"Psychology / Behavior / Psychiatry" Essays

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Lifespan Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,159 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Psychology - Lifespan Development


Looking at my life retrospectively, it is relatively clear how much specific aspects of my personality are traceable to my parents' personalities. In certain cases, it seems plausible to conclude that external environmental influences in the form of both modeled behavior and overt instructions from my parents probably contributed strongly to the development of certain psychological traits of mine. On the other hand, other elements of my personal psychological profile seem clearly to be products of heredity, particularly because they became evident so early in my life.

If pressed to identify the strongest aspects of my adult personality, I would consider stubbornness, optimism, empathy, and introspection to form the basis of an accurate general personal profile. According to my parents, my stubbornness was already evident at a very young age; so, my optimism would seem more likely a result of direct influence from my mother, who modeled that orientation in her behavior and also communicated it to me very directly. My response to animals and to the plight of others seems to be natural to me because it also appeared very early, but the fact my mother shares the same trait complicates any attempt to distinguish environmental of biological influences. Finally, introspection would seem to be equally attributable to external influences and natural tendencies, because I share a particular similarity with one particular manifestation of introspective behavior with my father that was completely unknown to me before we discussed it in connection with this writing assignment.


According to my parents, I was always very stubborn. They say that as a toddler, I hated to be interrupted in the process of trying to do almost anything I was already doing, even to be shown how to do it better. They recall watching me try to open a box, unsuccessfully but content in my failing effort for ten or fifteen minutes but break out into tears at being interrupted, even with the assistance that I needed so badly. My parents learned to let me finish trying until I got tired of it before showing me how to do whatever I had been trying to do. Apparently, once I had exhausted my ability to figure something out independently, I became very receptive to assistance and would typically watch whatever my mother demonstrated for me, after which I would happily repeat it myself. She learned to simply allow me to try something as many times as necessary for me to bore of it before helping me.

Since I exhibited stubbornness as a very young toddler, it would seem to suggest a strong genetic predisposition in that direction rather than a function of environmental influences. The fact that my paternal grandmother describes identical behavior of my father's as an infant only confirms the apparent genetic basis for my stubbornness, as well as that of several other members of my extended family on my father's side.

Finally, the apparent absence of this tendency on my mother's side… [read more]

Role of Emotions and Personality Article Critique

Article Critique  |  4 pages (1,151 words)
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Role of Emotions and Personality in the Workplace

Organizational Behavior

The significance of personality and emotions in the workplace today continues to be actively debated within the academic and practitioner professional communities. Previous generations of management theorists discounted the validity of studying emotions, stating instead that business professionals need to be logical, reasoned and rational decision makers and at best, emotions need to be sublimated to the greater needs of the organization. From the 1980s on emotions are increasingly seen as a cognitive process (Bono, Foldes, (Vinson, Muros, 2007) that can provide useful insights into managing employees to higher levels of performance (Miller, 2002). The progression of management theorists to define and fine-tune cognitive frameworks in studying the effects of personality and emotions in the workplace has generated a wealth of research. The intent of this paper is to evaluate two of these articles, one from (Muchinsky, 2000) and the second from (Lieberman, 2006). These articles will be summarized, compared, and conclusions defined for each.

Summary of Each Article

The first article by Lieberman (2006) provides a glimpse into how managing emotions from a mediations standpoint in human resources and labor relations corresponds to a roadmap of transforming negative to positive emotions in any work environment. The analysis presented also shows how through the use of effective bridging techniques, mediation can successfully occur, specifically illustrating through example how moving from adrenaline to awareness is critical (Lieberman, 2006). The progression from feelings of anxiety and combativeness through the adrenaline to fight for a given perspective are well defined in the article as Lieberman (2006) illustrates how quickly mediation processes can degenerate into long-term conflicts and aggression. The progression to awareness and acknowledgement, which are clearly pivotal from the perspective of the author to resolving conflicts, are well defined as the necessary "bridging" aspect of any mediation activity. Finally the author shows through example of emotions managed effectively through the mediation process that reconciliation is possible and where each side of an argument can emerge with an acceptable solution.

The second article excellently describes the progression of theoretical and cognitive theories relating to the impact of emotions and personalities in the workplace (Muchinsky, 2000). Beginning with a brief introduction to the highly logical and often passionateless approach to business as exemplified in purely operational research-based approaches implied in the author's first comments, then progressing through the development of theoretical and conceptual models that define the determinants of job satisfaction vs. job stress, the author successfully defines a cause-and-effect series of workflows. Muchinsky successfully argues that emotions are the legitimate domain of scientific inquiry, and that in analyzing response to stimuli, there are empirically verifiable models of response that can be derived. The author also defines a taxonomy of five dominant emotion types and includes implications for managers to alleviate negative implications, while working to accentuate the positive behaviors that are aligned with emotions including empathy and the ability to identify with others and contribute to their success as well. (Muchinsky, 2000) also… [read more]

Learning Criminal Behavior Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,089 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Criminal Theory - Operational Implementation


In analyzing the psychological factors that contribute to criminal behavior, criminologists employ elements of different psychological theories of human behavior.

Among these varied approaches, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and social learning theory all seem to apply, although in different degrees and dependant on other components of psychological differences from one subject to another. Classical conditioning examines the mechanism of learned responses to repeated stimuli; operant conditioning focuses on the effect that positive and negative consequences have on future behavior; and social learning theory takes a more comprehensive view, according to which human beings emulate behavior modeled in countless observational experiences of other individuals (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).

In addition to providing a means of understanding the influences contributing to outward human behavior, these psychological theories also enable criminologists to design correctional programs that incorporate their underlying principles. Ideally, correctional programs should employ elements of each, because it is unlikely that one or the other is exclusively applicable to criminal rehabilitation (Schmalleger 1997). In all likelihood, elements of all three theories contribute to most criminal behavior; therefore, the most successful correctional programs probably include all three approaches to some degree. Nevertheless, each offers fundamentally different principles for implementation into correctional programs. Ultimately, operant conditioning principles are likely most useful in correctional institutions and social learning principles are more responsible for general psychological socialization within society in general.

Operational Implementation of Classical Conditioning Principles:

The most famous example of classical conditioning is the original experiment designed by Pavlov to demonstrate the principle in the salivation response triggered by a rung bell in dogs repeatedly presented with a food reward and the same stimulus simultaneously (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). In the context of the development of criminal behavior, classical conditioning is evident in many different forms: where adolescent associates provide the stimulus for destructive behavior; where drug dealers provide the stimulus for the development and continuation of drug addiction; where the presence of children provides the stimulus for pedophilic behavior, and where media advertisements provide a stimulus for alcohol consumption by alcoholics (Van Voorhis, et al. 2007).

In terms of correctional program implementation, classical conditioning principles are most applicable and most likely to produce beneficial results in conjunction with criminal behaviors attributable to addiction (Van Voorhis, et all 2007) and compulsive urges, precisely because the mechanism of classical conditioning is automatic rather than a conscious thought process. Specific operational implementation generally consists of reversing the association between stimuli and learned responses by some form of aversion therapy, flooding, or covert sensitization (Van Voorhis, et al. 2007). In that regard, typical examples would include building a negative association by providing an unpleasant sensation or other consequence linked to the object of the criminal urge or behavior; purposely "flooding" the subject with repeated exposure to a particular stimulus to minimize any established response tendencies by desensitization; and by requiring a subject to engage in conscious conceptualization of the realities and consequences of criminal behavior (Van… [read more]

Borderline Personality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,567 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Borderline Personality - Personal Journey Into Mental Illness

Do you know how it feels to totally not be in control of yourself? To be slave of your emotion? How about being unable to sustain a relationship, not even with the people who care for you the most? Have you ever felt totally alone it crossed you're mind to die? Or… [read more]

Therapeutic Alliance, Attachment Theory and Retention Term Paper

Term Paper  |  30 pages (8,108 words)
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Therapeutic Alliance, Attachment Theory and Retention in Therapy

Numerous studies have established that, "...therapeutic alliance is an essential component of successful therapy. All forms of individual psychotherapy have demonstrated a connection between outcome and therapeutic alliance "(Delaney, 2006). It is important to note that the significance of the therapeutic alliance goes beyond the parameters any one theory and is considered… [read more]

Human Brain and Memory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,687 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Human Brain and Memory

Of the many intriguing mysteries of the human body, our capacity for memory and loss of memory is one of the most intriguing areas of study. Magda B. Arnold (1984) says that memory is the integration and articulation of the individual objects and experiences up to and including the present moment in our lives (p. 4).… [read more]

Health Behavioral Change Experience Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (380 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Health Behavior

Currently at the preparation stage of change in the transtheoretical model, I have worked out a comprehensive course of action that will lead to a transformation in my behavior. Before reaching this stage, I did go through the previous two stages including precontemplation, during which I was still in denial about the deleterious effects of smoking. At that point smokers have no chance at all of quitting because they have no motivation whatsoever. For a number of personal reasons including health scares but also interventions by family and friends, I reached the contemplation stage. That was when I first started compiling the scientific research that proved clearly that my habit was causing me direct bodily harm. Realizing that it was a scientific fact that smoking causes a number of different illnesses -- and may even lead to illnesses in other people -- was what fueled my desire to prepare for this plan of action.

The progress I have made so far should not be discounted simply because I set a date in the near future to physically release the habit from my life. In fact, the preparation stage…… [read more]

Criminal Justice - Juvenile Delinquency Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (866 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Criminal Justice - Juvenile Delinquency


Theories of Behavior:

It appears that the theoretical frameworks of behaviorism and cognitive psychology will be most applicable to the subject. Most likely, a thorough retrospective analysis will be required into the specific significance of the multiple instances of different types of abuse and neglect that influenced the subject's psychological development. The cognitive perspective will identify the links between deviant behavioral manifestations and the psychosocial mechanisms responsible for them so that they may be addressed in counseling and therapy, toward the goal of reducing their future effect on the subject's behavior. While there is evidence of a genetic basis for addictive behavior in general and alcoholism in particular (Macionis 2002), the biological perspective is not likely to play a significant role, primarily because the issue of alcoholism must be addressed the same way regardless of what degree it reflects an inherited tendency.

Case Summary: The subject is a 15-year-old male with a history of prolonged sexual abuse perpetrated against him from the age of 6 until 12, by his mother with whom he no longer has any contact. The subject's father is alcoholic and physically abusive as well. The subject has a consistent history of violent criminal offences including physically assaulting a female classmate at the age of 11 and assaulting a teacher with a blunt force weapon at the age of 12. The subject has also demonstrated a tendency toward self mutilation.

His current offense is First Degree Rape in connection with his role in the sexual assault of a 14-year-old female raped at knifepoint by a group of five juveniles including the subject. The subject has already completed two years of court-imposed probation, 50 hours of community service, a 10-day school suspension, and ongoing monthly counseling in connection with his earlier offenses but without any apparent benefit. Theoretical Analysis:

The subject's family background, social relationships, and history of victimization meet the classical profile of influences long-associated (Innes 2007) with increased statistical likelihood of criminally violent offenders. Several details of his troubled history suggest very specific connections to certain elements of his violent behavior, as well as the fact that all of his offenses on record have been directed at female victims.

The subject was extensively sexually abused by his mother for six years, which on its own, accounts for tremendous psychosexual confusion, rage, and repressed feelings of toxic shame, low self-esteem, and worthlessness (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005), and which probably account for the internalized anger manifesting itself in self mutilation. In part, the fact that the subject was sexually victimized by his…… [read more]

Psychology of Learning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (826 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Classical and Operant Conditioning: Procedural Comparison

Psychology of Learning

Classical conditioning is also known as Pavlovian conditioning after Ivan Pavlov, the Russian-born physiologist who first announced the results of studies demonstrating the psychological phenomenon of association between arbitrary stimuli and physiological response (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). He exposed dogs to the sound of a bell while simultaneously presenting food.

Within a short time, he was able to trigger the salivation response by ringing the bell without the food, even though that physiological response is normally triggered only by the food; before conditioning the subjects to associate the sound with the food, the ringing bell triggered no such response. Classical conditioning is very useful in training animals, because it allows trainers to trigger desired behaviors with virtually any signal once the animal has been conditioned to associate that signal with a reward like food.

Operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning primarily in that it consists of the association between the subject's behavior, first, and the response that behavior triggers, second (Carlson 2006). One of the most common experimental examples of operant conditioning consists of training pigeons to peck a lever for a food reward.

Operant conditioning provides four variations, specifically: (1) behavior that triggers a reward; (2) behavior that triggers the cessation of something rewarding; (3) behavior that triggers something unpleasant; and (4) behavior that triggers the cessation of something unpleasant (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). One of the most common examples of operant conditioning is the process of housetraining pets not to relieve themselves indoors, by conditioning them to associate doing so with an unpleasant scolding.


Carlson, N.R. (2006) Physiology of Behavior 9th Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.

New York: Allyn & Bacon.


Real Life Learning Experience #1:

In modern policing, canines are used extensively in many roles: they are trained as tracking specialists used to locate suspects in flight; they are employed to detect contraband such as illicit narcotics or explosives; they can be trained to locate cadavers, and they can be trained as all-purpose patrol work encompassing all those specialties (Eden 1993). Generally, aspects of police K-9 training incorporates elements of both classical and operant conditioning; in some cases, it combines elements of both.

In tracking work, canine officers are conditioned through positively reinforcing behaviors that are natural to them, such as the desire to follow the scents of prey.

Because the behavior triggers…… [read more]

Operant Conditioning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,419 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Operant Conditioning

The term operant conditioning was invented by B.F. Skinner in 1937 in the background of reflex physiology, to differentiate what he was interested in; behavior that affects the environment - from the reflex-related subject matter of the Pavlovian conditioning. Operant conditioning is the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior. Operant conditioning is distinguished… [read more]

Violence in Public Schools Term Paper

Term Paper  |  11 pages (3,463 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 11


School Violence

Violence in schools has been a subject at the center of debate for several years. School violence is a problem throughout the world, but in recent years a great deal of attention has been given to violence in American schools (Austin, 2003; Smith, 2003). The purpose of this discussion is to examine school violence as it relates to… [read more]

Marital Counseling Term Paper

Term Paper  |  17 pages (5,050 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Conflicts in Marital Counseling

Although conflict constitutes "an inevitable, natural process in important romantic relationships and can contribute positively to the relationship's creation and stability," when a husband and a wife do not resolve conflicting issues, frustration, disaffection, and dissolution frequently result. (Peterson, 1983; Wood & Duck, 1995, Duck, 1988; Bray & Jouriles, 1995; Kayser, 1993; cited by Pistole &… [read more]

Personality Theory and Psychological Disorder Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (625 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Personality Theory and Psychological Disorder

Albert Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory

The Social Cognitive Theory presents one of the best models of the human learning process actually works. His theory of learned behavior through observation "represents a break from traditional theories by proposing that cognitive factors are central to human functioning and that learning can occur in the absence of direct reinforcement," (Monash University 2007). Humans are social creatures, this model places observation of the external world as a contributing factor in the formation of behavior. The multiple influences of personality seen in Bandura's model represents a more intimate relationship with an individual's consciousness and the external world which surrounds it.

Bandura's model of how behavior is not determined by a single factor. Rather, it is a very complex feature within the context of each individual's psyche. Behavior is essentially influenced by separate factors; through observation of the external world and through an individual's own unique cognitive processes, (Bandura 1977). His model incorporates a number of different factors working together, rather than against each other, as in other theories. Unlike other models, Bandura's model allows for a personals relationship to his or her external world to strongly influence behavior. In this concept of behavior, people learn from observing one another, through the influence of the external world on an individual's consciousness. It also proposes that learning new concepts does not immediately change behavior, (Ormrod 1999). By studying patterns in these complex relationships, general predictions can be made concerning group and individual behavior. Researcher can also see patterns in successful methods used to direct certain desired behavior.

Works Cited

Bandura, a. "Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change."

Psychology Review (84).1977. p. 191-215.

Ormrod, J.E. (1999). Human learning (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ.Prentice-Hall.

Monash University. (2007) "Social Cognitive Approach to Personality: Albert Bandura."

Department of Psychology. (http://condor.admin.ccny.cuny.edu/~hhartman/SOCIAL%20COGNITIVE%20APPROACH%20TO%20PERSONALITY%20ALBERT%20BANDURA%20(1925-).htm

Antisocial Personality Disorder

Antisocial Personality…… [read more]

Interview Profile for Most of American Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,485 words)
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Interview Profile

For most of American education, teachers have followed a similar education model of lecture or instruction at the front of the room and the students lined up in rows to listen and watch. The reason behind this standardization is the belief that all children learn in the same way. A similar generality is that there is only one… [read more]

Sigmund Freud's Dora an Analysis of a Case of Hysteria Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,466 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Freud's Dora

The Case of Dora: Raising Questions About Sigmund Freud's Analysis

In the scholarship that critiques and evaluates Sigmund Freud's the Case of Dora there is evidence that this pioneer without peer - a man who appears to be reveling in his moment of fame and revelation - missed the mark on Dora's analysis. Brilliant though he was, Freud… [read more]

Hot Seat an Ethical Decision-Making Simulation Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,188 words)
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¶ … hot seat; an ethical decision-making simulation for counseling students," authored by Frame, Flanagan, Frederick, Gold and Harris (1997). The main concern of the article is to demonstrate how a counseling ethics computer simulation tool may influence students' consideration of their actions in a realistic ethical counseling dilemmas and how decision-making processes are influenced. Classroom debriefing activities are used to help students improve ethical decision making, on the other hand, the simulation provides ethical decision-making practice and helps students acknowledge the ethical dimensions of their future roles as professional counselors.

The main themes of the article are: computer-based training, counseling, ethics, and simulation, decision-making. The article starts from the premise that "in a world with multiple perspectives on what is the right thing to do ethical decision-making is not only complex, but it is also a potential mine field." For helping professionals the process is even more difficult since they need to analyze situations and understand the possible consequences of their choices. Poor choices can not only harm clients, but also lead counselors in malpractice suits.

To respond to this need Frame et al. developed a computer-based simulation tool based on Rest's model of moral decision-making. Rest stated that the moral decision-making is based on: interpreting the situation in terms of possible actions, the effects of the actions and how each part regards these effects; the person is in the position and must be able to make a moral judgment about a possible course of action; the person must give priority to moral values; the person must behave morally.

The design of this study is based on previous research that emphasized the many benefits of computer-assisted instruction such as: decreased learning time, a higher level of achievement when accompanies traditional teaching methods, improved attitude, and increased motivation. In counseling, computer-assisted instruction has been shown to be an effective tool in providing individualized practice and means of presenting didactic material.

The programming tool used was Hypercard (Apple Computer) as it can provide branching pathways. Branching pathways have been chosen because they are opposed to linear and sequential text and allow learners a greater control over the instructional experience. The approach also fosters students' interests and favors the retention of information.

The instructional design was constructed following several steps: need analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation. Analysis was developed by interviewing a counseling ethics expert to determine learner characteristics; on such basis, the learning objectives were developed. The most important need identified was to improve the students' ability to successfully apply the counseling ethical codes to a variety of situations. In order to achieve this goal simulations were selected that required learners to apply constructs to real-life situations in order to resolve problems and make decisions.

The design had particular characteristics. First of all, the students role-played a counselor. There were multiple scenarios, placed in a menu, so that the participants were able to chose the preferred scenario. This allowed them a degree of control over their experience. The order of the… [read more]

Role of Diet in Weight Gain of Severely Mentally Ill Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,900 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Role of Diet in Weight Gain of Severely Mentally Ill


This work intends to relate that all the problems of comorbidity and resulting morbidity and mortality of SMI may be problems, which are "combined to the one metabolic syndrome. (Kato, Currier, Gomez, Hall, & Gonzalez-Blanco, 2004; Toalson, Ahmed, Hardy,… [read more]

Life I Can Cite an Experience Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,877 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … life I can cite an experience of a self-discrepancy. In one particular situation, I was very much against the idea of drinking and driving, or smoking and driving, or doing anything but driving when you are supposed to drive. However, one night I went out with several friends I hadn't seen in years. You guessed it, one thing… [read more]

Histrionic Personality Disorder (Hpd) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,891 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD) is one of the least seen personality disorders in the United States, and one of the least researched in psychology today. In 2004, only two to three percent of the population treated in clinical environments had been diagnosed with the disorder (Britton, 2004). As a result, while researchers have studied possible causes for the disorder, the… [read more]

Impact of Neonatal Stress on Adult Stress Response Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,381 words)
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¶ … Neonatal Stress on Adult Stress Response

The current study discusses the impact of neonatal stress on adult stress responses. There has been some suggestion that risk assessment defensive behaviors in rodents might resemble some of the behavioral/somatic symptoms of generalized anxiety in humans (Wall & Messier, 2001). Through the previous research conducted often utilizing elevated plus-maze (EPM). There are several hypothesis being tested, they include: STRESS animals will have less Closed arm entries then CONTROL animals, STRESS animals will have less Open arm entries then CONTROL animals, CONTROL animals will have a greater percentage of open arm entries (over total entries), then STRESS animals. STRESS animals will exhibit less Rearing Behavior then CONTROL animals, STRESS animals will spend more time in Closed arms then CONTROL animals, STRESS animals will spend less time in Open arm then CONTROL animals, CONTROL animals will spend a greater percentage of time on open arms (over total time), then STRESS animals. These hypotheses are tested in the current study utilizing previous research and results in order to clarify all prospective outcomes.

It is widely acknowledged that pregnancy is a state associated with drastic physiological and psychological changes. The alterations in maternal physiology that are initiated and maintained by pregnancy-related hormone secretions can, for the most part, be interpreted as biological adaptations to the needs of the developing fetus. (Field, McCabe, & Schneiderman, 1985, p. 161)

One of the most popular animal tests used is the EPM; during a five-year period, over 100 different research laboratories have reported on its use (Hogg, 1996). It is used as a screening tool for anxioselective effects of drugs. However, the use of this test has increased to include a use that allows for better understanding of the biological basis of emotionality as it relates to learning and memory, pain, hormones, addition and withdrawal, sub-types of anxiety disorders, anxiety phobias, and posttraumatic stress. The EPM provides evidence regarding altered emotionality in animals, as well as a tool successful in defining brain areas related to fear/anxiety. Advantages to the EPM include simplicity in design and bi-directional drug sensitivity, short training procedures, no need for food/water deprivation etc. There are a number of variables related to the use of the EPM are divided into two groups organismic and procedural feature of the EPM concerns the effect of prior test experience on subsequent behavioral and pharmacological responses (Carobez & Bertoglio, 2005).

Zellner & Ranaldi (2006), discuss their study, which addresses whether neonatal isolation affects acquisition of an operant response but did not address whether it affects motivation to respond after acquisition has occurred. Due to the strong connections between motivation and depression, and between early stress and depression, the researchers were interested in investigating whether or not neonatal isolation leads to changes in motivation to respond for natural reward, once the operant response is acquired. In the study, an operant conditioning procedure design was utilized to assess motivation for food. Results indicate that isolated male rats separated during the dark phase… [read more]

Personal Statement to Enter the Master Degree Program Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,381 words)
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Personal Statement

For as long as I can remember, I have been dedicated to the idea of helping people, and I have tried to do so in a variety of ways. However, I have come away from many of my helping experiences with a vague sense of dissatisfaction, unsure whether I have been able to provide any meaningful assistance to those people whom I have tried to help. Initially, I felt as if this dissatisfaction came from my being overly ambitious; in my youth, I was committed to helping in large scale ways and donated time and money to large-scale relief efforts. The problem was that those large problems never seemed to be abated, regardless of how much energy I put into helping solve them. Tired of not seeing results, I began trying to help people on an individual scale. I became the "go-to" person for people in distress, and tried to help them in any way that I could. The problem with those situations is that I often found myself solving people's problems, rather than helping them learn how to solve them, and the results were static: there was never any change in greater behavior and the people I helped would often find themselves in similar situations. One thing that I did come to understand is that it is impossible to heal a community if you cannot heal its members. Another thing I understood is that, despite my good intentions, what I was doing was simply not working. I realized that something had to change, which is why I decided to become a psychologist and concentrate on community counseling. I believe that the education I will receive in order to obtain my degree will give me the skills that I need to achieve my personal, professional, and educational goals.

My primary educational goal is to learn how to truly help the individual. My desire is to learn the skills necessary to teach someone to recognize bad choices and how to make better choices. I want to learn how to avoid substituting my judgment for the judgment of another, and, instead, help them learn to use their skills, knowledge, and resources, to make better decisions about their own lives. Of course, in order to do so, I will have to learn a greater understanding of human psychology. Because so much of community counseling involves substance abuse, I hope to learn about various types of addiction, different treatment options, and the difficulties that substance abusers face in the real world. In addition, I want to get a basic and broad understanding of the entire spectrum of mental disorders. Only once I am familiar with the wide variety and spectrum of mental disorders, do I feel that I would be competent to counsel people. This education would also give me the knowledge necessary to know when a potential client's problems are beyond my scope and ability. For example, I am already aware that certain mental illnesses respond best to medication, and that… [read more]

Psychoanalysis and Adlerian Therapies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,329 words)
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Psychoanalysis and Adlerian Therapies

Counseling is defined as professional guidance in resolving personal conflicts and emotional problems (Lexicon Publishing LLC 2007). Two of the most common counseling therapies are psychoanalysis and the Adlerian therapy.

Psychoanalysis was developed by Sigmund Freud, a practicing physician in Vienna, Austria, who specialized in neurological disorders (Frey 1999, Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence 1998). The… [read more]

Carl Rogers Is a Prominent American Psychologist Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,156 words)
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Carl Rogers is a prominent American psychologist who is best known as being one of the founding fathers of the humanist approach made applicable to psychology during his lifetime. For his role in founding psychotherapy research the American Psychological Association eventually honored him with the 1956 Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions. Rogers specific contribution to the humanist approach in psychology was the development of the person-centered approach. Under this approach, the purpose of psychological research was to better understand personality and human relationships. Today it is still widely used in such fields as psychotherapy, counseling, education, organizations, and many other group settings. Rogers was awarded the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Psychology by the American Psychology Association in 1972 and was nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize in recognition for his work on intergroup conflict at the national level in such war-torn places as South Africa and Northern Ireland.

Carl Rogers was born on January 8, 1902 in the Chicago suburb of Oak par, Illinois. Rogers was a remarkably intelligent child, being able to read by kindergarten and thus starting his formal education at the second grade, having skipped first grade. Being from a devout Christian family, Rogers' education was conducted in a strictly religious environment and heavily focused on ethics. This led to Rogers being an isolated and highly disciplined and independent individual.

Rogers main focus during his studies was with the scientific method and its practical use in the real world. His first job was with the University of Wisconsin at Madison in the field of agriculture and later history and religion. Rogers' religion played a dominate role in his life until the age of twenty when, somewhat ironically, he took a trip to Peking, China to attend an international Christian conference. Because of this trip, Rogers began doubting his religious beliefs. In an attempt to preserve his religious beliefs, he enrolled in a seminar entitled Why am I entering the Ministry?, which solidified his decision to distance himself from his strong Christian beliefs, eventually causing him to leave the seminary in order to attend the Teachers College at Columbia University. At Columbia, Rogers earned his Masters of Arts in 1928 and his Ph.D. In 1931.

It was during his doctoral studies that Rogers first engaged in a child study. This study was done at the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, located in Rochester, New York. By 1930, Rogers had become this agency's director. During his time with this agency Rogers authored his first book, entitled the Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child, which was published in 1939. In 1940, largely due to the publication of this book, Rogers was given a full-time professorship at the Ohio State University.

Rogers second book, Counseling and Psychotherapy: New Concepts in Practice, was published in 1942. This book made the bold suggestion that the client, through the establishment of a relationship with an understanding therapist, is the one who can actually resolve their own problems by being… [read more]

Dramatherapy Sue Jennings Explores Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (893 words)
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Sue Jennings explores the potential and the practicality of dramatherapy in her 1998 British publication, Introduction to Dramatherapy: Theatre and Healing: Ariadne's Ball of Thread. Directed at a general audience but also to counseling professionals, Jenning's book covers a range of theories that support dramatherapy. She draws heavily from Jungian psychology and similar uses of symbolism as guiding forces in human consciousness. Jennings also addresses the sociological function of drama in general, noting the way drama is commonly used vs. The way it can be used more effectively. The author also illustrates the methodology of dramatherapy as a healing tool. Jennings' approach is constructive and optimistic; she believes that dramatherapy can be used to heal a wide variety of psychological problems including addiction but steers clear of making blanket assertions about serious psychiatric disorders. Therefore, Introduction to Dramatherapy lives up to its title as a clear, focused introductory text.

In the first chapter, Jennings introduces dramatherapy within a global context of theater. She notes that drama has been extricated from most public school curricula, treated as a luxury rather than as being integral to everyday life. The author also distinguishes between celebrity culture and drama itself. However, she remains committed to the possibilities of all forms of drama to help people reclaim their identities and forge healthier relationships.

Jennings advocates dramatherapy especially as it pertains to roles and role playing. Her approach is optimistic, evident throughout the book. In Chapter One, "Why Drama and Dramatherapy?" The author claims that theater art and drama can be healing regardless of whether they are applied in a systematic way. In fact, Jennings notes that dramatherapy's potential is weakened when it is bogged down by too much psychotherapy, too much analysis. Dramatherapy should be as rooted in actual theater art as possible. Freed from the constrains of psychological theory, we become more open to effective creative expression and the potential to heal.

At the very least, claims Jennings, dramatherapy can broaden our minds to seeing the world in new ways. We can rethink the roles we play in all social situations, drawing from our memories of childhood. The origins of our dramatic experiences in childhood and even in utero affect the ways we relate to ourselves and others, and also affect the way we see the world. However, Jennings emphatically discourages dwelling on the past. Her dramatherapy is firmly rooted in the present moment. Through dramatherapy, we see who we are, who we have become, and how to change. Dramaterapy enables the individual to observe the results of our actions in dramatic settings and encourages us to seek new ways of relating to ourselves and others.

Dramatherapy should not…… [read more]

Albert Bandura Was Born on December Term Paper

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Albert Bandura was born on December 4, 1925 in Mundare, Canada. He is most famous as the psychologist who developed such significant theories as the social learning theory, social cognitive theory and self-efficacy theory. He is graduate of the University of British Columbia (B.A., M.A.) and the University of Iowa (Ph.D.).

Bandura spent most of his career as a faculty member in the Department of Psychology at Stanford University. Bandura's career began with a focus on the role of social modeling in human motivation, action and thought, providing significant insight into the areas of social learning and the study of aggressive behavior and the important role that modeling plays in shaping human behavior.

Bandura's next major area of research was a comprehensive investigation of the process modeling plays in alleviating various phobic disorders. During this research, he discovered that changes in both behavior and fear arousal were limited by the self-efficacy beliefs that the phobic individual maintained about their own ability to overcome their phobia. This led to Bandura's national research into the role of self-referent thought as applied to psychological functioning.

In the nineteen eighty's, Bandura turned his studies to social cognitive theory of human functioning in relation to the role of cognitive, self-regulatory, self-reflective and vicarious processes in the ability of humans to adapt and change.

Bandura's most important contributions to the field of psychology are his social learning and social cognitive theories. Social cognitivism is defined as being a learning theory based on the idea that people essentially learn by watching others do things. In other words, the human thought process is central to developing, and thus understanding, an individual's personality. The central theories of social cognitivism include: 1) People learn by observing others; 2) Learning is an internal process that may or may not change behavior; 3) People behave in certain ways to reach goals; 4) Behavior is self-directed;…… [read more]

Dance Therapy to Help an Autistic Child Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,243 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Dance Therapy to Help an Autistic Child Communicate

Twenty years ago, 14 in 10,000 children suffered from autism and related disorders. Currently, the number totals four times as many children, six in 1,000. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, four times as many boys as girls are likely to be suffer with autism, generally diagnosed by age… [read more]

Academic Autobiography Term Paper

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Academic Autobiography

For the past ten years I have worked in a psychiatric division of a local hospital where I have worked with dual diagnosis patients. Every day I find myself using something I learned from my college education when working with these patients. Whether it is a theory from a Psychology and Play course or a method of organizing and conducting group counseling sessions, it is clear that without my higher education I would not be able to succeed on a daily basis in my current employment environment.

My undergraduate education, in which I pursued and successfully earned my bachelor degree, gave me the diverse and all-encompassing education I needed to succeed as a drug and alcohol rehabilitation counselor. As I look back on my journey to my bachelor degree, I see that the courses I took, the books I read, the papers I wrote, presentations I gave and discussions I engaged in developed me as an individual. Not only did this journey develop me as an individual, it developed me as a college educated individual. My undergraduate education, whether I was aware of it at the time or not, instilled into me the knowledge, insights skills and convictions that make me who I am today. To me, being a college educated person means more than having earned a piece of paper that proclaims your success at obtaining a degree. No, to me being a college educated person means much, much more. To me, being a college educated person means that you are a well-rounded person who has the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in any situation. This fact is evidenced by the courses I took along my educational journey, or from my Academic Autobiography.

As with any pursuit, my academic journey began with acquiring the basic skills that I would need in order to later succeed in the courses for my counseling concentration. Thus, my journey begins with English Composition 101. Here I was able to develop the strategies of college level writing and critical thinking by studying and learning various rhetorical methods that would be applicable both in my later studies and in my counseling career. Being a student whose primary language is not English, this course was both challenging and rewarding. Although I struggled with learning the finer concepts of English rhetoric, I knew that it was essential for my academic and personal success. Thus, I also learned the skill of discipline and hard work as I spent hours working on mastering these important skills. In the end, I succeeded and was able to walk away with such essential skills as composition writing, academic research, persuasive essays and proper citation forms. Without these skills, I would not have been able to succeed in my concentration courses that used these skills as a foundation for more specialized study.

Likewise, Speech and Communication 101 also provided me with the basic academic skills of giving speeches and presentations based on my research. The main advantage that I took… [read more]

Affect of Love Term Paper

Term Paper  |  17 pages (5,676 words)
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Implicit Factors and Love: Change in the Intensity of Love Over Time

Every human needs and desires love (caring support), from the time they are born, until they die. It is a basic tenet of philosophy and psychology that the human psyche needs the love and supportive care of a significant person in their lives, in childhood to build up… [read more]

Primer in Positive Psychology Term Paper

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Christopher Peterson is one of the founders of the discipline of positive psychology. As professor of U. And Michigan since 1986, he has become one of the most noted psychologists of the 20th century. His textbook "Primer for Positive Psychology" is a witty and insightful look into the new study of positive psychology. He not only attempts to define positive… [read more]

Adlerian Theory Term Paper

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Journal Entry: Adlerian Theory and Its Personal Application

Alfred Adler's Theory of Psychology, Personality, and Development

Alfred Adler was an Austrian psychologist born in 1870 who died of a heart attack in 1937. He argued, intriguingly, that all motivation is a product of a singular drive to achieve individual perfection or a personal ideal (Boeree, 2006). This approach to psychological motivation and development has its critics, largely because few believe that achieving such an ideal is even remotely possible. Worse, many people who struggle towards perfection are left frustrated and depressed when they find they cannot achieve their goal, despite their best efforts.

Unlike other psychologists like Freud, Adler avoided breaking down an individual's personality into the smallest possible parts. Whereas Freud preferred to view motivation and development in terms of psychological components such as the id, ego, and superego, Adler believed that this reductionism was not entirely useful. Instead, Adler was a proponent of holism as applied to human psychology. By this, I mean that Adlerian theory considers the whole of the individual within the individual's physical and social context within the larger environment (Boeree, 2006). The number of possible factors that must be considered when dealing with an individual's personality and motivations can be so great, Adler argued, that nothing less than a complete understanding of the individual's overall context would provide enough information to draw reasonable conclusions.

Adler also differed from other psychologists of the day -- and today -- because of where he placed his focus and emphasis in studying individual motivation. Other theorists see motivation as the product of one's past. In other words, if an individual experiences Event a during childhood, then we should expect that that individual would perform Behavior B. As an adult. This is one approach to the question of a motivation's origins. Adler, however, advocated teleology, which states that motivation is the act of moving towards the future, not being mechanically driven by the events of the past. Teleology is future-oriented and requires an individual to concede that while life may be hard or uncertain, one always has the ability to make choices that will change the nature of that life (Boeree, 2006). Adler, then, saw motivation as a function of an individual's desire to achieve a particular goal, not simply as the product of past events beyond the individual's control. This differing perspective places a greater emphasis on the free agency of the individual to take control of his or her life and change it for the better.

Adler did, however, agree that childhood development has a profound and lasting impact on the shape of a person's personality and lifestyle later in life (Boeree, 2006). The events that an individual experiences during childhood will have an effect on the nature of that individual's behaviors and reactions later in life -- though Adler's theory allows for the individual to self-reflexively understand his or her behavior and make changes to it if desired. For instance, an child that is ridiculed… [read more]

Rapport and Professional Boundaries Term Paper

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Rapport and Professional Boundaries

The work of Overholser and Fine (1996) states that: "Professional competence plays a prominent role in the guidelines established by all disciplines involved in psychotherapy, whether psychology, psychiatry, counseling, or social work." Related as well is that: "The Ethical Principles of Psychologists state that psychologists must 'recognize the boundaries of their competence and the limitations of… [read more]

Psychological Testing Movement Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 7


¶ … Psychological Testing Movement: History and Controversies

Science and technology have had a profound effect on the world, and will likely continue to do so for many years to come. With the current and recent past being focused upon scientific discoveries and scientific categorization of both biological and psychological scientific classifications there has been a great deal of emphasis… [read more]

Pedophilia - Efficacy of Combination Therapy Term Paper

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Pedophilia - Efficacy of Combination Therapy Using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Combination with SSRIs for Treating Therapy-Resistant Pedophilic Behaviors

Pedophilia demonstrates a higher recidivism rate when compared to other sexual offenses. Pedophilia does not respond well to traditional treatment programs. The primary reason for this lack of response lies in the willingness of the pedophile to change their behavior. Unlike… [read more]

Manic Depression Bipolar Term Paper

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¶ … Bipolar Disorder. The writer explores the disorder, symptoms and treatments as well as changes that have taken place over the years with regards to the disorder. There were 11 sources used to complete this paper.

Bipolar Disorder Explained

While mental health field is still in its relative infancy it has made many large discoveries and advances with regards… [read more]

Ethics and Counseling and Ethics Counselors Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,830 words)
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Ethics and Counseling

Counseling and Ethics

Counselors have a unique opportunity to help others gain a higher level of fulfillment in their lives. Becoming a professional counselor is often a "calling" that requires education, skills and training. To become truly professional, however, a counselor must live by guidelines that spring from and parallel their services. Because a counselor develops a… [read more]

Team Building Term Paper

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Sigmund Freud's work on collective psychology, "Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego" is a masterpiece on group psychology. It is an examination of psychoanalysis focused on how the individual performs within the group. Freud contends that all the peculiarities within the behavior of crowds can be easily explained through the application of customary psychoanalytic formulae. The principle question… [read more]

Bpd Is Related to Secure Attachment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  38 pages (10,546 words)
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¶ … Bpd Is Related to Secure Attachment


Overview of Borderline Personality Disorder

Diagnostic Criteria of BPD

Overview of Attachment Theory

Summary of Literature Reviewed


The objective of this work is to write a critical review of the literature about… [read more]

Emotional Intelligence Also Known as Ei Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Emotional intelligence also known as EI is used to describe an individual's abilities, capacities and skills of perceiving, assessing and managing the personal emotions, emotions of others and even of groups. Everybody has a level of EI in themselves, even the children who are at school can practice, maintain and/or enhance their emotional intelligence as they grow older. It is… [read more]

Finding Meaningful Purposeful and Satisfying Work Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (3,934 words)
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¶ … Satisfying Work

People have different reasons why they work or why they choose to be on a paid labor. Some do it to earn a living thereby being able to buy the basic items that he/she needs for school, home or just for personal consumption. These are the type of people who value money more than the type… [read more]

Severe Major Depression and Treatment Modalities Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,167 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Depression treatment modalities among the elderly: do personality traits effect treatment outcomes?

Depression is a severe disorder that can have devastating effects on the elderly. This disorder can affect all aspects of life, including physical, emotional, and psychological well-being. Although research has determined that combination therapy (antidepressants and psychotherapy) is the most effective treatment intervention for elderly individuals with depression,… [read more]

Dually Diagnosed African-American and Latino Adolescents Term Paper

Term Paper  |  50 pages (13,893 words)
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Dually Diagnosed African-American and Latino adolescents


Abuse of substances on the part of adolescents has grown to be a national concern in the United States and has sparked many studies in this area in the last decade. Great challenges are presented for the… [read more]

Karen Horney Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+



Karen Horney:

Tale of Self-Actualization

Karen Horney was a leading reformer and theorist in the field of psychology and psychoanalysis. One of the first major proponents of feminine psychology, Horney's ideas can be considered neo-Freudian. Horney was much concerned with the concept of Self-Actualization. It was the individual's goal, she theorized, to achieve the maximum in personal satisfaction based… [read more]

Self-Concept vs. Self-Esteem Term Paper

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Self-Concept vs. Self-Esteem

Two Theories

Outside Circumstances?

Real Definitions?

Inside Out


Win... Lose or Tie?

Self-Concept vs. Self-Esteem

Two Theories

Outside Circumstances?

First say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do.

Epictetus (a.D. c. 50-c. 138)

A person not only possesses the ability - it is his/her duty to mold his/her character… [read more]

Lifespan Development and Personality Term Paper

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Lifespan Development and Personality: John Wayne Gacy

One of the most perplexing questions is why seemingly normal people like John Wayne Gacy choose to kill? On the surface, Gacy was a professional living a reasonably well-integrated life, with ties to his community and friends. "People who knew Gacy thought of him as a generous, friendly and hard-working man, devoted to his family and community...[yet] During a three-year-period, Gacy went on to viciously torture, rape and murder more than thirty other young men, who would later be discovered under the floorboards of his home and in the local river." ("John Wayne Gacy: Crime Library," 2006,


One possible physical explanation for Gacy's behavior might be found in his physical development as a young man. When Gacy was eleven years old he received a trauma to the head that caused a blood clot in his brain. This was only discovered when he was sixteen. From the period of his life from eleven to sixteen, Gacy experienced frequent blackouts, which could have interfered with normal mental development. He also was diagnosed with a heart condition at age seventeen. ("John Wayne Gacy: Crime Library," 2006, p.2) Gacy's heart condition was exacerbated after he gained weight during his adult career as a salesman. "Weight, heart and back problems would plague Gacy for the rest of his life." ("John Wayne Gacy: Crime Library," 2006, p.3)


Although he did not excel in school as a young man, Gacy was noted to be a quick study of people. He learned the sales trade quickly, as well as management skills during his early professional career, and quickly rose through the ranks.


Gacy struggled during his early schooling school. He never graduated high school, after switching secondary schools four times. He worked as a janitor for several months in Las Vegas. ("John Wayne Gacy: Crime Library," 2006, p.3) However, after returning home, Gacy seemed to recover from this period of adolescent idling and enrolled in a business college. After he graduated, Gacy seemed to find his calling. Gacy was "hired at his first job out of business school at the Nunn-Bush Shoe Company. He excelled in his position as a management trainee." ("John Wayne Gacy, Crime Library:" 2006, p.3)


Gacy's father was a physically abusive alcoholic. Gacy's father abused the boy, and as a child Gacy witnessed his mother and siblings being abused by his father, while he was powerless to help them. Despite this fact, "young Gacy deeply loved his father and wanted desperately to gain his devotion and attention. Unfortunately, he was never able to get very close to his father before he died, something which he regretted his entire life." ("John Wayne Gacy: Crime Library," 2006, p.2)

Heritable factors in terms of his father's genetic propensity towards violence may have played an influence in Gacy's own, similar tendency towards violence. However, it cannot be denied that the young Gacy grew up in an abusive environment and his father's parenting practices did not foster childhood… [read more]

Hamlet the Characters Term Paper

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¶ … Hamlet

The Characters of Hamlet through a Freudian Lens

Shakespeare takes such care in the tragedy of Hamlet that it is difficult to separate the characters into the three basic Freudian components of the Id, the Ego, and the Superego. The dynamics of the relationships and the fullness of the majority of the characters in this play certainly speaks of Shakespeare's talent, but it also serves to show the complexity of human nature and how different situations will bring out different component characteristics. With this in mind, if one specific relationship dynamic is focused on, it is easier to ascertain the Freudian component characteristics. Therefore, if we use the character of Ophelia as a centering reference of the Ego, the roles of the Id and the Superego become clear. If Ophelia is seen as the Ego, then Polonius, her father, takes on the role of the Superego, and Hamlet, her lover, takes on the role of the Id.

Sigmund Freud famously separated the human psyche into three components: the Id, the Ego, and the Superego. The Id works completely on impulses; it experiences desires strongly and pushes to fulfill those desires in a way that will achieve the most immediate gratification as possible. Within the Superego rests the higher functions of principles and adherence to rules and laws. It is the part that regulates the concept of right and wrong, but functions in a very black and white manner, recognizing or considering absolutely no shades of grey. The Ego is the mediator between the Id and the Superego. The Ego allows the Id to fulfill its desires when appropriate, and it uses the guidance of the Superego to determine when those appropriate times occur. Rarely does the Ego allow the Id or the Superego to be expressed in its pure form, instead it acts as a kind of filter to translate the two extremes into a more workable, and livable middle path. There are times when the Ego is not in control, or has trouble balancing the desires of the Id or the Superego. This imbalance or inability to determine which path is the best to take in regards to a decision is what results in neurotic and dysfunctional thought patterns and behaviors. If allowed to be out of balance for an extended period of time, dire consequences, like those of Ophelia's may result.

For Ophelia, her father represents the Superego. Polonius holds his daughter to strict standards, which were the common standards of the culture on the cusp of the Renaissance. The most important possession an unmarried woman has is her virginity, and Polonius fears that Hamlet will simply use Ophelia, taking her virginity, but never marrying her. This is a perfectly logical concern for a father at this time especially since Polonius himself finds himself in an important social position not because of his inherent social class, but because of his hard work and political maneuvering. Regardless of her father's success, Ophelia is still not quite… [read more]

Psychodynamic Approach to Intervention Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,008 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Psychodynamic Approach to Intervention-Reflect on the psychodynamic perspectives presented, and discuss the approach you find most valuable.

Psychodynamic therapy, or insight-oriented therapy, focuses on unconscious processes as they are manifested in a person's present behavior. The goals of psychodynamic therapy are a client's self-awareness and understanding of the influence of the past on present behavior. Briefly saying, a psychodynamic approach… [read more]

Clark Hull the Meaning of Motivation Refined Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,887 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … child and young adult Hull was plagued by very poor health, and he had poor eyesight all his life. He lived all of his life as a handicapped individual. A severe case of polio at age 24 left him disabled in one leg and forced him to wear a heavy iron brace and to always walk with a… [read more]

Effects on Clinicians Offering Supportive Intervention in Complex Grieving Situations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,316 words)
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¶ … Clinicians Offering Supportive Interventions

A caregiver is an individual who takes care of a patient. he/she may be a family member or a professional clinician. This, more often than not, leads to the onset and development of caregiver 'depressive symptoms', especially when the patient has been ill for a long period of time, and has needed constant and… [read more]

General Psychology Term Paper

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¶ … correlation does not prove causation.

According to Hersen and Thomas (2003), "Correlation does not prove causation'" is a statement every aspiring psychologist should learn. "A study may find a negative correlation between depression and self-esteem such that people with lower self-esteem are found to report higher levels of depression," they advise, and, "The temptation is to conclude that… [read more]

Rewards and Punishment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (878 words)
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Rewards and Punishment

Reinforcement Theory holds that consequences either increase or decrease a behavior. Positive reinforcement is the "presentation of a reinforcer (satisfying stimulus) contingent upon a response that results in the strengthening of that response" (Driscoll, 1994). Examples include praise, a reward, or a gift used to encourage behavior. Punishment, on the other hand, is used to weaken a response, or decrease an inappropriate behavior. Although critics of positive reinforcement and rewards present valid criticisms, their objections are mainly because they have extended the scope of the application of what positive reinforcement and punishment are intended to accomplish.

Arguments against punishment have been around for some time. Skinner is perhaps the most noted early anti-punishment researcher. He opposed punishment for five reasons (Skinner 1953):

Its ineffectiveness in decreasing inappropriate behavior

Considerations that the negative behavior being punished is not operant, but caused by some other process

The production of side effects

The ethics of using punishment when other techniques are viable

The quality of life that aversives adversely affect Skinner

In his discussion of punishment and children, Skinner (1953) states, "Punishment informs the child that a particular behavior is unacceptable but punishment does not necessarily inform the child of what alternative behaviors are acceptable...In addition, punishment, if not carefully used, might cause emotional reactions in the child which may make learning quite difficult."

More recently, rewards have also been attacked as a means for modifying behavior. Kohn (1993) questions the advisability of reinforcement, even the use of extrinsic rewards, offering the following disadvantages:

1. Rewards punish because they are controlling, and also because some people do not get the rewards they deserve -- which essentially makes them indistinguishable from punishment.

2. Rewards create or exacerbate imbalances of power, and disrupt relationships. Knowing that someone is sitting in judgment contributes to a level of anxiety that interferes with performance, and a feeling of being evaluated rather than supported.

3. Rewards do not attend to the reasons that the trouble developed.

4. Rewards discourage risk-taking. When working for a reward, people only do what is necessary.

5. Rewards smother peoples' enthusiasm for activities they may otherwise enjoy, and undermine the intrinsic motivation that promotes optimal performance.

A well noted critic of Skinner's view of punishment is Richard Solomon. He claims that there was no scientific basis for Skinner's conclusions, citing conflicting data at the time of his research. Even more than a decade later, Solomon claims,

Our laboratory knowledge of the effects of punishment on instrumental and emotional behaviour is still rudimentary -- much too rudimentary to make an intelligent choice among conflicting ideas about it. The polarized doctrines are…… [read more]

Borderline Personality Disorder Definitions and Historical Foundations Term Paper

Term Paper  |  45 pages (12,483 words)
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Borderline Personality Disorder

Definitions and historical foundations

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM




Environmental Conditions

Neurological issues

Diagnoses and related issues


Psychopharmacological approaches

Dialectical Behavioral Therapy

Empirical support

Theoretical aspects of DBT

The dialectical model



This study is intended to present a clear overview of the characteristics, history, etiology, diagnosis and treatment… [read more]

Mary Ainsworth Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Mary Ainsworth had her birth on December 1, 1913, in Glendale, Ohio as the eldest daughter of Charles and Mary Salter. Charles was a businessman who preferred to move to Toronto with his family during the post World War I period. Mary Ainsworth was a considered a gifted child to her parents. She learned to read at the age of… [read more]

Opportunity to Work With People Who Just Essay

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¶ … opportunity to work with people who just lost everything they owned, you would know just how grateful you feel for having chosen a career in the field of psychology. Helping people in their hour of need comes with an amazing feeling of having succeeded as a human being. That's exactly how I felt when I was sent to work with victims of Hurricane Katrina at a Disaster Relief Camp. That experience only strengthened my belief that being in the field of psychology was the best thing that could ever happen to me. And what gives me even greater pleasure is the fact that I come from a minority group that is severely underrepresented in this field which accounts for lack of cultural diversity among psychology practitioner.

My interest in the field of psychology can be traced back to the times when I was still in high school and we heard about the unfortunate incident at Chernobyl. I was so deeply moved by the disaster and its impact on innocent victims that I began working on a project that aimed at providing humanitarian aid to families affected by the nuclear disaster. My efforts did not go unnoticed as I was ultimately chosen to go to Belarus to distribute medical supplies and other items. I was served as peer counselor during high school- a valuable experience that gave me an opportunity to reach out to people. During this time, I also worked as the President of the student association council and was considered worthy of a variety of awards and scholarships.

Even though I initially wanted to be in the medical profession and was not precisely interested in psychology alone, it was along the way that I developed greater interest in community service and psychology became the obvious career path. My community service experience includes participation in Alpha Psi Omega (community oriented service organization), and serving as the vice-president of the organization. Additionally, I was President of the Charles Drew Science Club for minorities. For these and other academic and community contributions, I received the President's Undergraduate Leadership Award for Community Service in my junior year, and the President's Undergraduate Leadership Award for Leadership in my senior year. In…… [read more]

Object Relations Theory Term Paper

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When James F. Masterton was asked to present a paper on his findings on the Object Relations theory, and how it could be linked to mental disorders, he attempted to integrate the object relations theory with the separation-individuation-developmental theory. The paper was entitled "The Maternal Role in the Genesis and the Psychic Structure of the Borderline Personality Disorder." (Masterson; Klein,… [read more]

Eyewitness Testimony Study of Perception and Memory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,711 words)
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Eyewitness Testimony, etc.

In a Psychology Today article in 2001, Elizabeth Loftus, Ph.D. And William Calvin, Ph.D. discussed what was then known about memory, and what was yet to be discovered. Loftus has written 18 books, one of which is titled Eyewitness Testimony. Loftus and Calvin noted that concern with memory and its imperfections dates to long before the period… [read more]

Resistance in Group Therapy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (991 words)
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Resistance Group Therapy

For decades researchers have attempted to discover whether resistance to group therapy is more harmful than beneficial, and uncover what methods they can adopt to overcome resistance. Much research supports resistance as a common occurrence in group therapy (Waller, 1993). Resistance can be both harmful and positive. It is most likely to be positive when counselors use resistance to help patients identify areas for improvement and strategies for overcoming their resistance in the future. In addition the research supports a new approach that incorporates pre-group training as a positive method for overcoming resistance in group therapy.

A successful model for pre-group training may include encouraging patients to create a list of successes and define ways they may help other members of the group focus on their successes and goals rather than the problems that often cause them to seek therapy to begin with.

Proposition Overcoming And Encouraging Positive Group Therapy

Many problems arising with group therapy stem from counseling that focuses on problems rather than solutions (Laursen & Oliver, 2003). Far too often patients find it easy to focus on their struggles and problems in a forum that supports such release. However a new approach to group therapy should focus on encouraging patients both to participate in individual and group therapy session that focus on their successes.

In addition group therapy sessions should provide a forum where other members can help participants identify solutions to their problems rather than focus on the problem itself. By doing so patients will learn to take responsibility for their problems and recover more quickly.

Support For Approach

Gordon, Heckel & Homes (1991) support a model that allows per group therapy preparation. This model suggests pregroup training to help combat ambivalence or "resistance prior to entering the group" (37). While there model applies to adolescent group therapy, it can easily be adapted to apply to adult therapy as well.

Classen (2000) suggests that group therapy is often met with resistance because many patients find talking in group settings uncomfortable. This is especially the case when patients must talk about "difficult issues" and "truly believe it is physically detrimental to have negative feelings" (71). One way to overcome resistance is to identify issues preventing participation.

Kreeger (1994) supports large group therapy as a means of reducing resistance, however also acknowledges that most people resist smaller groups because there is less anonymity afforded, thus people are more likely to defend themselves (185).

Heydebrand, et. al, (2005) suggests that structured group therapy can be beneficial and met with little resistance when utilized for patients with non-life threatening or debilitating conditions. Further, their studies show significant improvements are demonstrated with group therapy related to emotional well-being and coping behaviors more than 12 months post therapy.

Weiss, Jaffee, de Menil & Cogley (2004) suggest that in some cases few differences exist between group and individual therapy, and that no one type of group therapy typically demonstrates "greater efficacy" than others (340). Group…… [read more]

Freud and Jung Term Paper

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They both agreed that personality and the unconscious were extremely important in getting to the root of people's problems.

3. What aspect of each psychologist's theories did you find most interesting?

I found it quite interesting that Freud was really the father of modern psychotherapy and analysis, especially using the couch and making people feel comfortable so they could talk about their problems. I also found his personality theory very interesting, and how he looked at the unconscious mind as the root of most psychological problems.

I found it very interesting that Jung developed the four-letter personality types that are used in many personality and leadership tests today, like INFP, etc. I did not know that he was the one to develop these personality types. My parents have taken the tests and talk about who they are, like ESFJ, and now I know more about what they are talking about.


Boeree, Dr. C. George. "Carl Jung." Shippensburg University. 1997. 29 July 2005.

< http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/jung.html

Boeree, Dr. C. George. "Sigmund Freud." Shippensburg University. 1997. 29 July 2005.

< http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/freud.html >… [read more]

Clinicians Have Always Been Reminded or Expected Term Paper

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Clinicians have always been reminded or expected to perform examinations of mental disorders and draw diagnoses from objective factors, such as symptoms. But recent studies showed that, despite this traditional outlook and persistent reminders, clinicians still rely or choose to use their personal theories in examining and diagnosing patients with mental disorders. Among the personal theories in popular use are… [read more]

Scientific Method Include a Reliance Term Paper

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By the same token, a scientist who was born into a poor family might want to examine the impact of poverty on psycho-social development. A scientist who was bullied in school might want to study the psychological factors involved in bullying, such as the character traits of the bully or the psychological impact on the victim.

Cultural factors also heavily… [read more]

Scientific Approach to Knowledge Term Paper

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Independent and dependent variables are best understood through example: if a scientist wants to measure the physiological responses of children to violent vs. nonviolent video games, he or she would design a study in which heart rate and sweat were the dependent variables, and in which the type of video game was the independent variable.

3. Operational definitions are necessary in all scientific fields; their most significant advantage to the scientist is that they allow otherwise abstract concepts to be measured and therefore tested via the scientific method. However, especially in the field of psychology, operational definitions have been criticized. One of the ways the use of definitions is criticized is via intelligence tests. In order to make an abstract concept like intelligence measurable, social scientists administer tests. Such tests serve as a way to quantify intelligence, but in many cases the tests can be biased; they only measure a certain type of intelligence. Second, operational definitions tend to oversimplify the traits they attempt to measure. Using the same example, an IQ test oversimplifies the concept of intelligence to being mainly related to spatial relations.

4. Accuracy and precision are often, and erroneously, used interchangeably. If a scientific instrument is accurate, it is correctly calibrated to measure. Accuracy assumes that there an absolute value for measurement can exist. For example, if a person creates a hand-drawn ruler, it is unlikely that his or her markings will accurately reflect the true measurements of centimeters. Similarly, if a clock's battery is low, it will not be accurately telling time. Precision refers to an instrument's sensitivity. Using the same examples, a yard stick will be an imprecise tool to measure millimeters. A digital scale will generally be more precise than a non-digital one.

5. If a scientific measure or a scientific study is valid, then the scientist has ascribed to all rules of the scientific method and all rules of his or her specific field. For example, the scientist measured all variables accurately and provided for controls. A scientific measure is also valid when the scientist makes sure that extraneous variables are accounted for, ensuring that the measure actually reflects what it is supposed to reflect. For example, contamination of a chemical sample would render a measure invalid. In psychology, a study is valid if the scientist rules out extraneous influences that might impact the dependent variable. For instance, in a study measuring physiological responses in children toward watching video games, the scientist needs to make sure that something like the phone ringing didn't impact the child's physiological responses. If a study is valid, other scientists can draw on it and possibly create a new hypothesis based on the results.

Reliability pertains more to experiment replication. A measure is reliable when a study has been performed repeatedly with the same results. If a study on ESP yields incredible results but can't be replicated, then the study is not deemed reliable.

6. The three characteristics are used to describe testable hypotheses include clear definitions… [read more]

Anna Freud Term Paper

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Anna Freud

The life of Anna Freud (1895-1982), daughter of the founder of the psychoanalytical school of psychology, is a fascinating real-life story of the validity of her father's theory about "family romance" and the importance of the subconscious attraction that children have for their parent of the opposite sex. In this paper I shall take a look at the life and works of a remarkable woman of the 20th century and how she lived most of her life in the shadow of her famous father; yet carved out her own individual identity through her pioneering work on child psychoanalysis, ego psychology and the use of defense mechanism in psychiatry, eventually winning acknowledgement as a leader in both the Vienna and British psychoanalytic societies.

Early Life and Education

Anna, the youngest of six children, was born to Sigmund and Martha Bernays Freud in Vienna, Austria, on December 3, 1895. She must have been a lively and naughty child as is reflected in a letter that Freud wrote to his friend Fliess in 1899 remarking: "Anna has become downright beautiful through naughtiness." (Quoted in "Life and Work of Anna Freud" 2005) From the beginning, Anna was not particularly close to her mother, but formed a special bond with her father. As a young girl, she lived in the shadow of her elder sister, Sophie, who was more beautiful. Not able to compete to her elder sister in looks, Anna decided to excel in intellect and the family appropriately called them "the beauty and the brain." ("Anna Freud" n.d.)

Anna received her early education at Cottage Lyceum in Vienna. She did not distinguish herself in her studies mainly because and was bored and restless in school, earning the nickname of the "Black Devil." Anna admitted later that she didn't learn much from her school. She learned more from her readings, as she had become an avid reader of books, and from the intellectual visitors who regularly visited her father's house. ("Anna Freud" n.d.)

Inspired by the contributions of Maria Montessori in the field of education of young children, she trained to become an elementary school teacher and traveled to England in 1914 to improve her English. At the start of World War I she returned to Vienna and joined her old school as a teacher.

The Turning Point

Anna familiarized herself with the psychoanalytical work of her father at an early age, as she had started to read his books while still in school. The turning point in her life, however, came in 1918 when she was psychoanalyzed by her father. It is believed that just as his self-analysis was the turning point in his own career, analysis by him became the turning point for his daughter. By now, her other siblings including Sophie, had married and gone their own ways with only Anna left to live at home with her parents. After her analysis she became her father's full-time associate, secretary, and later his nursemaid. From then onwards, her personal and… [read more]

Personality Psychological Approaches to Understanding Term Paper

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However, in copying this behavior they can obtain the same result. If the individual's desire is to feel happiness and copying the behavior achieves this, then they are not just altering their environment but also altering their internal environment. This can lead to a development in personality where a person chooses to act in a certain way, which in turn… [read more]

Psychology: Theories on Personality Freud Term Paper

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What were those dilemmas that caused Freud such anxiety? Freud was Jewish, a "despised East European origin" which made it very unlikely he would receive an appointment to the university, a fact that bothered him; he had financial problems and a big family to support; he had to move into a "less elegant" house to cut expenses; he had… [read more]

Rosman Jp, Resnick Pj Term Paper

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Most necrophiles find their professional life in contact with corpses, allowing for more facile access to their fantasy, but those who do not have the desired body at their disposal find a partner with whom to engage in the sexual activity.

While many necrophiles have professional access to corpses, even some of those commit homicidal acts to obtain their desired partners. It is most common in males, and generally is intertwined with the mental desire for domination associated with rape. Of the necrophiles examined in the study and in the common sphere, many exhibited patterned acts that characterized their necrophilia. Of the more mundane actions that necrophiles frequently commit on the assaulted, biting is most common. It is usually in the breast and neck area; these are most common in homosexual necrophilia.

Anal assault is another common trait of necrophilia. Although anal assault is associated with sadism, in the case of necrophilia, it is assumed to be more a product of the necrophile's sense of helplessness, lack of power, a desire for displaced revenge, or gender-related issues, like latent homosexuality or compulsive masculinity. Famous nacrophile Karla Faye Tucker exhibited sadist tendencies in her necrophilic acts, claiming she orgasmed with each blow she used to kill Jerry Lynn Dean.

Oral assault is also generally associated with necrophilia. For workplace necrophiles, the act is equally invasive but less destructive; many other necrophiles decapitate their victims before committing oral assault. Oral assault is one area of the criminal aspect of necrophilia that is of particular concern to psychologists and behavior analysts, because it is usually achieved in conjunction with strangulation. The authors attribute the strangulation, frequently manual or ligature, to the requisite power exertion sought by the necrophile; they report brining the victim in and out of consciousness in the near-death state.

The psychology behind necrophilia is widely debated. Neo-psychoanalyst Erich Fromm associated it as a character orientation with increased tendencies toward destructiveness. He saw necrophilia as an everyday behavior not necessarily associated with death, but as the opposite of biophilia and the spawn of the modern western world's societal dearth of love; since his work, necrophilia has been shown by Kees Moeliker et al. To exist in nature as well as in humanity. Moeliker observed a pair of drake mallards, one a necrophilia, copulating for seventy-five minutes. His work was supported by a February '05 article in the Guardian by Donald MacLeod regarding necrophilia in mallard ducks.

Since the work of Fromm and its later proof in animals, it has come to be associated with the psychological paradigms of rapists and the seriously depressed. They are able to overcome their sense of powerlessness or lack of rejection and challenging stimulation in the real world by the dead; many find their victims more verbally complimentary. Because necrophiles are viewed as a danger to their society, many are susceptible to state and federal mental health acts for involuntary detention.

The aggression associated with necrophilia is viewed from the criminal perspective before mental state, and… [read more]

Counselors Practice and Learn Term Paper

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Clients and Behavioral therapists or counselors have an advantage in that in using this approach, the counselor can borrow techniques from a variety of other therapeutic approach systems and apply them to the unique needs of each client.

Lastly, we can analyze Tony's case using another approach, which is Cognitive-Behavior theory and therapy. In the Cognitive-Behavior approach, we can relate several issues to Tony's case. According to Albert Ellis, who developed Rational Emotive Behavior therapy (REBT), clients need to be encouraged to do the very things they are most afraid of doing, such as risking rejection by significant others (Corey, 319). For example, in Tony's case he could confront his mother Ana and talk to her about the things that have been bothering him over the years. By doing this Tony could move on with those mixed feelings of resentment and bitterness. He and his mother could possibly develop a better relationship.

The basic hypothesis of REBT is that our emotions tend to stem mainly from our beliefs, evaluations, interpretations, and reactions to life situations. Through this type of therapy, Tony will learn the skills that will give him the tools to help him identify and dispute irrational beliefs that have been learned and self-constructed. This approach will allow Tony to apply the REBT principles to not only present problems but also future problems that he may encounter.

In conclusion, different approaches may be used by a counselor when dealing with Tony's particular case, such as the Gestalt theory and therapy, the Behavioral theory and therapy, and the Cognitive-Behavior theory and therapy. The counselor may first meet with Tony and find out his presenting problems and well as past issues that tend to arise. The counselor and Tony will then come up with therapeutic goals that would be best for Tony and his particular issues. Relationships with others seem to be a major priority in Tony's life as well, so this will be another issue for Tony and his counselor to look into, that he may work on. It would also be in Tony's interest to get tested for a possible learning disability, in particular ADD. He may want to get tested with a psychologist or a diagnostician, so that they may do the proper testing and evaluate him. If indeed Tony does have a learning disability, he can receive special accommodations when he begins graduate school. The major goal of course is to get Tony back on his feet to feeling well again, so that he may work on his goals, both present and future.


Corey, G. (1996). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. International:

Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

Myers, David (2001). Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers.

Myers, David (1992). Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers.

Nietzel, M., Berstein, D., & Milich, R. (1998). Introduction…… [read more]

Race, IQ and Intelligence in Debunking Term Paper

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Race, IQ and Intelligence

In debunking what can only be regarded as myths concerning a link between race, IQ and intelligence, particularly with regard to an imaginary "white-black gap," there are several places to begin. However, one must first define the terms IQ (intelligence quotient) and intelligence. Once that is done, however, it then it becomes clear that any correlation… [read more]

Psychoanalytical and Behavior Modification Term Paper

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Counseling can take many forms, depending on the needs and objectives of the patient and the preferences and training of the therapist. Naturally, several approaches to therapy differ from each other, however; there are two in particular whose focal points vary drastically. The unconscious is the axis around which psychoanalysis revolves whereas behaviorism centers on what its name indicates, behavior.… [read more]

Psychological Disorders Have Been Identified Term Paper

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This advice is confirmed in a similar article that states, "a patient confronts the feared object or idea, and then practices stopping the ritualistic behavior" (Gard, 2004).

As with most social sciences, it is advantageous to include everyday examples to better illustrate a theory, explanation, or phenomenon. The absence of a case study in the first article makes such deficiency apparent with the reading of the second. In contrast with Psychology Today, Gard not only articulates the definition, symptoms, and treatment, but also weaves personal accounts into the article thereby giving it a more dynamic texture. For example, Elyse relates her experiences by stating her friends "are aware I have this, and when they see me stressed, they call it 'an OCD crisis'" (Gard, 2004). Using such illustrations affords the audience more opportunity to imagine the disorder and treatment applications through everyday situations. Moreover, such a technique grants greater retention of the material.

In conclusion, obsessive-compulsive disorder is a multifaceted phenomenon better understood through the findings of mental health professionals. Psychology Today, in attempting to explain OCD, does so concisely and clearly without exhausting its audience's intellect. The reader walks away from the literature with a fuller understanding of the condition. However, the lack of case studies may also leave the reader dissatisfied simply because no personalities were introduced throughout the article. Thus, the audience, although more informed, may be less likely to hold onto such information.


Gard, Carolyn. (2004). Life with OCD: When Ordinary Anxieties Turn into Extreme Behavior.

Current Health 2, 30 (6), 181-185.

Psychology…… [read more]

Humans Have Been Intrigued Term Paper

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Humanistic psychology, largely the product of Abraham Maslow, devotes its energy to cognitive and emotional needs and self-actualization.

Cognitive psychology is the investigation of mental processes. Major focal areas include learning, thinking, and feeling. Aaron T. Beck was mainly responsible for creating cognitive therapy, which centers on an individual's interpretation of events and how those affect subsequent behaviors. The primary objective of therapy is to change an individual's perception of events.

New directions in psychology include evolutionary and positive psychologies. The adaptation of behaviors and mental processes describes the former. Positive psychology, as the name implies, is the study of happiness, well-being, and positive attitudes. Feminine psychology is yet another subfield that has recently surfaced. Naturally, it delves into the psychology of women.

As with other theories in various disciplines, those of psychology possess both strengths and weaknesses. For example, psychoanalysis has had an immense influence on the theories of other psychologists. Certainly it has imparted its ideas on contemporary society. Nearly all have heard of Freud and his theory of personality. While this school of thought proposed valid ideas and brought about radical change in the field, it has some serious limitations. Psychotherapy's emphasis on the past does not allow the potential of present and future events to shape the individual. In essence, Freud believed that the personality was completely developed by the age of five. How is it possible, given this limitation, to explain personality changes that one experiences over the lifespan? Another limitation of Freud's theory is his sole use of neurotic patients. Naturally, those with abnormal behaviors and thoughts are not a representative sample of humanity.

In contrast to psychoanalysis, humanistic psychology perceives the more positive side of human beings. Maslow, a major proponent of this subfield, expressed his theory of psychology through compassion and optimism. He insisted that psychologists use healthy individuals to draw inferences about human potential. This school of thought views the person as an evolving being, not limited to the effects of past experience. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is currently applied in management, where businesses attempt to satisfy employee desires in order to foster a more fulfilling relationship. One criticism of Maslow's theory is in some ways related to that of Freud's. Using such a small pool of subjects to form his theory prevents generalization to the whole population. Another criticism states that humanistic psychology is a flattering, and as such, unrealistic image of human beings.

In summary, psychology has a rich history filled with sometimes opposing theories. Although the field officially took shape 125 years ago, the breadth and depth of existing ideas is astounding. From developmental to social to organizational psychology, and with the likes of Wundt, Freud, Skinner, and Maslow, one may find a wealth of information regarding human thought and behavior. Furthermore, psychologists extend such knowledge with their continual endeavors to better understand the awesome workings of the mind. Technological advances and ever more efficient communication channels and habits undoubtedly propel this science that took centuries to sculpt.… [read more]

Conditioning and Free Will Term Paper

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Conditioning and Free Will

Conditioning is the process of making an animal (such as a dog or human) habitually respond in a particular way to a particular situation. Classical conditioning, as discovered by Pavlov, operates by encouraging the subject to associate one stimulus (such as a ringing bell) with another (such as being fed), and hence to react to the one as if it were the other (such as by salivating at the sound of a bell). Operant Conditioning works by encouraging the subject to associate one stimulus (such as being fed) with a particular response (such as hitting a button), and hence to continue or avoid that behavior to meet its needs (such as hitting the button in order to get food). It is impossible to say which is more "effective," because they have different uses. Classical conditioning is hardly effective at training animals to perform specific behaviors, though it may be very useful at teaching them to make associations. However, Classical conditioning does not have much effect on the external world -- its effectiveness is mental, in that it teaches animals about contiguity. Operant conditioning, on the other hand, is an extremely effective form of behavior modification. When classical conditioning begins to modify behavior, it starts slipping into an operant definition: for example, if a dog were consistently to hear a bell before being…… [read more]

Predicting, or Influencing Individual Behavior Must Start Term Paper

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¶ … predicting, or influencing individual behavior must start with a basic comprehension of human motivation. Why do people behave as they do? This question has interested behavioral and social scientists, as well as lay people for hundreds of years. Psychologists clearly recognize that in order to be successful, humans require being motivated toward completing the work they are doing or accomplishing specifically defined end goals. At some level, humans have a desire to achieve a particular aim, and, at the end of its attainment, they usually expect either the avoidance of pain or the achievement of pleasure. It is without a doubt more rewarding, in the achievement of personal and professional goals, if they are motivated toward a goal that is in line with what they value in life and with the main roles in their life and work.

Motivation refers to the processes that initiate, energize, and direct behavior (Coleman, 1994). It explains why people behave as they do, in contrast to how they do it. It addresses the questions of why people in the same situation may behave quite differently, and why the same person may perform differently in different situations or at different times. Need, drive, and incentive are three central concepts that are used to explain motivated behavior. They work together to constitute a basic motivational cycle for behavior. A need is defined as a state created when an organism does not have or is deprived of an object or condition it requires. Drives are psychological states that arise from needs, providing a motivational push to fulfill those needs. Incentive refers to external objects and events that exert a motivational pull on behavior.

Another way of visualizing motivation is through a five-step process where 1) a sufficiently strong need exists; 2) the need creates tension; 3) the tension makes a person take action; 4) the goal is achieved and 5) Tension is reduced.

According to Abraham Maslow (1908-1970), each person has a hierarchy of needs -- some needs take precedence over others (Maslow, 1970). Maslow grouped various needs into five Emotions also have an energizing function, but they are more transitory than motives and are They work together to constitute a basic motivational cycle for behavior Maslow grouped various needs into…… [read more]

Personal Theory of Therapy Term Paper

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Personal Theory of Therapy

The field of psychotherapy sees therapists employing several kinds of theories and techniques currently. These theories come from different types of approaches to therapy and practice. Consumers of mental health services do require information on these different types of approaches to therapy and practice. Overviews tend to miss many things as they generalize information. Yet, they… [read more]

Behaviorism in the 20th Century Term Paper

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(Whissell, 2004) The results are stated by Whissell (2005) as being "interpreted as reflecting the functions of titles and changing trends in psychology, for example, the predominance of Behaviorism in the earliest sample and the inclusion of more social-psychological terms in the most recent one."

In the work entitled "On Preventing Another Century of Misunderstanding: Toward a Psychoethology of Human… [read more]

Healing Through the Senses the Use of Aromatherapy in Addiction Treatment With Women Term Paper

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¶ … Aromatherapy in Addiction Treatment for Women

Many people regard the sense of smell of the least valuable of the five senses; however, experts today point out that the human olfactory system provides more environmental information than any of the other senses. Furthermore, while there has long been a firmly held belief among alternative medicine practitioners that specific types… [read more]

Sigmund Freud: The Father of Psychoanalysis Term Paper

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Sigmund Freud: The Father of Psychoanalysis

Sigmund Freud, an obscure Viennese Jewish doctor and psychologist had an enormous impact on Western culture in the twentieth century. He institutionalized the practice of psychoanalysis, therapy or the so-called "talking cure." He oversaw the development of psychoanalysis making it into an international movement of medical practice and cultural critique. This in itself is… [read more]

Multicultural Counseling Presenting Issues Term Paper

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From a counseling perspective racial identity is considered an "interactive, process variable" rather than a variable attributed only to the client, and this variable influences the counseling relationship (Kwan, 2001). Specifically positive identity realization and change within the client will be contingent upon the ability of the counselor to maintain a state of racial identity that is more advanced than that of the client so that a progressive relationship may be built (Hargrow, 2001; Kwan, 2001).

Thus the first step in the course of treatment will be for the counselor to recognize any personal biases or identity issues they may have and relinquish them in order to provide a supporting and encouraging role for the patient.

The counselor must then work with the client to examine their attitudes and beliefs, support system, discomforts with their current status and individualistic orientation in order to determine a course of therapy that will work best for Sally in this situation (Kwan, 2001; Arredondo et. al, 1996). It will be important during the course of treatment to acknowledge the cultural differences that have arisen as a result of Sally's very traditional Chinese upbringing. The client should be encouraged to discuss her concerns, opinions, beliefs and confusion regarding her traditional upbringing and the environment in which she currently lives, with the intent of helping the client find a 'happy medium' where she can come to terms with the differences that exist between her home life and her personal life.

The goal of counseling will be to help the client identify social and cultural factors that have influenced her sense of social belonging, their motivation, their interpretations of their behavior and their thoughts in relation to other institutions, and then help the client to contrast their perspectives with others and come to agreement about what an acceptable middle ground will be (Kwan, 2001).

In addition the counseling should help the client to come to terms with any dissatisfaction or confusion she may feel with regard to her upbringing. She should be encouraged to openly discuss her feelings and confusion with her friends and family. By doing so the client will come to accept the differences that exist between her home life and the life she lives on her own.

It will be important during the course of therapy for the client to understand that it is important for her own personal growth and development to determine a state where she can be at ease with her cultural heritage but also with her American surroundings.

The point at which this acceptance of both cultures will occur varies from person to person, thus the counselor must ensure that they give the client as much leeway as necessary to discuss continuing issues that might arise or new issues that might arise during the course of therapy (Kwan, 2001). Therapy should include follow up to ensure that the client is capable of maintaining a positive self-identity after therapy is terminated.


Arredondo, P., Toporek, R., Brown, S.P., Jones, J., Locke,… [read more]

Anger Management Term Paper

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All the subjects were asked to complete a self report at the end of 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks of the program. The researchers used the 'State Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI)' to assess anger control. Though there was no particular improvement in anger control at the end of the first 4 weeks (F[1,90] = 1.74, p = .19), there was progressive improvement as observed during the 8th (F[1,90] = 8.12, p = .005) and 12th F[1,90] = 18.11, (p < .0001) week of the treatment. In the final post treatment analysis it was found that there was decline in bouts of anger and stabilization of anger control around the 12th week. Since the treatment extended over a long period only 55% managed to finish the program and 40% abstained from drugs. This study, again proved the effectiveness of Cognitive behavioral therapy for anger management in a group setting. [Patrick M. Reilly & Michael S. Shopshire, ( 2000)]


Academic institutions and clinical settings have a huge responsibility in helping adolescents with emotional management problems and consequent disorderly behavior. Targeting anger management programs at the adolescent population provides an effective barrier against unsocial activities. The efficacy of CBT and other psychoeducational interventions as effective anger management methods has been proved by some studies that were discussed above. Early intervention is paramount in preventing uncontrolled and untrained emotions in adolescents from developing into violent and anti-social behaviors in adulthood.


1) Snyder, Karen V. Kymissis, Paul Kessler, Karl, "Anger Management for Adolescents:

Efficacy of Brief Group Therapy.(Statistical Data Included)," Journal of the American

Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 11/1/1999

2) Denis G. Sukhodolsky, Ross M. Solomon, Jessica Perine, "Cognitive-Behavioral,

Anger-Control Intervention for Elementary School Children: A Treatment-Outcome

Study," Journal of Child and Adolescent Group Therapy, Volume 10, Issue 3,

September 2000, Pages 159 -- 170

3) Millicent H. Kellner, Brenna…… [read more]

Anna Freud: Psychoanalyst and Pioneer Term Paper

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Anna Freud's work focuses on finding an explanation for how individuals communicate and what mechanisms contribute to certain behavior patterns.

The majority of Anna Freud's contributions to the psychology of personality come from work completed at the Hamstead Child Therapy Clinic in London which helped establish (Boeree, 1998). Among her contributions was the discovery that communications among therapists were the "biggest obstacle to child psychology and understanding of personality," because children's problems could not be communicated in as clear and efficient a manner as adult's problems could (Boeree, 1998; Edgcumbe, 2000). Because of this Anna Freud aspired to develop a method for interpreting communication among children.

Freud took the approach that child's movement, relationships, personality and other behaviors could be considered along a developmental time line, and that a problem existed when one aspect of a child's development fell far behind or 'lagged' behind others (Boeree, 1998). Freud suggested that the problem could be communicated by describing the 'lag' in development that had been identified when the child fell behind (Boeree, 1998).

Anna Freud is considered an ego psychoanalyst. Her technique and approach to the psychology of personality involves the use of developmental lines that chart "theoretical normal growth from dependency to emotional self-reliance" (Freud, 2004). Freud also developed diagnostic profiles of patients that enable a therapist to separate the case specific factors that "deviated from or conformed to normal development" (Freud, 2004). The diagnostic profiles developed could be applied to any child with any behavioral problem in a clinical setting.

Anna's work is uniquely different from that of Sigmund Freud who focused most of his efforts on analyzing adult behaviors and patterns. Anna Freud contributed much to the psychology of personality be providing a unique perspective that enhanced theorists and psychoanalysts understanding of child behavior, which up until that point in time had not been well understood from a theoretical perspective. Her theories vary somewhat from the traditional approach to psychoanalytic theory, but were nonetheless acknowledged among the psychology community and adopted as a primary form of therapy for children.


Freud Museum. (2004). "Life and Work of Anna Freud." Retrieved: 25, November,

2004, from: http://www.freud.org/uk/fmanna.htm

Boeree, C.G. (1998). "Anna Freud." Retrieved: November 22, 2004, from:


Edgcumbe, R. (2000). Anna Freud: A view of development, disturbance and therapeutic techniques, Routledge, London.

Encarta, M. (1995). "Freud, Anna." Microsoft Encarta, Microsoft Corporation. Retrieved:

23, November, 2004, from: http://www.distinguishedwomen.com/biographies.freud.html…… [read more]

Religion and Education Religious Development Term Paper

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Objects that are viewed as similar are placed in the same category." (Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century, 2004) These theories have helped religious entities create better educational systems where students are given an opportunity to discover relationships in the categories of study.

Bruner's logical approach for categorization can be seen in the modern church's understanding of its role in the world. For example, there was a dilemma when trying to engage in educational functions that contributed to the development of 'one' person while at the same time promoting the 'betterment of humanity.' People must arrange these ideals in a hierarchical manner that permits them to accept this type of teaching. Without an individual's ability to categorize, the theological and educational needs of that individual would not be able to personalize the different needs of the spiritual and moral codes taught.

Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist also well renowned for his pioneering work in child development and also the process of intelligence building. Piaget helped influence the religious educational process but more importantly his work effected education and psychology as a whole. Born in 1896, in Neuchatel, Switzerland, Piaget was already a published scientific writer at the astonishing age of ten and received a doctorate in biology by the age of twenty two. Piaget's interest in psychology pushed him into the field of developmental cognitive abilities. Piaget has been credited with identifying the currently accepted theory of the four stages of mental growth. "In the sensorimotor stage, occurring from birth to age 2, the child is concerned with gaining motor control and learning about physical objects. In the preoperational stage, from ages 2 to 7, the child is preoccupied with verbal skills. At this point the child can name objects and reason intuitively. In the concrete operational stage, from ages 7 to 12, the child begins to deal with abstract concepts such as numbers and relationships. Finally, in the formal operational stage, ages 12 to 15, the child begins to reason logically and systematically." (Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century, 2004)

The theories of Piaget affected the Catholic Church's understanding of religious education because either directly or indirectly, they instituted his philosophies into the Catholic School systems. For example, the Second Vatican Council implemented Piaget like theories as they implemented their 'new approaches to religious education.' Although the church may have seen the philosophies as 'recognizing God speaking to people in their own time and experience,' the Guidelines for Education of Faith which were published in 1970 for kindergarten through sixth graders was nothing more than taking into consideration the physical, psychological, social and intellectual development of children just as the teachings of Piaget introduced.

In conclusion, religious development for children and adults are areas that have historically been of great interest to developmental psychologists. Areas such as theorists of religious development, religious educators, and designers of religious education curricula in various settings have all been required to understand the process of learning and cognitive development. But, religious development… [read more]

Insanity Plea Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,422 words)
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¶ … worlds of criminal justice and psychology, the insanity plea is a controversial subject. Some experts believe that it can be abused and allow criminals to get away with committing horrific crimes. Others content that the insanity plea is necessary to protect the mentally unstable. The purpose of this discussion is to provide detailed information about the insanity plea… [read more]