"Psychology / Behavior / Psychiatry" Essays

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Borderline Personality Disorder Individuals Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,660 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The primary difference between DBT and cognitive behavior therapies is that DBT also assumes that the disorder is the result of patients are biologically susceptible to emotional sensitivity and an invalidating environment which may contribute to the development of symptoms (Osada, 2003).


Traditional modes of therapy includes individual therapy, group skills training and therapist consultation (Linehan, 1993; Osada, 2003). Cognitive behavioral as well as traditional therapies all incorporate these aspects and rely on therapy to be voluntary to be successful.

Because there is no one specific or universal method for treating BPD it is important that all therapy is integrative in its approach. Traditionally psychotherapy has been used to treat BPD as defined by the criteria established by the DSM-IV. New evidence suggests that most patients drop out of therapy after a short period of time, and that a cognitive behavioral approach or DBT based approach which is grounded in cognitive behavioral therapy combine with other approaches including psychotherapy may be the best treatment option for patients suffering from this disorder. The focus of therapy should be providing a strong working relationship in a safe and comfortable environment for the patient.


APA. (1994). "Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed."

Washington D.C., American Psychiatric Association.

Beck, Aaron T. And Freeman, Arthur M. And Associates (1990). Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders. New York: Guilford Press.

Appelibaum, A.H.; Diamond, D.; Kernberg, O.F.; Koenigsberg, H.W.; Stone, M.H. &

Yeomans, F.E. (2000). "Borderline patients: Extending the limits of treat ability." New York: Basic Books.

Cottrell, S. & Jones, P. (2000). "Borderline Personality Organisation." 11, November,

2004, from: http://www.clinical-supervision.com/Borderline.htm

Linehan, M.M., Armstrong, H.E., Suarez, A., Allmon, D., and Heard, H.L. (1991).

Cognitive-behavioral treatment of chronically parasuicidal borderline patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 1060-1064.

Linehan, M.M. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Linehan, M.M., Kanter, J.W., and Comtois, K.A. (1999). Dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. In D. Janowsky (Ed.), Psychotherapy indications and outcomes (pp. 93-118).

Osada, M. (2003). "Using dialectical behavior therapy to treat borderline personality disorder: A broad overview." BPD from the Inside Out. 4, November 2004, from…… [read more]

Neural Plasticity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (804 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Neural Plasticity

Evidence from numerous studies make a strong case for a relationship between brain plasticity and behavioral change, thus it is clear that experience alters the synaptic organization of the brain in species as diverse as fruit flies and humans, and although evidence that these changes are functionally meaningful is more difficult to collect, there is little doubt that changes in synaptic organization are correlated with changes in behavior (Whishaw Pp).

Therefore, animals with extensive dendritic growth, relative to untreated animals show facilitated performance on numerous types of behavioral measures in contrast to animals with atrophy in dendritic arborization that show a decline in behavioral capacity (Whishaw Pp). Similarly, factors that enhance dendritic growth, nerve growth factor, facilitate behavioral outcome, while factors that block dendritic growth, brain injury at birth in rats, retard functional outcomes (Whishaw Pp). Although studies have stressed that changes in dendritic morphology, there are multiple, and likely dissociable, changes in the neuron morphology that correlate behavioral change, including "increases in dendritic length, dendritic branching pattern, spine density, synapse number, synapse size, glial size and number, and metabolic activity" (Whishaw Pp).

According to current studies, dendrites in the cortex may show a net proliferation, regression, or stability depending upon several factors that affect behavior, thus it seems likely that a net proliferation of dendrites is a response to an increased availability of afferent supply, while the net reduction in dendrites, seen in response to injury for example, is likely to reflect a decline in the afferent supply to a cell (Whishaw Pp). From this view, "dendrites are hypothesized to be in a state in which they are constantly ready to expand or retract their territory, limited largely by availability of afferent nourishment and by the metabolic capacities of the cell" (Whishaw Pp).

There is little evidence that the infant or adult brain is capable of growing new projections over long distances, thus "it seem most likely that changes in afferent supply reflect changes in axonal arborizaiton of relatively nearby neighbors" (Whishaw Pp). One recent study examined the patterns of connections of pyramidal cells, which are the almost exclusive outputs of the neocortex, and found that approximately 70% of the excitatory synapses on any layer pyramidal cell are derived from pyramidal cells in the near vicinity (Whishaw Pp). Therefore, the fact that neurons can expand their field of influence means that if neurons die, remaining ones could enlarge their…… [read more]

Timeline Sigmund Freud -1949) Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,255 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This made it possible and plausible, for the first time, to treat man as an object of scientific investigation, and to conceive of the vast and varied range of human behavior, and the motivational causes from which it springs, as being amenable in principle to scientific explanation." (Thorton, 2001)

However, the human mind as an object of scientific inquiry is perhaps even more evident in the work of the Russian Ivan Pavlov, whom abandoned his prospective career as a priest after reading Charles Darwin's seminal work on The Origin of Species. However, rather than stressing the subconscious ways human beings are influenced to act, Pavlov focused on the ability to alter the immediate displays of human behavior, and the importance of conditioning in human behavior. Pavlov acknowledged the biological impulses to human responses in the form of an innate reflex, "an instinctive and unlearned reaction to a stimulus. However, a "conditioned reflex is learned, either through negative or positive stimuli. The fear of snakes is a learned reflex, as young children who would play with snakes and other reptiles with innocent fascination are soon taught to fear by example or stimuli i.e., a mother screams and pulls her child away from a harmless garter snake," perhaps reinforcing the gesture with a statement of horror. (Pavlov, 2003)

Were Pavlov analytic subject or patient of Freud, the master of subconscious associations would no doubt be fascinated by the horror expressed by the mother regarding the phallic snake. However, Pavlov's point, as reinforced with experiments with his famous dog is that the unconscious past and recollections -- and here he shows Freud's influence -- creates physical reactions through associations that come to seem as natural as innate reflexes. A dog salivates at meat naturally, but if a bell is ringed when the dog is presented with steak, eventually all that is needed is the bell to generate the drool in the mouth of the dog.

Carl Jung (1875-1961)

In contrast to Pavlov's interest in animals, and human beings as part of the animal kingdom, Carl Jung, Freud's disciple was more interested in the unique aspects of the human animal's consciousness and unconsciousness. He was particularly interested in what he called 'the collective unconscious.' For Jung, the collective unconscious was the system of symbolic associations that existed unconsciously, a la Freud, but not on a personal level of development. These collective responses were as intrinsic to the human animal as the reflexes discussed by Jung. But the collective unconscious is a kind of consciousness that all of us draw upon, made up of different archetypes such as "the shadow" which embodies all of the characteristics we despise, or the female or male anima or animus into which the patient projects his or her opposing sex's essence, female for males, and males for females.

Jung used the techniques and modes of analysis and symbolic associations not to draw upon personal states of development, but to help individuals connect themselves to a larger religious and social… [read more]

Reality Therapy William Glasser Wrote Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,693 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


By addressing the wants and needs of the students, these techniques allow for those involved to help themselves, instead of feeling like victims or prisoners of an uncaring system.

Reality Therapy has seen usage in personal practice, allowing clients to be empowered in their decision-making. Instead of relying on prescription drugs to control bodily chemistry, Reality therapy encourages change from within and emphasizes autonomy and freedom of choice. This provides the client with an increased sense of real control, rather than a false sense of control provided by drugs (including illegal drugs or alcohol).

Reality therapy differs greatly from conventional therapy. Conventional psychiatry believes firmly that mental illness exists and is classifiable. Conventional psychiatry also places great importance on the patients' past experiences, and seeks a "root problem" which is the cause of present day suffering. Reality therapy accepts that the initial cause of a problem lies in a person's past, but maintains that the solution is in the present. The past is gone, and any pain felt from it is in the here and now, and must be dealt with in that context. Conventional therapy maintains a distance between the therapist and the patient in order to allow transference to occur (the patient transfers whatever feelings he has towards relationships on the therapist). Reality therapy relies on a close personal relationship between therapist and client. The root of problems is in poor relationship skills. In order for these skills to be taught, the client must trust the therapist. In these ways, Reality Therapy and Choice theory have shown themselves to be useful psychiatric tools, with as much validity as conventional methods.


Corey (2000). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 6th Ed. Brooks/Cole, 2001.

Glasser, Naomi (1989). Control Theory in the Practice of Reality Therapy. New York: Harper & Row.

Glasser, Carleen and William (2000). Getting Together and Staying Together. New York: HarperCollins.

Glasser, William (1965) Reality Therapy: A New Approach to Psychiatry. New York: Harper & Row.

Glasser, William (2000) Reality Therapy in Action. New York: HarperCollins.

Glasser, William (1981) Stations of the Mind: New Directions for Reality Therapy. New York: Harper & Row.

Palmatier, Larry L. (1998) Crisis Counseling for a Quality School Community: Applying Wm. Glasser's Choice Theory. Washington DC: Accelerated Development.

Wubbolding, Robert E. (1991)…… [read more]

Treatment of Criminal Offenders Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,787 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Studies undertaken on cats during the 1970s, for instance, point towards the functioning of the prefrontal area that can curb violent actions. Activating the prefrontal cortex restricted the cats from killing rats. Maybe environmental or congenital impairment to this emotion-controlling system makes a breakdown to the propensity of some people to lose their temper easily and perform violent actions. Many… [read more]

Personality Social Psychology Suzanne Kobasa Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (919 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Kobasa used the Schedule of Recent Life Events, designed by Holmes and Rabe in 1967. The survey basically asks whether the subject has experienced events of major consequence, both positive and negative, such as marriage, illness, death, divorce, and childbirth. The researcher then administered another questionnaire to measure illness severity. Only those subjects whose illnesses followed the stressful events were categorized as high stress/high illness. Following the intake questionnaires, Kobasa narrowed her population group to include only male executives working for a particular corporation who had experienced significant stress over their recent life histories. The highly stressed individuals were then divided into two groups: high illness and low illness. The purpose of the study was to explore the differences between high stress/high illness and high stress/low illness persons. Three variables in question used to determine hardiness included control, commitment, and challenge, measured by self-report questionnaires. The author used discriminant function analysis as a statistical technique, and also used test and cross-validation to improve reliability of results.

One of the main weaknesses in the current study regards the sample population, which was homogenous and limited in scope. Therefore, the results of the study cannot adequately represent the population at large. No females were included in the study, and all subjects worked for the same company. Moreover, all subjects were executives, and executive-level stress could significantly differ from the stress that non-executives experience. However, the study was ethically administered, as all surveys were self-reports.

Kobasa found that among the sample population, high stress/low illness individuals tended to score high on measures of hardiness, defined by internal locus of control; strong commitment to self, life, and community; and non-resistant to change. Subjects who reported feeling powerless, alienated, and fearful of change were more likely to experience physical ailments or severe illnesses following stressful life events.

The results show that personality is a key factor in individual differences in response to stress. In particular, Kobasa demonstrates that the three characteristics of hardiness (control, commitment, and change) can help predict a person's response to stress. The current research can help psychologists and sociologists better help high-stress individuals that may be prone to illness and assist them in developing better coping strategies so as to avoid hospitalization. Stress in life is completely unavoidable, and in many cases stress can be a positive force. Therefore, the object is not to remove stressors but to improve one's resistance through awareness and conscious efforts to change. The author notes that continued research is essential, as the current study is definitely limited and only provides a springboard for potential future discoveries.

Works Cited

Kobasa, Suzanne C. (1979). "Stressful Life Events, Personality and Health: An Inquiry into Hardiness." Personality Social Psychology. Vol.…… [read more]

Behavioral Biology Biopsychology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,124 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The purpose of genetic engineering has been to eliminate or "insert" specific desired genes in an organism and to allow psychologists to experimentally observe and assess how the change affects the development of psychological traits.

This controversial method is usually performed on invertebrate animals, such as snails and slugs, and lately, on mice (Cooper). It is still in its early stage and already the focus of much debate, but genetic engineering by many bio-psychologists as an important tool in discovering and treating psychological disorders.

Everyone has negative attitudes towards aging, and anyone who is aging has negative attitudes towards it. The processes of aging and how these can be controlled or reversed are, therefore, very significant scientific objectives. Brain aging has been observed to be influenced by the consumption of fruits and vegetables as anti-oxidants and in preventing Alzheimer's Disease or AD (Joseph 2001). The changes that occur in aging have been considered as parallel to those of AD, wherein aging is most pervasive. Scientists, then, assumed that an attempt to change the age-related sensitivity of the neuronal environment to damaging factors, such as inflammation and oxidative stress could be made by dietary modification. The modification was the consumption of fruits and vegetables.

A previous experiment involved 344 aged rats, which were exposed to age-related vulnerability to oxidative stress. These rats were afterwards fed blueberries or vegetable extracts, both high in antioxidants. Rats fed with blueberry supplements exhibited impressive changes from low motor behavior and muscle stress to a condition of decreased stress and inflammatory condition.

Consequent studies on the components of blueberry that contributed to the encouraging effect showed that anthocyanins penetrate cell membrane and provide antioxidant and anti-inflammatory protection (Joseph). Researchers believed that the benefits could be relevant to AD. Separate experiments used double transgenic mice, which were fed with a similar blueberry supplement diet and which later displayed a comparable level of performance and decrease in stress. The results suggested that the polyphenolic compounds in fruits and vegetables seem to produce the same positive impact on the central nervous system aging and the predisposition to the behavioral aberration shown by people with AD.

The study of the brain is central to behavioral biology or bio-psychology. The brain is the most marvelous organ in the body: it provides us with sensation, it governs our thoughts, and it drives us to explore our desires; it is the human brain (Chudler 2003). The brain appears simple to the eyes but its functions are so complex that quite a lot about these are still unknown. In its very uniqueness, the brain is also most fragile and yet has an innate desire to "know itself" and the universe. It is the seat of both the body and the mind that empowers it or wears it down. It is both matter and energy and has driven history. Exploring it and how the physical body affects and is affected by it through this new field of study is at the base of all true… [read more]

Social Work and Burnout Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (2,394 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Workers who are vulnerable to burnout create a demised organizational potential "with all its ramifications from personal trauma to deterioration in quality of services" (Ullmann, Goos, Davis, & Mushinski, 1971).

Research methods.

This study will be a two part cross over study, and will select a cross section of professionals from social work professions to interview regarding their personal experiences… [read more]

Dissociative Identity Disorder Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,610 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


There are four subscales, identity confusion, loss of control, amnesia, absorption, each with a cut-off score of 2.5, which is the same cut-off for the total score (Sansone 2003). The DIS-Q appears to be a consistent and valid measure of dissociation and high scores are associated with traumatic experiences in childhood (Sansone 2003).

According to one study published in 1998,… [read more]

Bereavement Support Groups Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,899 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Research suggests that there are four basic stages of grief that need be addressed by group therapy:

Numbness and shock, typically occurring in the beginning and lasting for a brief period of time (Sussex, 2003).

Feeling of separation (Sussex, 2003).

Disorganization, where the bereaved is distracted and often has difficulty concentrating (Sussex, 2003).

Reorganization (Sussex, 2003) which happens toward the end of the period when one begins to adjust to life.

Bereavement symptoms may lead older people subject to depression, and group participation often helps "ameliorate the symptoms and avert the consequences of bereavements" (Sussex, 2003). Treatment protocol should involve the following:

1) helping the bereaved accept the loss, (2) helping the grieving to identify and express feelings of loss and anger, (3) helping the persons learning to live without the person who died, (4) helping the person to separate emotionally, (5) describing normal grieving, (6) helping them to understand means of coping. (Sussex, 2003).


Aiken, Lewis R. (2001). "Dying, Death and Bereavement." Pepperdine University. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

APA. (1994). "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Ed." Washington DC.

Caselli, Graziella and Lopez, Alan. (1996). "Health and Mortality Among Elderly Populations." Oxford University Press.

Cleberg, Kathleen & Danes, Sharon. (1999). "Five Stages of Grief." University of MN Dept. Of Social Sciences. Available:


Field, M.J. & Cassel, C.K. (Eds.). (1997). Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. Washington, DC: National Academy Press

Frey, Lawrence R. (1994). "Group Communication in Context: Studies of Natural Groups." Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ: 1994.

Hallenbeck, J., Goldstein, M.K., & Mebane, E.W. (1996). "Cultural considerations of death and dying in the United States." Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 12, 393-406

International Work Group on Death, Dying and Bereavement. (1991). "A statement of assumptions and principles concerning education about death, dying and bereavement." Death Studies, 16, 59-65

James J.W., and Friedman, R. (1998). "The Grief Recovery Handbook: The Action Program for moving beyond death, divorce and other losses" (Rev. ed.) New York: Harper Collins.

Muller, Elizabeth, & Thompson, Charles. "The Experience of Grief after Bereavement. A Phenomenological Study with Implications for Mental Health Counseling." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, Vol. 25, Issue: 3, 2003. Page 183.

PsychNet. (2003). "APA Working Group on Assisted Suicide and End of Life Decisions"

American Psychological Association. http://www.apa.org/pi/aseol/section3.html

Sussex Publishers. (2003). "Psychology Today: Bereavement." Psychology Today Magazine, New York: Available: http://www.psychologytoday.com/HTDocs/prod/PTOInfo/pto_term_bereavement.asp

Pappas, Gregory. (1993). "Mortality Rate of those…… [read more]

Psychology the Conceptual and Theoretical Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (822 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These concepts become the basis for social scientists to construct theories about the psychology of personality. Supplied with sufficient information about the nature of individual, society, and the relationship of both, and their influence in altering human personality, theories are then formulated to provide social scientists with a general overview of personality as it relates to the field of psychology. Since theoretical constructs are broader and more general in their perspective, personality theories are categorized under different approaches or perspectives, identified as follows: dispositional, biological, psychoanalytic, neoanalytic, learning, phenomenological, and cognitive self-regulation (Carver, 1996:10-3).

The dispositional perspective posits that personality, or human nature, is a set of relatively permanent qualities built into the person. This means that people have specific behavior and actions for a particular type of situation. It portrays human personality as a diverse, yet constant set of behaviors and actions that can be easily predicted. This is contradicted by the learning perspective, which claims that human nature is dynamic, and over time and as an individual develops, his/her behavior also changes and become more inconsistent as the individual gains more experience in his/her constructed social reality. The biological perspective provides a more technical viewpoint of human personality: it states that personality is genetically-based, thus, personality is biologically-driven and inherited.

The psychoanalytic perspective is derived from Freud's theories on personality, and decrees that personality is a set of internal forces that compete and conflict with each other (within an individual). The neoanalytic approach to personality studies is mainly based on Freudian (psychoanalytic) principles; only, it centers on ego development and importance of social relationships in the development and functioning of personality. The theory that human nature is developed through subjective experience, i.e., it is meaningful and unique, is the primary characteristic of the phenomenological approach. On the other side of the argument, meanwhile, is the cognitive self-regulation, which argues that personality is the result of continuous cognitive, i.e., information processing of the human brain, which views the individual as a "self-regulating system" that is objective, systematic, and standardized. These theoretical perspectives, in sum, comprise the main points by which social scientists can best evaluate and base their findings about studies on human personality and its development.


Carver, C. And M. Scheier. (1996). Perspectives on Personality. (3rd ed.). Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon.

Cloninger, S. Theories of Personality: Understanding Persons. (2nd ed.). NJ: Prentice- Hall.… [read more]

Perception of Helplessness Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,116 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The problem with these studies was often the sample space of patients. In studies with smaller sample spaces, correlation was observed which raises doubts as to their validities, especially since statistically significant correlations were not observed in studies with larger number of patients. Similar confusing statistics were also observed in cases of studies where stoicism and fatalism were indicated.

On the other hand, methods such as anxious pre-occupation and depressive coping, which means continuous obsessing, were also tried as coping mechanisms. Studies showed that patients that showed higher anxiety had lower survival times. The same results were observed with those who were chronically depressed as a result of the diseases. However, from remission to recurrence, these methods of coping did not have significant affect.

Useful and positive results were seen among patients who used active or problem focused coping. One study reported that this method extended survival for up to seven years. Other studies show mixed results. They show that when control factors were instituted for progress of disease and sociological and demographic factors, active coping did not have an effect on survival rates. Studies also showed that coping was not correlated with recurrence. Coping methods such as suppression or expression of emotions has an affect of survivability. Expressing emotions produced positive results.

While the above methods talk about survivability, they are intrinsically tied in with feelings of actual helplessness -- cancer is largely incurable. Some definitive points do come to the fore. That surrounding themselves with loved ones, expressing oneself and having a positive attitude do help fight against feelings of helplessness. One of the key factors associated with helplessness is loneliness. Helplessness is often associated with the feeling that the suffering has no other recourse (in actual helplessness, not learned helplessness that is used to manipulate). Support groups are implicated as primary coping media. Those with feelings of helplessness can find a stage of express themselves knowing that there are others that share the same feelings.

There are several steps that one can use to cope with helplessness. They involve identifying obstacles and fears that make one helpless and combating them with an attitude of self-confidence and capability. Researching coping behaviors that normal people use also helps. These could be problem solving, fear desensitization and conflict resolving methods. Reinforcement of a positive outlook is very important, as is the recognition that lapses are part of the recovery process. Some find solace in prayer and spirituality. Others lean on a network of loved ones or support groups. Patience is also a virtue. The person who wants to cope with helplessness should find ways of removing oneself from the old personality and embrace a sense of renewal.


Bodner, E., & Mikulincer, M. (1998). Learned Helplessness and the Occurrence of Depressive-Like and Paranoid-Like Responses: The Role of Attentional Focus. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology., 74(4), 1010-1023.

Fredholm, L. (2003). Pavlov's Dog. Nobel.se. Retrieved December 17, 2003, from the World Wide Web: http://www.nobel.se/medicine/educational/pavlov/readmore.html

Lindstrom, T.C. (1997). Immunity and health after… [read more]

Detection and Intervention in Childhood Term Paper

Term Paper  |  30 pages (10,566 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Answers of the first analysis threw light on innumerous particular variations between parents and professionals in devotion of causation. (Pottick & Davis, 2001).

On the basis of the attribution research, in which actors bear a semblance to pinpoint cause for failure in the external surroundings, while observers have the likelihood to shift blame to individual reasons, the authors were of… [read more]

Dialogue Between B.F. Skinner Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (962 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


In the utopia of Walden Two, disagreement and non-productive behavior are treated as illnesses. As such, all behavior, both good and bad, is looked at in the context of Skinner's learning theory. Significantly, Castle describes poor work as a "form of illness."

In Walden Two, Skinner describes the use of operant conditioning in order to obtain human happiness. In this world, inhabitants regularly receive positive reinforcements for their behaviors.

Within Skinner's Walden Two, punishment is not used. This avoidance comes from Skinner's belief that the effects of punishment can often be unpredictable, including avoidance of the punisher through classical conditioning.

In Ram Dass' book, How Can I Help, Buddhist thought is clearly evident in the writings and examples that he gives for compassionate helping. The book tells the stories of individuals who have helped others and in doing so enriched their own lives. In How can I Help, Dass descriptively chronicles the lives of a nun, doctor, minister, housewife, and drug counselor among others.

Dass' book contains much of the Buddhist idea of Karma. Karma arises from the destiny that you create through your actions in this life, and earlier lives as well. As such, good actions create a positive Karma, while negative actions create bad Karma. In the book, Dass evocatively describes the lives of many individuals who devote their lives to the selfless service of others. In the most immediate sense, these people obtain positive Karma through the enrichment of their lives.

Dass' book clearly reflects the Buddhist principle that happiness comes from the inside. In Buddhism, happiness comes fro the inherent value of our own Buddha nature, and must come from within, rather from the external world. In this book, Dass' descriptions often lead to the inevitable conclusion that happiness for helpers often comes through the inherent satisfaction that comes from inside. The helpers do not obtain happiness through monetary reward or even praise for their actions. Instead, their happiness comes from reaching into their own nature, and doing good out of their personal desires.

The Buddhist principle of the oneness of life and environment is also seen in Dass' book. In this principle, a person's internal environment is reflected in their external world. Thus, within Dass' book, the people who chose to selflessly help others are, through their actions in the external world, reflecting the state of their internal world and life. These people are becoming in touch with their inner Buddha, and this is reflected in their selfless actions and good deed in the external world.

Works Cited

Association for Humanistic Psychotherapy. 09 December 2003. http://www.ahpweb.org/aboutahp/whatis.html

Dass, Ram and Gorman, Paul. 1985.

How Can I Help?: Stories and Reflections on Service. Knopff.

SGI-USA. Buddhism FAQ. 09 December 2003. http://www.sgi-usa.org/buddhism/faqs/index.html

Skinner, B.F. 1976. Walden Two. Prentice Hall.… [read more]

Depression in Adolescents Roughly Nine Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,145 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This would include trying to understand the factors behind the teen's social-emotional development. Impaired language skills, family psychiatric history and traumatic emotions like grief can all have a significant impact on the degree of adolescent depression.

Koplewitz (2002) echoes the need to emphasize "psychoeducation" before attempting to medicate people with mental illness, particularly adolescents. For Koplewitz, the most important step in treating depression in adolescents is to recognize that there is a problem. Often, Koplewitz notes, a depressed adolescent is dismissed as being "difficult" or "moody." In many cases, however, families refuse therapy, worried by the stigma associated with mental illness or the inconvenience of regular therapy. The unfortunate result is the worsening of what is otherwise a highly treatable disease (Koplewitz 2002).

The treatment of depression depends on the evaluation and the severity of the patient's illness. Those with mild forms of depression can benefit from psychotherapy. Others could be prescribed mild antidepressant medication such as selective seratonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). These medications target the brain's physiology and help alleviate any physiological causes that give rise to depression (Lebowitz 1997).

Treatment via medication is notoriously difficult, however, since the dose has to be calibrated individually, often through trial and error. Many patients experience severe side effects, such as dry mouth, nausea and agitation. These side effects contribute to the high rate of non-compliance among teens regarding their medications.

Towards this, Beardslee, Gladstone, Wright and Cooper (2003) suggest a "family-based approach" to addressing the symptoms of depression in children and adolescents. In families with a history of the disease, the researchers recommend a prevention approach, one that emphasizes positive interactions between parents and children. Parents are educated regarding mood disorders, in order to give them the skills to recognize the symptoms and to communicate information regarding the illness to their children. The study found that such an approach has significant positive long-term effects, particularly in terms of recognizing depression as an illness (Beardslee et al. 2003). This study can have significant implications, especially in light of the fact that many depressed adolescents are misdiagnosed, under treated or do not comply with their medication.

Physicians are cautious about using medications to treat mood disorder, since adolescents are experiencing hormonal changes associated with puberty. Currently, teens suffering from depression and other forms of mental illness are treated with antidepressants like flouxetine such as Prozac and paroxetine, more commonly known as Paxil. However, such drugs do not address the underlying psychological causes of depression, such as grief or other problems at school and at home. Thus, even adolescents on medication need to undergo therapy to help them developing further coping skills (Eggers 2003).


In summary, there is a growing trend of depression among adolescents in the United States, a trend that has been ignored. An untreated depression impairs their ability to fully-function and enjoy their lives. Many teens have even hurt themselves through suicide attempts.

Furthermore, while many experts recommend individual and family therapy, many families turn… [read more]

Controversy of Love in Psychoanalysis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,905 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


But instead of giving her the fatherly concern and compassion that she expected... Freud treated Dora as a deadly adversary. He sparred with her, laid traps for her, pushed her into corners, bombarded her with interpretations, gave no quarter, was as unspeakable, in his way, as any of the people in her sinister family circle, went too far, and finally drove her away.


Dora (a pseudonym) left treatment as a result of her feelings of anger toward Freud for his inflammatory expressions of her supposed motivational tendencies. Additionally, within the work is a clear expression of Freud's hostility and anger toward his subject, for severing treatment. Yet, like the universal trap of all denial, protesting findings simply became greater cause for the clinician's belief that the findings were true. The utter inability of the patient to deny that which is believed, by the clinician, to be within his or her subconscious is clearly another tragic flaw of psychoanalysis.

Though Dora is not meant to be a starting point for this work it is however an interesting example of the kind of work that was used as the basis for psychoanalytic theory and practice.

Within Dora, there are profound messages about how love is and always was a source of controversy within psychoanalysis and how and why to some degree psychoanalysis has fallen out of favor among most psychology professionals.

Love is surely one of the grounding forces in humanity. It is the seeking of love that drives so much of human behavior and yet the simple equalization between love and sexual drive are clearly linked with the inability of psychoanalysis to remain the most influential clinical style in psychology today. Freud's reduction of all human behavior to the basest of human longings has left a frustrating legacy ripe for conflict.

Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5803654

Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and Its Discontents: Newly Translated from the German and Edited by James Strachey. 1st ed. New York W.W. Norton, 1962.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=58359688

Freud, Sigmund. Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego. Trans. James Strachey. Ed. Ernest Jones. New York: Norton, 1951.

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Kirshner, Lewis A. "Problems in Falling in Love." Psychoanalytic Quarterly 67.3 (1998): 407-425.

Why Freud Was Wrong: Sin, Science, and Psychoanalysis. New York: Basic Books, 1995.… [read more]

Features and Comparison of Various Mental Disorders Term Paper

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¶ … features and comparison of various mental disorders such as schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, etc. The paper has eight

Psychopathology - Questions & Answers

Discuss some of the major defense mechanisms in Borderline Personality

Disorder and their impact on relationships. (two part question- please discuss both)

A.J. Mahari notes that while "most people react to their fears through the… [read more]

Bipolar Disorder: Genetics, Environment Term Paper

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In time, as we learn more about the brain and develop our knowledge of mental health, it is a disorder that could affect less people in the future.


Cassidy F, Carroll B.J. (2002-2003) Seasonal variation of mixed and pure episodes of bipolar disorder.

Affect Disord. 2002 Feb, 68(1):25-31.

Duke-Umstead Bipolar Disorders Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center. Retrieved 1 November 2003, from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

Eaton, S.M. Hypomania induced by herbal and pharmaceutical psychotropic medicines following mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj 2002 Apr;16(4):359-67 Division of Social and Behavioral Sciences, College of Stockton. Retrieved 1 November 2003, from www.psycom.net/depression.central.bipolar_tbi.html

Pheil, A & T. (1996-2003) Bipolar Disorder Self-Care Retrieved 1 November, 2003 from Mental Health Sanctuary. www.mhsanctuary.com/bipolar/self-care.htm

Singer, K & Levine D. (2003)

Patient with Bipolar Disorder (A 15 minute Visit) Patient Care Feb, 2003 retrieved 1 November 2003 from FindArticles www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m3233/2_37/98273038/p1/article.jhtml?term=bipolar+hereditary

Sobczak S, Honig A, Schmitt J.A, Riedel W.J. (2003). Pronounced Cognitive Deficits Following an Intravenous L-tryptophan Challenge in First-degree Relatives of Bipolar Patients Compared to Healthy Controls. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 Apr, 28(4):711-9. Brain and Behavior Institute, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Universiteit Maastricht, Netherlands. Retrieved from Psycom.Net on 1 November, 2003.

Bipolar Criteria The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1992 retrieved 1 November 2003 from Mental Health Sanctuary www.mhsanctuary.com/bipolar/criteria.htm (September, 2000)

Bipolar Disorder. American Family Physician. Retrieved 2 November 2003 from FindArticles www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m3225/6_62/65286754/p1/article.jhtml?term=bipolar+hereditary

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Genetics and Mental Disorders National Institute of Mental Health Report of the National Institute of Mental Health's Genetics Workgroup retrieved on 1 November 2003, from NIMH, www.nimh.nih.gov/research/genetics.htm

2003) Bipolar disorder underestimated and under diagnosed. Psychopharmacology Update, March, 2003. Retrieved from FindArticles, www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0BFY/3_14/99012485/p1/article.jhtml?term=bipolar+hereditary… [read more]

Lord of the Flies Term Paper

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This is because aggression is innate in all human beings, stronger than most artificial social rules (Klein 1975). Jack's group illustrates this concept as they become more willing to commit acts of intensifying cruelty. Towards the end of the movie, they are able to kill Piggy without remorse, and turn to hunting Ralph with the intent to kill. Ralph is only saved by the timely arrival of an authority figure who is there to reinstate the social order.

In Lord of the Flies, the pull towards aggression is further intensified by the lure of the group. One by one, the members of Ralph's group abandon the orderly society (depressive state) for Jack's band of hunters. Even Ralph himself, the movie's epitome of maturity, feels the twin lure of his own innate aggression and the temptation to abandon his responsibilities, such as keeping a fire going and building shelters. Instead, he could join Jack's band, leaving a life free from worries or consequences, as they take out their aggressions by hunting wild boar.

In conclusion, Klein's theories regarding an innate aggression are useful in understanding the boys' behavior in Lord of the Flies. This aggression, the movie shows the viewer, can easily pull an individual back into a primitive mental state. The movie is a reminder of the power of aggression to override individual moral concerns. In the absence of rules and consequences, and in conjunction with the group, this innate aggression can lead anyone - even civilized boys - to become murderous killers.

Works Cited

Klein, Melanie (1975). "The Oedipus complex in light of early anxieties." In Love, Guilt and Reparation and Other Works, 1921-1945. London: Hogarth. Original work was published in 1945.

Klein, Melanie (1984). "A contribution to the psychogenesis of manic-depressive sates. In R. Money-Kyrle (Ed.) The writings of Melanie Klein (Vol. 1, pp. 262-89). New York: The…… [read more]

Modular Neural Networks. The Argument Term Paper

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(Botwinick, 1966).

Males have been found to have superior reaction times to females. In addition, females cannot overcome this disparity through effort or practice. (Noble et al., 1964; Welford, 1980; Adam et al., 1999). Bellis (1933) reported that the mean time to press a key in response to a light was over 15% faster in males. Engel (1972) reported that men were approximately seven percent faster at recognizing sounds. These male-female differences were found to be related to recognition in the brain rather than muscle contraction (Botwinick and Thompson 1966) and another study found that age-related changes in reaction time was equal for men and women (Yan 2001)

Other studies have shown that reaction times improve when there is a sense of anticipation in the subject, evidencing that conditioning or learned behavior is also a neurological factor in this type of pattern recognition. Sanders (1998, p. 21) Brebner and Welford (1980) report that reaction times are faster when the subject has been warned that a stimulus will arrive soon. Welford (1968, 1980) was the first to have developed an understanding between the roles of psychology and fatigue. Complicated actions tend to affect reaction times. Mental fatigue has a far greater effect than physical fatigue on reaction times.

Reaction times provide further evidence that visual perception is mostly modular. Whereas at the natal stage, some have claimed different sets of exercises to have resulted in enhanced visual perception, perception mostly follows the same pattern: certain levels of perception are developed at certain stages of intimacy and childhood. The process by which learning is permitted by the nature of man's neurological networks is constrained by the nature of synaptic transmission. Human visual perceptual capabilities follow the same life-cycle; response time shortens throughout one's adolescent life and is the shortest in a person's late 20's; it then slowly lengthens until late middle age and then deteriorates after one's 60's.


Although learning plays a significant role in the honing of visual recognition, the mandates of one's neural architecture provide an argument for a contextual view of perception. Visual perception can be measured by simple tests including pattern recognition and response time. These develop during infancy and are honed over the early part of one's life. They may be improved with practice, but their nature is mandated by the nature of one's brain and not by the interactions that brain has with the outside world.…… [read more]

Groups the Experimental Method Term Paper

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Typical remarks in this regard are, "Why is the boss not giving us more attention?" And "What do you want me/us to do?" These expressions are projections of the group members' own anxiety and insecurity, and indicate work and emotional immaturity. In a group, it manifests in the need for structure in remarks like "We need a committee to investigate"… [read more]

Depression in African-American Adolescents Etiology Term Paper

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Minority adolescents thus are more stressed by social and cultural factors than are (in general) whites but tend to have fewer resources available to meet these challenges. This results both from culturally derived biases against counseling that exist in minority communities and partly from the fact that minority families are likely to have fewer resources to pay for counseling or… [read more]

Real Problems Term Paper

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In order to provide the best combination of therapies to a person like Grace, it is also essential to understand the nature of anxiety, which she sometimes suffers from. She might in fact be a candidate for a DSM-IV diagnosis of 300.02 or Generalized Anxiety Disorder. This diagnosis of GAD is part of the larger arena of anxiety disorders and… [read more]

Mead and Freud Term Paper

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We, as individuals, are generally made aware of the activation of our personal defense mechanisms, Freud argued, by the presence of anxiety in our lives, a spiking upward of anxiety levels being a key indicator of the presence of an active defense mechanism, which is activated so that the ego can work to reach solutions (i.e. compromises) to the problems that each individual meets in the course of everyday life but that the ego cannot create solutions to through other methods. The compromise element of the defense mechanism results because in seeking solutions to certain problems the ego allows some element that is unwelcome - usually because threatening - to emerge into an individuals' full consciousness -- although it emerges in some disguised form.

Defense mechanisms, in other words, help us to deal with experiences and thoughts that would otherwise be unbearable by in some significant way lessening their impact on our lives. While all individuals use defense mechanisms at some times in their lives (and those who have been traumatized as children are more likely to have need to rely on them), the person with the well-integrated personality will need to use them less often than the person with a highly fragile and incoherent personality.

Thus Freud saw our core psychic structures as developing through the interaction of innate structures during the first few years of our lives as we interact primarily with the members of our immediate families and the world around us. Mead, while not disagreeing with the fact that either the person's family or the reality of the environment and the world around us provide important influences to the forming of core psychic structures, argued that in addition to these influences people outside of the immediate family circle are also vital in shaping a person's core identity. Moreover, Mead argued that the core psychic structures continue to develop in life far after the point at which Freud saw them as being essentially fixed.


Freud, S. (1989). Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. New York: Liveright.

Freud, S. (1965). New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. New York: Norton.

Mead, G.H. (1967). Mind, Self and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago.

Mead, G.H. (a.…… [read more]

Existence of Tastes Among Groups Term Paper

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It could be established that cogent, functional communities maintain religious beliefs that would seem to us to be a sign of mental instability, like refusing to shave one's beard or waltzing with a rattlesnake. It is important to remember, however, that irrational behavior and mentally unstable behavior or not synonymous, as the latter connotes the ability to continually function in society, which many irrational people are able to do.

2) Do successful students prefer different beverages than unsuccessful ones (e.g.. juice, milk, beer, coffee, diet soda, high protein shakes, etc.)?

Designing a methodology that will answer this question is considerably more difficult than the last, given that a boolean argument cannot capture the range of drinking and dieting habits. For instance, the sober urban sophisticate who treats his young girlfriend to a bottle of Merlot on their anniversary has little in common with the man who keeps a one-gallon bottle of fortified wine by his bed to pour into Styrofoam cups while he does his homework. Studies have already established relationships between depression and obesity and alcoholism. If it could be determined that student eating patterns are modally distributed in clusters, these clusters could be regressed against the GPAs of the people in the group.

We could design a survey with a list of consumption 'styles' and proceed to find the mean GPA and standard deviation for each style. The first part of the test could be used to determine which style group the student fits into. Barring this, demographic data exists on the drinking habits of college students because marketing and business schools often partner with advertising firms who have a vested interest in catering to consumer habits. Assuming we determine the style groups ourselves, one could be:

drink alcohol to the point of drunkenness an average of three to four times a month. When I drink alcohol, I usually drink mass-marketed domestic beer. When I am not drinking beer, I drink cola or coffee.

A seldom drink to the point of drunkenness; when I drink alcohol, I am likely to drink microbrews or imports. Normally I drink coffee or tea.

A seldom drink alcoholic drinks; when I drink it is usually limited to wine on holidays. I occasionally drink tea or coffee in the morning. I normally drink juice or mineral water.

Using quantitative analysis, we could then determine whether or not the GPAs of these respective groups are statistically different from one another. This is a fairly standard way of conducting such a…… [read more]

Anorexia Nervosa Is a Serious Book Report

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This discoursed has thoroughly examined the eating disorder, anorexia. We have found that this is a complex disease that affects millions of people. We discovered that family life and media images contribute greatly to the development of the disorder. In addition our investigation found that there are inpatient and outpatient therapies that can be used to treat the disease. We can conclude from our findings that anorexia nervosa is a serious psychiatric problem that must be treated properly.

Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=77033243

Barlow, David Harrison. "Disorders of Emotion." Psychological Inquiry 2.1 (1991): 58-71.

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Candy, Colette M., and Virginia E. Fee. "Underlying Dimensions and Psychometric Properties of the Eating Behaviors and Body Image Test for Preadolescent Girls." Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 27.1 (1998): 117-127.

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Johnson, Courtney E., and Trent A. Petrie. "Relationship of Gender Discrepancy to Psychological Correlates of Disordered Eating in Female Undergraduates." Journal of Counseling Psychology 43.4 (1996): 473-479.

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Mintz, Laurie B. "Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnoses: Reliability and Validity of Operationalizing DSM-IV Criteria into a Self-Report Format." Journal of Counseling Psychology 44.1 (1997): 63-79.

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Myers, Philip N., and Frank A. Biocca. "The Elastic Body Image: The Effect of Television Advertising and Programming on Body Image Distortions in Young Women." Journal of Communication 42.3 (1992): 108-133.

Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition intervention in the treatment of anorexia nervosa bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS)." July, 2001 Journal of the American Dietetic Association. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0822/7_101/78048922/p1/article.jhtml?term=anorexia

The better known eating disorders." April 2003. Anorexia Nervosa and Related Eating Disorders, Inc. 15 April 2003. http://www.anred.com/defswk.html

Tran, Mai. "Anorexia nervosa." The Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/g2603/0001/2603000162/p1/article.jhtml?term=anorexia… [read more]

Perception Theory Term Paper

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There are however also shortcomings to Gibson's approach. The discovery process relating to affordances and invariants in the environment appears to be very complex. He also provides no distinction between "seeing" and "seeing as." Furthermore the complete elimination of an internal representation process combined with the physical act of perception appears extreme and incorrect. It seems that the brain does… [read more]

Psychiatric Disorder of Childhood Depression Term Paper

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Second, antidepressants may differ in how they interact with other drugs the patient may be taking. This should be considered when prescribing antidepressant drugs to patients also using drugs, such as beta-blockers, antipsychotic agents, and some antiarrhythmics.

Research that is outlined in the article "Cognitive-Behavioral Group Treatments in Childhood Anxiety Disorders: The Role of Parental Involvement" (Mendlowitz, Manassis, Bradley, Scapillato, Miezitis, Shaw, 1999) explains the treatment of children and how important parental involvement is to the positive recovery of the child. The authors the use of group treatment and support the theory that groups have better potential of working with large numbers of anxious children.

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Anxious Children (CBT) was designed to teach children about how to recognize physiological and psychological indicators evident in emotional distress. The children are then taught to process this information and modify it in order to bring about changes in behavior and affect. When experiencing catastrophic or fearful thoughts the child can then replace them with more realistic ones. This is extremely beneficial because the treatment teaches the individual, along with the parents, how to change coping style for the long-term prognosis of childhood anxiety disorders. If not corrected, symptoms continue to take control of the child and occur more frequently.

The authors feel that parenting styles may influence treatment maintenance. Different children showed various levels of outcomes concerning anxiety, symptoms of depression, and coping style. It is believed that group-based therapy for children suffering with anxiety disorders will show improvement. However, parental involvement will show greater improvement on these measures compared with child CBT alone. The article stated that all treatment groups experienced a decrease in anxiety symptoms and a decrease in symptoms of depression post treatment. This supported the fact that group CBT is effective in treating children with anxiety disorders.

A number of epidemiological studies have reported that up to 2.5% of children and up to 8.3% of adolescents in the United States suffer from depression. A National Institute of Mental Health (2000) sponsored study of 9- to 17-year-olds estimates that the prevalence of any depression is more than 6% in a 6-month period, with 4.9% having major depression.

In addition, research indicates that depression onset is occurring earlier in life today than in past decades.

Treatment varies depending upon each case. Treatment can either combine both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy or utilize one or the other individually. Medications used to treat this disorder include Prozac, Paxil, Wellbutrin, and Zoloft and must be used carefully for the treatment of children.

Psychotherapy is useful in helping the patient understand the factors involved in either creating or exacerbating the depressive symptomatology. Personal factors may include a history of abuse such as physical, emotional, and/or sexual, maladaptive coping skills. Environmental factors involved in this disorder include, among others, a poor social support system and difficulties related to home life, school or peers (AllPsych, 2003). Major Depressive Disorder has a better prognosis than other mood disorders in that medication and therapy have been very successful… [read more]

Psychology Civilization and Its Discontents Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1


This is also done in the hope of redirecting these instinctual and libidinous urges into socially acceptable pursuits and amusements. Freud reaffirms his belief in sexual gratification as being the primary force behind all forms of individual happiness and, as many sexual acts are perceived as anti-social and opposing the interests of civil society, there must be alternative outlets made… [read more]

Projective Testing on Children Term Paper

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Buck felt artistic creativity represented a stream of personality characteristics that flowed onto graphic art. He believed that through drawings, subjects objectified unconscious difficulties by sketching the inner image of primary process. Since it was assumed that the content and quality of the H-T-P was not attributable to the stimulus itself, he believed it had to be rooted in the individual's basic personality. Since the H-T-P was an outcropping of an intelligence test, Buck developed a quantitative scoring system to appraise gross classification levels of intelligence along with at qualitative interpretive analysis to appraise global personality characteristics." (Nova, 1999: (http://www.cps.nova.edu/~cpphelp/HTP.html)

The House-Tree-Person test itself consists of 60 questions ranging from the direct and concrete to the indirect and abstract. Once the interrogation form has been completed and the questions asked, the tester records the results in a score test folder. From those numeric results, the tester develops an intelligence quotient, ranging from imbecile to moron to borderline to dull average to above average to superior. These scores are also used for various personality projective testing as well, and in fact, today the House-Tree-Person test is used more for personality projective testing than it is for IQ testing.

The advantages of the House-Tree-Person test are that it is more quantitative than the Rorschach test. However, the disadvantage is that it is less interpretive in nature: The subjects have more options in the Rorschach test as far as responses go, so generally more can be interpreted from Rorschach data.

The sentence completion test is yet another device used in projective testing:

In the sentence completion method, respondents are given incomplete sentences and asked to complete the thought. These sentences are usually in the third person and tend to be somewhat ambiguous. For example, the following sentences would provide striking differences in how they were completed depending on the personality of the respondent:

beach vacation is Taking a holiday in the mountains is...."

Golfing is for..."

The average person considers skiing

People who visit museums are (http://www.ryerson.ca/~mjoppe/ResearchProcess/841process6b1c4bf.htm)

This test is very easy to administer again, and measures more qualitatively how children react to certain situations and possibilities. However, since there is more structure to the sentence completion test, it also reigns in the possibilities of replies.

As a result, it is less helpful in some ways than the more fluid, open-ended tests. Also, since more information is provided, the test taker may have more opportunities to be less honest.

This test is usually administered in conjunction with other, more quantitative tests, and also with tests that are less restrictive in their result-seeking. This combination technique provides a good balance to the projective testing results.

A possible way to make the sentence completion test more helpful is to combine it with a story completion test in which the test administrator begins a story and the child finishes the story. Again, there are a finite number of possibilities, usually, within one or two standard deviations of the story mean, but the story completion test provides… [read more]

Human Behavior: Values, Cultural Design Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


S. during the Civil War eras when slavery was accepted, the changing values of society have been apparent and can't be ignored. Might one postulate that values are simply the result of mercurial mindsets and changing attitudes?

Realistically, though certain values such as the moral rightness of slavery and murder (in the case of gladiator spectator sports in Ancient Rome) have changed, a fundamental sense of right and wrong has prevailed throughout all cultures over time. In any social setting or environment, the values of the masses that are best are those that result in the fruition and expansion of the culture.

People are most likely to accept value systems for which they perceive a positive reinforcement to result from. This is due in part to cultural design, developmental conditioning, and the innate desire to survive. Man like any other animal grow up with a natural instinct to live as well and as long as possible, to reproduce, to eat and be happy. The values associated with such positive reinforcements are those most likely to be adopted by a culture.

This last statement explains in essence how values are created, weakened and employed to the advantage of a culture. Even in countries that seem like they are in constant turmoil and conflict, such as the state of many middle-eastern cultures at present, the people residing within these cultures are seeking what is natural to them. This is survival, food, longevity and reproduction.

People naturally seek out those values that promise the most positive reinforcement to them and their society at large. Those values that are not serving their purpose, namely perpetuation of a culture and positive effects, are weakened and gradually phased out over time.

People's behavior, value systems and desire for control and reactions are the result of many complex functions, biological and otherwise. In recent years, much drug therapy has been utilized to correct perceived "deficiencies" in the physiological make up of members of society.

However, such "deviant" or negative personality and behavior traits, such as depression and violence, can just as easily be explained by environmental and social factors as they can biological ones. It is important to remember that cultural design is a product of the complex intertwining of social influences and biological ones. Just as ancient philosophers and theorists such as Plato and Socrates related the nature of humans to biological, spiritual and environmental factors, so too should modern day scientists and behavioral theorists.


Bernhardt, Stephen L. (1997). "Types of Therapy" March 16, 2003, http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/3628/index9.html

Plato, Timaeus, 30B.

Wilhite and Payne, chapters 3 and 4 and the target article by B.F. Skinner.… [read more]

IQ Discrimination Term Paper

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Schizophrenia is a brain disorder that interferes with a person's ability to think clearly, manage emotions, make decisions and relate to others. The National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (www.nami.org/helpline/schizophrenia.htm) describes the cause as-"like many other medical illnesses such as cancer or diabetes, schizophrenia seems to be caused by a combination of problems including genetic vulnerability and environmental factors..."… [read more]

Hypnosis in Memory Retrieval Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


The American Medical Association has more than once warned against the use of such techniques (Horn 52-63).

It is suggested that before humans could have history, they had to have been able to remember their personal past. This is believed to be the fundamental difference between animal and human memory. "The case for a memory that is distinctly and uniquely human therefore depends on the proposition that there is more than one kind of memory, at least one of which is possessed only by humans" (Suddendorf 133).

The idea that there is at least a dual memory system arose from work on amnesia. The famous subject H.M. has dense amnesia for events and knowledge dating from his temporal lobe surgery in 1953, and indeed for memories dating some years prior to that, yet his behavior can still be influenced by past events without his being aware of it (see Ogden & Corkin, 1991, for a recent review). His amnesia seems to apply only to so-called explicit memories, or what Squire

1992) alternatively described as declarative memories; these represent memories that can be brought into conscious awareness. Memories that seem to be unaffected in amnesia are those that we are not aware of, and include those implied by such phenomena as learned motor and cognitive skills, classical and operant conditioning, priming, habituation, and sensitization. Such memories have been called implicit or nondeclarative memories (Suddendorf 133).

There are many self-hypnosis books and CDs on the market today for those who want to explore hypnosis on their own. Brain M. Alman in his book, "Self-Hypnosis: The Complete Manual for Health and Self-Change" writes that hypnosis is not magic, but merely a natural state of mind that one can use to instruct and direct the unconscious mind and body. Alman claims that self-hypnosis can be used to "reduce stress, control pain, conquer fears, overcome allergies and alter unwanted habits" (Alman 5).

Andre Weitzenhoffer writes in "Clinical Hypnosis and Self-Regulation: Cognitive-Behavioral Perspectives" that even after more than 200 years after its beginnings, the world is still faced with the "rather remarkable and depressing fact that hypnosis, its most central concept, remains a mystery" (Clinical 21). And on a lighter note, Steven Heller writes, "I firmly believe that hypnosis is just a state - South of Oregon and North of Washington, and it doesn't really exist except in people's minds" (Heller 21).

Although, most scientific data suggests that it is unlikely responsible for perfect recall, there are still many who believe that it is an affective tool for psychotherapy and as well as general therapy for pain and stress, etc. There are those who believe that hypnosis can help one stop smoking, lose weight, overcome phobias, as well as recall childhood traumas. Hypnosis is certainly going to continue to be an on-going issue of study and research for decades to come.

Works Cited

Alman, Brain M.; Lambrou, Peter T. Self-Hypnosis: The Complete Manual for Health and Self-Change. Brunner-Mazel Trade. November 1991; pp 5.

Clinical Hypnosis and… [read more]

Anorexia Criteria for Diagnosis Physical Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


Society has to accept much of the blame for the population of anorexia sufferers. Society has labeled the image of the 6ft, size 6-8 model as the ideal, which the majority of normal women do not comply with. Not only is this image being promoted (through the media) as the ideal in aesthetic terms, it is also associated with success (professionally and personally), happiness and good fortune. But then, it is the individuals that make up society, so we are also to blame for this situation. If society did not find such a ready market for promoting unrealistic images of the body beautiful, then society would not be promoting it.

Anorexia, a form of eating disorder, remains a blight on our society. It is symptomatic of the obsession society has in promoting the ideal body image and associating that image with success and happiness. Men and women alike are susceptible to its trappings. Treatment such as hospitalization followed by psychotherapy has met with relative success. However, treatments employing the active support of family and friends is gaining in popularity. Until we as a society address the reasons behind anorexia sufferers' obsession with becoming thinner, many more young people will continue to fall victim to this mental illness.


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Nickol, Jenny. (2001). Eating Disorders Awareness: Emotional Issues Involved With Eating Disorders. http://ohioline.osu.edu/ed-fact/1005.html

The Mirror Never Lies.

Treatment Resistance in Anorexia Nervosa and the Pervasiveness of Ethics in Clinical Decision making: Case 2," in The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. http://www.google.com/search?q=anorexia+hospitalization+case+study&hl=en&lr=lang_en&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&start=10&sa=N

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What Are The Treatments For Anorexia Nervosa? http://www.yourmedicalsource.com/library/anorexia/ANO_treatment.html


Research and Reaction Paper on Anorexia

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Waldrop, Ron. (May 21, 2001). Anorexia Nervosa. http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic34.htm

The Mirror Never Lies.

What Are The Treatments For Anorexia Nervosa? http://www.yourmedicalsource.com/library/anorexia/ANO_treatment.html

Block, Jerald. (September 6, 1996). Case Example #1. http://nypisys.cpmc.columbia.edu/development/Web/nyspi/depts/psypharm/eating~1/Acase1.htm

Treatment Resistance in Anorexia Nervosa and the Pervasiveness of Ethics in Clinical Decision making: Case 2," in The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. http://www.google.com/search?q=anorexia+hospitalization+case+study&hl=en&lr=lang_en&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&start=10&sa=N le Grange, D. (June 1999). "Family Therapy for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa," in Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1999 Jun;55(6):727-39. http://www.google.com/search?q=anorexia+hospitalization+case+study&hl=en&lr=lang_en&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&start=10&sa=N… [read more]

Self-Esteem and Stress Life Term Paper

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It has also been proposed by the above authors that the effective use of humor ultimately enhances one's view of self, leasing to a more positive and healthier self-concept. Siporin (1986) contends that humor is an instrument in therapy for cognitive, emotional, and behavioral change. In such fields as social work, humor is a creative act helpful in surviving the… [read more]

Salem Witch Trials Term Paper

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It was eventually dropped out of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as overly broad. Disorders with symptoms similar to those of traditional hysteria include conversion disorder, factitious disorder, dissociative disorder, and personality disorder (histrionic type)" (Merriam-Webster 786).

J.-M. Charcot and Sigmund Freud, renowned psychologists, did classic studies on the disorder known as hysteria. Charcot, in Lectures on… [read more]

Suicide Rates Among Geriatric Persons Term Paper

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The questionnaire shall consist of questions regarding general welfare and general feelings of contentment vs. dissatisfaction in relation to services being provided, family involvement, independence, and general health. I will model the questionnaire on that performed by Lawton in 1984:

The most detailed attempt to differentiate aspects of subjective well being was made by Lawton (1984) who administered a large… [read more]

Dysfunctional Behavior That Strikes Term Paper

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She was earlier admitted to the College of Costa Mesa Hospital for stabilization of mental illness, medical management and relapse prevention, but she said that she was not coping and that she continued to be severely depressed and lack energy. So she was discharged from the Costa Mesa Hospital and, consequently, admitted to this College Hospital of Cerritos. The patient… [read more]

Personal Autobiography Term Paper

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I followed this desire by applying to San Francisco State University and was accepted into the Masters of Counseling Psychology program to become a Marital and Family Therapist. It was while I was in graduate school that I began a relationship with someone in Southern California. After due consideration, I moved to Los Angeles. My intentions were to return to school immediately. However, the relationship failed and I postponed returning to school.

A occasionally return to St. Louis and am amazed to recall the pain of my childhood there. I look back now with renewed eyes, through countless hours of self-examination, therapy, and life experiences. Slowly, I have reconnected with earlier parts of my life and can return to my innate interests. I believe that patients often make the best therapists; we all suffer and therapy can engender a sense of compassion for other people. Therapy can serve as a bridge between personal and professional life.

The complexity of my life experiences and interests led me to the study of clinical psychology. Expanding my knowledge will enhance my efforts to help people improve the quality of life. I believe that I will be a better student as a result of my careful questioning of my motivations for wanting to become a therapist. I also believe I will be a better therapist as a result of my varied life experiences. Pursuing a career in the mental health field is an ideal way to balance my desire to work with disadvantaged people and a desire to work in a dynamic and intellectually…… [read more]

Optimism and Pessimism Relates Term Paper

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Rather, perception of stress was key to survival and optimistic people, who had just as much stress as pessimistic people, survived about 12 years longer than their pessimistic peers.


Often the exact same circumstances may devastate one person, barely concern another, and be seen as an interesting challenge by a third person. This all depends on the person's attitude. In recent years, cancer treatment centers have given patients a new prescription: "have a positive mental attitude," "believe in yourself," "look for the best in people," "be optimistic" and so on. This is based on common sense and on research that a pessimistic attitude can create problems.

Our attitudes influence our behavior and vice versa (Sears, Peplau, Freedman & Taylor, 1988). Attitude is defined as a manner, disposition, or feeling about a person, situation, or thing.

An optimistic person must have hope. Even when people suffer serious, stressful events, like cancer, individuals have all kinds of reactions -- sadness, anger, stress, apathy -- but under certain conditions a person will strive mightily to regain control over the situation (Sears, Peplau, Freedman & Taylor, 1988, pp. 147-152).

Cancer victims, for example, sometimes learn all they can and vigorously fight the cancer, which can be very helpful. Pessimists may just sink into depression and give up. Recent research shows that life really is all about how you decide to look at it. People who have a more optimistic outlook on life really seem to develop superior coping skills than their more pessimistic counterparts.


Schultz, Richard. Bookwala, Judith, Scheier Michael. "Pessimism, Age, and Cancer Survival." Psychology and Aging, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp 304-309.

Brissette, I., Scheier, M.F., & Carver, C.S. (2002). The role of optimism and social network development, coping, and psychological adjustment during a life transition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 102-111.

Carver, C.S., & Scheier, M.F. (2001). Optimism, pessimism, and self-regulation. In E.C. Chang (Ed.), Optimism and pessimism: Implications for theory, research, and practice (pp. 31-51). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Gillman, Jane. The Science of Optimism and Hope: Research Essays in Honor of Martin E.P. Seligman. Templeton Foundation Press, 1999.

Scheier, M.F., Carver, C.S., & Bridges, M.W. (2001). Optimism, pessimism, and psychological well-being. In E.C. Chang (Ed.), Optimism and pessimism: Implications for theory, research, and practice (pp. 189-216). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Bittman, Barry. The Glass That's Half Full: optimism and longevity. The Mayo Clinic, May, 12, 1994.

Langer, E.J. Mindfulness. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co, 1989.

Sears, Peplau, Freedman, Taylor. Social Psychology. Standard Publishing,…… [read more]

Education: Is There Additional Information Term Paper

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I am perceptive and sensitive; perhaps this is the result of the skills I had to develop at an early age. As a child, I quickly learned that people did not necessarily mean what they said. Ironically, instead of being helped my others, I have found myself in the role of making others comfortable.

What experience do you have that would prepare you to be a psychotherapist for people who differ from yourself?

At San Francisco State University, I was educated in an environment with diversity and exposure to different cultures. Through multiple classes, I gained sensitivity necessary to work with individuals in a counselling setting. I have also led support groups for individuals who suffered from Muscular Dystrophy and who faced much discrimination because of their limited physical abilities. I volunteered with the SFAF, which also exposed me to persons suffering from discrimination as well as disease. My brother, who is a paranoid schizophrenic, gave me hands on experience dealing with society's clouded judgement of the mentally ill. I attended numerous support groups to learn about his illness and to develop my own belief system. Through all these direct experiences, I have come to appreciate the differences and similarities among seemingly incompatible…… [read more]

Therapy, Also Called "Solution-Focused Term Paper

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They categorized these reports as well done, given the inherent limitations of the field.

In one study, the researcher's goal was to get people who were not working back to work. Two groups (the controls) received the standard group therapy. Two other matched groups received solution-focused, brief therapy (SFBT). The clients who received SFBT as well as group therapy were… [read more]

Wilhelm Wundt Term Paper

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Wundt's early work on the psychology of elements and his later work in the Volkerpsychologie were related, with respect to both method and subject matter. Volkerpsychologie expounded the idea that higher cognitive phenomena (like human language) could best be understood in terms of experimental and ethnographic methodology. He expanded on this in his work, Volkerpsychologie, a ten volume work that was published in 1920, relatively late in his career.

Interestingly, throughout both Wundt's early study of the elements and in Volkerpsychologie, he remained true to many of his basic principles. Throughout his career he remained true to the ideas that psychology should be set apart from philosophy, and the mind could be studied using experimental, scientific methods. All of his work was rooted in his attempt to study the mind, and the processes that underlie the various complexities of human thought, or cognition.

Wundtian psychology has declined greatly over the past years. Certainly, his reliance on introspection is one of the two main reasons that this has occurred. Wundt believed that psychology could be studied by "observing" the internal mental life, a process known as introspection. Introspection fell out of favor largely due to the difficulties in studying the internal mental life of individuals.

Eventually, introspection was in large part replaced by behaviorism, where the internal workings of the mind were seen as a "black box," and only the stimulus and response were considered worthy of psychological study. This form of psychology was much easier for experimenters to approach and study, as it did not have the inherent complexities and difficulties of attempting to define and understand internal, introspective processes. Instead, these processes could be ignored.

Further, Wundtian psychology, and other forms of cognitive psychology have declined greatly as the biological approach to psychology has gained momentum. In the biological approach, it is believed that the brain is a physical organ, and "consciousness" or "mind" are simply emergent properties of the brain itself. As such, to study consciousness, one should attempt to discern how the brain works on a fundamental, biological level. In the biological approach, Wundt's method of introspection is rarely, if ever, used.

In conclusion, Wilhelm Wundt was one of the great contributors to the early study of psychology. He helped define important concepts, like perception, apperception, creative synthesis and attention. While the use of his specific methods of study has declined greatly, his influence is still seen in modern psychology. Wundt's greatest contribution to psychology was likely his role in establishing psychology as a science independent from…… [read more]

William James Was a Prominent Term Paper

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Besides being able to be classified as an "eminent" psychologist, can James also be classified as a figure that fits the Zeitgeist, or the spirit of the times? One can try to classify James in this way simply by comparing James' work to that of other prominent authors and philosophers of his time.

James lived in the Modernist era. During… [read more]

Personality: Behavior, Thoughts, Motives Term Paper

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Behaviorists, in fact, don't consider that we have "traits" as much as we demonstrate certain behavior patterns (such as when a teacher may label a student as "bright" or "slow"; "aggressive" or "cooperative"). Some psychologists think this is taking the easy way out - that it suggests that under the appropriate circumstances, anyone could just as easily become a serial killer and an humanitarian.

What about culture? Some theorists say that certain cultures are bounded by certain rules, and much of our personality is determined by how we are raised within that cultural framework. An interesting example is the difference in how people in various cultures communicate with each other - some stand close and touch the person to whom they are speaking, but others would find this an invasion of personal space. Still, everyone within the same culture is not exactly alike in personality, but cultural theories let us know that our behavior and other personality traits have their foundation in the culture in which we were raised.

Study of personality and knowledge of why some people have certain traits can be extremely valuable when we're out in the business world. It's a marker for how we interact with customers, for example, or for determining whether or not an employee would make a good manager. Because we know that certain personality traits stay with us for a lifetime, an introverted person would not be someone who should be promoted to sales manager, for example, and an outgoing person would probably be miserable working from a home office. Traits also help us realize the "type" of person with whom we will be best suited in marriage. Although this isn't to say that personality traits must match exactly, even people who insist they are different from their mates because opposites attract surely have some core traits in common.… [read more]

Robert Cialdini, a Psychology Professor Term Paper

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Cialdini then rounds off each chapter by suggesting what we can do to defend ourselves. He is not a behavioral determinist; half of not falling prey to our unconscious responses is simply being aware that they exist and then taking action to circumvent them or to leverage them in our favor.

For the record, I must state that this book is not perfect. Cialdini sometimes interprets human psychology in ways that I do not believe are warranted given the studies he cites. But endnotes and an ample bibliography are included for readers who are interested in doing further research. Taken with a grain of salt, I believe *Influence* is a worthy read -- whether you are a sales professional, or someone who is unwilling to be an easy mark for one.

(1) Reciprocation The interesting thing about the Regan experiment, however, is that the relationship between liking and compliance was completely wiped out in the condition under which subjects had been given a Coke by Joe. For those who owed him a favor, it made no difference whether they liked him or not; they felt a sense of obligation to repay him, and they did. The subjects in that condition who indicated that they disliked Joe bought just as many of his tickets as did those who indicated that they liked him. The rule for reciprocity was so strong that it simply overwhelmed the influence of a factor - liking for the requester - that normally affects the decision to comply


(2) Commitment and Consistency…… [read more]