"Psychology / Behavior / Psychiatry" Essays

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Motivation and Emotion Type AB and D Personalities Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (816 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Maslow's Levels

Do you believe that people at lower levels aspire to higher levels?

I believe that the motivation to aspire to higher levels depends on the individual's characteristics. The mass of the people, as Nietzsche (1986) was won't to say, seem to prefer fulfillment of their basic needs. It takes an Nietzschean Ubermentsch ('Superman') to climb to the highest level -- self-actualization -- and be driven to fulfill that.

Although Maslow (1970) has pointed out that the desire to fulfill the higher echelons occurs only in those individuals who have succeed in filling the lower 'rungs', I wonder whether such is the case. Perusal of memoirs, for instance, of individuals living in poverty or straddled with illness reveal that actualizing themselves seemed to be more important then seeing to their lower needs. Lincoln, for example, preferred reading to buying himself boots; Nietzsche was in physical agony for much of his life, yet his work superceded. There are people who would rather starve themselves in the cause of idealistic pursuits. Then again, taking the reverse of this situation, one sees people on certain rungs of the hierarchy who are content to remain where they are. Even though they have achieved the basic rungs, they do not climb up to higher ones as Maslow (1970) theorized they would. Finally, I think that although Maslow's paradigm might apply to certain cases, generalizations cannot be concluded until one has scientifically sampled a large and diverse enough population to evaluate the case.

B. Do you believe that Maslow was correct in his assessment of motives?

I think that Maslow's articulation of the needs might be correct but their hierarchical ranking, it seems to me, would vary from individual to individual. Some, for instance, would prelude aesthetic needs to cognitive needs, whereas others might altogether eradicate aesthetic needs or cognitive needs and replace those elements with another category such as that of spiritual fulfillment (for instance). The nuns who have voluntarily chosen their sequestered existence, per example, seem to prize spirituality above that of belongingness and love. So it seems to me again that Maslow is categorizing the heterogeneous mass of people into a template into which, by virtue of their diversity, they do not belong.

C. What does the term Self-Actualization mean to you personally?

Taking an analytical approach, my first question would be to analyze the 'self'. A physiological biological approach would reduce the self to the mind or to a…… [read more]

Humanistic Theory in, Julie Case Study

Case Study  |  6 pages (2,134 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Humanistic Theory

In case study, Julie is being affected by a host of different social problems that are helping contribute to her overall levels of anxiety. According to the humanistic theory, the basic challenges that are facing Julie have not been addressed. This means, that certain elements must be taken into consideration, in order for her to have… [read more]

How Schizophrenia Affects Development and Aging Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,188 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Schizophrenia Affects Development & Aging

Although schizophrenia is a mental disorder known for developing in late adolescence or early adulthood, recent studies reveal differences in brain chemistry beginning much earlier. While children at risk for developing schizophrenia may function along the "normal" range of the continuum, early signs and signals such as excessive shyness, lack of interest or attention, blank stares and awkward movements, or avoidance of affection may hint at a more serious illness to come (Heinrichs, 2001). From adolescence through early adulthood, the burgeoning disorder becomes unmistakable and treatment is necessary; later in life some symptoms may become less severe. But regardless of when a formal diagnosis is made, there is evidence that schizophrenia affects all stages of development and aging -- from birth through death.

While schizophrenia is known to be genetically-based (at least in part), environmental factors taking place as early as birth seem to be necessary for full-blown development of the disorder. Some scientists believe stresses at birth, such as oxygen deprivation or low birth weight, can be precursors (Nicole, 2007). Others believe the injury takes place before birth, during the second trimester when the hippocampus is most vulnerable to selective damage. In schizophrenic patients, the hippocampus often shows signs of abnormality. (Heinrichs, 2001) Additionally, schizophrenic patients may have brain differences in shrinkage or enlargement of specific areas, or dopamine and glutamate neurotransmitter anomalies (Nicole, 2007). While these may be causes or effects, and while these theories of origination may never be proven, still experts have identified and outlined four separate phases of schizophrenia corresponding to development and aging: the premorbid or prodromal, early, middle, and late stages. (Csernansky, 2001)

In the premorbid or prodromal phase, or the time period from birth through official onset of the disease, sociobehavioral, emotional, and neurocognitive eccentricities may appear. In infants these can include a lack of emotional responsiveness and expression; in childhood symptoms may include excessive shyness or discomfort with affection, delayed social-sexual development, impulsivity, poor attention span, disinterest in social activities, disruptive behaviors, poor school performance, or even faulty motor coordination. Interestingly, however, high IQ and academic overachievement are also often associated with schizophrenia, and particularly with the risk of suicide in schizophrenic patients. (Csernansky, 2001)

The prodromal phase is the period of time leading up to official diagnosis, when more serious signs begin to surface. This period of time can range from weeks to months to a full year. Typical symptoms during this stage are marked and can include impaired role functioning, social isolation, peculiar behavior, lack of interest in grooming or hygiene, poverty of speech or inappropriate speech with abnormal affect, depression, anxiety, paranoia, magical thinking, lack of energy and initiative, sleep disturbance, and motor disfunction. Although these warning signs often lead up to the onset of schizophrenia, they are not considered part of the disorder itself. However, the severity of these early abnormalities often indicates the severity of the future disorder. (Csernansky, 2001) in summary, early signs of schizophrenia are often dramatic… [read more]

Seemed to See Mara as an Object Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  2 pages (651 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … seemed to see Mara as an object. She is consistently termed ' ct.', is distributed into various descriptive categories, before being conclusively pigeonholed into a five- Axes Diagnoses. Mara's essay, on the other hand, revealed a fully formed human, vibrantly alive with feelings, who crept beyond that diagnoses and struck you as a person who tugged at your heartstrings. This was an I-Thou pose, where one saw the individual not as object but as one who in her full complexity merited your compassion.

Secondly: The psychosocial assessment seemed to attribute responsibility to Mara, making her responsible for consequences and choices of her life. For instance: "Mara currently smokes a pack of cigarettes each day [doing] this in spite of the fact that she has early emphysema..." (Assessment; p.4). Mara, on the other hand, seems to attribute responsibility to her environment for her weaknesses, whilst attributing efficacy to herself for her success. We see this in the following examples: She attributes her sneaking cigarettes and starting to smoke to her adolescence and to the fact that she had no permanent people in her life. On the other hand, it was she who deal (successfully in her opinion with her anger and who attained her college degree.

Finally, Mara's impression of herself seems to differ quite drastically from that of the psychosocial assessment in various ways, most significantly in her predictive analysis of her future. Whilst Mara predicts an optimistic future, the psychological assessment seems less certain. The latter terms her easily angered, whilst the impression that we receive from Mara's assessment is that she has successfully worked on her temper management issue. Mara sees herself as likable, whereas the psychologist assesses her as having alienated individuals. More so, the essay seems to point to a healthy self-esteem, whereas the analysis tells us otherwise. The client sees to have more than a few blind spots, whilst the psychologist, by reifying the client, omits the details.…… [read more]

Theories of Personality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,150 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Forrest Gump/Analysis of Jenny

Theories of Personality

Forrest Gump's Jenny grew up without a mother and endured substantial abuse as a very young girl. It is implied but not known if she was sexually or physically abused. However, she clearly was traumatized by her father and by the memory of her childhood home sufficiently to impact her outlook on life… [read more]

Memory Processes Thinking and Language Intelligence Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (992 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



My First Memory

The earliest memory I can recall is an event that happened when I was two years old. This was definitely and definitively an autobiographical memory, as it was not earth-shattering or of great importance to anyone but me, and in fact it was not even all that important -- or important at all -- in affecting the course of my own life. My earliest memory is of the time that I first burped and said a word at the same time. The word I spoke, or attempted to speak, was a simple, "oh," in response to some fact that my older (and thus far wiser, to my toddler eyes) had just explained to me. Full of seriousness and gratitude at the learning he had bestowed upon me, I was responding with my "oh" when a bubble of intestinal gas made its way through my esophagus, erupting in a simultaneous belch and vocal utterance. We were in our backyard at the time and both collapsed into giggles, and I have recalled (and retold) this story on countless occasions since.

The reason that I remember this event and not others is not entirely clear to me. The text mentions that most adults remember incidents from their toddler-hood; it is possible that this one sticks out because it is humorous and something still quite in character for me to find funny. If I were much more serious now than I had been as a two-year-old, I might not remember this incident. If it didn't fit my current sense of self, it would be less likely for me to still remember it. The text also suggests that toddlers have memories that extend as far back as six months of age. I remember thinking at the time of the incident that it was amazing I had lived so long without burping and talking at the same time, which supports this finding. It is odd to have a memory involving earlier memories that no longer exist for me, but that is how I have remembered this incident consistently for many years. If memory serves correctly

Flashbulb Memories

Though the basic concept of flashbulb memories was explained fairly clearly on page 230 of the text, the mechanism of their formation and the strange inaccuracies that seem to creep in were of great interest to me. The website I visited to learn more about this phenomenon was at the University of California Berkeley's website, and was found through a Google search of the term "flashbulb memories": http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~kihlstrm/flashbulb.htm. The first paragraph on this website provides mostly the same information that is contained in the text, explaining how detailed memories of major events such as the attacks of 9/11, Kennedy's assassination, and space shuttle disasters (this site mentions the Challenger disaster of 1986) tend to form in people's minds. It goes on to mention the fact that some certain gross inaccuracies are often part of these memories.

The reasons behind these inaccuracies…… [read more]

Science of Happiness Is Our Happiness Set in Stone Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (606 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Science of Happiness (2007), the author looks at how for a lot of its history, psychology has appeared to be preoccupied with people's weakness and pathology. The notion of psychotherapy relies on a vision of people as disturbed beings in need of fixing. Freud was deeply negative about human nature. He thought it ruled by profound, sinister forces that one could merely somewhat control. The behaviorists who came after came up with a representation of human life that appeared to be very mechanical and almost robotic. It was thought that people submissive beings ruthlessly fashioned by the motivation and the conditional rewards and retributions that encircled them.

Following World War II, psychologists attempted to make clear how numerous regular people could have consented in repression. Social psychologists came along, indicating in labs how impressionable people are. A few of the most well-known tests established that usual people could become impersonally numb to anguish when conforming to lawful orders or cruelly aggressive when acting the role of a prison guard.

Although not refuting humanity's faults, the innovative path of positive psychologists advocates centering on people's forces and qualities as a point of exit. Rather than examine the psychopathology essential to alcoholism, for instance, positive psychologists might look at the buoyancy of those who have achieved a successful healing. Instead of looking at religion as a fantasy and a prop, they might recognize the devices throughout which a religious practice like meditation augments psychological and bodily well-being.

A lot of recent data has shown that people do reasonably well in a diversity of disastrous and upsetting situations. People do feel devastated if something bad happens to them, but a person's brain is composed to make the best of the circumstances in which it finds itself.

In the article Is Our Happiness Set in…… [read more]

Interview Profile Interview

Interview  |  5 pages (1,413 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Personality Interview

One of the things that makes us unique, but still human, is our way of finding archetypes and similarities in the world that both enhance and conform to our particular personality type. Part of personality is the way we process and interpret information, and certainly the way we use that information to make sense of the world. Cognitive… [read more]

Use of Diagnosis in Mental Health Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,203 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Diagnosis in Mental Health

Diagnosis is the process of applying labels to describe people's problems. Medical doctors do it; you have appendicitis, ulcers, heart disease, or cancer. Dentists do it; you have periodontal disease, cavities, and an abscessed tooth. Psychotherapists do it too; you are paranoid, bipolar or manic-depressive, depressed, schizophrenic.

In medicine, people have conditions. In mental… [read more]

Carl Jung and His Theory of Personality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,306 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Carl Jung and Personality

Carl Jung: A Matter of Character

Carl Jung's famous works mark the beginning on the modern era in psychology. An early collaborator with Sigmund Freud, Jung eventually diverged from Freud's ideas to create works that would herald a new era of thought and theory in human psychology. Jung's work on personality was based on the theory… [read more]

Using Person Centered Therapy Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,282 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4




Patient: Carl S., Male, 41 years old appears on presentation to be in good health but is complaining of depression and anxiety. Medical history reveals that a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) was experience two years ago in a car accident where Carl had been a passenger in a car sideswiped by a drunken driver. His head hit the passenger's side door window and he was initially diagnose with concussion but lingering cognitive issues revealed right frontal lobe injury and short-term memory loss as well as certain impediments to some activities of daily living (ADL). While physically healed from his injuries Carl finds it a struggle to maintain his existence. He was unable to return to work and has been on disability with no prognosis of being able to go back to his previous occupation of construction worker. His home health care aids have reported distinct behavioural changes and mood disorders over the past several months. The patient's Primary Care Physician has referred him and included his history as well as the fact that he is receiving prescription treatment for depression as well as schizophrenia.

Carl Rogers, one of the founders of humanism, states that we have difficulty in reconciling our ideal selves with our real selves and that what we perceive as ourselves is often clouded by past projections of others who doubted us. Rogers terms this as incongruity and this becomes the cause of all psychological problems for the individual. . His methods puts the client or person back in control and Rogerian Therapy is basically a person cantered non-directive approach whereby the therapist acts as a conduit for the client can view him or herself more clearly. This Rogers perceives as a required psychological adjustment, "...which is characterized by an openness to experience without defensiveness, congruence between self and experience, and living by an internal locus of evaluation rather than by externally determined conditions of worth." (Demorest 2005: 144) In this case Carl's ideal self is now extremely conflicted with the limitation his TBI has caused. After several weeks of meetings and a review of the case history Carl exhibits, oppositional defiant disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and some learning disorder due to his short-term memory deficits. Interestingly he was also diagnosed with possible Asperger's Syndrome and/or schizophrenia several years ago, but this was never followed up by any mental health professional. He may also be exhibiting signs of post-traumatic stress disorder suffered from the accident and loss of his faculties. Carl's case history reveals many disinhibited behaviors such as the use of profanity, inappropriate sexualized language and gestures. These often require a great deal of coaching and cueing from his assistive staff in order to reframe his social comprehension and interactions with others. His affective cognitive disorder presents many daily challenges. However he does appear to maintain orientation to time, place and circumstances and his long-term memory prior to the accident remains intact.

During my meetings Carl' his sort-term memory loss results… [read more]

Pain Management Coping Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,217 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Pain Management


Sid's most immediate pain needs are chronic osteoarthritis, limited flexibility due to increased pain on movement, current but ineffective pain relief and cessation of treatment. He ranked his pain level at 8 in a scale of 10. His secondary needs relate to the care of his wife with dementia and sagging… [read more]

Play Therapy Article Critique

Article Critique  |  6 pages (1,932 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Play Therapy

Generally speaking, play therapy is a way to allow children from preschool age to just prior to adolescence, roughly age 2-12, to express themselves about issues, feelings, or emotions through differing types of play. Because it is systematic and a way to use a guided approach to reach the inner issues of a child, it is often used… [read more]

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Researchers Have Concluded Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,400 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Researchers have concluded that current thinking regarding the etiology of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) can be traced to the theories of Sigmund Freud. He postulated that obsession defenses function to control unacceptable sexual and hostile feelings. Regression from the oedipal phase of development to the anal period is driven by castration anxiety. Character traits of orderliness, parsimony,… [read more]

Psychotherapy With Diverse Populations Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,153 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


¶ … Diversity

Using the Memoir as an Instrument for Culturally Driven Psychoanalysis

Cultural Assessment

The presence of lifelong emotional dissonance may be presumed to reflect the impact of a single trauma or the presence of some internal psychological imbalance. What is compelling about the memoir provided by Lucy Grealy (2003) is the degree to which it dispels these assumptions,… [read more]

James Croteau, Donna Talbot, Teresa Lance Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … James Croteau, Donna Talbot, Teresa Lance, and Nancy Evans. The researchers considered the question; how does the existence of a combination of privileged and oppressed statuses affect an individual's multicultural experiences and understandings? This exploratory, qualitative study employed a theoretical framework from Miles and Huberman (cited in Croteau, Talbot, Lance, & Evans, 2002, p.241) which posited, "Every individual belongs to multiple social and cultural groups," membership in these groups, provide the individual with social privileges or with social oppression.

The authors employed purposive sampling to identify data rich cases. They mailed information packages to members of three National Association of Student Personnel Administrators networks associated with "diversity and multicultural issues." Equal numbers of individuals were selected from mailing list to produce the initial sample of 187. Forty-two persons responded favorably, and 18 selected for interviews.

Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted in pairs for all but two of the 18 participants. The interviews generated thick descriptions. The data were analyzed using a 5-step system of multiple layers of researcher coding and categorizing of the qualitative data. The researchers identified patterns and themes individually and then in groups came to consensual agreement on the coding and themes. The data were also assessed in two stages using qualitative software. Additionally, competent persons external to the study, invited to audit the themes and categories for consistency and robustness.

These findings were considered by the researchers to be the dominant themes derived from the data analysis. The researchers determined that "the weight, recognition, or value" of an individual's privilege status affects similar traits in their oppressed status. They also determined that individuals displayed sensitivity to oppression in other groups because of their experiences with oppression.

The methodology employed by the researchers appeared to be in harmony with the data required to answer the research question. However, an ethnographic design using participant observation could have been…… [read more]

Biological Explanation of the Case Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (936 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Steven V.'s psychoanalytic needs have not been met is exhibited by his rejection of the lithium carbonate treatment that has had the greatest positive physical effect upon his problems. However, a major issue with Steve has been his going "on and off the wagon" in terms of therapy. Much like an alcoholic, a person in Steve's position has to come to a point of realization that they have a problem. He has to realize a personal value in the treatment or he will not want to continue with it. This is especially the case with Steven who has exhibited more depressive behavior than manic. Therefore, while there is a biological reason for his predicament, the causes for his depression must be dealt with, especially getting at the childhood issues at the core of Steve's problems that are a mystery to the psychoanalyst. Therefore, the psychoanalyst's plan to engage Steve in discussion to discover the necessary psychological milestones that have contributed to his depression is so necessary.

The problem here is that Steve has to be convinced that the behavior of his father was not correct. Steve's father abused Steve emotionally and abused his mother by running around with other women. If Steve continues to abuse women, whether in real life or in a fantasy world, he has descended to the level of his father and his father has won. In the psychosocial plan therefore, Steve's psychosocial needs as well as a pharmaceutical plan need to be dealt with. In this way, he will be more willing to accept a return to lithium carbonate or some other medication that will return him to stability. While lithium carbonate has its limitations, it provided the most control and stability that he ever had over the bipolar problems.

To map out a proper treatment regimen however, a holistic approach is necessary. This will incorporate psychoanalytic dialogue to recover the missing data milestones from Steve's life, such as how much of his problems are due to the repressed emotional baggage that he experience as a child. Limited long-term studies have indicated that children who have later received the diagnosis of bipolar disorder may show subtle and early traits such as cyclical mood abnormalities and full major depressive episodes. This can cause hypersensitivity and irritability. While there is some disagreement about whether the experiences are fluctuating or chronic, it has been shown that the repressed memories and especially Oedipal trauma and early sexual content can accentuate the bipolar or manic depressive disorder. The evidence goes on to suggest that environmental factors play a very significant role in the development and course of bipolar disorder. The data is fairly consistent that recent life events and problems in interpersonal relationships contribute to the likelihood of onsets and recurrences of bipolar mood episodes, just as…… [read more]

Group Psychotherapy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,702 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5



Group psychotherapy also referred to as "group therapy" is when one or more psychotherapists treat a small number of patients together as a group. The term "group psychotherapy" can refer to any kind of group environment, whether it is an interpersonal type of therapy or cognitive behavioral therapy -- among other types of therapy not mentioned. The whole point… [read more]

Existence and Use of Mainstream and Classical Motivation Theories in the Turkish Businesses Multiple Chapters

Multiple Chapters  |  30 pages (7,892 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Motivation Theories in Turkey Textile Tactics

Motivation Theories

turkey textile tactics

The News Reports

Area of Study

Organization of Study

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs


Self-Perception Theory

Goal Setting Theory

Motivation in Factories

Potential for Pursuing Empirical Research


Discussion of Results in relation to Objectives.

Discussion of those in relation to Survey Results

Discussion of… [read more]

Group Therapy Dynamics Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,320 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Group Therapy Dynamics

By the very nature of culture and humanity, humans tend to be group animals -- they thrive in groups, coalesce into groups, indeed, the very process of moving from hunter-gatherer to cities was part of a group behavior. Within this essay we will first look at group normative behavior, intergroup communication and leadership, and finally the way… [read more]

Archetype of the Addict in Narrative Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,167 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Innocent Child Archetype

Archetype of the Addict in Narrative

Bennett (year) notes that, "a useful model of personality (or of any other abstract construct) provides lots of hooks to hang lots of observational hats." He explains that the personality is made up of many different components that include value systems, ideals, thoughts, memories, and more. "The entire system is fed from 'underneath' by means of instinctive stirrings, which were identified by Freud and the psychoanalysts as biological drives," by Jung as spiritual potentials, "and by the object relations theorists as kaleidoscopic psychological energies" (year). This whole system impacts us from "above" (year) by forces that have to do with the experiences we've had in life, values and behavioral feedback. Bennett (year) explains this psychodynamic theory using the analogy of hydrology. The understanding of hydrology requires mathematical skills to understand how water can flow through different environments. Bennett (year) posits that we are only "aware of the tiniest fraction of the biological processes that maintain the body's functioning at any given time" (year).

In reference to the patient, a 40-year-old male who has lived most of his life addicted to drugs and alcohol, dismissing (as Palmer (1999) explains) his inner life. The patient, through his addiction to drugs and alcohol, has repressed his life experiences. Bennett (year) explains that repression is more primitive than suppression since "repression involves the fundamental denial of reality, and a kind of profound turning away from the truth" (year). It can thus be suggested that the patient is repressing the bad in hopes of getting to the inner child, the innocent child, when everything in the world seemed better and more hopeful.

Bennett (year) talks about people whose personalities have been organized at the schematic level. People who think that, "life would be better if I had been raised by different parents," or "if society didn't make it so hard to find a good job, I probably wouldn't have turned to drugs." These examples all lead to the idea that the individuals could not form a "coherent self" (year). Bennett (year) notes that in order to develop a true "self," one will need more than just a bunch of schemas; "it requires a complexity of integration presupposing a more mature personality organization" (year).

The patient has been able to fight addiction and he has been clean and sober for the past three years. In helping to treat him, the therapist must discover what his current situation is. Though he has been sober for three years, there are still issues that are plaguing him. He struggles with sobriety every single day, so there is still something that he may be wanting to mask or make go away.

By going into the inner self and discussing early memories and experiences with the patient, this would allow for a greater understanding of his inner child. Bennett (year) discusses the importance in therapy of expressing rather than acting out. If the patient is able to express why he is feeling… [read more]

Borderline Personality Disorder Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,166 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Borderline Personality Disorder

Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) typically exhibit an incoherent and vulnerable sense of self that is easily disrupted by the perceived dislike or rejection by important others. A subgroup of patients frequently engages in self-destructive behaviors like self-harming, attempted suicide, or severe substance abuse. BPD often occurs together with other psychiatric disorders like anxiety, depression, substance abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder, and eating disorders. (Koekkoek, van der Snoek, Oosterwijk, & van Meijel, 2010).

Pathology and Origins of Disorder

BPD is currently viewed by most authorities and clinicians as a multi-determined disorder. Research shows that BPD may evolve from predisposing genetics, parental psychopathology and/or family dysfunction, and childhood trauma.

Sansone and Sansone (2007) report recent studies indicate the appearance of a non-specific genetic contribution to BPD. Though BPD does not appear to be directly inherited, vulnerabilities may be inherited that enhance areas of affective instability, poor impulse management, and/or dysfunctional cognitive or perceptual styling's, which, under favorable conditions may culminate in BPD.

Parental psychopathology and family dysfunction also appear linked to the development of BPD. Studies strongly suggest dysfunctional early relationship experiences with parents as well as unstable family-of origin environments, including parental neglect and a lack of empathy, perceived low parental support, poor relationships with parents, abnormal parental bonding, as well as invalidating, conflicting, negative, or critical family interactions, may contribute to the occurrence of BPD.

Numerous studies support a relationship between childhood trauma and BPD in adulthood. In a large sample of patients with BPD, studies found that 85% reported histories of childhood trauma. In support of these findings mental health clinicians frequently report the co-existence of childhood trauma and BPD among patients in the clinical setting. The inter-relationships of genetics, parental psychopathology/family dysfunction, and repetitive abuse in childhood appear to be the major contributory variables to BPD (Sansone & Sansone, 2007).

Presenting Symptoms and Diagnostic Tests

BPD is defined by the presence of at least five of eight behavioral symptoms. These are unstable interpersonal relationships, behavioral impulsivity, affective instability, inappropriate anger, self-mutilating acts, identity disturbance, chronic feelings of emptiness, and fear of abandonment (McGirr, Paris, Lesage, & Renaud, 2009).

The Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients (DIB-R) is the best-known "test" for diagnosing BPD. The DIB is a semi-structured clinical interview that takes about 50-90 minutes to administer. The test is made up of 132 questions and observation using 329 summary statements. The test looks at areas of functioning associated with borderline personality disorder. The four areas of functioning include Affect, Cognition, Impulse action patterns, and Interpersonal relationships. The Structured Clinical Interview (now SCID-II) closely follows the language of the DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders criteria. There are 12 groups of questions corresponding to the 12 personality disorders. The Personality Disorder Beliefs Questionnaire (PDBQ) is a brief self administered test for Personality Disorder tendencies. Other commonly used assessment tests are rating tests such as the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder (ZAN-BPD), and the McLean Screening Instrument for Borderline Personality Disorder (MSI-BPD), (NAI, 2010).

Treatment… [read more]

Panic Disorder, a Branch of Clinical Child Article Review

Article Review  |  5 pages (1,396 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Panic disorder, a branch of clinical child psychology studies, is attracting a lot of attention in recent years. It is characterized by repeated panic attacks without warning, along with anxiety periods over the possibility of another attack which can range in months, the probable outcomes associated with the attacks and changes in behavior. There are various indicators associated with Panic attacks which can exhibit themselves in spurts, which last for a few minutes. While these seem to appear out of nowhere, there are usually some events which stimulate patients into demonstrating them. A majority of previous research results in this area is restricted to adults. Panic disorder and attacks in the youth is a controversial topic which has ignited multiple arguments. The occurrence of panic disorder coupled with agoraphobia has not been studied enough. Additional investigation is necessary in this area along with cases such as setting avoidance, severity of symptoms and comorbidity (Kearney, Albano, Eisen, Allan & Barlow, 1997).

Description of the study's aims

The current study is targeted at panic disorder patients of adolescent age groups and focus on factors which have not been analyzed experimentally in the past. Outpatient medical samples utilized here include individuals with panic disorder symptoms (which are coupled with or without agoraphobia -- the fear of places without an easy access to help). The characters of these patients are compared with those who have a disorder which is not related to anxiety. The study proceeds taking into contention, a few theories derived from past studies These assume panic disorder patients to have a greater probability of demonstrating behaviors such as separation anxiety, instances of depression, substance usage, self reported anxiety and fearfulness (Kearney, Albano, Eisen, Allan & Barlow, 1997)

Description of the study's method

The study was conducted over 40 Caucasian individuals in the adolescent age range, partitioned into two groups of 20 (each having 8 males and 12 females). The first group was between 8 and 17 years old with or without the symptoms of agoraphobia. They had undergone an analysis of panic disorder up to the primary or additional level. Primary diagnosis implied the occurrence of constant panic attacks coupled with related DSM-III-R conditions. Additional diagnosis is supposed to be a part when they demonstrated symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, simple phobia, major depressive disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder and separation anxiety disorder (Kearney, Albano, Eisen, Allan & Barlow, 1997)

. The second group was within the age range of 8 to 16 years old with anxiety disorders excluding panic disorder. The constituents of primary diagnosis for this group were overanxious disorder, simple phobia, avoidant disorder, separation anxiety disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. Targeted interviews constructed using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child version (ADIS-C) were utilized in gathering data about these groups suffering from emotional and behavioral issues, especially anxiety disorders. The composite analysis results obtained from the ADIS-C and ADIS-P (parent version) are recorded by clinicians on a severity scale of 0-8. The… [read more]

Weighing the Ethical Dilemma Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,654 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Ethical Dilemma

Weighing the Ethical Dilemma

Sherry presents with many issues that may present ethical dilemmas throughout the treatment process. In particular, her use of illegal substances as well as the distribution of these drugs to others is cause for concern for the welfare of her child. Although Sherry reports that she is not using substances in front of her… [read more]

Marriage Preparation Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  4 pages (1,473 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Marriage Preparation From the Perspective of Various Researchers and Authors

Marriage Preparation- Physiological and Psychological Paths

Every one of us has to pass through a certain phase of life which involves either major or minor changes. One such phase is adulthood which involves changes not only in our Physiology, but our psychological patterns of thinking also undergo some predictable as… [read more]

Web-Based Failure Mode and Effect Analysis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,226 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Web-Based Failure Mode and Effect Analysis

In this paper we analyze emotional intelligence (E.I) and its applicability in the workplace. Our aim is to come up with the best framework to be adopted by various organizations in improving and measuring the level of emotional intelligence among the various employees. We present a review of relevant literature regarding the issues of… [read more]

Combat Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,389 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Combat Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) typically involves a nervousness emerging as a result of a particular dramatic event which left a psychological shock. Individuals suffering from the disorder have problems dealing with it, given the fact that most are reluctant to undergo treatment and the persons close to them are likely to try to repress it. Both victims and psychologists have to go through great efforts in order to fight the malady because it is relatively new and some treatments are still in an experimental phase (Stein & Hollander, 2002, p. 19). Even though diagnose and treatment of mental disorders is normally performed through medical treatment involving medical apparatuses and medicine, treatment of PTSD is more likely to be effectively combated through therapy time.

Some of the main symptoms found in people suffering from PTSD are embarrassment, remorse, and social mistrust. People with the disorder were also reported to display recklessness, unfriendliness, and dissociation. PTSD is usually hard to predict in the beginning but it is known to become more complex as it advances and is not treated. Those who have the malady are in most cases uncooperative, this making it extremely challenging for their families and their therapists to support them. Treatment is even harder to perform because of the large number of similarities between depression and PTSD and for this reason many individuals suffering from the disorder are not properly diagnosed in its early stages (Stein & Hollander, p. 20).

The disorder is believed to have experienced an increase in popularity consequent to the Vietnam War, even with the fact that there were people suffering from the malady long before the conflict in the south-east of Asia. Because of the factors involved in looking for professional help are considered to be unpleasant by some, military individuals abstain from doing so and only succeed in aggravating the malady. The Army is among the most proficient institution to deal with PTSD and it has apparently gotten engaged in collaborating with the families of military personnel, so as for them to be able to assist the individual in diagnosing and treating PTSD (Burke, Degeneffe & Olney, 2009).

While it might seem surprising for some, a series of therapists chose to employ forms of treatment that are not related to traumas in treating PTSD sufferers. To a certain extent, this is probably an effective method of dealing with the disease, given that it does not stress the individual by bringing into attention facts which are believed to have caused the trauma. Relaxation and psychotherapy that is not apparently directed at overcoming the traumatic event is to some extent beneficial (Burke, Degeneffe & Olney). Still, in order to successfully leave behind PTSD, patients most probably have to address the matter directly, so as for them to be able to understand that it is but a thing of the past and that they do not have to live the rest of their lives in misery because of it. Non-directive… [read more]

Theories Therapies and Influences Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,069 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Therapies and Influences

In the world of psychology there are number of different thinkers, who have such profound impact, that their ideas have become a part of the core foundation of this field of study. One such person is Sigmund Freud, who is largely credited with helping to provide a basic foundation for modern day psychology. However, to fully understand the impact of his ideas requires: examining how they became such an influence. This will be accomplished through looking at: Freud's theories, how they influenced our culture and how he is viewed in modern times. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights, as to overall impact of Freud's ideas on psychology and society.

Freud's Theories

The basic belief of Freud's theories is that everyone's personality is developed, based upon their childhood experiences. This is important, because it would underscore two of the biggest contributions that Freud would make to the world of psychology. Where, he would help to map the human mind and develop the basic foundation, for how various disciplines would take shape. The way the theory worked, is Freud would use a process called free association, to have the patient open up about what thoughts were on their mind. This is where they would openly discuss the various thoughts that would come into their mind, by blurting out words. At which point, the patient is encouraged to begin discussing what feelings and ideas are associated with these thoughts. During this process, is when the patients would tie the same kind of emotional intensity what they experienced. Once this takes place, is when a patient will begin to discover transference. This is where the patient will begin to examine the childhood relationship between: siblings, friends and parents. Where, they would determine hidden levels of conflict that existed deep within the mind. At the heart of Freud's theories was the conflict that existed between the life drive (libido) and the death drive. The life drive is when someone is experiencing desire / emotions tied to a number of activities including: sex, hunger, survival, and thirst. The death drive is when someone is experiencing emotions towards death. At the same time Freud, theorized different ways that the mind is subdivided to include: id, ego and super ego. This is important, because this would paint a total picture of the underlying conflict that exists in the individual. Where, they will experience a number of forces, pulling them in different directions. For the trained mental health professional, their job is to explore these inner conflicts, in order to resolve the different issues. (Houser)

How They Influenced Our Culture

The ideas of Freud would have an impact upon culture, by providing a basic foundation, for the human mind. Where, the various repressed ideas of someone would affect their behavior and emotions. One area where this can be seen in modern day psychology is with Psychoanalysis Therapy. This is where the mental health professional, will work with the individual to uncover… [read more]

Psychological Condition That Is Increasingly Being Article Critique

Article Critique  |  3 pages (1,055 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … psychological condition that is increasingly being brought to the forefront is: gender dysphoria. This is when someone believes that they have been placed in body of the wrong sex. Where, the individual will have feelings and emotions similar to the opposite sex. As these feelings and emotions become stronger, some will often have sex change operations performed or will begin to dress like the intended sex. This has created a number of different issues, with those people suffering from these conditions, seeking out ways to help fill the obvious conflict that they are going through. In the article, He? She? Whatever!, the author examines the effect that is occurring at a California high school. Where, a beloved teacher and football coach, announced that he would be undergoing a sex change operation (Dana Rivers). A part of preparing for this procedure was undergoing hormone treatment and starting to dress like a woman (in advance of the operation). At first, the school district accepted the teacher's decision, provided that they do not talk to students about what is happening and do not discuss what is happening in public. The teacher violated this agreement, by discussing the issue with several students and giving a detailed interview to the school newspaper. As a result, the teacher was subsequently placed on leave of absence pending an appeal hearing. This is significant, because it show how this condition is affecting a wide variety of individuals. To fully understand the impact that this condition would have on the individual and the community requires: examining the author's major themes, how these views are relevant to the study of Abnormal Psychology, how this is related to other ideas on the subject, an examination of how the article would have an impact on previous ideas and the implications drawn by the author. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights, as to how this psychological condition needs to be addressed in the future. (Hornbl, 1999)

Major Themes

In the article, the author discusses how there have been other teachers in schools districts in California, who have had sex change operations. The differences are: they followed a policy of maintaining a low profile and slowly integrating them into the environment. In this situation, the students love Rivers and want to understand why he is engaging in these actions. This is important, because it highlights a major theme, where the students need answers, but the way Rivers handled it is causing the liabilities and publicity to increase. (Hornbl, 1999)

How this view is relevant to the study of Abnormal Psychology?

This view is relevant to the study of Abnormal Psychology, because it shows the underlying levels of conflict that Rivers was going through. As he had to wrestle with not only gender, but also the psychological impact that this would have upon: the individual, students and parents. In many ways, one could infer that the decision to speak to the students about: what transpired and to give an interview… [read more]

Bandura and Social Cognitive Theory Journal

Journal  |  4 pages (1,086 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Bandura and Social Cognitive Theory

Social Cognitive Theory revolves around the process of knowledge acquisition or learning directly correlated to the observation of models. The models can be those of an interpersonal imitation or media sources. Effective modeling teaches general rules and strategies for dealing with different situations. The tenets of Social Cognitive Theory are applied in many different arenas, mass media, public health, education, and marketing to name a few, and have been the subject of many research studies.

The first article examined in this paper is by Albert Bandura and discusses Social Cognitive Theory and self- agency. The second article is by Jack Martin and looks at Social Cognitive Theory and its implications for the educational community. The final article is by Yvonne Malone and reflects some of the differences between Social Cognitive Theory and William Glasser's Choice Theory.

Albert Bandura and Social Cognitive Theory

Social Cognitive Theory: An Agentic Perspective, by Albert Bandura

This article discusses the basic principles of Social Cognitive Theory. Psychology has under gone many paradigm shifts in its brief history. Bandura (1999) holds that advances in science happen through two kinds of theories, those that identify correlations between observable events without regard to linkable events, and those that specify the mechanisms between observable events.

In Social Cognitive Theory people are "agentic operators in their life course, not just on-looking hosts of brain mechanisms orchestrated by environmental events." Environmental issues appear in three forms, imposed environment, selected environment and constructed environment. The theory subscribes to a model of emergent interactive agency. Bandura describes the human mind as generative, creative, proactive, and self-reflective. People's behavior and decisions are influenced by triadic reciprocal causation. In this model factors in the form of cognitive, affective, and biological events influence one another bi-directionally. Thoughts serve as determinative functions. This theory also holds that human agency involves self-organization, along with proactive, self-reflective and self-regulative mechanisms. Human agency is implemented through direct personal agency, through proxy agency, relying on the efforts of others, and by collective agency. These influences cause individuals to assess thoughts about future courses of action to suit ever-changing situations, organize and deploy the selected options, evaluate the adequacy of their thinking based on the effects which their actions produce, and make whatever changes may be necessary to produce the optimal outcome.

Self-regulated Learning, Social Cognitive Theory, and Agency, by Jack Martin

Jack Martin (2004) describes two conceptions of the learner, a constructivist based on Piagetian theory that emphasizes the active character of a learner's interactions in learning tasks that result in the construction and reorganization of knowledge structure internal to the learner and a socialculturalist conception of the learner that emphasizes a learner's embeddedness in sociocultrual practices of teaching and learning that constitute both the child or adolescent as a learner and the knowledge that is available for appropriation. Agency concerns the capability of persons to make choices and act on these choices.

Martin describes Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory of agency as the individual's capability for… [read more]

Counseling Theory and Practice Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (739 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Therapeutic Relationship

Core Conditions of the Therapeutic Relationship

The concept of core conditions in the therapeutic relationship originated from Carl Rogers in his person centered approach. Rogers identified the necessary elements of genuineness, empathy, and acceptance as being imperative for building a working relationship with a client (Watts, 1996). These conditions are believed to become a part of the counselor's persona through personal growth and maturity rather than a direct result of an education or training program (Gallagher & Hargie, 1992). According to Roger's theory, the success of the therapeutic relationship is based upon the client's perception of these core conditions in the counselor (Cramer, 1990).

Empathy has been described as the ability to frame an experience through the eyes of the client and then using this view to communicate understanding to the client (Watts, 1996). Unconditional positive regard is directly related to empathy in that taking on the viewpoint of another indicates that you are interested in being a part of the world that they live in (Watts, 1996). When defined alone, unconditional positive regard is the nonjudgmental acceptance of all aspects of the client, both positive and negative, by the therapist (Watts, 1996). Genuineness, also referred to as congruence, is also a key factor in developing a therapeutic relationship and can be expressed through the ability of the therapist to be themselves in the counseling setting (Watts, 1996). This includes the expression of the feelings that the client's behavior has on them as well as any emotional responses these behaviors may bring out.

When operationalized, the core concepts have been linked to both verbal and nonverbal behaviors such as body language, openness, and making eye contact (Gallagher & Hargie, 1992). Interactions with the counselor have also been associated with the core concepts such as asking open ended questions, reflective listening, restating, and demonstrations of positive affect (Gallagher & Hargie, 1992). It is believed that the development of these core conditions comes from the counselor's ability to develop self-awareness (Gallagher & Hargie, 1992). The client must perceive the presence of these core conditions in order to gain treatment improvements (Cramer, 1990). Each client is treated as an individual and their unique characteristics and viewpoints are both…… [read more]

Can We Really Control Our Dreams Without Waking Up Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,521 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … control our dreams without waking up?

Mankind was always obsessed with dreams, as the experiences presented people with the possibility to escape their daily routines and enter a world made up by their subconscious. Under certain circumstances, people can realize when they are dreaming and can thus control their dreams. This depends on a series of factors, most… [read more]

Adjustment Disorder With Depressed Mood Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Adjustment Disorder With Depressed Mood



Adjustment Disorder (Benton & Ifeagwu, 2009, ¶ 2).

The American Psychiatric Association (Schonbeck, 2006, ¶ 2).

DSM-IV: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Schonbeck, 2006, ¶ 2).

DSM-IV-TR: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (Benton & Ifeagwu, 2009, ¶ 4).

Not Otherwise Specified (Benton & Ifeagwu, 2009, ¶ 4).


"Adjustment disorders are an important and prevalent cause of personal discomfort, absenteeism, addiction, and suicide"

(Fink, 2010, p. 181).

Adjustment disorder (AD) symptoms typically begin during the first few weeks following a significant stressor. In the book, Stress Consequences: Mental, Neuropsychological and Socioeconomic, George Fink (2010), a Neuroendocrinologist and Neuropharmacologist, explains that the individual diagnosed with adjustment disorder must experience symptoms within three months following the commencement of the stressor. An adjustment disorder may be defined as an expansive term for numerous mental states; distinguished by notable behavioral and/or emotional symptoms, Joan Schonbeck, R.N. (2006), Medical Writer Nursing, Massachusetts Department of Mental Health Marlborough, Massachusetts, explains in the journal article, "Adjustment Disorders." For an individual to be diagnosed with having an adjustment disorder, his symptoms must be revealed from a response to a detectable stressor which started within three months of the stressful event. The individual with AD will also experience a decrease in his symptoms within six months of the stressor's removal or when he adapts in a new way to the stressor.

During the paper, which focuses on adjustment disorder with depressed mood, the writer investigates signs of psychopathology of adjustment disorder with depressed mood and differential diagnosis. The writer also discusses pharmacological treatment, education and follow-up as well as nonpharmacological treatment, education and follow-up and appropriate community resources.

Signs of Psychopathology of Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood

Either the emotions or behaviors detected with the individual diagnosed with AD, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) should present as extreme or excessive from the associated stressor and have a critical effect on the person's social and educational performance. Fink (2010) asserts that the predominant manifestations of Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood include: Depressed mood, "tearful news, and hopelessness. This type must be distinguished from major and depressive disorder and uncomplicated bereavement" (p. 179). The stressor involved may occur from one particular incident that may have occurred in a familiar setting with other individuals present, yet only affects that particular person. In the case where the one affected is a child, the stressor may arise from the child's family, such as divorce or a serious illness of a family member (Schonbeck, 2006).

In most instances, adjustment disorder, normally a "time-limited" illness, generally manifests directly after the display of the stressor and typically dissipates approximately six months after the elimination of the stressor. Schonbeck (2006) explains that the exception to this typical scenario "would be the duration of symptoms related to long-term stressors like chronic illness or even the fall-out from divorce. Though these may appear within three… [read more]

Weld, C. ). Christian Clients Preferences Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (1,046 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Weld, C. (2007). Christian Clients Preferences Regarding Prayers as a Counseling Intervention. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 35 (4), 328 -- 341.

In the article, Christian Clients Preferences Regarding Prayers as a Counseling Intervention, the author (Chet Weld) discusses the use of prayer as a part of the mental health counseling process. Where, the two different practices are becoming increasingly used together, to help patients be able to change their overall emotional state. To determine this, Weld discusses all previous research on the subject going back many decades. An example of this can be seen with a 2004 study conducted of 578 mental health counselors in the United Kingdom. With 51% of the respondents saying that they use prayer as part of their mental health practices, in helping to change the patient's focus. This is significant, because it is just one piece of research that the author uses to highlight, the effectiveness of prayer, as a part of the mental health counseling process. (Weld, 2007 pp. 328 -- 341)

To corroborate the above research, the article discusses how an independent study was conducted of 165 adults and 32 therapists. In these numbers, 64% of the respondents were male, while 36% were female. A survey was conducted through interviewing the different subjects, about the use of prayer. The results of the study were: that 98% of the clients wanted to see some kind of prayer used during process. While, researchers found that those clients, who had modest expectations for prayer, would have improvements in their overall states of mental health. This is significant; because it shows how prayer can be used as a way to help calmly change a patient's emotional state. Once this occurs, the trained mental health professional can begin to understand the scope of the underlying problem and help to provide a solution. The most effective way to achieve this objective is to have the patient removed from a negative emotional stated. At which point, the positive emotions that they are feeling can help to slowly change the behavior of the individual. (Weld, 2007 pp. 328 -- 341)


This article was useful in helping to identify, how prayer can be used to have an impact upon the healing process. The reason why the article was chosen, is because prayer has often been seen, as something that was rather taboo among many mental health professionals. Where, a large number would view it as something that was reserved for the study of religion, not how the thoughts of a person could have an impact upon their behavior. However, over the years, research has been continuing to show the effectiveness of prayer, as an increasing number of mental health professionals began to use it as a part of their practice. The article, seeks to independently corroborate these views, by surveying various patients and therapist. The fact that the surveys showed that more mental health professionals are using prayer, in comparison with the other studies, highlights how it is becoming a… [read more]

Marriage Couple and Family Counseling Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,677 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


Sexual Addiction and Counseling

There is an assortment of well-researched treatments for sexual addicts and their partners. The facts are that, like all other addictions, the sexual addiction is rooted in a complex web of family and marital relationships. The prospects for the addict, his or her partner, and the family are at best difficult. Recovery is complicated and the… [read more]

Personality the Definition of Personality Can Loosely Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (696 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



The definition of personality can loosely be referred to as what encompasses the directly recognizable psychological orientation of an individual in the daily life. It portrays whether the individual is a bright or dull, happy or sad, quiet or extrovert, energetic or withdrawn person. Personality involves majorly the mental disposition of an individual. It deals more with the psychological aspect than the physical, which include the thoughts, motives, emotions and even intentions of a person.

Warren & Carmichael, (1930) further describes it as "the entire mental organization of a human being at any stage of his development. It embraces every phase of human character: intellect, temperament, skill, morality, and every attitude that has been built up in the course of one's life."

There have been over time varying approaches to personality postulated geared towards explaining the numerous human behavior and psychological disposition. However, there are three major approaches that are seen to capture the entire personality study in totality as below.

Biological approach

This approach presumes that the genetic composition of an individual is solely responsible for the personality that the individual displays or shows. There is an assumption that the personality that is displayed is passed on from one generation to another, in a nutshell, personality is heritable.

One of the major proponents of this theory is Hans Eysenck who argued that the introverts are so because they have high cortical arousal which makes them evade stimulation, and extroverts on the other hand possess low cortical arousal hence look for stimulation. This genetic orientation can therefore be passed from the parents to the offspring hence dictating whether the children will be extroverts or introverts.

Psychodynamic Theories

This theory has been widely influenced by Sigmund Freud's view of psychology. It emphasizes that personality is influenced by the unconscious mind as well as the experiences of the childhood life. Freud say, under this theory, that personality is composed of the id, ego and the superego. Where the id dictates the needs of the person, the superego dictates the ideas and morals and the ego comes in to harmonize…… [read more]

Knowledgeable and Effective Practitioner Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,149 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … knowledgeable and effective practitioner in the field of Social Work, it is important to have the skills to understand, interpret, and apply current and past research findings from a variety of disciplines. In order to appropriately identify useful pieces of research in practice, one must first understand the various types of research and the assumptions that come along with each type of research. The vast majority of research can be broken down into one of two categories; Quantitative Research or Qualitative Research. While quantitative research focuses on the 'where,' 'when' and 'who' of research questions, qualitative research aims to provide a more in-depth perspective on human behaviour by focusing on the 'how' and 'why' of research questions (Dezin & Lincoln, 2005). While many of the social sciences place a higher level of distinction on quantitative methods, due to their ability to produce hard facts and discerning statistics, qualitative research must not be overlooked for what it can offer the world of clinical practice.

Qualitative research can be used to inform clinical practice in the area of Social Work in a variety of ways. A clinician may do this by relying on previous qualitative research published in scholarly journals or by using qualitative research methods to answer new and relevant questions. In working with children, a qualitative research method may be very helpful in learning more about a specific child or family's situation. One popular qualitative method is a structured interview. A structured interview ensures that you ask each client the same specific questions, while still allowing for the client to provide additional information and the clinician to ask relevant spin-off questions. In contrast to the surveys used in quantitative research, interviews can be more flexible, allowing for a greater understanding of an individual's situation. By using a structured interview approach, a clinician is assured that they will gain the set of knowledge they are looking for, while not missing out on any nuances by simply receiving quantitative responses to set questions (Dezin & Lincoln, 2005).

Another version of qualitative research is called historical research. Historical research can be useful in the area of working with children and youth by learning what has been done in the past, what previous social service institutes offered throughout history, and how mental health and deviance has been viewed in the past. By being more informed about the past, one can be better able to evaluate the practices that can be most effective in the future (Holliday, 2007). Finally, in working with children and youth it is always advisable to understand what others in the field are doing; how they are succeeding and where they are struggling. Implementing qualitative methods of inquiry one can not only seek to answer their own questions about what the successful trends are in the field at present, but also harness a great deal of knowledge that is held collectively by the clinicians in the field. Qualitative research methods lend themselves well to using subjects who are not… [read more]

PTSD History Study Effects and Treatments for War Veterans Research Paper

Research Paper  |  12 pages (5,589 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


PTSD for War Veterans and Families


PTSD History, Study, Effects and Treatments for War Veterans

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD symptoms develop in response to life-threatening trauma, typically among multiply deployed soldiers in war zones, such as Iraq and Afghanistan. Most of them are younger than 25, of lower rank, genetically predisposed and female. Broad… [read more]

Sociobiology Assessment

Assessment  |  2 pages (614 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


This may be true from a strictly biological tendency paradigm in that early humans likely had to fight for food, dominance, and to survive. However, modern humans have a large cerebral cortex, which allows for reasoning, creatitivy, emptahy, compassion and the formation of culture. Societies then, can control and choose whether to be hyper aggressive or hyper passive -- or something in between. A number of sociological and anthropological studies now believe it was the proto human ability to cooperate, not compete, that led to the eventual formation of society and culture (Baumeister and Bushman, 2009).

Can culture and ethnicity be adequately understood along psychological lines? Culture transcends individuals -- it is large and broad. Culture is a capacity for symbolic thought, as well as a set of shared attitudes, values, goals and practicies that a group of individuals agree upon and promulgate. If the basic building bloacks of culture are rituals and a combination of knowledge and forethought, they must in turn be cognitive in origin, but still perhaps environmentally influenced. In evolutionary terms, people of like culture tend to congregate together, so ethnicity over time, might be somewhat explained those "types" being more genetically successive. Similarly, because of the multiple formalities of culture (abstraction) and those aspects needing cognitive thought to become reality, psychology c an help us understand the human development process that also tends to group individuals together (Schaller and Crandall,, 6-14).


Baumeister, R., Bushman, B. (2009). Social Psychology and Human Nature. Belmont, CA:

Thompson Higher Education.

Schaller, M. And Crandall, C., eds. (2008). The Pyschological Foundations of Culture.

Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum/Taylor & Francis.

Wensleers, T., Ratnieks, F. (2006). Towards a General Theory of Conflict: The Sociobiology

Of Medelian Segregation. Cited in:


Wrangham, R. And Peterson, D. (1996). Demonic Males. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.… [read more]

Dr. Neil Anderson Disciples Counseling Book Report

Book Report  |  4 pages (1,221 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Dr. Neil T. Anderson's book, Discipleship Counseling. In this book, the author explores the role of spiritual counseling in a secular world as well as the role of secular psychological treatment in spiritual health endeavors. They also explore the idea of mental health in both senses.

At the same time, Dr. Anderson explores the role of the counselor and the role of the counselee as well as the organizational structure of discipleship counseling. The book is broken into two parts, which take different approaches toward applying Discipleship Counseling toward the masses and helping everyone come to God on their own terms.

Discipleship Counseling: Dr. Neil Anderson's Take on Spiritual and Secular Mental Health

In the book, Discipleship Counseling by Dr. Neil T. Anderson, the idea of Christian-based counseling is explored. There are three core concepts explored in the book, and these concepts are what power the entire theme of the book. Dr. Anderson explores the idea of integrating psychiatry on a secular basis with the teachings of theology. There is a certain structure that must be adhered to when it comes to discipleship counseling, and this is another theme explored by Dr. Anderson. There are also a variety of barriers that must be overcome to help the person being counseled come back to God and find his discipleship. All of these three ideas are explored in Dr. Anderson's book and lead to one central theme: discipleship counseling can be used to help others come back to God and become disciples in His image.

Secular vs. Biblical Ideas of Mental Health

Discipleship Counseling is broken up into two main parts. The first part, called "Discipleship Counseling in Theory," is a discussion of the balance of secular psychiatry and psychology with Christian-based counseling. Dr. Anderson deals with topics such as including spirituality into traditional counseling, the problems that exist with the scientific versions of counseling and the need for balance between the natural world and the world as described in the Bible (2003).

In the first half of the book, Dr. Anderson also discusses the idea of mental health and the definition of mental health in the Biblical sense and the secular sense. He combines the ideas of theological views on mental health as well as theological ideas of mental health. This includes the role of everyone involved, including the role of God in a person's mental health.

Discipleship Counseling and Coming Back to God

"Discipleship and Counseling" is the second half of Dr. Anderson's book. In this section, the author begins to examine the process of counseling people and helping them to reestablish their relationship with God. Dr. Anderson begins with a discussion about the best candidates for discipleship counseling. The different defenses, people to pray with and the intricacies of the meeting between counselor and counselee are discussed. It is important for Christians and those who want to live as Christians to know their place in the spiritual world. The Bama Research Group report that less than one… [read more]