Study "Psychology / Behavior / Psychiatry" Essays 661-715

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PTSD Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders and Personal Beliefs Essay


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders and Personal Beliefs

The focus of my studies and of my anticipated professional practice is Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder within the context of educational psychology. This specialization is pursued with an emphasis on veterans of combat-related experiences. This particularly vulnerable population drives both the research and the personal orientation taken toward the subject. The connection between combat-experience and PTSD is inextricable and evokes a certain sense of responsibility for me.

In accordance with my personal beliefs, attitudes and values, the sacrifices made by combat soldiers and by their families is a significant one and one that carries many physical and mental health implications. Thus, I am inclined to view it as society's responsibility to ensure that this particular population is attended to with the proper care, treatment and compassion. Significant evidence encountered in the present research suggests that we don't -- as communities or as a country as a whole -- do enough to prepare soldiers and their families for the psychological implications of a return to the home-front. My cultural background is heavily colored by an emphasis on loyalty to family, friends and country. Particularly for those who have served in the most perilous of roles to serve and protect our freedoms, I am compelled by a sense of loyalty and responsibility. This is a direct influence on the professional path which I have chosen. If I can parlay my personal abilities and education into a more meaningful service of this population, I believe I will be contributing effort to a great social need.

Naturally, as I evolve in my role as a therapist for combat-veterans, it will be with an appreciation for the dilemmas which are unique to military service. As the text by Willis (2010) notes, soldiers returning home from conflict are in the unique position of having been trained to live according to two very…… [read more]

PTSD Essay


It has been almost ten years since the U.S. sent troops to Afghanistan and Iraq. During this period, U.S. Army deployed hundreds of thousands personnel to these battlefields. However, the impact of these deployments is troubling. As nearly 20% of military personnel who return are suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Simply put, this is defined as a mental disorder that a person can develop after being exposed to a traumatic or distressing event. This usually involves an individual engaging in some kind of physical harm to themselves or others. As, a considerable number of military personnel are being exposed to combat situations during: military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. The reason why is because, soldiers are always under threat from constant insurgent attacks to include: suicide bombings, mortar strikes and hit / run assaults. Where, they are committing sudden attacks at: checkpoints, military bases and other staging areas (which is a contributing factor to PTSD). There are a variety of signs and symptoms that soldiers are reporting that are related to the condition. A few of the most notable include: trouble sleeping, nervousness / anxiety and alcohol related problems. In a number of cases, these issues have resulted in the complete destruction of their family and social relations for these individuals. This has produced skyrocketing suicide rates among this group, with this recently reaching a 30-year high. As a result, this situation offers new challenges for: the U.S. Army, psychiatrists and the government. This is significant, because it shows: the underlying problems associated with PTSD and how they are affecting the military. To fully understand what is happening requires: examining the target population, how the implementation of an intervention will take place, potential contributions and the application of the procedure. Once this occurs, it will provide the greatest insights as to how to effectively deal with this lingering condition. (Moore, 2010, pp. 232- 238)

Target Population

The target population comprises of the soldiers either returning from: the battlefield and those who are being sent into areas of conflict. During this process, military personnel are being assessed for their mental health before and after their deployment. After returning to home, they are asked to complete a Post Deployment Health Assessment within five days. This is when they will undergo a review with mental health professionals and they are encouraged to discuss any issues they are experiencing in their lives. After four months, these individuals have to go through a re-assessment for mental and physical health issues. (Kinichin, 2004)

In this aspect, our target population will focus on specific individuals that could be exposed to conditions (who are developing some of various symptoms). As, we are monitoring how the individual will: change before, during and after several months beyond their deployment. This is significant, because these groups of individuals can provide specific insights about the effects of PTSD on the target population.

Implementation of PTSD Intervention

To address these issues, there is a number of different intervention strategies that can… [read more]

Acculturation Cultural and Racial Diversity Term Paper

… The importance of understanding this aspect of acculturation is important because it allows professionals to take the proper care in treating this population in the context of the level of acculturation that may be present. Professionals can also work to… [read more]

Clinical Intervention: Methods and Techniques Interview

… X asked with full of concern.

Sarah smiled back slowly with a ray of hope in her eyes.


Clinical intervention is a term used in clinical psychology which means to help and understand the traumatic condition of the patient more precisely. It is an effective way of counseling which helps the therapist to perceive the frame of reference of his/her client and to solve the problem accordingly. It involves some techniques which are mentioned below; (Ivey, A.)

-Attending behavior


-Open and closed questions



With the help of attending behavior the therapist strives to observe the body language of his/her client. In the typical case mentioned above, the client was presented with few questions which she had to answer and the doctor observed her body language carefully. Clutching fingers, biting lips and nails, looking blankly into space rather than making an eye-to-eye contact and bursting into tears, clearly indicated the obvious signs of nervousness and severe anxiety. Hence, it is clearly understood that she is afraid of her life problems and has lost the motivation of moving forward.

Through the method of reflection, the client is informed about his/her hidden emotions. Here, the therapist pays close attention to the key words used by patient and then inform him about the sentiments and emotions hidden behind the surface meaning of the words. This helps the patient in understanding of his/her personality. In the case above, Dc. X informed Sarah that, beside all negativism towards life, she still holds love for her daughter which can pave way for her to move forward.

Open and closed questions also facilitate the process of intervention in a positive way. It helps in evaluating the root of patient's problem. Dc. X used some of these questions and came to understand that the patient was already suffering through a history of anxiety due to her parents' divorce. However, due to her own separation, the negative feelings got reinforced.

To find the solution for an existing problem, it is very important for the therapist to create a comfortable environment for the patient and this can be done through summarization. During an interview session, the patient must feel satisfied that whatever he is telling is being fully understood by the listener. Empathy plays an important role here. It is the "psychobiological capacity to experience another person's state of being and phenomenological perspective at any given moment in time." (Wilson, P.J., p.119) When Dc. X explained Sarah about her problem in a summarize form, she felt more comfortable and showed interest for further meetings.

Probing helps in looking deep into a person's consciousness. The therapist examines the general attitudes of the patient and tries to understand the root cause of the problem. It needs careful investigation to comprehend the hidden feelings and emotions of a person. With the help of probing technique, the therapist asks question from his client that takes him inside his mind. He then picks the root of the problem from there and tries… [read more]

Reductionism in Cognitive Neuroscience Term Paper

… Memory consolidation refers to the early stage in memory formation when a memory can be disrupted through distraction.

The Extended Mind Hypothesis

Anthony Chemero and Charles Heyser present a radical critique of psycho-neural reductionism, claiming that some cognitive processes extend… [read more]

Origins of Behaviorism Essay

… In particular, the fact that they obviously satisfy the demands of positivism seems to bear out the belief that behaviourism was never anything but a sort of psychological positivism." (Aach, 1987)

Behaviourism and psychology

The field of psychology is driven… [read more]

Isabella, a 29-Year-Old Woman Essay

… Isabella, a 29-year-old woman, presents to her GP with a primary complaint of difficulties in sleeping. She also is concerned about her work-related stress and general well-being. She is diagnosed by her GP with insomnia. However, there are other considerations,… [read more]

E.B. Titchener Answers Some Criticisms Essay

… Titchener points out that they are abstractions in the sense that they are products of an analysis that breaks down a complex structure into its basic components.

4. He points that Caldwell complains of his terminology when in fact this is nothing but an issue of semantics.

5. Titchener criticizes the idea that there are separations between a structurally based and functionally-based mind (and psychology). He believes the two are congruent.

Titchener then discusses the criticism by the neurologist Herrick, who says that psychologists are too narrow, need to take a dynamic approach, and need to consider new information from fields like molecular physics and higher math in their theoretical considerations. He agrees that it is also a good idea to include more information, but disagrees that psychological theories are too "small" and cites some research findings to back this up. He adds that the current state of knowledge is a long way off from deriving pure physics explanations for mental experience but is open to how psychology might incorporate these issues.

In essence it is interesting to note that while Titchener's Structuralism never reached the levels he hope for and was too subjective, some of the issues discussed her parallel some of the current debates between biologically-based models of behavior and more psychosocial-based models. In the final analysis, understanding how to merge these issues was Titchener's quest and his zeal should inspire others to do the same.


Titchener, E.B. (1899). Structural and functional psychology.…… [read more]

Dominant Models of Human Behavior Term Paper

… The classic examples include learning to stand in the presence of being introduced to a new person or learning to shake hands at an introduction.

Bandura also realized that the effects of modeled behavior can occur when models are not… [read more]

Depression Theories Various Research Paper

… In a study, any patient who admitted thoughts of suicide, immediately denied, retracted, or justified such a statement, making it hard for an examiner to determine whether the patient was truly depressed. [13: Cheung, R. (2010). Culture Different and Treatment… [read more]

Anxiety and Mood Disorders Research Paper

… Anxiety and Mood Disorders

Anxiety disorders: An overview

Anxiety -related disorders are some of the most common conditions amongst individuals suffering from psychological distress. Anxiety "is one of the most prevalent of all psychiatric disorders in the general population," and many individuals anecdotally report having sub-clinical phobias. Phobias are the most common of all anxiety disorders, "with up to 49% of people reporting an unreasonably strong fear" and up to 25% with debilitating phobias (Rowney & Hermida 2011: 1). "Social anxiety disorder [social phobia] is the next most common disorder of anxiety, with roughly 13% of people reporting symptoms" that meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Text Revision (DSM IV-TR) criterion. Post-traumatic stress disorder afflicts "approximately 7.8% of the overall population and 12% of women, in whom it is significantly more common. In victims of war trauma, PTSD prevalence reaches 20%" (Rowney & Hermida 2011: 1).

While everyone experiences anxiety from time to time, anxiety-related disorders severely impair the individual's ability to function in the world and have a negative impact upon the individual's social relationships. For example, a phobia, as opposed to an aversion is defined as a fear that is "excessive or unreasonable" by the DSM IV-TR (Rowney & Hermida 2011: 1). Some individuals may dislike driving over bridges, but a person with a phobia may have to pull over by the side of the road and ask his or her driving companion to go over the bridge or he or she will significantly alter his or her route to avoid going over bridges.

Social anxiety disorders can be isolating, given the impact they can have upon the individual's ability to enjoy a normal social and working life. Other forms of anxiety disorders are less focused upon one, specific issue and instead manifest themselves as a general sense of dread. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) patients often are convinced that they have physical complaints because of the racing heartbeat and panic attacks that accompany the illness. With GAD, patients manifest anxiety about most components of their life, rather than a single aspect of it. 60% of sufferers of GAD have comorbidities, including mood disorders such as major depression (Rowney & Hermida 2011: 1). Alcoholism and phobias such as agoraphobia are also frequently manifested together (Rowney & Hermida 2011: 1).

Obsessive-compulsive behavior presents itself in a different fashion. With OCD, sufferers feel anxiety if they do not perform certain compulsive, repeated actions. Washing one's hands, checking on locks or to see if the stove is turned off are common examples. Some sufferers also experience unwanted, unpleasant thoughts or obsessions which cause anxiety. OCD appears to have a strong genetic component -- the behavior pattern tends to run in families. In contrast, disorders such as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are associated with a traumatic or violent event, such as witnessed during an accident, war, or as the result of a personal trauma such as a rape.

Mood disorders

Mood disorders fit into two primary categories, that of unipolar… [read more]

Learning to Be Depressed Term Paper

… ¶ … Helplessness (depression)

'Resistance is futile:' Learned helplessness and the development of depression

Does the psychological phenomenon of learned helplessness cause depression? The hypothesis of the experiment conducted by Martin Seligman and Steve Maier suggests that although learned helplessness seems mainly like a symptom of depression, the phenomenon of learned helplessness is actually a cause of depression.

Study methods and procedures

To test their hypothesis, Seligman and Maier conducted an experiment in which dogs were subject to harmless but painful electric shocks. In one experimental group, the dogs could end the shock by pressing a lever, while in the other experimental group the dogs could not end the shock, no matter how many times the animal pressed the lever. Each dog in the second experimental group had to wait until his unseen partner figured out how to press the lever correctly to end the shock. This was to ensure that the different pairs of dogs received shocks of the same duration and intensity. A control group received no shocks.

The dogs that were given no control over when the shocks terminated experienced weight loss and withdrawal, while the (non-shocked) control group and the experimental group given control over the shocks did not experience depressive symptoms.

In the second phase of the experiment, when dogs were given the option of escaping the shocks by jumping over a wall, the dogs who had been given no control over their shocks in the 'learned helplessness' experimental group did not try to resist the pain and merely cried. Both the control group and the dogs that had been given the power to stop the shocks by pressing a lever quickly learned to escape the shocks by jumping over the wall.

Main results of the study

Confirming the hypothesis that it is possible to learn to be depressed, it was revealed that even animals can be coached into a state of 'learned helplessness' when repeatedly placed in a situation which teaches them that resistance is futile when faced with unpleasant stimuli. The dogs subject to mild, but painful electrical shocks who were placed in an environment where they could not resist the sensation eventually ceased to exhibit normal 'resistant' behavior, even after they were transferred to an environment where they could escape the shocks by jumping over a fence.

Significant applications and/or implications of the study

Learned helplessness can lead to depression. A lack of a sense of autonomy and control over one's environment can lead to socially withdrawn behavior and a refusal to actively try to change negative aspects of the world. The applicability of the dog study to human life is manifest…… [read more]

Organizational Behavior Theory and Advance Practices Essay

… ¶ … Cognitive Styles

Cools' (2010) review of cognitive styles on organizational behavior and management indicates how empirical research on the subject has shown that familiarity with the cognitive style of the individual is beneficial for both the individual and a prospective employer.

Different cognitive styles prefer different work environments. Certain profession, apparently, appear to be drawn more towards one style than another. It appears, therefore, that one can group professions according to sectors of cognitive style and, in reverse, one can predict the particular profession that an individual will be drawn to based on his or her cognitive style. The assessment of fit or misfit of position to style is valuable not only to the employer but also to the individual since the individual garners more satisfaction in an environment that matches his cognitive character. Ramifications, therefore, of knowing one's cognitive fit are vast since job satisfaction greatly results in wider satisfaction in life in general, therefore less stress, therefore, plausibly, enhanced health and conditions that extend to all sectors of the individual's life including his relationship to family and friends.

From the employer's perspective, too, ramifications would accord similar advantages since on-site job conflict would, presumably be less, and cost-effectiveness would be achieved by employer not having to pay for stress-related consequences such as health issues, conflict-related issues (e.g. arbitration), employer takign days off, exit, and turnover.

Cognitive style also influences decision-making behavior - including strategic decision-making -- where, for instance, sensing individuals prefer concrete and actual data whilst intuitive types prefer hunches and heuristics. Depending on their cognitive style is the type of decision that the individual reaches and the confidence with which he or she reaches that decision.

Moreover, cognitive styles also influences social relationships, including dyadic relationships (e.g. mentor-student) and teamwork dynamics, where, for instance, people with a…… [read more]

Evaluation of a Health Case Study

… The research team will administer a survey questionnaire to a large sample of employees. The survey will include 40 questions about employee health, including employee absences, doctor visits, nutrition, and lifestyle. The survey will be given to a randomly selected group of 1000 employees to ensure there is no selection bias. Survey participation will be voluntary, and participants will sign a consent form to avoid ethical violations. Problems with survey research include low-response rate and participants who modify their responses to present themselves more favorably to the researcher.

The evaluation team will also conduct a correlation study to assess the effectiveness of a health and wellness program. One- thousand employees, of varying demographics, will be randomly selected to participate in the study. The participants will be given a consent form prior to participation. Each participant will be interviewed by members of the research team regarding exercise, nutrition, lifestyle, and health status. The study will examine correlations between three possible combinations including health and exercise, health and nutrition, and health and lifestyle. A correlation analysis indicates positive, negative, or null relationships between variables; therefore, cause and effect cannot be inferred from the study.

Lastly, an experiment will be performed to assess whether life style counseling, healthy nutrition, and exercise have positive effects on employee health. Five-hundred employees will be randomly selected to participate in four experimental groups including nutrition, lifestyle counseling, exercise, and a control group. The experiment will be conducted for four consecutive weeks. The independent variables in the experiment include nutrition, lifestyle counseling, exercise, and no treatment intervention. The experiment's dependent variable is employee health. The nutrition group will eat a low-fat healthy diet for one month. They will be interviewed every week to measure the impact of nutrition on health. The lifestyle group will receive lifestyle counseling sessions including tips on stress management and tobacco cessation for one month. The participants will be interviewed weekly to determine the effect of lifestyle counseling on employee health. Members of the exercise group will engage in cardiovascular exercise, four times a week for 30 minutes. They will be interviewed weekly for one-month to determine the effect of exercise on their health. In addition, there will be a control group where no intervention is performed. Members of the control group will be interviewed weekly to evaluate changes in their health. At the conclusion of the evaluation, the researchers will determine whether the company's wellness program will be successful in improving employee health, reducing absences, and health insurance costs.


(Hockenbury D. Hockenbury H. 2010 Psychology) Hockenbury, D., & Hockenbury, H. (2010). Psychology (5th ed.). New York, New York: Worth Publishers.

If you need to type anything after the…… [read more]

Short Online Psychology Study Essay

… ¶ … Professional Research Study: Personality and Individual Differences:

"Spirituality, Personality, and Mental Health" ("Online Social Psychology Studies")

This study is being conducted by Dr. Human-Friedrich Unterrainer, Department of Psychology, Karl-Franzens, University Graz, Austria in collaboration with Heythrop College (University of London), United Kingdom. The Heythrop Ethics Review Board (University of London) approved of the study. I thought it was great that the origins and validity of the study was thoroughly explained. It left me feeling more confident about taking it. I also appreciated that it was stated that "the study involves no more than minimal risk to participants and contains no deception." (Unterrainer). I am glad this was said because it left me feeling more trusting knowing the study is anonymous, especially because some quite personal questions were asked. All responses are treated as strictly confidential.

There is a in this study which has indicated that that most of the participants that have answered this questionnaire how found it very interesting. There have not as of yet been no complaints and no feels of increased stress. However, if you are under-going a difficult life situation at the moment it might be preferable not to take part in this study. I found this to be welcoming and precise information, and sensitive of them to warn that you might want to skip the study if you are not in a good place emotionally. I thought providing the warning was kind.

No religions group sponsored the study, and the data will not at all be passed on to religious organizations. The introduction to the study explains that if you "God," feel free to substitute it with a term you find suitable, such as "higher power." "God" came up a lot in the questions but that state of my beliefs did not matter so much, which made it easier to answer the questions quickly and reactively, which the heads of the study mentioned they preferred.

It is also possible to complete the questionnaire if you have agnostic or atheistic beliefs. All…… [read more]

Personality Disorders Are Long-Standing Research Paper

… By identifying the constellation of presenting problems unique to the individual, the MMPI-2 would allow for assisting the clinician in diagnosing and visualizing what potential courses of remediation might be beneficial in the case of the particular patient in question.… [read more]

Language of Choice Theory by William Glasser Book Review

… Language of Choice Theory

Theory and the Primary Theorist

This book is about choice theory, developed by William Glasser.

Brief History of the Theorist; training and background information.

Glasser first received his Master's degree in clinical psychology in 1948, then… [read more]

Anorexia Nervosa Is a Serious Research Paper

… In younger patients, a family assessment can be critical to treatment planning, as the patient will typically have extensive contact with family members while she is in treatment and attempting to regain weight and recovered from her disordered eating habits… [read more]

Psychologists Are Addressing? Journal

… ¶ … psychologists are addressing?

Both psychologists are addressing the ethical issues involved in using animals for experimental psychological research.

* What is psychologist a's point-of-view? Psychologist B's?

Psychologist a believes that research animals are rarely treated inhumanely, and the… [read more]

Object Relations Theory and Therapy Term Paper

… Object Relations Theory

Development of behavior disorders and object relations theory

Object relations (or) theory revolves around the internalization and externalization of good and bad "objects," especially the mother and breast, beginning in infancy. The infant is not yet able… [read more]

Book Analysis One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest Essay

… ¶ … Flew Over the Academic Nest: Sociological Lessons in the Ken Kesey Novel

In this paper, the author will apply sociological concepts such as groupthink, doublespeak and doublethink, and sociological experiments that speak to us as social groups about… [read more]

Temperament Correlate to Physical Health Research Proposal

… Patient Name:

SSN#: ____ Date:

Person heling to complete this form:

1. In general, would you say your health is:


Very good




2. Compared to one year ago, how would you rate your health in general now?

Much better now than a year ago

Somewhat better now than a year ago

About the same as one year ago

Somewhat worse now than one year ago

Much worse now than one year ago

3. The following items are about activities you might do during a typical day. Does your health now limit you in these activities? If so, how much?

a. Vigorous activities, such as running, lifting heavy objects, participating in strenuous sports.

Yes, limited a lot.

Yes, limited a little.

No, not limited at all.

b. Moderate activities, such as moving a table, pushing a vacuum cleaner, bowling, or playing golf?

Yes, limited a lot.

Yes, limited a little.

No, not limited at all.

c. Lifting or carrying groceries.

Yes, limited a lot.

Yes, limited a little.

No, not limited at all.

d. Climbing several flights of stairs.

Yes, limited a lot.

Yes, limited a little.

No, not limited at all.

e. Climbing one flight of stairs.

Yes, limited a lot.

Yes, limited a little.

No, not limited at all.

f. Bending, kneeling or stooping.

Yes, limited a lot.

Yes, limited a little.

No, not limited at all.

g. Walking more than one mile.

Yes, limited a lot.

Yes, limited a little.

No, not limited at all.

h. Walking several blocks.

Yes, limited a lot.

Yes, limited a little.

No, not limited at all.

i. Walking one block.

Yes, limited a lot.

Yes, limited a little.

No, not limited at all.

j. Bathing or dressing yourself.

Yes, limited a lot.

Yes, limited a little.

No, not limited at all.

4. During the past 4 weeks, have you had any of the following problems with your work or other regular daily activities as a result of your physical health?

a. Cut down the amount of time you spent on work or other activities?



b. Accomplished less than you would like?



c. Were limited in the kind of work or other activities



d. Had difficulty performing the work or other activities (for example, it took extra time)



5. During the past 4 weeks, have you had any of the following problems with your work or other regular daily activities as a result of any emotional problems (such as feeling depressed or anxious)?

a. Cut down the amount of time you spent on work or other activities?



b. Accomplished less than you would like



c. Didn't do work or other activities as carefully as usual



6. During the past 4 weeks, to what extent has your physical health or emotional problems interfered with your normal social activities with family, friends, neighbors, or groups?

Not at all



Quite a bit


7. How much… [read more]

Cognitive Psychology, Learning Theories Term Paper

… Skinner also sought to understand the application of his theory in the broadest behavioral context as it applies to living organisms, namely natural selection.

Social Cognitive Theory, also known widely as Social Learning Theory, is based on the social learning theory research first proposed by Miller and Dollard (1941). Miller and Dollard first proposed a theory of social learning in 1941 that differed from prior behavior-based learning models. However, the Miller and Dollard theory of learning did not account for delayed processes or un-reinforced imitations of observed behaviors (Pajares, 2002).

Albert Bandura believes that we acquire many behaviors through conditioning (as behaviorists) but prefaces such learning on observation and emphasizes interactions between persons and their environment. In contrast to Skinner, Bandura argues that what we think about a given situation influences behavior, and, consequently, much of our knowledge is internally localized and personalized. At its foundation, social cognitive theory is a theory of learning premised on an informal observational method for knowledge acquisition. Human behaviors, according to Social Cognitive Theory, can be explained via a three-way, dynamically connected, reciprocal process whereby individual characteristics, environmental factors and subsequent human behaviors interact with one another continuously. This triad of "reciprocal determinism" is a primary concept in Social Cognitive Theory and, as such, is an important consideration to better understand Bandura's learning model.


Bandura, A. (1986). "Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory." Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Miller, N.E., & Dollard, J. (1941). Social Learning and Imitation. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Pajares (2002). Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy. Retrieved from

Santrock, J.W. (2008). A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development (M. Ryan, Ed., 4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (Original work published 2002), pgs.…… [read more]

Sigmund Freud and Sexuality Essay

… Sigmund Freud and Sexuality

Sigmund Freud was a pioneer in psychoanalysis and in matters of human sexuality, and his path finding research has had an enormous impact on how psychologists, psychiatrists and other academics view the human sexual experience. Although… [read more]

Disability Rights Movement Research Paper

… Using the assistance of psychologists and mental health professionals, candidates will learn new skills that are currently needed in the job market or those that can lead to success incase of self-employment.

The second stage is the development of a… [read more]

Theories at a Glance Research Paper

… ¶ … Health Belief Model (HBM) (Becker, 1974) was developed in the1950s by researchers who were seeking to explain why some reject health services such as immunization and screening despite the fact that these services were offered free of charge. HBM, in short, uses a subjective expected utility model of decision evaluation (where the person evaluates and weighs outcomes of expectancies and values). Variables such as the patient's judgment of high susceptibility to disease, high severity of disease, high benefit in regards to using service, and low barriers involved in using the service would configure in the decision-making model regarding whether or not to adopt a possible course of health action.

One of the oldest yet one of the most widely accepted beliefs on health behavior, HBM posited that six main constructs influence people to care for their health and/or to seek medical intervention when necessary. These six constructs are the following: perceived susceptibility to the disease condition; perceived severity of the disease condition; perceived benefits to acting in a preventative or curative manner; perceived costs of acting; cue to action (i.e. individuals are exposed to cues (such as material) that impels action); and self-efficacy (i.e. individuals feel empowered to act).

HBM can be used to explain examples of preventive action such as where individuals rigorously maintain a diet and/or exercise routine. These individuals generally incorporate their susceptibility to disease, realize the benefits of acting, and possess the self-efficacy to take preventative action. Another example where HBM is a good fit is by high-risk sexual behavior where the same constructs apply.

Practitioners find the six constructs of the HBM a useful framework for planning and designing interventions for both short-term and long-term change. These concepts are merged with the following instances: specifying the nature of the disease (I.e. ramifications to health if exercise is averted), offering assistance (in the case, for instance, of implementing a diet); and self-efficacy (via programs that provide training and guidance).

2.…… [read more]

Schizophrenia Affects Millions of Adults Research Paper

… Schizophrenia affects millions of adults, and yet much about it still remains a mystery. This paper begins by describing schizophrenia from a historical perspective. This is followed by research related to the cause treatment and prevention of the disease. Cross-cultural… [read more]

Industrial Psychology Essay

… Developmental

Industrial Psychology

The field of Industrial Organizational psychology is a varied one. It encompasses any aspect of the workplace and people within companies. I-O psychologists' job titles and employment environments can be even more diverse. They range from employment consultants in private firms to testing and assessment experts in government agencies to human factors professors in university or research settings. An Industrial Psychologist applies doctrines of psychology to workers, management, supervision, sales, and advertising troubles. Tasks may comprise strategy development; worker screening, teaching and improvement; and executive expansion and investigation. I-O Psychologists often works with management in order to reorder the work settings to advance worker production (Industrial-Organizational Psychologists, 2010).

There major tasks that are I-O Psychologist perform include:

Developing and implementing worker choice and assignment plans

Analyzing job necessities and substance to found criterion for categorization, choice, teaching, and other connected workers tasks

Developing interview method, marking scales and psychological assessments used to evaluate abilities, aptitudes, and interests for the rationale of worker selection, assignment, and endorsement

Advising executives relating to workers, administrative, and advertising strategies and practices and their probable influences on organizational successes and competence

Analyzing information, utilizing statistical techniques and functions, to assess the results and efficiency of workplace agendas

Assessing worker feats

Observing and interviewing employees in order to attain knowledge about the physical, mental, and educational necessities of jobs as well as knowledge about things such as occupation approval

Writing reports on investigative findings and propositions in order to add to universal awareness and to propose possible alterations in organizational performance.

Facilitating organizational expansion and change.

Identifying educational and developmental requirements (Industrial-Organizational Psychologists, 2010).

What preparation is needed to get qualified for this job?

A doctoral degree typically is required for self-governing practice as a psychologist. Psychologists with a Ph.D. Or Doctor of Psychology meet the criteria for a broad assortment of education, investigative, clinical, and counseling positions in colleges, healthcare, elementary and secondary schools, private commerce, and government. Psychologists with a doctoral degree frequently work in clinical jobs or in private practices, but they also occasionally teach, carry out research, or conduct administrative tasks (Psychologists, 2009).

A doctoral degree usually entails about five years of full-time graduate work, concluding in a dissertation founded on original…… [read more]

Psychological Stress Can Result From Many Different Research Paper

… ¶ … Psychological stress can result from many different sources: it can be caused by work responsibilities, educational obligations, interpersonal relationships, and by virtually any other circumstances where the individual must meet the expectations of others or satisfy specific criteria where the failure to do so can result in negative consequences (Probst, 2010). Stress can also be the result of learned patterns from exposure to difficult situations, particularly where current situations trigger memories or learned expectations in the individual (Probst, 2010). Recently, psychological research has connected stress levels to a wide range of physical and medical ailments so directly that psychological stress is considered an important consideration in diagnosing many kinds of medical symptoms, especially those without readily apparent physical causes. For that reason, stress reduction has become an important area of contemporary psychological counselling as well as other aspects of modern life. Many employers now provide stress-management programs (Kelloway & Day, 2005) and hospitals (in particular) incorporate stress-reduction programs into patient care as a means of alleviating the severity of their symptoms and of enhancing their recovery (Archer, 2005).

The Causes and Consequences of Stress

There are myriad potential sources of psychological stress in human life. Typically, the responsibilities associated with work performance and evaluations, performance in school, and many aspects of family and other types of close interpersonal relationships can cause the individual to experience stress (Probst, 2010). Since the return of so many combat veterans from the ongoing war in Afghanistan and continuing U.S. military commitments in Iraq, there has been greatly increased appreciation of the susceptibility of individuals to long-term stress-related consequences of repeated exposure to danger and of witnessing the traumas associated with war, such as in the form of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that plagues a large percentage of combat veterans (Richardson & Rothstein, 2008). In many cases, stress can become incapacitating, especially in the form of PTSD; moreover, stress is a psychological issue that often goes unrecognized because individuals suffering from its consequences either fail to realize that it is the source of their problems or because they experience it as shameful because they believe suffering from its consequences is either a form of weakness or a sign of mental illness (Probst, 2005; Richardson & Rothstein, 2008).

The specific consequences of stress are also very wide-ranging and can include (among other things): anxiety, depression, difficulty dealing with others, decreased productivity at work or academic performance, irritability, digestive problems and loss of appetite, self-destructive behaviors, purposeful social isolation, and insomnia (Probst, 2005; Richardson & Rothstein, 2008; Sewell, 2006). Stress has even been recognized as a specific contributing factor that can exacerbate the severity of many medical problems and other physical ailments…… [read more]

Martin Luther King a Dreamer Term Paper

… Martin Luther King


Martin Luther King, Jr.


Martin Luther King, Jr. was born on January 15, 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia to Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr. And Alberta Williams (Brown, 2010). His siblings are… [read more]

Methodologies of Data Collection Term Paper

… ¶ … data collection for the topic you are researching (Parent Involvement in Elementary Schools) for your Literature review. Describe each methodology and one way that you will address validity of the methodology.

Two methods of data collection are via questionnaires and field or case-study observations.

The principal advantages of the questionnaire are its simplicity, versatility, and low cost. Questionnaires take into account the individual person, permitting freedom of response and the richness of expression that the laboratory method disallows. On the other hand, questionnaires are vulnerable to bias since respondents, for instance, might proffer a response that is not necessarily true, be affected by factors such as mood, fatigue etc., be disinclined to reveal certain matters, and so forth. Again, questionnaires have to be carefully phrased in such a way that they are comprehensible to the targeted audience and that all bias-evoking nuances are removed.

Questionnaires generally fall into two distinct categories:

(1) Hypothesis generating, where the questionnaire is used for exploratory types of questions in order to examine how people respond to a particular issue. This is, otherwise, known as survey design. (2). Test development and validation where the questionnaire is used as a potential scale to measure a psychological trait. This is called a psychometric diagnostic testing and is used in all forms of instance from neuropsychology to psychiatry to academic testing. Controversial for it is arguable whether the measurements can be used to test reliability or validity. Nevertheless, (aside from observation) no alternate or better tool has been found.

Survey design is one sort of questionnaire. The other example is the sort of test used, for instance by academic testing (such as the GRE) or recruitment for job purposes as Elmer (July 25, 2010) in the Washington Post points out. Rightfully observing that aptitude tests (as do all tests) have their constraints, she advises applicants on how to succeed. As she pointed out some questions can sometimes be culturally insensitive as well as biased. That is one of the potential problems with survey designs / questionnaires.

I will address the validity of the questionnaire by printing…… [read more]

Existential Therapists State That All Human Beings Essay

… Existential therapists state that all human beings possess the ability to choose their destinies: they can choose to free themselves from constricting environmental circumstances, or remain where they are, 'stuck' in an unhappy situation. All too often people make excuses as a way of evading their responsibility of choice. Instead of trying to find a new job, they say they have to remain in their old job to pay the bills. The existential therapist tries to make the client understand that it is his or her mental block and avoidance of the responsibility to freely choose his or her circumstances that is preventing the person from moving forward.

Behaviorists stress the need for positive and negative reinforcement when changing behaviors. Rewarding the child when he or she has a day free of 'acting out' (such as with an extra half-hour of television) and punishing the child when he or she does not behave with consequences (such as no television) is part of a behaviorist program. Operant conditioning 'shapes' behaviors using rewarding and non-rewarding stimuli. To more directly reward and punish the behaviors, the child could be sent to a 'quiet corner' to do his or her work, preventing the child from gaining the positive reinforcing behavior of laughter when he or she acts out.

Q3. For a client with a borderline personality disorder, which is characterized by intense preoccupation with relationships, to the point of possessiveness, a therapist might suggest that the client keep a record of how events like a lover's failure to return a call lead thoughts like: "if he doesn't call, that means that he doesn't love me;"or "if no man loves me, then I am worthless;" or "if I self-injure, then he will realize how much I love him."

REBT therapy views this spiraling thought sequence as follows:

A (activating event: no call from a boyfriend) + B (belief: no one will ever love me) = C (emotional and behavioral consequences of depression and self-injury)

D (disputing event: why is the boyfriend's opinion so…… [read more]

Social Structure and the Development of Self-Esteem in Young Children Article Critique

… Pallas, a.M., Entwisle, D.R., Alexander, K.L & Weinstein, P. (1990). Social structure and the development of self-esteem in young children. Social Psychology Quarterly 53(4).

Summarize the major objectives of the study and point out the main hypotheses that the author(s) list.

The authors investigate the structure and differentiation of self-esteem in young children, and trace the development of self-esteem from first to fourth grades. In a longitudinal study using the same population sample, the authors are able to trace the development and differentiation of self-esteem among young children. The authors predict that children will make increasingly finer distinctions in their self-concept as they grow older.

In other words, self-esteem related to body image would be further broken down into perceived weight or perceived height as the child matures. It is hypothesized, therefore, that children will differentiate among each dimension of self-esteem more as they develop. The authors also hypothesize differences among distinct population groups. In particular, the authors predict that boys and girls will score their self-esteem differently on different dimensions; that black vs. white students and privileged vs. low-income students will also reveal differences in their self-concept. The differences may or may not increase over time, but they will remain among the groups. The five broad categories of self-esteem or self-concept used in the research include character, personal responsibility, academics, athletics, and appearance.

Summarize the methods (subjects, materials, procedures, measures of behavior, etc.) used by the authors to test the hypotheses. Do you think that the methods used provide a good picture of the topic under investigation? For example, is the subject sample representative of the target population? Were the measures adequate or realistic?

The authors used a two-stage sampling scheme that was first based on the use of the Beginning School Study to glean a population of first-graders in the Baltimore area. Then, the sample was traced when the population was enrolled in second and fourth grade. The initial base group of participants was about 800 first graders, but by the end of the study in 1986, 553 children had participated in all self-esteem questionnaires. Because the authors deliberately sought a diverse sample, the population is reasonably representative with diversity in terms of gender, race, and socio-economic class. The authors refer to the research model as a "flexible confirmatory factor-analytic model," (p. 304).

Based on prior research, the authors employed a survey instrument consisting of 21 questions related to self-concept. The authors grouped the questions into five broad categories related to self-concept including character, personal responsibility, academics, athletics, and appearance. Factor loading and goodness-of-fit information is clarified in the methods section of the report.

The methods used do provide a good picture of the topic under investigation. The survey instrument is reasonably short to account for the short attention span of young children and their general inability to make abstract analyses of their self-image. However, there is no theoretical underpinning for choosing personal responsibility as one of the core self-concept groups. Children in first and even in fourth… [read more]

Prospect Theory Term Paper

… Human Behavior Through the Lens of Prospect Theory

Human beings base their everyday decisions and actions upon a very specific assessment of risk and reward. When human beings are offered a choice, they naturally begin top narrow down the potential… [read more]

Compare and Contrast Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Solution Focused Term Paper

… Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Solution Focused Therapy

Traditionally psychotherapy has been a lengthy process with clients spending years working with a therapist as they explore their past and attempt to untangle the ways in which that past continues to shape (often in unconscious ways) their present. However, in recent years a number of shorter-term forms of therapy have been developed that are designed to provide psychological and emotional relief in a much shorter period of time. The reasons for the rise in these short-term therapies is at least twofold: They reflect the financial realities of health insurance companies that are looking for less expensive forms of therapy as well as reflecting new understanding of how the human brain works and how human cognition and human emotion are related to each other. This paper explores two of these shorter forms of therapy: Cognitive behavioral therapy and solution based therapy.

Solution-focused therapy has as a core precept that for every client change is constant -- and, moreover, that change is healthy. During the process of working with a solution-based therapist, the therapist and client work together to identify and catalogue all of those aspects of the client's life that s/he wish to change. Just as importantly, the client and therapist work together to identify those aspects of the client's life that are adaptive and that the client wishes to maintain.

This dual emphasis on both change and stability is essential for both practical reasons and psychological ones. Everyone in his or her life has elements that are functional and that it would be non-adaptive (even foolish) to discard. Also, by helping the client understand that s/he has already mastered some behaviors and cognitive patterns that do serve the client well, the therapist can help the client understand that the client does not have to abandon everything familiar and established about her or his life and self.

Solution-focused therapists take as their initial task working with a client to create a clearly delineated vision of what the client wants the rest of her or his life to be in the future. This focus on the future -- rather than psychoanalysis's traditional focus on dissecting the past -- is one of the hallmarks of this form of therapy as well as one of the most important reasons why solution-focused therapy can be so effective in just a few months (O'Connell, 1998, p. 19).

After the solution-focused therapist and the client have constructed a model for the client's future, the two work together to identify any point in the client's past life when conditions were more like what the client what his or her future to look like. Such a brief retrospective view allows the client both to understand what is actually important to him or her and to acknowledge that s/he is capable of creating positive conditions in her or his life (Miller, Hubble, M.A., Duncan, B.L. (1996).

By focusing on the conditions that create the conditions in a client's life that the client… [read more]

Psychiatric Nursing Bipolar Disorder Research Paper

… Bipolar Disorder Type I from a Theoretical and Empirical Perspective

Bipolar disorder, which was at one time called manic depressive disorder, is a mental illness defined by alterations between manic moods and clinical depression. It is common now to differentiate between Bipolar I and Bipolar II disorders. In a general sense, Bipolar I disorder most closely corresponds to the previously used terminology manic depression. Bipolar I generates mood swings that are extremely severe and significantly impair functioning and quality of life. It can also entail psychotic episodes in some cases. Because of the severity of the disorder, many people suffering from Bipolar I are institutionalized. The length of each mood swing can range from days to months to years. Some people with this disorder stay in a certain state for so long that they no longer consider themselves to be bipolar. Then, unexpectedly, their mood will shift drastically in the opposite direction, causing extreme distress for both the sufferer and their loved ones (Joyce & Mitchell, 2005).

The DSM-IV provides the following criteria for Bipolar I Disorder:

"The essential feature of Bipolar I Disorder is a clinical course that is characterized by the occurrence of one or more Manic Episodes or Mixed Episodes. Often individuals have also had one or more Major Depressive Episodes. Episodes of Substance-Induced Mood Disorder (due to the direct effects of a medication, or other somatic treatments for depression, a drug of abuse, or toxin exposure) or of Mood Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition do not count toward a diagnosis of Bipolar I Disorder. In addition, the episodes are not better accounted for by Schizoaffective Disorder and are not superimposed on Schizophrenia, Schizophreniform Disorder, Delusional Disorder, or Psychotic Disorder Not Otherwise Specified" (p. 350)

Prevalence of Bipolar Disorder Type I

According to Doran (2007) the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder type I is approximately 1% of the U.S. population. However, when less strict criteria are used than that which is applied by the DSM-IV, Doran reports that studies estimate that the actual prevalence is five times higher.

Incidents of misdiagnosis also make it difficult to estimate the number of actual bipolar sufferers. According to Hirschfeld (2002) "Results from the National Depressive and Manic Depressive Association (NDMDA) survey indicate that 73% of patients with bipolar disorder were misdiagnosed on initial presentation to a healthcare professional" (p. 9)

Applicable Nursing Theory:

Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations in Nursing

The essence of Peplau's model is to create a "shared experience" in which the nurse and the client experience the treatment process together on an equal plane, as opposed to the client merely being the passive receiver of the nurse's treatment. This theory therefore seems highly applicable to bipolar disorder because it is ultimately about finding a balance.

Peplau emphasized six methods of achieving this goal, which were: observation, description, formulation, interpretation, validation, and intervention. Peplau also identified six different roles that nurses play in the treatment process. These were: The Stranger Role, The Resource Role, The Teaching… [read more]

Phd 3rd Year Personal Statement Term Paper

… Autobiographical Statement

My path to becoming a therapist has not been a straight one: There have been both barriers and detours. At the time that these roadblocks occurred I was frustrated and discouraged, sometimes to the point that I decided that I would simply pursue another career altogether. Now that I am back on the path to becoming a therapist, however, I am doubly glad. Glad both to be heading in the direction of the career that I have long wanted to pursue. And -- although I recognize that it sounds contradictory -- glad that my path has not been a perfectly smooth one. As I will elaborate below, I believe that I (like any other aspiring therapist) have benefited from the experiences that I have gained along the way.

A brief summary of my personal history is important to understand why my professional life has taken the course that it has. Along with my family, I immigrated to the United States from Iran in 1979. I thus began to attend school in this country when I was twelve, completing my undergraduate degree in 1988. At that point I wanted to continue my education. I was accepted to the master's program in psychology at Cal State Los Angeles and was very excited about the chance to attend the program and learn more about what shapes human thought, emotion, and behavior. However, my father did not allow me to study this field. His reasons for this arose from the beliefs that he brought with him from Iraq: Psychology was not accepted and still is not accepted in my parents' culture, which is that of Armenians living in Iran.

I wanted to honor my father's wishes for me because I knew that he had my best interests in mind. I also, to some extent, shared his concerns about psychology as a profession. While I believe that the fundamental tenets and practices of psychotherapy can be employed to help people from a very wide range of individuals, it is also clear to me that it is rooted within a specific Western European philosophical tradition. Psychotherapy, for example, makes certain assumptions about the relative importance of the individual vs. The family and culture and social norms vis-a-vis religious ones. There is nothing either wrong or right about such assumptions; rather, it is simply imperative for a clinician to be aware of the underlying structures that shape the practice of psychotherapy and determine, first, if these structures mesh with the individual's own preferences as well as serving the needs of the clients.

Despite the reservations that my father had about the profession, and despite my own nascent understanding of the ways in which psychotherapy is based in certain cultural and historical traditions that may make it of greater use to some populations than to others, I decided to continue my education in 2004 by studying psychology. When I received my Masters in Counseling in 2007 it was the greatest day of my life. I then… [read more]

Advanced Clinical Practice With Individuals Critique Term Paper

… ¶ … Clinical Practice with Individuals Critique of Practice

Behavioral change theories and designs mainly allow an individual to adapt and change a negative or damaging habit into a positive and healthier one. All behavioral change theories help the researcher… [read more]

ADHD Generation Research Paper

… ADHD Generation


The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized through the fact that it involves both an insufficiency in attention and in hyperactivity. The first symptoms of ADHD can normally be observed before the individual reaches the age… [read more]

Childhood Separation Anxiety Disorder Essay

… Separation Anxiety Disorder in Children

Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) manifests itself in children as extreme anxiety based on unrealistic expectations of permanent disconnection when the child is separated from parents or other individuals with whom they are strongly emotionally attached. Separation anxiety is a normal part of the childhood development process in infants because they do not have the cognitive abilities to distinguish between temporary absence and permanent absence. Most children move past this separation anxiety by the time they reach pre-school age.

Separation anxiety becomes an actual mental disorder when the child continues to have irrational fears when separated from those to whom he or she is emotionally attached past pre-school age and even into adolescence. According to, "Approximately 4%-5% of children and adolescents suffer from separation anxiety disorder."

The symptoms for Separation Anxiety Disorder (309.21) as described by the DSM-IV-TR, involves three or more of the following indicators:

(1) recurrent excessive distress when separation from home or major attachment figures occurs or is anticipated

(2) persistent and excessive worry about losing, or about possible harm befalling, major attachment figures

(3) persistent and excessive worry that an untoward event will lead to separation from a major attachment figure (e.g., getting lost or being kidnapped)

(4) persistent reluctance or refusal to go to school or elsewhere because of fear of separation

(5) persistently and excessively fearful or reluctant to be alone or without major attachment figures at home or without significant adults in other settings

(6) persistent reluctance or refusal to go to sleep without being near a major attachment figure or to sleep away from home

(7) repeated nightmares involving the theme of separation

(8) repeated complaints of physical symptoms (such as headaches, stomachaches, nausea, or vomiting) when separation from major attachment figures occurs or is anticipated (p. 391)

The diagnostic criteria for SAD, according to the DSM-IV-TR are:

(1) Developmentally inappropriate and excessive anxiety concerning separation from home or from those to whom the individual is attached, as evidenced by at least three of the symptoms described above.

(2) The duration of the disturbance is at least 4 weeks.

(3) The onset is before age 18 years.

(4) The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, academic (occupational), or other important areas of functioning.

(5) The disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of a Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Schizophrenia, or other Psychotic Disorder and, in adolescents and adults, is not better accounted for by Panic Disorder With Agoraphobia (p. 391).

Treatment protocols for SAD can be therapy-based, pharmaceutical or a combination of both. One of the most popular therapeutic treatments for SAD is cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). The Cognitive Behavioral model is an amalgamation of three major psychology disciplines: behavior therapy, cognitive therapy and social psychology (Cooper & Lesser, 2008).

There are a series of steps that need to be undertaken to assess or intervene using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. These are: 1) Specifying the problematic behaviors; 2) Data collection (monitoring and recording); 3) Goal setting;… [read more]

Emotional Intelligence and Work Stress Term Paper

… Emotional Intelligence and Work-Related Stress

Especially in a period where economic uncertainty is so high, unemployment continues to be a major problem, and savings for retirement and "rainy days" have been largely reduced or wipes out for many individuals despite careful planning, psychological stress can be a major part employment and the work environment (Froman 2010). This work stress can be better dealt with and even mitigated and reduced by those that have higher degrees of emotional intelligence, studies have shown, and thus workplaces that actively work to increase the emotional intelligence of the individuals within the organization and the organization as a whole can lead to healthier, happier, and more productive workforces (Chang & Chang 2010). Unfortunately, this can be difficult to achieve as the psychological issues attendant upon work stress can act to reduce emotional intelligence, interrupting this cycle and forcing into an opposite and negative direction (Chang & Chang 2010).

The benefits of increased emotional intelligence while dealing with work stress can clearly be seen in a variety of studies involving different populations and different situations. Adolescents with higher emotional intelligence experiencing work stress during school were seen to achieve generally higher GPAs than those with lower emotional intelligence scores but similar stress issues (Hogan et al. 2010). This remained true even when the results of the direct research were controlled for scores on traditional intelligence tests, meaning that intelligence did not account for the noted differences in GPA, but rather emotional intelligence, quite possibly as an alleviator of work stress, allowed for better performance (Hogan et al. 2010).

In another study involving a population of nurses, the negative aspects ofwork stress that is not effectively dealt with is shown with a clarity equal to that of the positive benefits described above. Declines in general health and an increased frequency in sick leave were associated with…… [read more]

Carl Jung's Theory Essay

… Jung

Cognitive science is a multidisciplinary field, comprising cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, neuroscience, and anthropology. In recent years, cognitive science has become a predominant paradigm in studies of the mind. Cognitive science incorporates concepts and methods from philosophy, cognitive… [read more]

Borderline Personality Disorder the Following Research Report Research Paper

… Borderline Personality Disorder

The following research report focuses on a population at risk, those diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder. The report is offered in three sections. Part I provides an examination which looks at statistics related to the disorder. A… [read more]

Speed of Mental Processes, F.C. Donders Essay

… ¶ … speed of mental processes," F.C. Donders is speaking about mental chronometry. The concept relies mainly on the duration of a response in tasks which involve the process of perception and physical movement. The purpose is to understand the cognitive operations which occur and analyze them in terms of both duration and content. In addition, the order in which these operations occur can be considered relevant factor. According to the writer, the time required for a so called "simple task" can be analyzed in terms of perception and motor time. "Perceptual discrimination time = time for discrimination task- simple task" and "response selection time= time for choice task -- discrimination task" are the other two formulas coined up by Donders in his attempt to create an investigation method for the area under discussion.

E.B. Titchener, in his "An outline of psychology" tries to make the readers understand which are the elements that could be considered as component parts of the mind. The author believed that finding the mind to have a structure and understanding what that structure is could help us comprehend the manner in which thoughts (from simple to complex) are constructed. In order to understand the structure of the mind, we need to have a basic unit. Once we have established that, then we can understand what introspection and consciousness consist of.

"The psychopathology of everyday life" is S. Freud's attempt to analyze psychological aspects basing his conclusions upon the observation of everyday life facts. The psychologist discusses aspects such as infantile sexuality and its impact upon the adult, the distinction between facts driven by the unconscious and those driven by the consciouss, the role of will, slips of the tongue and their meaning, superstitions, etc. His purpose is to demonstrate the impact…… [read more]

To Diagnose Essay

… ¶ … Diagnose or Not to Diagnose

Differentiate among the various types of mental illness described in case examples

People suffering with mental illness experience limitations in their cognitive and behavior skills along with emotional and behavioral disorders. These disorders… [read more]

Personality Disorders Research Paper

… Personality Disorders and other Mental Disturbances: A Comparison of Borderline Personality Disorder and Schizophrenia

There exists a very wide range in the types and cases of psychological disorders that have been identified and studies by the medical and psychological communities, and at times an overlap in certain symptoms or apparent behaviors can lead to a conflated diagnosis of several different disorders. This is not so much a problem for practiced psychological practitioners, of course, but for the lay community and those just beginning their study of psychology, the differences between types of disorders and specific disorders themselves can require some clarification. This paper draws a comparison between personality disorders, specifically borderline personality disorder, and a somewhat more serious and less treatable psychological condition, schizophrenia, to demonstrate the different causes, effects, and methods of handling these very different yet in some ways similar disorders.

Personality disorders themselves come in a wide range of forms, with varying effects on those who suffer from them. There are some common characteristics to personality disorders that be summarized here, however: all are pervasive, meaning that they affect most areas of life (according to the DSM-IV, "pervasive" means influencing at least two of the four areas of cognition, affectivity or emotional response, interpersonal functioning and impulse control) (Antony & Barlow 2004, pp. 459). They can also be very difficult to accurately and concretely diagnose due to the subjective nature of the patient's perceptions and responses (Antony & Barlow 2004, pp. 457-70.

Schizophrenia, on the other hand, is much more well-defined than is the general class of personality disorders, and there are specific symptoms that must be present -- as well as specific symptoms that must be absent -- before a diagnosis of schizophrenia can be made (Antony & Barlow 2004, pp. 374). While personality disorders generally reflect a difference in how n individual perceives and relates to the real world, schizophrenia is marked by a certain level of disconnect with the real world, and those suffering from schizophrenic disorders often find themselves trapped in worlds created by their own minds (Antony & Barlow 2004, pp. 373-82). All areas of life are affected by schizophrenia, with cognition, perception, and emotionality all in some way altered such that certain elements not present in non-sufferers persist for schizophrenics, and others are missing.

Borderline Personality Disorder

There is a general consensus among practicing therapists and psychologists that patients with borderline personality disorders are especially difficult to treat precisely because of the psychological condition they suffer from (Barlow 2008, pp. 365). Attempts to treat such individuals might actually have suffered due to this stigma, and recent figures suggest that up to three-quarters of individuals that meet the criteria for borderline personality disorder have a history of suicide attempts -- a number that might be reduced by more vigorous treatment (Barlow 2008, pp. 365). The fact that he disorder is characterized by feelings of victimization, a lack of personal responsibility, and high impulsivity and mood swings does not help matters (Paris 2007,… [read more]

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Evaluation Research Paper

… Myers-Briggs Eval

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Test Evaluation

Carl Jung's theory of personality has been one of the most influential theories of the twentieth century and into the current era, in large part due to the widespread use of the… [read more]

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Research Paper


Introduction to Maslow's Hierarchy-of-Needs Theory of Personality Development

Abraham Maslow helped establish the field of humanistic psychology in the middle of the 20th century (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008). His observations led him to postulate that all human beings develop psychologically in similar stages or phases corresponding to classes of fundamental psychological needs. Maslow outlined a Hierarchy of Needs depicted in the shape of a pyramid to represent the successive levels of psychological needs at various stages of life and psychological development (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).

The other main component of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs concept was that successful completion of each phase of psychological needs on the hierarchy is a prerequisite for progressing to subsequent levels (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008). The implications of Maslow's concepts are different for different types of industries and organizations. Within law enforcement in particular, the fourth of Maslow's five hierarchical layers is tremendously important and it is one of the principal bases of professional motivation and personal identity throughout the field (Schmalleger, 2008).

The Significance of Maslow's Developmental Stages

Maslow's first developmental stage relates to physiological needs such as breathing and biological homeostasis (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008). Maslow's second developmental stage relates to the physical safety and security of the individual, such as from external threats to life and limb. Maslow's third developmental stage relates to the need of the individual for companionship and close personal bonds such as with family by blood and marriage. It is the set of needs that arise during this stage of psychological development that plays a substantial motivational role for human courtship and pair bonding formalized in the institution of marriage (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).

According to Maslow, satisfaction of needs arising during the fourth stage, the need for esteem, often play a tremendous role in shaping the lives of the adult in modern society (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008). This stage of development includes the need of the individual to feel that he or she is held in high regard by others, viewed positively, and appreciated in the community. Many successful politicians and business leaders are highly motivated by the many issues and perceptual impulses generated by the fundamental need for esteem.

However, this need can motivate both positive and negative behavior, depending on the target community whose esteem is valued by the individual. In that regard, this stage of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs can represent a sharp double edge: the human need for esteem can be the source of virtually any behavior that is held in high regard (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008). Therefore, in communities and societies with positive and benevolent ideals, the need for esteem motivates positive behavior. Conversely, in communities swept by negative malevolent sentiment, many individuals will be unable to resist the needs associated with Maslow's fourth level of psychological needs. Therein lies the danger that is capable of giving rise to Nazism (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008) or perpetuating American Slavery for almost three centuries.

Maslow's fifth stage… [read more]

Psychological Disorder Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder PTSD Term Paper

… Psychological Disorder: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

The Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a rather common mental illness which causes individuals to feel constant distress, regardless of the condition they find themselves into. The malady is usually triggered by a traumatizing incident that one had in their past. There are a series of treatments for ptsd, but with it being a mental illness, it is less likely that it can be cured, but it can be ameliorated to a large degree, removing most symptoms from the individual.

The Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (ptsd) revolves around the concept that an individual is predisposed to develop an nervousness disorder consequent to undergoing an incident which causes psychological trauma. Such an incident can involve the harming of one's physical, sexual, or psychological integrity, influencing the person to acknowledge and intensify the belief that he or she is not powerful enough to defend themselves.

The American public is apparently more often presented with cases involving ptsd, as the first official cases of individuals suffering from the disorder go back to the years consequent to the Vietnam War. Psychologists and psychiatrists have made progress in studying the disorder and reached the conclusion that ptsd basically comes as a result of trauma inducing occurrences, such as rape, torture, accidents, abuse, and others. (Beall, 1997)

The numerous movies and books written on the topic of the Vietnam War are probably some of the most common sources relating to ptsd, presenting war veterans struggling to deal with the traumatic experiences in their lives. (Beall, 1997) the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders' third edition is the first official document to speak about ptsd, only providing limited information on the topic however. (Wilson, 2001)

Events like the two world wars, the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, and the genocides which took place across the twentieth century can all be considered to provide significant reasons for people to suffer from ptsd. Holocaust survivors have clearly proved that ptsd is not just part of people's imagination, as those who contributed to writing the DSM III considered it to be. (Wilson, 2001) Apparently, the Holocaust has left deep imprinted images into the minds of those who did not perish as a result of the horrible event. These people were haunted by what they saw and by what they gone through as they constantly fear that a violent death is approaching. (Douillard)

Another symptom displayed by Holocaust survivors is the guilt they feel because of the fact that they were among the ones who managed to evade death. This guilt is also present because they are aware of the coincidental chain of events which led to their survival. During their time in the death camps, most prisoners were left with no emotions whatsoever and this made the ones who lived on feel extreme remorse for their behavior. Moreover, the fact that they could not express their emotions while in the death camps influenced them to be unable to express feelings in their later lives. (Douillard)… [read more]

Hypnosis Compared to Eastern Meditation Chi Kung and Nei Thesis

… ¶ … globalization and innovations in telecommunications are bringing healthcare practitioners together from all over the world in ways that have never before been possible. As these collaborative efforts and mature communities of practice continue to emerge, it is important… [read more]

Sigmund Freud Research Paper

… Sigmund Freud is commonly known as the "father of psychoanalysis." Although many of his ideas and paradigms have been outmoded by subsequent research, he is recognized as the first to recognize a link between behavior and the brain. Today still,… [read more]

Scientific Approaches to Learning, Behavior, and Brain Questionnaire

… Scientific approaches to learning, behavior, and brain function are part of a tradition of methodology that is based on a set of standards, empirical knowledge, and experimentation. Cures, brain improvement technologies, etc. that are advertised are often pseudo-science and have not been tested in a robust environment that has peer-reviewed experimental results that can be duplicated. They are typically based on anecdotal evidence, and while some may indeed have some value, often lack "proof." A scientific basis, however, requires a more rigorous hypothesis testing rubric.

In general, pseudoscience is a belief that claims or appears to be scientific, but does not use appropriate scientific methodology. Astrology is one example; it has millennia of tradition, wraps itself up in numerous details, and keeps claims rather vague and general so that almost everyone can find a kernel of truth within the claims. Scientology is another example of a pseudo-science that creates a veneer of "science," but has no openness in research, proof of claims, or duplication of experiments (Carroll, 2009).

3. Creative thinking is one of the ways in which human beings are able to separate themselves from other animals and to actualize. Animals can be curious, but whether that curiosity has memory, or deeper implications of "what if," in the future, or synthesizing disparate materials into something new is still debatable. There is a wonderful book series by Roger Von Oech that asks us to continue to develop creative thinking within our daily lives in order to keep our brains functioning well and robust (Von Oech, 1973, 1986). There are several questions about innate human nature that are personally fascinating: 1) Why do myths and legends seem to resonate throughout the ages? 2) What is about certain music, art or literature…… [read more]

Abnormal Psych Each of the Major Schools Essay

… Abnormal Psych

Each of the major schools of thought in psychology propose treatment interventions for mental disorders. The therapeutic interventions vary depending on the theory's model of mental illness such as perceptions of etiology and goals of treatment. For example, a behaviorist definitively rejects the abstract thinking that would be encouraged by a Gestalt therapist, a humanist, or an existentialist. The single unifying principle among all treatment modalities is the ultimate goal of helping the individual cope with, understand, change, or eliminate distress. Specific treatment modalities advocated and used by the different schools vary considerably.

For example, Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic school addresses mental illness as a manifestation of repressed anxieties and subconscious conflicts. Therefore, therapy emphasizes the manifestations of the subconscious mind including childhood memories, fantasies, and dreams. Therapy includes extensive one-on-one sessions with a counselor who helps the client dig deep into the subconscious mind. Methods like free association, dream interpretation, and transference may be used to uncover layers of the client's mind ("Psychological Therapies").

Like the psychoanalytic school, the humanistic, Gestalt, transpersonal, and existential schools acknowledge the importance of a person's childhood, dreams, fantasies, fears, and anxieties. However, the humanistic, Gestalt, transpersonal, and existential schools pick up where psychoanalysis leaves off by going beyond repressed memories and anxieties ("Psychology Schools of Thought in the United States" nd). The client is treated as a whole person, not reduced to a collection of memories or abnormal behaviors. Instead, the client is encouraged to think about the meaning of his or her conflicts, and how wholeness and happiness can be achieved. Therapeutic interventions focus on talking therapy as with a psychoanalytical intervention, but the therapist assumes a more supportive role than a psychoanalyst would.

The humanistic and…… [read more]

Example of Abnormal Behavior in Media Term Paper

… Abnormal Psych in Media

Disorganized Schizophrenia in Cronenberg's Spider

Wedding, Boyd, and Niemiec (2005) write about David Cronenberg's film Spider (2002) that "This dark and dreary film maps out the psychological terrain of a man with schizophrenia" (p. 109). They… [read more]

John Watson and His Contributions Research Paper

… ¶ … John Watson and his contributions to the field of behavioral psychology. John B. Watson came to be known as one of the creators of behavioral psychology and an expert in the subject. He later left psychology and worked… [read more]

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