an abnormal psychological state? There is no single and conclusive view of what is 'abnormal' and each theoretical approach is determined by underlying assumptions about the meaning of this term.

For the statistician and scientist abnormal behavior is understood in terms of reason and logic. In this sense 'abnormal' means "...deviating from a norm, and the dictionary says that a norm is 'a rule or authoritative standard'. It is in this sense that logic and ethics are said to be 'normative' sciences -- they tell us how we ought to think or act. In this sense, the norm is a standard or model of high status, toward which we should strive, but which we can scarcely be expected to attain.

Hollingworth 11)

However, there are many divergent and opposing views of what can be defined as abnormal. The definition of abnormal psychology is part of the fascination of the subject. There is considerable debate with regard to the exact parameters of this field of psychology. There are a wide and often overlapping number of pathologies that are considered under the rubric of abnormal psychology and psychiatry. These include schizophrenia as well as various anxiety disorders, personality disorders and dissociative and somatoform disorders. The range of abnormal psychological disorders has in recent years been extended to include abuse and dependence disorders, as well as eating disorders; and sexual and gender identity complexes. All of these can be considered as being within the field of abnormal psychology.

From a purely medical or biological point-of-view, abnormal psychology is defined as a "belief that all, or at least most, abnormal behavior can be traced to medical factors, usually affecting the brain in some way. This model assumes that all psychological disorders are diseases." (What is abnormal?) in this definition and understanding all abnormal behavior is treated according to the same process and principles as a physical illness. Abnormal psychology is then seen as mental illness and is related to the study if genetics, neuroanatomy, chemical imbalance and infection. This is a scientific and objective view of abnormal behavior and is treated as another field of science. Psychologists using this model view the field of abnormal psychology as a purely scientific field and approach the understanding of abnormal behavior with the same logic as a biologist or mathematician. The study of abnormal psychology in this sense…… [read more]


Karen Carpenter and Christina Ricci Case Study

… ¶ … Karen Carpenter and Christina Ricci, both who present with anorexia nervosa are similar in many ways. For the most part both young women experienced early exposure to fundamentally critical messages about their appearance and both were to some… [read more]


Integration of Psychology and Theology Term Paper

… ¶ … theology and psychology in Christian counseling and then establishes the benefits of combining these two disparate studies and practices. Following this determination, the paper presents ways in which Christian counselors may use these findings in order to better… [read more]


Eating Disorders Among Adolescents Term Paper

… Eating Disorders in Adolescents

Eating disorders are a big health care problem in the United States. Adolescents in particular, are a most vulnerable group and an increasing number suffer from anorexia, bulimia and other eating disorders. Primarily a psychiatric condition,… [read more]


Counselling Cases of Violent Children Reaction Paper

… An example is that of identical monozygotic twins who have same DNA, they resemble each other but are different in degree of identity. Some might be completely identical while others display a significant behavioral and physical differences. For instance one can be a criminal while another is not. A practical standpoint is that both temperate and chaotic environments are the best predictor of criminality in children just as in adults.

Warning signs and solutions

It is not possible that a teen murder to have been a good child who has turned bad suddenly. Youth who have committed a murder to someone who does not abuse them typically have exhibited marked and consistent sign of criminality and violence. If evidence suggests that a cold emotional system in a child is as a result of maltreatment then focus should be on attention and assiduously on detection, prevention and remedies of a child who is suffering from neglect or abuse. A search should also be conducted on identifying youngsters who are at risk of violent behaviors. A draconian solution is also necessary; it involves abrogation of parents' custody and removing children from chaotic and violent homes that are likely to lead to criminal behaviors.

References

Jonatha K., (1999). Savage Spawn: Reflection of Violent Children. Balantine…… [read more]


Human Behavior Research Paper

… People with sex addiction are in some cases prescribed antidepressants, specifically selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Depression is a common coexisting condition with sex addiction. In some cases, a person with sex addiction is treated for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In these cases, medications such as Prozac and Anafranil may be prescribed by a psychiatrist to curb the compulsion." (Lacy, 2013)

The most appropriate means of treatment however is the one related to the core reasons for such behaviors, and that implies therapy, support groups, as well as education on the effects of such behavior. From all these three elements, education may seem to be the least effective in the sense that it does not attack the causes of the behavior but rather makes the recovery process more sustainable by allowing the person to understand his or her behavior, identify the elements that harm, and deal with them steadily through support groups or other types of therapy.

If such behavior is identified in couples, the therapy should also focus on this complex environment. In this sense, "couples counseling may be necessary (…) The sexual addiction of one spouse can be enough to break up a marriage, but if both partners are willing to put in the effort to help the addict recover, your marriage can again be strong" (CRC Health Group, 2009)

Finally anther point that must be taken into account is the fact that, as mentioned previously, sexual addiction is not a stand alone issue related strictly to the sexual behavior of the individual. Seeing that this is a neurological issue, it has severe consequences on the overall behavior and can even lead to criminal offenses, pornography, sexual offences, prostitution, child molestation (LPAC, 2013).

Overall, it can be concluded that, if sexual addiction can be labeled as a medical condition, the matter is a complex medical issue and implies a series of symptoms that are similar to drug addiction or other types of addiction. At the same time, the level of gravity for these kinds of behavior can reach extreme levels and can affect the society. On the other hand, there are numerous treatment approaches that could deal with such extreme behavior, yet, more or less, these reflect the general approach for any addiction. Regardless, in order to improve the treatment for this type of behavior, further research needs to be conducted.

References

CRC Health Group (2009) "Treating Sexual Addiction," available at http://www.crchealth.com/articles/addiction/treating-sexual-addiction/

Fong, T. (2006) "Understanding and Managing Compulsive Sexual Behaviors," Psychiatry (Edgmont). November; 3(11): 51 -- 58., available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2945841/

Herkov, M. (2013) "What causes sexual addiction," available online at http://psychcentral.com/lib/what-causes-sexual-addiction/000744

Innes, E. (2013) "Sorry Tiger, sex addiction probably DOESN'T exist: Scientists believe 'hypersexuality' could just be high libido," Online Mail, 19 July, Available at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2370211/Sex-addiction-Scientists-believe-hypersexuality-just-high-libido.html

Lacy, J. (2013),"Sex addiction," Good Therapy.org, available online at http://www.goodtherapy.org/therapy-for-sex-addiction.html

LPAC. (2013) "Sex Addiction" Canadian Bar Association. Available at http://www.lpac.ca/main/Courses_01/sex.aspx

Weiss, R. (2013). "Hypersexuality: Symptoms of Sexual Addiction," available online at http://psychcentral.com/lib/hypersexuality-symptoms-of-sexual-addiction/00011488… [read more]


Social Phobia in Children Research Paper

… Social phobia is quite different from shyness as the people who are shy do not completely avoid the situations that make them uncomfortable, whereas, those suffering from social phobia have a tendency to completely avoid social encounters and keep themselves… [read more]


Criminal Psychology Forensic Psychologist Analyzing Term Paper

… Between the motives, needs, desires, on the one hand, and specific actions - on the other hand, is a series of mediating and intermediates that are amenable to conscious control. A person with a set of mental qualities, indicating the presence of his sexual desire disorder, may never realize these personal characteristics in practical matters, and all of its activity in this direction will be reduced to psychic experiences, dreams, fantasies, etc. In addition, features of the psychological motivations can be expressed in relatively harmless acts do not violate the criminal law. In other words, the range of possibilities for the implementation of the considered features of the psyche is extremely broad and not confined to certain forms of behavioral activity. From this perspective, it is obvious that all the statements of the expert on "the severity of criminal tendencies" C. are only hypothetical reasoning and cannot be considered as evidence in the case. Such statements are contrary to legal principle of presumption of innocence, because here the charge is supported by not reliably established facts, but on the basis of conclusions that are at best probabilistic. As one of the reasons appointment of forensic psychological evaluation in the case of K. was a clear discrepancy between his social status and the severity of the crimes for which he was charged, would be well advised in such cases not to resort to forensic psychological examination, and other forms of special of knowledge.

It would be appropriate version of the compilation of a psychologist in conjunction with a psychiatrist help, which would indicate that according to modern scientific ideas of psychology and psychiatry, between the mental characteristics of the defendant and the nature of the acts which He was charged, there is an irresistible psychological contradictions. It has no probative value on the commission or the commission of a specific response to specific actions, but gives only a general idea of?

some medical and psychological aspects of the criminal case under investigation (Walklate, 2005).

As an example involving a psychologist as well-informed person can be reduced and the compilation of "psychological portrait" wanted criminals according to psychological analysis of the collected materials of the case (witness testimony, physical evidence, etc.), which is especially important at the operational-search activities and the investigation so called "serial" crimes (murder and sexual assault rape) occurs when a number of similar criminal acts.

References

Anderson, J.F., Dyson, L., & Brooks, W. (2002). Preventing Hate Crime and Profiling Hate Crime Offenders. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 26(3), 140+. Retrieved November 9, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000644850

Chancer, L., & Donovan, P. (1994). A Mass Psychology of Punishment: Crime and the Futility of Rationally Based Approaches. Social Justice, 21(3), 50+. Retrieved November 9, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000301614

Hollin, C.R. (1989). Psychology and Crime: An Introduction to Criminological Psychology. London: Routledge. Retrieved November 9, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103529633

McGuire, J. (2004). Understanding Psychology and Crime: Perspectives on Theory and Action. Maidenhead, England: Open University Press. Retrieved… [read more]


Schizophrenia Is a Family Research Paper

… Such elements include strengths and vulnerabilities for dealing with stress. The term "vulnerability" is not a judgmental term that implies weakness but instead is an attempt to understand the variables involved in developing severe forms of mental illness. For instance,… [read more]


Future of Psychology Essay

… ¶ … future challenges to the field of professional psychology in contemporary society. What does the future hold for the field of psychology? It is always difficult to predict the future, but in the field of psychology, it seems many different things may be in store for the future.

The Internet has become much more than an information tool. Today, it is the key to just about every aspect of life for many people, from shopping to social networking. In the future, it seems possible that psychiatry could move to the Internet, in the form of 24/7 counseling available via credit card online. One company has already attempted to do this, but they are no longer online, but it would seem that as people become more accustomed to using the Internet, services like this would become more common. There is a huge wealth of medical data available online, and psych data as well, so why not online counseling? Two writers note, "A Harris Poll found online information concerning depression to be among the most sought after topics on the World Wide Web" (Fowler & Newman, 2004, p. 125). If people are diagnosing themselves online, it seems that eventually, counseling online would be quite common.

In other areas, it seems that psychology of the future may become much more global in nature, just as so much of everyday life has become globalized today. There will certainly be more international linking and discussion of psychology organizations and individuals, and more awareness and understanding of psychology around the world. Psychology is not as accepted in many countries as it is in the United States, so it appears that a greater awareness of the benefits of psychology could be spread more globally, too.

Many experts believe that psychology will spread into other areas, and that it will continue to grow into separate branches of psychology and psychiatry even more. Psychologists work…… [read more]


Language in Clients With Psychological Psychiatric Differences Schizophrenia Bipolar Disorders Term Paper

… Language in Clients With Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

Whitehurst, G.J. Arnold, D.S. Smith, M. Fischel, J.E. Lonigan, C.J. Valdez-Menchaca, M.C. (October 1991) Family History in Developmental Expressive Language Delay. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research Vol.34 1150-1157.

Family history on… [read more]


Personality and Personality Disorders Causal Research Paper

… He has a weak and low self-esteem and is unable to perceive other people's perspectives. An antisocial personality violates the rights of others without remorse yet can be charming, intelligent or cruel. The borderline personality is impulsive, habitually angry, unstable,… [read more]


Mentally Ill the Criminalization Term Paper

… Moreover, the criminal justice system needs to focus on preventing crimes that are perpetrated by citizens who are not diagnosed as being mentally ill. Issues related to mental illness fall under the rubric of social work, public health, and the professions of psychology and psychiatry. It is therefore recommended that a team of specialists form a consultancy committee that advises the federal government as to a strategic intervention that will address the following target areas.

First, the committee will propose the construction of specialized mental health clinics throughout the United Stats. The clinics will be accessible to all citizens via free shuttle services, and will be highly visible. Moreover, the clinics will treat all citizens regardless of their ability to pay. The clinics will provide a safe, nonjudgmental and anonymous environment in which clients can learn about and treat their problems. This will help to eliminate some of the stigma associated with mental health issues. Material at the clinics will be published in a variety of languages, so that all communities are served. Cross-cultural awareness is crucial to the success of the proposed program.

Second, the committee will propose the means by which to construct special in-patient facilities for individuals who are currently in prison but who would be better served by being monitored by mental health professionals. Given the need to protect communities, mental health professionals can house and, when necessary, medicate the clients so that they cease to be a danger to themselves and others. At the same time, clients will become a valuable source of information to mental health and public health administrators related to etiology, treatment intervention, and disease prevalence.

Works Cited

Hefley, Diana. "Mentally Ill Often Adrift in the Criminal Justice System." Herald.net. 13 Sept 2009. Retrieved online: http://www.heraldnet.com/article/20090913/NEWS01/709139880

Stephey, M.J. "De-Criminalizing Mental Illness." Time. 8 Aug, 2007. Retrieved online: http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1651002,00.html… [read more]


Psychology - Counseling the Social Research Paper

… However, intervention, according to social constructionists, is a therapeutic conversation. It is also a linguistic event, a joint search and examination through dialogue, a two-way trade of ideas in which new meanings are recurrently evolving toward the dissolving of problems. In other words, the emphasis is not to solve or eliminate the problems but to open space for conversation (Lit & Shek, 2002).

In the eyes of social constructionists, therapists are the coauthors who engage in the coauthoring process with the client together. The therapeutic conversation is believed to be a linguistic event that takes place in the interaction process. Social constructionists further maintain that no one persons understanding could override the others. There is also nonexistence of theoretically formed truths and knowledge (Lit & Shek, 2002).

Social constructionism holds that information created in conversations between people is perhaps best understood inside the context of a conversational area. Social constructionism is, itself, a social structure that is always changing and subject to reconstruction. It has been disputed that some articulations of social constructionism exaggerate language and thus pay no attention to the overlap between relational knowing and that of biologically-based constructivism. The latter is an epistemological formulation that has succeeded and has been influenced by humanism. As a result of this transformation professionals in the field have come to distinguish the benefits and limitations that social constructionism has and admit that this faction is a fluid and developing framework of ideas (Rudes & Guterman, 2007).

References

Guterman, J.T. (1996). Doing mental health counseling: A social constructionist re-vision.

Journal Of Mental Health Counseling, 18(3), 228-252.

Lit, S., & Shek, D.L. (2002). Implications of Social Constructionism to Counseling and Social Work Practice. Asian Journal Of Counselling, 9(1-2), 105-130.

Rudes, J., & Guterman, J.T. (2007). The value of social constructionism for the counseling profession: A reply to…… [read more]


Spiritual Practices Beyond Religion Spirituality Term Paper

… Although it has been hard to catch on to mainstream practices, modern applications see much more implementations of spiritual teachings and guidance as part of the psychologically healing process. It has been slow to catch on to the mainstream implementations of psychological practices, but still its development holds great promise for the future. Recently, the field of psychology has been embraced within indigenous cultures for centuries (Sue et al. 1999). Nowadays, it is a common conception that spirituality is an essential element of what it is to be human (Sue et al. 1999).

Elements of spiritual teachings have been implemented in psychological strategies mainly for methods of relaxation. According to the research, relaxation strategies "are frequently used interventions in counseling and therapy that can foster personal development as well as spiritual development," (Chandler et al. 2001 p 184). Meditation has long been one major element of acceptable spiritual practice within other genres of metal health. It is a common spiritual practice that is found in a number of religious traditions and backgrounds, most notably many Eastern cultures. Essentially, meditation represents another realm of consciousness, where the individual experiences an almost hypotonic sense of sleep without dreaming (Murphy et al. 2011). Many modern psychological practices are focusing on using meditation to tap into a larger spiritual structure that helps individuals heal both physically and mentally. Here, the research states that "Meditation -- that great and mysterious subject which in the past has always conjured up the image of the solitary Asian ascetic sitting in deep trance -- is fast appearing in unexpected places throughout modern American culture," (Murphy et al. 2011 p 1). As a practice, it can help augment other integrated healing strategies meant to work on healing both the physical body and the cognitive structures of the mind. Although its origins may be disputed, meditation has become a popular element even in secular healing practices. It can be an incredibly successful strategy in helping those who suffer from anxiety find some peace in their every day lives. According to the research, "meditation practices can be broken down and understood in terms of traditional constructs in experimental psychology, such as vigilance, attention, and concentration," (Murphy et al. 2011 p 12). New trends in cognitive therapy have been continually incorporating meditation practices and guidance as a relaxation strategy (Murphy et al. 2011). Psychology is also adapting physical training of meditation, with the incorporation of breathing exercises and yoga stretches in order to augment the maximum relaxation experienced by patients enduring such treatment practices.

Spirituality is still often confused because of a lack of clear definition and distinction through psychological practice. Although modern psychology is still beginning to incorporate elements, it is still relatively new and unknown within the larger genre. Therefore, it is important to continue research into how spiritual teachings can impact individuals and their psychological states.

References

Chandler, Cynthia K.; Holden, Janice Miner; & Kolander, Cheryl A. (2001). Counseling for spiritual wellness: Theory and practice. Journal of Counseling and… [read more]


Sociology/Social Work Questions Research Paper

… The development of intimacy is associated strongly with the development of individual independence, independence from structures and systems that have supported and aided a young person up to this point. Most believe that individuals who fail to develop positive intimate… [read more]


Beyond Autism Treatment: The Application Article Review

… Behavior is viewed by traditional psychologists as a symptom of a disorder or condition and not as a functional response that enables one to escape, avoid or mitigate exposure to this unpleasant condition. Conversely, behavior analysts describes what the child… [read more]


Defense Styles of Pedophiles Essay

… Defense Styles of Pedophilic Offenders

In their article, Drapeau et al. (2007) examine the defense styles of pedophiles. They were prompted do so because so many pedophiles use denial to either deny committing an offense or as a means of… [read more]


Counseling Theories Thesis

… Counseling Theories

"…There is no single, definitive, unchanging, final narrative that can qualify as the correct understanding of the patient's psychic life"

Schafer (as cited in Wolitzky, 2007, Definitions of…section, ¶ 2).

In 1896, at the age of 40, Sigmund… [read more]


Child Sexual Abuse Thesis

… CSA

Child sexual abuse is a major social and familial issue that has impacted the lives of many people throughout the world. Although the maltreatment of children in any form is deplorable, sexual abuse of children has a particularly cruel… [read more]


Psychosocial Assessment on an Unquiet Mind by Kay Readfield Jamison Research Proposal

… Psychosocial Assessment Of

A Person With Bipolar Disorder

psychosocial assessment of a person with bipolar disorder

"Personal accounts of mood disorders are an undervalued asset in understanding the manifestations of mental illness and in drawing attention to current issues"

Kay… [read more]


What Makes a Good Counselor? Thesis

… ¶ … Counselor

Reasons for NOT Seeking a Counseling Degree

First, it is important to discuss reasons NOT to seek a counseling degree. Many people enter this profession because they want to help others. But combined with that, there are… [read more]


Freud Sigmund Term Paper

… Freud

Sigmund Freud, who is one of the earliest psychologists, theorized personality development derived from his theories of the id, ego and superego and which focused on the unconscious and subconscious as agents of human behavior. In addition, he suggested… [read more]


Theory Classical Psychoanalysis Term Paper

… "

Another characteristic assumption to the strengths approach is that people also have the necessary information that is relevant to them in defining their personal situations, both with reference to the problematic aspects, as well as to the potential solutions.… [read more]


Sexual Counseling Approach Theoretical Term Paper

… Sexual Counseling Approach

Theoretical Overview:

Depending on the therapist, and their prescribed philosophies, a number of counseling related therapies tend to alleviate symptoms. Standard cognitive therapy often shows positive results; talking with the therapist and sharing issues, attending group therapy to reduce isolation and social stigma, variations of exposure therapy and stress inoculation training. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) which is an approach that attempts to change the patterns of thinking or behavior that are responsible for an individual's negative emotions, thus changing the way they feel about themselves and present to the external world. Essentially, behavioral therapy is an approach to psychological interaction that reinforces desired and eliminates undesired, behaviors in the subject. This theory focuses on the behaviors, not the thoughts that produce them and is broken down into therapy and modification. Of course, there are overlaps in the manner in which the therapy is conducted, but all are designed specifically to address the quality of the event (or overt behavior) exhibited. In general, CBT patients learn to identify thoughts that might trigger feelings of fear or anxiety and replace them with different thoughts -- simply replacing the memories of the trauma with new, more positive ones (SOURCE, YEAR, p. 22; Follette and Ruzek, eds., 2007).

CBT originated with classical conditioning and operant learning, combined with social learning theory and the role of cognitive experiences in determining behavior, CBT merges into a model that assumes most psychological and psycho-social problems derive from a fault coping or thinking process. This approach, though, also recognizes latent or observable factors that contribute to the individual's dysfunction. CBT tends to be more valuable because it uses an integrated approach that takes a more realistic and multidimensional approach. This also allows for a broader range of therapeutic interventions -- self-efficacy, individual thought and meditation about events, etc. (SOURCE, pp. 22-3; Wright, 2004).

Because CBT addresses the dysfunction or maladaptation, the therapist can focus on behavior, not the personality of the client. This makes CBT attractive for compulsive sexual behaviors, or addictions like excessive masturbation, addictions to pornography, etc. Focusing on changing the behavior, whether that is from a bad experience, an addiction, or simply the way one approaches family during stressful issues is a way to help the client get back on track more quickly, and help them function again. CBT is also appropriate as a first therpeutical intervention in…… [read more]


Electroshock vs. Adepressants Term Paper

… In the future, treatment with ECT followed by antidepressants has been shown to be the most effective because it treats the symptoms and eliminates some of the lasting negative effects of ECT alone.

References

Breggin, P.R. (2007). ECT damages the brain: Disturbing news for patients and shock doctors alike. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, 9(2), 83-85.

Elin, J.P. (2011). Treating postpartum psychosis. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, 13(1), 16-20.

Engqvist, I., Ahlin, A., Ferszt, G., & Nilsson, K. (2011). Comprehensive treatment of women with postpartum psychosis across healthcare systems from Swedish psychiatrists' perspectives. The Qualitative Report, 16(1), 66-75.

Frank, L.R. (2006). The electroshock quotationary. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, 8(2), 157-176.

Gagne, G.G., Furman, M.J., Carpenter, L.L., & Price, L.H. (2000). Efficacy of continuation ECT and antidepressant drugs compared to long-term antidepressants alone in depressed patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1960-1965.

Hagen, B., Wong-Wylie, G., & Pijl-Zeiber, E. (2010). Tablet or talk? A critical review of the literature comparing antidepressants and counseling for treatment of depression. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 32(2), 102-120.

Keltner, N.L. (2002). Mechanisms of antidepressant action: In brief. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 36(2), 69-71.

Kragh, J.V.…… [read more]


Nature Nurture Controversy Related to Aggression Reaction Paper

… Nature/Nurture and Mental Illness

The nature/nurture debate has sparked a deluge of research over the last five decades or so. The findings have been applied to many different areas of human life, including the propensity for intelligence and aptitude, as… [read more]


Visitation in the Intensive Care Unit Term Paper

… Visitation in the Intensive Care Unit

The intensive care unit can be a place of extreme disquietude and trauma to the patient. Far from relaxing the patient and assisting in his or her recovery, many patients find the ward to… [read more]


Cg Jung Term Paper

… C.G. JUNG

Carl Gustav Jung was born July 26, 1875 in Switzerland, where he lived for the entirety of his life. A trained physician, Jung "came to see that the different forms of mental illness were not existence in themselves,… [read more]


Business Plan for Sleep Lab Business Plan

… Business Plan for a Sleep Lab

National Institutes of Health - National Center on Sleep

Disorders Research

Necessity of Sleep Reviewed

Sleep Industry

Types of Sleep Lab Business Structures

Mission Statement

Keys to Success

Market Analysis

Equipment

Supplies

Technicians

Business… [read more]


Suicide Term Paper

… Richard Chapman and Kathleen M. Foley. New York: Raven Press, 1993. xvii, 441.

Bruera, Eduardo, and Russell K. Portenoy. Cancer Pain. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Carr, Daniel B., and Ada Jacox. Acute Pain Management: Operative or Medical Procedures and Trauma. Clinical Practice Guideline. 1992. Retrieved March, 4 2003

Doheny, Kathleen. Why Terminally Ill Seek Assisted Suicide. 2002. Principal Health News. Retrieved March, 4 2003 from. http://www.principalhealthnews.com/article/hscoutn/102690744

Fawcett, J., D.C. Clark, and K.A. Busch. "Assessing and Treating the Patient at Risk for Suicide." Psychiatric Annals 23 (1993): 244-55.

Hendin, H., and G. Klerman. "Commentary: Physician-Assisted Suicide: The Dangers of Legalization." American Journal of Psychiatry 150 (1993): 143-45.

Long, Phillip W. Guideline: Depression Co-Occurring with Other General Medical Disorders. 1997. Depression Guideline Panel. Retrieved March, 4 2003 from. http://pni.unibe.ch/Depression_Guidelines/AHCPR/p44-d1a.html#Head50

Marshall, R.D., et al. "Comorbidity, Impairment, and Suicidality in Subthreshold Ptsd." Am J. Psychiatry 158.9 (2001): 1467-73.

Merskey, Harold, Nikolai Bogduk, and International Association for the Study of Pain. Task Force on Taxonomy. Classification of Chronic Pain: Descriptions of Chronic Pain Syndromes and Definitions of Pain Terms. 2nd ed. Seattle: IASP Press, 1994.

A olde Scheper, T.M., and S.A. Duursma. "Euthanasia: The Dutch Experience." Age Ageing 23.1 (1994): 3-8.

Shneidman, E.S. "Some Essentials for Suicide and Some Implications for Response." Suicide. Ed. A. Roy. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1986. 1-16.

Suicidology.ORG. American Association of Suicidology Web Site. 2003. Retrieved March, 4 2003 from. http://www.suicidology.org

Von Roenn,…… [read more]


Self-Conception Social Psychology Conceptualization Term Paper

… Since the human being has that constant sense of self in their lives, the emotional events therefore normally involve the complex self. It is worth noting though that there are some emotional events that do not need complex evaluation of self for instance fear at the sight of danger or joy upon receiving a call of having won lottery. However, taking into account the ever-present nature of the self, the winner of the lottery is bound to reappraise their win and make corresponding self-evaluation and come with conclusions like they are good in picking the numbers or tag some lucky number to an event in their daily lives hence creating some self-esteem out of the joy turning it into pride (a self-conscious emotion).

Taking the other example of man running away at the sight of danger say a bear at a camping sight, the feeling of fear will definitely be the first emotional reaction, but the presence of the wife or girlfriend will invoke the self-representation in the scenario particularly taking into account the gender stereotypes hence making self-evaluations that lead to alternative emotions as well. The man may choose after self-evaluation to fight the bear which would generate self-esteem of pride if he manages to fend off the bear or degenerate into shame or guilt if he runs away and leaves the wife. These examples indicate that the self can significantly change the emotions experienced in events that may not necessarily appear to involve complex self processes. Jessica L & Richard W (n.d: 189) note that every emotion that man experiences will be uniquely influenced by the self process and consequently shape our self-esteem. For instance, fear can easily turn to be shame when we contemplate what our fear in that particular circumstance means. Anger can easily turn into hostility or aggression when that anger is directed towards someone who has threatened our livelihood.

Self and behavior as related to self-presentation

It has been noted that the self-conception that one displays will definitely influence the behavior put firth to the society. For instance, people whose conception of self ends in depicting low self-esteem are more likely to display aggressive behavior than those whose self-conception points towards high self-esteem (Missouri Western State University, 2009). The way an individual will present himself within the society or among peers will widely depend on the self-perception which in return shapes behavior. For instance, if someone has the self-concept of being persistent, the individual will inevitable behave in a manner that is far from being clumsy hence present himself as a respectable hardworking person.

References

Baumeister, R.F. (Ed.) (1999). The Self in Social Psychology. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press (Taylor & Francis).

Psychology Press, (2012). Constructing the self-concept: What we know about ourselves (pp. 96 -- 107). Retrieved October 21, 2012 from http://psypress.co.uk/smithandmackie/resources/topic.asp?topic=ch04-tp-01

Jessica L & Richard W, (n.d: 189). Self-Conscious Emotions: Where Self and Emotion Meet. Retrieved October 21, 2012 from http://ubc-emotionlab.ca/wp-content/files_mf/sedikidesbookchapterproofs22.pdf

MacLeod S. (2008). Self-Concept. Retrieved October 21, 2012 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/self-concept.html

Missouri Western… [read more]


Psychology of the Consumer Behavior Essay

… These were the things which are the ultimate needs of the life and without them survival is almost not possible or extremely difficult. 21st century has introduced a new set of mind in the people and that has shattering consequences in the form of psychological complexes aka disorders. The common one is dissatisfaction. You will easily find the people who would be urging for the things they do not need, or without which a nice survival is possible. Being a part of the society, you have a natural urge to being on the equal status of your peeps hence if you can get all that, you will be psychologically vulnerable. Thus the importance of material possessions has greatly been increased due to the IT revolution and technological advancement (Steven, 1995) and this is the very reason why rich are getting richer and poor are getting poorer. The examples can be mobile phone, Mp3/mp4 players, laptop, iPhones, iPods, tablets, own car, and things of this sort. Every young mind is inclined towards getting them regardless of the resources they have. There is a psychological push. Or else they will keep feeling guilty and hiding the low profiles.

Apart from all that, material possessions also depict social values and cultural norms. An individual normally go for the things which have the social approval or cultural support. They also reveal about the personality to some extent. They are also responsible for the healthy or rough relationships. So all these things collectively put the psychological pressure on the human mind and the only way to get the satisfaction is to get them. (Appadurai, 1986)

Now going to the consequences of 'if not'; the individual after trying his best to get moves to the illegal ways which are not socially accepted. But in order to satisfy his conscience he does it. Another factor can be suicide. Since it is now the third major reason of death worldwide, the reasons can be the high rate of anxiety and depressions particularly due to these aspects. As a result the crime rate has greatly been increased by now and it is till increasing. The unequal distribution of the wealth and psychological urge of material possessions has pushed the poor or low profile people off their thresholds.

Critical analysis

One of the major reasons for inculcating a psychological feeding of material possessions is the media. An eye which keeps on watching the ads on the TV of different and expensive brands does convey the message to the brain that it wants to covet it. The continuous process of desiring and not getting puts them under the impression of being inferior, having no identity, showable status, wealth, appreciable profile and etc. things hence they either start hiding the reality or try to find escapes like isolation from the people and society or suicide. Unfortunately, nowadays people are judged by the material possessions and not by the behaviors. It is the social crisis, practiced almost in every part of the world.… [read more]


Psychology Criminal Behavior Term Paper

… Psychology

Criminal behavior has been the subject of interest for psychologists for a very long time. In a manner, it is quite intriguing question that what are the reasons and causes that lead a person to display criminal behavior. Many… [read more]


Organizational Psychology Productive and Counterproductive Essay

… It involved observing and recording systematically the employees' behaviors. Archival data is another popular method of studying behavior. In organizational psychology archival data is most prevalent when comparison is made to other observational methods. This is mainly because there is an absolute abundance of sources that are available to researcher from archival data.

In applied social research, the method known to be most important is survey research. It has a broad area that includes the basic questionnaires, asking direct questions to respondents, determining respondent's behaviors, attitudes, and personalities. Surveys are mainly used when gathering a wide variety of information and they use interviews or questionnaires.

Use of organizational psychology in organizations

Using the various research methods available, an organization can use organizational psychology to establish the reason why employees are not able to function as a team, or work together. Obtaining information regarding each employee on their attitude, opinion, personal growth, feedback loops, and adaptations will provide the employer with crucial insights regarding the employees' interactions with each other especially when they are working on a group task. Organizational psychology can also be used to enlighten individual job performances. An organization can be able to control the fate of an employee within the organization when the employee's responsibilities are well understood.

Some of the things that the employer should consider during this strategic method are the employee's efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity, which all lead to the overall utilization of their position. Using organizational psychology an organization can also be able to make hiring decisions Shams & Jackson, 2006.

Currently many human resource employees make use of observational methods and research surveys when selecting the qualified candidates for the workplace. In order to predict an employee's job performance they will use structured interviews, personality test, and knowledge tests. Organizational psychology can also be used when determining if a specific employee has work behavior that is counterproductive. Some of the counterproductive behaviors are absenteeism and ineffective job performance. These behaviors can be discovered by observation or experiments, which are better referred to as empirical data.

Currently organizational psychology is mostly used by human resource consultants and coordinators, but in the past organizational psychology was used by scientists. The methods of organizational psychology can be used to get information from workplaces and non-workplaces. Using the strategy of organizational psychology, the behavior of individuals and organizations can be discovered to be interesting.

References

Guion, R.M. (1965). Personnel testing. 2445 McCabe Way: McGraw-Hill.

Jex, S.M. (2002). Organizational Psychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Miner, J.B. (2007). Organizational Behavior 4: From Theory to Practice. Armonk, NY 10504: M.E. Sharpe.

Shams, M., & Jackson, P.R. (2006). Developments in Work and Organization Psychology: Implications…… [read more]


Humanistic Psychology Critique of Mainstream Term Paper

… Humanistic Psychology

Critique of Mainstream Psychology

Humanistic and transcendental perspectives of psychology have been making inroads into psychology to alter the assumptions and practices of mainstream psychology. The humanistic perspective highlights the primacy of human experiences in forming any assumptions… [read more]


Three Theoretical Perspectives Essay

… Theoretical Perspectives to Human Behavior

Over the last several years, there have been a number of theories introduced to explain human behavior. To fully understand the most effective approaches requires focusing on psychology, genetics and neuroscience. This will be accomplished by studying each perspective in relation to human conduct and which theory is most valid. Together, these different elements will highlight the underlying influences on the thoughts and actions of a person.

The Three Perspectives on Human Behavior

Like what was stated previously, there are three areas that are focused on these include: psychology, behavioral genetics and behavioral neuroscience. Psychology is when there is a focus on how the thoughts of an individual will influence their behavior. This is because the environment will shape the way that someone reacts to different events. (Robbins, 1991)

Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Robbins (1991) who said, "Everything that happens in your life -- both what you are thrilled with and challenged by -- began with a decision. it's in your moments of decision that your destiny is shaped. The choices that you are making right now, every day, will shape how you feel today as well as who you are going to become in the future and beyond." This is illustrating how psychology will have a direct impact on the decisions that are made by everyone. When this happens, it will determine the levels of happiness and other challenges that are affecting the person (based upon these views). (Robbins, 1991)

The way that this can explain human behavior is to focus on how the thoughts of the individual and the way they are reacting to events are influencing their actions. When this happens, mental health professionals will have a greater understanding as to what factors are impacting the person. This is the point that they can begin working with them to address these challenges and changing how they are looking at various events. In the future, this will result in positive transformations with their behavior. (Robbins, 1991)

Behavioral genetics is when there is focus on how biological factors are influencing the way that someone is reacting to different events. During this process, there is a concentration on how certain inherited traits will impact the way a person sees themselves and their role in the world. This will influence their behavior by causing them to react in a manner that is in line with various genetic attributes. (Plomin, 2008)

For example, the Irish are known for drinking and fighting. Using behavioral…… [read more]


Sociology Evolutionary Psychology Article Review

… Finally, we conclude by suggesting that mismatches between our evolved emotional responses and the novel modern environments in which they currently operate often lead to outcomes we can legitimately view as suboptimal.

They spend the article elaborating upon this main set or intersection of ideas and theories. Cultural messages throughout time have sent mixed messages about emotions. Evolutionary psychology can help explain how the paradox evolved and why all the advice regarding emotions is valid, not just half or some. They argue within the context of evolutionary psychology that humans have to embrace the paradoxical nature of emotions and learn how to sometimes let emotions take over and sometimes attempt to control them, yet always value and appreciate their validity. This article indirectly is a strong argument for or advocate for emotional intelligence. Gardner (1989) first argued for the theory of multiple intelligences within every human -- emotional intelligence being one of them. This article indirectly argues for the use of evolutionary psychology as a strategy to develop and apply emotional intelligence to the daily human experience.

The authors conclude that the use of evolutionary psychology with respect to the topic of emotions, behavior, and emotional intelligence is functional approach or strategy. They ultimately argue the validity for the use of this particular theory because of the fundamentally adaptive nature or core of evolutionary psychology. They additionally propose that in the present and near future, the application of evolutionary psychology will occur in areas of counseling/therapy, life coaching, anthropology, sociology, neurology, and others. Evolutionary psychology, then, would prove useful within psychology with respect to social disorders, anxieties, trauma, and compulsion, for example. The authors chose to view emotions and behavior through a Darwinian lens of adaptation. They want to leave readers with the sense that the irrational and often uncontrollable nature of emotions enables reason and does serve to obstruct it.

References:

Haselton, M.G. (2005). Irrational Emotions of Emotional Wisdom? Evolutionary Psychology of Emotions and Behavior. Forgas, J. (ed) Hearts and minds: Affective influences on social cognition and behavior. Psychology Press: New York.… [read more]


Behavioral Psychology the Main Link Term Paper

… (Signmund, 1925)

In the oral stage, the oral cavity is the primary focus of libidal energy. During this period, the infant is preoccupied with nursing and bringing objects to the mouth. Infants who have been refused nursing at this stage, or who have truncated nursing sessions early are characteristically pessimists, filled with envy, suspicion and sarcasm. On the other hand, infants who have over-indulged oral character, through prolonged nursing, are optimistic and gullible. (Sigmund, 1925)

By approximately one and a half years of age, the child enters the anal stage, which is the toilet training period. This stage reflects a conflict between the id, which is the pleasure of getting rid of bodily wastes, and the ego and superego, which is the practical and societal pleasure of controlling body functions. At this stage, the child may develop an anal expulsive behavior by wanting to take pleasure in defecation, or he may develop an anal retentive behavior if he opts to retain his feces. The anal expulsive behavior is generally messy and unorganized, unlike the anal retentive behavior, which is neat, orderly and stingy. (Signmund, 1925)

The third stage is the phallic stage. This stage involves the child's unconscious desire to possess the opposite sex parent and repel the same sex parent. For boys, castration anxiety represses this desire and he passes into the phase of "libido dormancy." Girls, on the other hand, are struck with "penis envy," which is the apparent counterpart of boys' castration anxiety. Eventually, girls learn their role by identifying with their mothers, just like how boys learn their role by identifying with the father. Fixation at this stage leads to the development of a phallic character, identified as being reckless, narcissistic and proud. (Sigmund, 1925)

The individuals proceed from this stage, they enter a latent period and finally to the Genital Stage. The focus at this stage is again towards the genitals and interest turns to heterosexual development. Fixation at any of the stages will cause the individual to become stuck at that stage, until the conflict is resolved. For example, a person fixed at the oral stage may over indulge in oral stimulation through excessive eating or smoking. Moreover, the lesser the energy that the child has left invested in unresolved psychosexual stages, the greater will be his capacity to lead a normal relationship with the opposite sex. (Sigmund, 1925)

Even though, proving Freud's theory on psychosexual development may not be possible, one report published by Paul Cameron (1964) revealed agreeable results. He tried to confirm the psychosexual stages by checking preferences of Freudian inspired shapes of masculinity and feminity presented to children in each of the different stages. Choices supported Freud's theories. The outcomes of the first three stages were revealed in shape preferences. Individuals 13-year or older preferred masculine shapes, regardless of gender, due to male dominance of the society. However, children, in the phallic stage, are ignorant of the male dominance and therefore, preferred opposite sex shapes. (Cameron, 1964)

Freud's theory on… [read more]


Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Term Paper

… However, some have questioned whether these results would have been the same if the groups of people had known one another. In the experiment, the boys were not acquainted with one another prior to the experiment. Believing that such a… [read more]


Motivation in Behavior Research Paper

… Simultaneous prompting on the other hand ensures that each response will be 100% correct after the instructions are given, and is always followed by positive reinforcement. It the past, it has been used successfully to teach autistic children basic skills such as dressing, hand washing, and expressive and receptive language skills (Leaf et al., p. 215). No-no prompting gives the child "the opportunity to respond independently" with 'no' or 'try again' for incorrect answers, and then only gives a simultaneous prompt on the third try (Leaf et al., p. 216). Past studies have shown that it is useful for teaching verbs, expressive labeling of words and matching-to-sample tasks in autistic children.

DCI has often been criticized by its Pavlovian-behaviorist premises centering on stimulus and response in autistic children. This method, used in isolation from other therapies, can simply reinforce and reproduce the rigid, stereotyped behavior of autistic children as well as "rote and inflexible behavior." For this reason, it is "controversial and frequently denounced" by therapists who prefer to less much less structured methods like natural environment teaching (Lund 2009). Moreover, DCI has often been poorly designed and inconsistently used, although that was definitely not the case in this study. If the work of Leaf et al. can be replicated consistently on a larger scale, than this type of no-no prompt should become part of the standard treatment in early intensive behavioral intervention in autistic children. Indeed, it proved to be effective even with a boy who had very high levels of noncompliance and aberrant behaviors.

Contemporary educational theories have also been more influenced by the humanistic ideas of Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget, who are the most influential child psychologists of the 20th Century. Erikson revised the stages of development in Freudian psychoanalysis away from the emphasis on gratification of the basic drives and instincts of the id to gratification and development of the ego, and therefore like most of the later Freudians has been considered an ego psychologist. Social demands on the ego force it to mature and develop progressively, from the time infants first learn to feed and small children undergo toilet training and first learn to walk. Over time, society's demands on the ego increase, up until the stage of adulthood when individuals are expected to become productive, contributing members of the community. For this reason "new behaviors must" emerge in order for the person to mature into a healthy, functioning ego (Lerner, 2002, p. 418). With Erikson's stages "there are no second chances in development, once part of one's ego fails to appropriately develop, one will never be able to regain it" (Lerner, p. 419). This will lead to frustration, a sense of failure and despair, inability to form intimate relationships and perhaps even mental illness and antisocial behavior. Erikson remains very influential today because of their pioneering work, even if contemporary development theorists reject the concept of rigid and inflexible stages of life. Youth development in contemporary times is considered far more fluid and… [read more]


Anxiety Disorder and Subjective Distress Term Paper

… Pathologizing Anxiety: When is it Healthy to be Anxious?

Psychiatry and psychology have a history of confusing normal behavior that is outside of the average with pathology. Anyone with any familiarity with the history of the DSM can look at… [read more]


Social Psychology: Examining the Principles Essay

… The pervasive nature of social influence can be seen through its role in the formation of social identity, collective action, social movements, the diffusion of innovations, and group productivity and cohesion among others.

"Social influence is defined as a change… [read more]


History of Psychology Over the Centuries Western Essay

… History Of Psychology

Over the centuries Western societies have constantly wrestled with: various ailments surrounding human behavior and why an individual will engage in the actions they take. This would give rise to the field of modern day psychology, where various thinkers and philosophers were attempting to understand these issues. As a result, a variety of theories were developed, to provide a more in depth picture of how the human mind works. Where, a number of different psychologists would have a profound impact on understanding human behavior to include: Benjamin Rush, Henry Wegrocki, Karen Horney, Evelyn Hooker Thomas Szasz and Samuel Guze. This is significant, because the different ideas presented by these thinkers would provide the basic foundation for the psychology. To fully understand the impact that of each of these individuals had requires: looking at a summary of the different ideas. Once this takes place, it will provide the greatest insights, as to how each of these individuals would help to shape modern day psychology.

Benjamin Rush

Benjamin Rush was considered to be the father of American Psychiatry. Where, he would classify the different diseases of the mind, while believing that mental illness was caused by a blood disorder. He was the first person to describe and catalogue the symptoms of Savant Syndrome. This would help Rush be able to identify a number of mental disorders, which would allow him to develop the therapeutic approach for treating addiction. This is where he believed that someone who is addicted to a chemical substance (such as alcohol), will lose control over their behaviors. At the same time, Rush would help to establish the modern day mental institution, as place where someone who is suffering from mental illness can be able to receive specific treatment for their ailments. (Gentile, 2008)

Henry Wegrocki

Henry Wegrocki argued that a statistical approach should be used in the study of abnormality. As the different ideas he presented would differ from other philosophers, with him believing in monitoring the observable behavior of the individual. This is where you would examine the actions of the individual, based upon how they are reacting to various situations, without making any kind of inferences as to the possible motives. Instead, the mental health professional would want to monitor the behavior of the individual, to determine what they are suffering from. (Gentile, 2008)

Karen Horney

Karen Horney believed that in probing the deep recesses of the mind, you can determine what specific factors from the childhood are affecting the behavior of an individual. Where, understanding the individual's perception of these events; will help to provide insights as to their deepest thoughts and desires. She then identified ten different needs that would affect the behavior of all individuals to include: moving toward people, moving against people, moving away from people, aggression, detachment, compliance and mature theory. At the same time, Horney identified to different views…… [read more]

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