"Psychology / Behavior / Psychiatry" Essays

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Counselling Leaning Theories and Integration Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  3 pages (893 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Interpersonal Systems Constructivist Theories

Interpersonal Theory

The theory's core argument is that members learn from interaction with others through feedback and exchange. The learning process is through distortions to the perceptual interpersonal, corrections of emotional experiences and cognition. The learning model view the interaction of members as a learning process with the objective of creating awareness, change in relations and insights (Reid, Dalton, Laderoute, Doell, & Nguyen, 2006). What is obtained as a lesson through the intergroup relations is reflected in contexts outside the group and this is the objective of interpersonal theory. To allow the intended impact on individuals, the facilitator should direct interrelation towards the desired outcome.

Interpersonal learning is ideal where there is a need to validate some behaviors and discredit others. The validation occurs in a natural setting with little or no guidance required. In the event that the some behaviors are considered inconsistent with acceptable norm invalidation will occur through disapproval by the significant others (members of the group or social setting). With disapproval from the significant others, such behaviors will have a diminished value to the individual owing to the higher value in attachment to significant others (Reid et al., 2006).

It is, however, notable that facilitators need to have a keen interrogation on the relations within the group. The desirable changes and distortions coming from relations may end up yielding unwarranted disapproval. While a group's member may disapprove a certain member's action, it may come out negatively thereby discrediting the process of interrelation for learning. The undesirable discrediting requires corrective measures such as consensual validation. The individuals are allowed to observe their actions as ideal in accordance with their own evaluation. The interpersonal theory is, however, applicable to groups with similar challenges as opposed to individuals with differing challenges. This implies that although there is simplification on the attention to the challenges and corrective measures, the measures arrived at will be limited in innovation and applicability.

Systems Theory

Systems theory looks at the interlocking influencers to an individual's knowledge comprising of the social systems, individual systems, and the wider environmental factors. The systems theory observes that the resultant interactions of the individual and the surrounding facilitate in creating diversity in knowledge (Peavy, 2004). The aspect that individuals have ties to a specific range of systems build an association of the resultant knowledge to the system one is closely linked with. In delivering counseling sessions, it is imperative to bear in mind the relative systems one affiliate with. This will further foster articulation of the challenges an individual is facing and help in corrective measures (Peavy, 2004)

With the understanding of the systems influencing an individual knowledge outcome,…… [read more]

Pros and Cons of Behavioral and Cognitive Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (608 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Cognitive-behavioral and behavioral therapies can be remarkably flexible and adaptable to different patient populations. Like many other integrative theories, cognitive-behavioral theories have developed into a cohesive set of beliefs and applications for treatment. There are many benefits to using both behavioral and cognitive-behavioral therapies, one of which is their focus on solutions rather than stressing the causes of problems as with psychoanalytic theories. Cognitive-behavioral theories try to help clients discover new ways of coping with stress by changing thoughts and behaviors. By changing underlying thoughts and cognitive schemas, the person can experience lasting changes in behavior as well as other tangible outcomes such as relationship harmony or physical health. The theory is that distortions in thinking such as unrealistic expectations can impede healthy functioning (Corsini & Weddong, 2014). Cognitive-behavioral therapies may be helpful for people with addictions, anger management problems, and other issues that impact daily life but which do not have their roots in serious mental illnesses like schizophrenia.

Because they are flexible theories in general, cognitive-behavioral and behavioral therapies can be used as adjuncts to psychopharmacology and other interventions. Moreover, cognitive-behavioral therapies can work well with mindfulness and "acceptance and commitment therapies," which are actually classified as types of cognitive-behavioral therapies (Corsini & Wedding, 2014, p. 60). The approach of mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapies is that the client ceases to judge and engage negative thoughts, instead focusing on the realities of the present moment. Freeing up the mind from judgmental thinking, the person can also envision goals and a plan for achieving goals (Corsini & Wedding, 2014). The client can learn coping mechanisms and exercises that can extend far beyond the therapeutic relationship, making cognitive-behavioral therapy conducive to brief and solution-focused methods.

Although cognitive-behavioral therapies might not be effective for treating serious mental illnesses involving hallucinations or delusions, the cognitive-behavioral…… [read more]

Annotated Bibliography on Stress Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  3 pages (885 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Appley, M. H, and Richard Trumbull. Dynamics of Stress Physiological, Psychological and Social Perspectives. Boston, MA: Springer U.S., 2012. Print.

This book covers the dynamics of stress as the title suggests via a theoretical lens. One idea they cover early on is parallel systems. Generally, there is an acceptance of only three parallel systems. They are social, psychological and physiological. They function to maintain an individual as well as provide whatever means available to deal with stressors over the individuals lifetime. Stress comes to in numerous ways. Some people may deal with stress better than others may. This could from the person having more at their disposable to handle such stress. Things like material wealth, healthy body, and strong support system could all make excellent ways to cope with stress. The more a person has of these resources, the more theoretically they could cope with trauma and stress. This book covers other topics pertaining to stress and theory including life cycles and other topics of interest like transactional models for individual differences.

Arnetz, Bengt B, and Rolf Ekman. Stress in Health and Disease. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2006. Print.

Scientists have noted in recent times the detrimental effect stress has on the human body. This book seeks to look into why people should care about stress- what intrinsic behaviors in organizations lead to stressful workplaces. In one of the chapters, it covers motivation and its ability to stimulate and sustain behavior. The author suggests important factors that hep to contribute to positive job attitude and thus reduction of workplace stress is recognition, achievement, work itself, advancement, responsibility, and growth. People at work may often feel the effects of stress because they have no room to develop or learn new skills. Many of the jobs in America for example have low levels of recognition and lack the opportunities for advancement, thus diminishing motivation and increasing stress levels. Stress levels may impair how one does a job properly and may decrease productivity for a business or organization as well as diminish quality of work.

Bryant, Richard et al. 'Treating Acute Stress Disorder: An Evaluation of Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Supportive Counseling Techniques: American Journal of Psychiatry: Vol 156, No 11'. American Journal of Psychiatry 156.11 (1999): 1780. Web. 31 July 2015.

This is an informative article from 1999 covering the topic of acute stress disorder (and PTSD) and its treatment. The objective of this article is to recognize acute stress disorder as an early identifier of trauma survivors at risk of evolving chronic PTSD posttraumatic stress disorder. This study aims to prevent PTSD through an early delivery of cognitive behavior therapy. Precisely, this study indexes the…… [read more]

Id Is the Weakest Component Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (545 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theories

The psychoanalytical approach was founded with Sigmund Freud's and the theories he developed of human psychology. He identified three primary components of personality: the id, the ego and the superego. He believed that the individual's behavior was an explanation of how these three psychological forces worked together in a healthy adult or in some cases failed to work together as in someone with psychological problems. These relationships between the psychological components were thought to serve as the basis for human instincts and the factors responsible for the decision making process in general. The theory of the ego has been further developed since Freud's time and is still used in psychoanalysis, a counseling approach Freud developed, which attempts to identify these forces in a therapy sessions.

In Freud's original work, he believed that there were three distinct regions of the mind. The first area of the mind was the id which can be thought of as the completely unconscious region. This region also serves as the human pleasure center that seeks immediate gratification. The ego, which represents something of a secondary process in the brain, tries to reconcile the demands of ego with the limitations that are present. These include the limitations of both the natural world as well as the social systems and social norms that an individual must consider. Lastly, the superego is an ideological voice that every individual has or what is thought of commonly as the human consciousness which is referred to as the "conscience" or "voice of reason." It is the interactions between these three forces are the dynamics between them that play out…… [read more]

Understanding Psychotherapy and Its Benefits Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  2 pages (641 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2




Psychodynamic-Interpersonal Theories are beneficial the field of psychology. Individuals who perceive psychodynamic therapy to be a good fit have floated various factors in support. The discipline seeks to address root causes of psychological complications as compared to CBT. In the end, the advantages include broader-based utilization and longer lasting curative measures. Psychodynamic therapy is one of the good ways of addressing psychosomatic conditions, personality patterns, and general distress or tendencies of repeated difficulties in an individual's work and relationship (Trimboli & Farr, 2000).

The scope of movement into the integration focus is addressed in distinct levels of psychotherapy taking place for decades. However, psychotherapy integration is a traditional way of hampering rivalry and competition in the health sector. The rivalry is traced as far back as the differences arising medical disciplines (Maniacci, 2002). The appropriate frameworks, in this case, allow for the conceptualization of clients problems. The psychoanalysis of application also benefits the various theories created in individual psychology. Therapists claim to have found the best treatment approaches designed to address the challenges of the other therapy systems. Behaviorism has been introduced into the fields of psychoanalysis and behaviorism.

However, there are some cons to Psychodynamic-Interpersonal Theories. Even as psychodynamic therapy is brief, it tends to take more time as compared to CBT. Most people do not perceive psychodynamic therapy to be an appropriate treatment approach. They consider it difficult as it causes variances in accepting the factors away from the awareness influencing the different levels of behaviors and thoughts. Others have been reluctant to address the distinct levels of childhood and relationships that develop along therapy (Trimboli & Farr, 2000). Psychodynamic therapy is also minimally less structured as compared to CBT hence the preference for a more directive and focused approach to CBT.

While developing personalized integrative approaches to therapy, it is important to contact professional help in getting…… [read more]

Screening Employees Using Psychological Testing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (728 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Psychological Assessment: Security Employment

Personality screening is often deployed to ensure that the prospective security employee has the necessary personal characteristics to thrive in what can be a lonely yet high-stress environment. One popular test is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) which assesses candidates according to the degree to which they possess certain characteristics on a scale of introversion vs. extroversion; thinking vs. feeling; sensing vs. intuiting; judging vs. perceiving. "Since the MMPI-2 is oriented towards the detection of psychopathology and it is considered a medical test, it is only appropriate for use in pre-employment screening only after all other factors have been considered. These other factors include interviews, background checks, strength and fitness tests, and reading tests" (Weiss & Weiss 2010). Extroversion (a desire to be with others) and judging (adhering to standards) along with using thinking and logic would be viewed as desirable characteristics. In contrast, the California Personality Inventory is used for normal-range assessment and may be deployed earlier on in the hiring process to see if the candidate has the necessary traits to thrive in the security industry. The CPI is particularly useful because it "assesses social communication and interpersonal behavior. Specifically, predicting an individual's reaction, what they will say or do, under conditions is part of the purpose of the CPI" ("California Personality Inventory," 2015). Dealing with the public is an essential component of working in security.

The MMPI and CPI are objectively scored and assessed based upon answers to multiple choice questions. But other forms of personality screening are more involved and require more subjective, in-depth assessment of the clients, as well as trained therapists to conduct the assessment. Examples of these include the Rorschach Inkblots and Figure Drawings personality tests. The Rorschach requires the test taker to review a succession of standardized inkblots which is then evaluated against a series of predictable 'normal' responses. Figure drawing tests evaluate the client's depiction of simple figures in terms of their completeness against a series of expected responses. Although there are no right answers to these tests, individuals with the types of traits the organization is seeking tend to manifest a series of possible responses within a particular range…… [read more]

Yosemite as Viewed by John Muir Book Report

Book Report  |  2 pages (625 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Autism

The journal article that I reviewed for this assignment is entitled, "Cognitive-behavioral therapy for children with autism spectrum disorders"; it was authored by Rotheram-Fuller and MacMullen. This article examines the effect of "an educational model & #8230;widely used to treat anxiety, mood and psychotic disorders" known as (Rotheram-Fuller and MacMullen, 2011, p. 264) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). The article's premise is that CBT would be efficacious in contending with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) because it considers -- and directly addresses, the cognitive aspects of the behavioral issues that many individuals on the autism spectrum experience. The aim of the study is to review literature that utilized CBT for various patients with ASD to determine how CBT could positively influence students with autism in school settings (Rotheram-Fuller and MacMullen, 2011, p. 263).

The article begins with a general explication ASD that includes the specific conditions that comprise it: "autism, high-functioning autism, Asperger's syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorders" (p. 263). One of the more insightful aspects of this introductory session is that it identifies the primary symptoms of ASD -- certainly for school children -- as difficulty with social interaction and general anxiety. The authors (2011) postulate that the latter tends to cause the former (p. 263). Implicit within this postulation is the fact that CBT could help reduce the feeling of anxiety about social interaction that many children experience.

The article also delves into the many mechanisms of CBT, which includes six steps in all: psychoeducation, somatic management, cognitive restructuring problem solving, exposure and relapse prevention (p. 264). Those steps are responsible for getting children to understand that there are solutions to their anxiety problems -- most of which involve relaxation -- and that by identifying and reconsidering the nature of anxiety causing events, they can ultimately control them and their responses to them. The crux of the…… [read more]

Helping Patients and Working in Healthcare Teams Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  4 pages (1,376 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Communication: End-of-Life Care

My first time participating in a family meeting where very serious news about someone's health was shared was when a physician revealed that one of my relatives had Stage 4 lung cancer. The physician in question addressed the issue in a matter-of-fact but sensitive fashion. He prefaced the revelation by saying he had bad news for the family. Then, he explained the results of the various tests he had performed in detail. He also briefed us about the facts of the disease, such as the different types of lung cancer and why my relative may have developed it even though she was not in a high-risk category.

He did not say that he was sorry directly although his demeanor was fairly contained. He explained that treatment options were more limited because of the advanced progression of the disease and the likely outcomes. Our family was naturally very taken aback by the unexpected news given that we were not anticipating my relative's illness to be so advanced. Unfortunately, it was very difficult to fully appreciate what he was saying or make decisions about treatment, given that he was bombarding us with information in a very short period of time. Had I been the individual giving the information, I would have broken the news slowly and first allowed my family to articulate our feelings. After assessing the initial reaction, only then would I begin to speak about treatment.

The physician did not follow the steps of revealing bad news: setting up a location, finding out what the family already knows and what they want to know, but because all of us were so anxious to find out the news, any additional delays would not have been welcome. Part of the problem was that most of the family was not fully prepared for such bad news about our relative's prognosis.

Regarding the instilling of hope, I think that healthcare providers are extremely reluctant to instill false hope in patients, which is what can make receiving bad news so hard. There must be a balance between sensitivity and realism which can be difficult to strike. Positive aspects a provider can stress might include the availability of palliative care, the ability to move in and out of palliative care and the fact that even late stage cancer still can be managed in some instances. But this type of positive spin on the news does not initially sound positive from the family's perspective until after the negative information has been received. One of the reasons for this is that the patient and the family make take some time to fully extricate themselves from the stage of denial, the first stage of the Kubler-Ross process of grieving. The fact that the family cannot initially accept the diagnosis makes discussing future treatment in an immediate fashion very difficult.

Physicians often do not have the emotional or cognitive tools to deal with the irrational feelings which death provokes such as the guilt many of us felt… [read more]

and Application of Explanatory Theories Article Review

Article Review  |  6 pages (2,308 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … client for this case study is Andrea, who is a 37-year-old American-Indian female. She belongs to the Baptist faith and was referred by the Family Services Department to the caseworker. The client had seen a physician and was also prescribed some medications for treatment of her depression at the Health Center. She was then referred to the Family… [read more]

Dissociative Disorders Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (767 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Dissociative disorders represent a collection of various disorders that have an element of psychological disruption of some kind in common which are characterized by a disconnection or break from reality. These disorders can include disruptions in awareness, memory, identity, or perceptions among others. Most of these disorders develop out of some kind of acute psychological trauma. The total population of people with dissociative disorders is estimated at 2%, with women being more likely than men to be diagnosed and almost half of adults in the United States experience at least one depersonalization/derealization episode in their lives, with only 2% meeting the full criteria for chronic episodes (National Alliance on Mental Illness, N.d.). This will provide a brief introduction to three of the specific disorders included in this category of disorders.

Dissociative Amnesia

The primary symptom for this disorder is difficulty recalling information about an individual's own self. Generally dissociative amnesia surrounds a specific event or trauma and can last anywhere from minutes to years (National Alliance on Mental Illness, N.d.). Any individual may experience multiple episodes of this disorder in their lifetime and there is no average age of onset. Characteristically, patients who are diagnosed with dissociative amnesia experience one or more episodes in which they forget some or all of the events that occurred during a period of time; these gaps in memory can represent only a few hours or can encompass years (The Merck Manual, N.d.). Once patients have an amnestic episode they can become confused, distressed, or possibly indifferent to the memory gap. Others are not even aware that they are missing memories and do not seek any further treatment. This condition is commonly treated through psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, medication, family therapy, creative therapies, hypnosis, or some combination of multiple methods. The objective is to relieve symptoms and control problem behaviors (WebMD, N.d.).

Dissociative Identity Disorder

Dissociative identity disorder was formerly and more commonly referred to as multiple personality disorder. Dissociative identity disorder is thought to be an effect of severe trauma during early childhood, usually extreme, repetitive physical, sexual, or emotional abuse and represents a form of dissociation with reality (WebMD, N.d.). The symptoms of the disorder include the presence of two or more distinct personalities that continually manifest in a person's behavior and the personalities may have their…… [read more]

Relationship Between Stress and the Human Body Essay

Essay  |  28 pages (7,735 words)
Bibliography Sources: 22


Stress & the Human Body

I caught common cold after a close friend's death that caused psychological stress to me.

You are more prone to sickness when under stress - at least that is how it appears. Research too is showing this to be true. The body's immune system and the stress system are linked and immune system is vastly… [read more]

Eating Good Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,029 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Binge Eating Disorder and Overvaluation of Shape and Weight

The paper from Duarte et al. (2014) explores a number of different facets of behavior and feeling that are associated with Binge Eating Disorder. Specifically, it examines aspects of shame, self-criticism, self disgust, and depression anxiety to determine their relationship to binge eating and to one another. This document incorporates original research in the form of written assessments (in which participants completed what amounts to a variety of surveys with scaled answers stating how much they agree with a statement). The authors attempted to identify if "the association between body image shame (exogenous variable) and binge eating…would be mediated by both self-criticism and depressive symptoms" (Duarte et al., 2014, p. 640). The population was approximately 400 women; roughly two thirds of these individuals were students in college. The results indicated that all of these factors were in fact related to binge eating, and that self-criticism and shame led to depression. The source of self-criticism and shame, of course, was dissatisfaction that these women had about their bodies (specifically their weight). The paper implies that by addressing some of these ramifications of binge eating (which can function as causes on some level) that people can help others overcome Binge Eating Disorder and possibly additional eating disorders as well.

The article from Ahrberg et al. (2011) is somewhat comparative in nature. The authors are attempting to explore different aspects of "cognitive-affective, perceptual and behavioural components" (p. 375) with body image. Essentially, they are doing so by comparing the effects of these different factors on the body images of those who are obese, as well as on those who suffer from Binge Eating Disorder. It is extremely significant, then, to note that those with the latter are more concerned about the shape of their bodies and their weight than the former are, although BED patients "show a similar degree of body discontent to that of obese persons without BED" (Ahrberg et al., 2011, p. 378).

There was no original research conducted in this article. Instead, the article functions as a prolonged literature review in which the authors examined numerous articles pertaining to body image disturbance In Binge Eating Disorder and as it applies to obesity. This fact is noteworthy for several reasons. Typically, articles with original research are more insightful than those without it and literature reviews function best as components of larger areas of (independent) research. Additionally, the authors did not systematically reveal the method that they used in their research. The reader does not know what search criteria were included or excluded, or from what databases the authors got the articles from. Still, the findings seem to indicate that body image disturbance frequently accompanies Binge Eating Disorder, which the authors confirmed by stratifying this order in relation to its behavioral, perceptual, and cognitive-affective aspects.

The article by Grilo et al. (2015) helps to provide some clinically proven methods of counteracting the effects of Binge Eating Disorder and, by extension, obesity. The focus… [read more]

Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration Spaceflight Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,169 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8




Human and Psychological Factors Associated With Long Duration Spaceflight

The paper seeks to discuss the human physical factors affecting adaptation within long duration spaceflights. The essay opens with an outline of the impacts to spaceflight, which include uptake of between 40% and 50% crewmembers in the initial microgravity experience days. The paper… [read more]

Eating Disorders: DSM-V Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,683 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+



Why the DSM 5's current method of diagnosis/conceptualization of Eating Disorders is wrong

An argument against the DSM diagnostic criteria for eating disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders has the appearance of an authoritative text in terms of how mental disease are defined. However, there has been considerable debate over what constitutes a mental disorder… [read more]

Intentionality &amp Visualization of Intended Outcomes Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (644 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Life Coaching

Chapter 8 of Mastery covers the art of intentionality, which is especially critical to athletes like Tamara. Intentionality refers in part to visualization of the intended outcome. Through visualization, we can change the cognitive and emotional patterns in our lives and ensure success. Thus, intentionality is linked to the concepts discussed in Chapter 10 of Mastery, which are the reasons why we resist change. When we envision change, we still need to adapt new habits and lifestyles or else we risk remaining at homeostasis. Chapter 10 encourages us to reach beyond homeostasis by being willing to negotiate resistance to change and use it as our guide. These are two of the most important chapters in Mastery because of their focus on change. Change is the core of the coaching relationship.

Applied to my own situation, intentionality helps me envision a less harried lifestyle but one that is within the current framework that I genuinely enjoy. Because I work as a clinician in a field I love, I actually work hard to preserve some homeostasis. However, the need for extra financing causes a need for work beyond the University of Pennsylvania system, which is why I have transitioned into financial planning. Envisioning myself in my desired lifestyle helps me to think positively and remain confident that I will achieve my goals. I have expressed my intention to succeed to myself and to others, and intend to reach my goals.

With Tamara, intentionality has everything to do with her success as an athlete. In coaching her, I have seen how she has used intentionality to envision herself in successful positions, increasing healthy behaviors such as changing her diet, and also with regards to eliminating stress. The key to helping Tamara overcome homeostasis has been structure, a lesson I can apply to my own life. With Tamara, we have worked on scheduling activities, setting priorities and remaining aware of those priorities when working…… [read more]

How Childhood Impacted Erikson Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (673 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Erik Erikson

Psychologist Erik Erikson is well-known for his theory of psychosocial development, which depends upon the successful resolution of various identity crises, which occur in stages throughout the lifetime. Because the resolution of these crises depended, not only on the individual, but also on the individual's social environment, Erikson's personality theory was innovative in that it suggested that personality development was a psycho-social process, not simply a psychological process. Erikson's "developmental progression -- from trust to autonomy, initiative, industry, identity, intimacy, generativity, and integrity -- was conceived as the sequential reorganization of ego and character structures. Each phase was the potential root of later health and pathology" (Erikson Institute, 2014).

When one examines Erikson's early life, the idea that psychosocial development would be the result of series of identity crises seems to directly reflect his own personal experience. Erikson experienced several identity issues when he was a child. He believed that his mother's second husband was his biological father, and, then, later, that he was his mother's first husband's child. However, in reality, he was the product of an extramarital affair, and his mother was actually a single mother for a period of time. Therefore, Erikson never knew his biological father. From a traditional Freudian perspective, not knowing his father would have been sufficient to suggest developmental challenges. In fact, "While this may seem like merely an interesting anecdote about his heritage, the mystery over Erikson's biological parentage served as one of the key forces behind his later interest in identity formation" (Cherry, 2014).

Furthermore, Erikson faced some additional identity struggles that may have helped contribute to his theories. His mother was a Jewish woman, but his biological father appears to have been a non-Jewish man. "His interest in identity was further developed based upon his own experiences in school. At his Jewish temple school he was teased for being a tall, blue-eyed, and blonde Nordic-looking boy who stood out among the rest of the kids. At grammar school, he was rejected because of his…… [read more]

Unconscious Mind There Has Been Significant Debate Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (531 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Unconscious Mind

There has been significant debate over the existence of both the conscious and subconscious brain. The subconscious is that part of the human brain which an individual has little or even no conscious perception. The subconscious is very well present under the conscious awareness' surface. Unconscious phenomena include, but they are not limited to, of-the-cuff remarks and jokes, phobias expressed via dreams or other symbolic forms, automatic responses and reactions, habits, as well as repressed feelings. There are those who have in the past presented arguments against the existence of the subconscious part of the brain - arguing that actions like sleep walking, dreaming, etc. may just be symptoms of unconscious processes and that the subconscious part of the brain does not exist at all.


According to Bargh and Morsella (2008), the unconscious processes of the human brain are no longer regarded mysteries -- as was the case a few years ago. As the authors further point out, the subconscious part of the brain actually exists and there are two stages of what they refer to as the 'human version of unconscious behavioral guidance systems' i.e. stimulus-response. The very first stage, as the authors point out, comprises of "the automatic activation of the mediating system by external stimulus"; with the second step comprising of the system's effect on behavior. It is important to note that both instances could inform unconscious operation, with the conscious guide playing no active role. To support their research they came up with diagram below.

Figure 1

Step 1 Step 2






EMOTIONAL…… [read more]

Juveniles and Reduced Recidivism Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,834 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Reducing Recidivism Among Juveniles

Research topic and its importance

This study focuses on modern juveniles, aka court-referred youth, within the justice system. An individual who engages in illegal or proscribed activities, banned by federal, state, and/or local codes, is defined as a juvenile delinquent (Granville, 2007). The matrix of authorities involved in the juvenile correction system include the Department of… [read more]

Memory Enhancement Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,193 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Wagner, U., Gais, S., Haider, H., Verleger, R., & Born, J. (2004). Sleep inspires insight. Nature,

Research area

The notion of insight is difficult to quantify but psychologists have attempted to do so for many years. Anecdotally, it has been suggested that many great insights have been arrived at by great thinkers by 'sleeping on it.' There is also biological evidence to support the notion that this cliche, in fact, may be true. Both human and animal studies support the idea that the neural representations of tasks performed while awake become reactivated during sleep. The evidence suggests that sleep consolidates and restructures memory.

Understanding how people and animals learn can be very useful in terms of creating a supportive environment for knowledge acquisition. This is particularly true in regards to sleep because we are becoming an increasingly sleep-deprived society. 24/7 entertainment and work commitments increasingly cause people to forego sleep; students are particularly notorious for attempting to coast by on only one or two hours of sleep when they have exams. If critical insights and connections are formed during sleep, people could be depriving themselves of very important sources of learning. Sixty-six subjects were tested, ages 18-31 and the same numbers of males and females were present in both the experimental and two control groups.

Independent variables

In the experiment, the independent variable was the ability of the research subjects to sleep while being subjected to a Number Reduction Task (NRT). After being trained to manipulate number task blocks, different groups of subjects were either allowed to sleep for eight hours during the night; to remain awake for eight hours during the night; or spent eight hours during the day awake.

Dependent variable

The dependent variable of the experiment was the subjects' performance upon the NRT.


The hypothesis was that sleep would improve performance on the NRT.

The experimental procedure

Test subjects were first trained in the protocol of the NRT, which involved remembering strings of numbers in a particular pattern. The NRT was selected to specifically test the possibility of sleep producing insight because of the types of cognitive skills tested by the instrument. The subjects are given eight numbers and two simple rules to produce a final solution to the string. As well as repetition producing speed, there is also a hidden rule which can substantially enhance speed, a product of insight. The time at which the subjects intuited this hidden rule could be determined precisely because it allowed the subjects to cut short the sequencing required to produce a response.


Subjects in the sleep group showed substantively better performance than either of the groups in the 'wakefulness' categories. This confirmed the hypothesis that sleep was an enhancement to insight. No difference was noted between the two control groups: i.e., the daytime wakefulness group and the nocturnal wakefulness group. The critical component of the experience which enhanced learning and insight was sleep.

Implications for cognition research: How are these findings relevant to everyday life?… [read more]

Standardized Tests: The Sixteen Factor Personality Questionnaire Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,352 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … standardized tests: the Sixteen Factor Personality Questionnaire, the California Psychological Inventory, the 16 PF (fifth edition), and the Marital Satisfaction Inventory.

Sixteen Factor Personality Questionnaire, fifth edition (16PF; Russell, & Karol, 1994).

Description and Assessment

The 16 PF, fifth edition consists of 185 items that make up the 16 personality scales. Each of the 16 scales is composed of 10 to 15 items. The test is a self -- report inventory of true -- false questions that can be administered individually or as a group with either pencil and answer sheet or via computerized administration. The fifth edition of the 16 PF also offers a ? (I don't know) response in addition to the true false responses. The? response is designed to be used in cases where the respondent is not sure whether particular item applies to them.

The test produces 16 primary factor scores they can also be used to make up five global factor scores. There also three response style indicators (Impression Management, Infrequency, and Acquiescence).


Originally developed by Raymond Cattell 1949 the 16 PF is a broad measure personality designed to predict a wide range of behaviors in adults over the age of 16. It is intended to be used across school settings, clinical and counseling settings, business settings, and in research settings. It is recommended to be used to predict certain performance criteria, develop behavioral ratings, assess and describe personality and personality changes across individuals. The fifth edition of the 16 PF is not designed to measure psychopathology or dimensions of abnormal personality and has a limited range of predictive values and must be used cautiously and that is designed to measure factors of normal adult personality. The authors comment that the test should be used in conjunction with other measures of personality.


The 16 PF is designed to be used by individuals aged 16 years or older.

Assessment Properties

The normative data for the fifth edition of the 16 PF were updated based on a stratified sample of 2500 individuals relative to the 1990 U.S. Census data on the basis of gender, ethnicity, age, education and (however, it appears that adults over the age of 54 were underrepresented and those between the ages of 15 and 17 years were overrepresented).

Two week test -- retest reliability coefficients for the global factors ranged from .84 to .91, whereas the test -- retest coefficients for the global factors ranged from .69 to .87. The two-month test -- retest coefficients fell to a mean of .78 for the global factors in the medial .7 for the primary factors. Cronbach's alpha values ranged from .65 to .85 with a mean of .74.

The construct and criterion validity of the 16 PF were confirmed with earlier versions of the test and were not reported for this version.

Administering Criteria

A Master's Degree in psychology, social work, education, or any healthcare field; membership in a healthcare-related organization, or special training in assessment are required for administration of… [read more]

Building Theory About Imagination and Creativity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,205 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


¶ … Pilot Study - Imagination

Pilot Study for QR Approach

In order to understand cognitive processes such as imagination and creativity, it is necessary for researchers to conduct research that is either based in physiological science, such as a neuroscience investigation, or based in cognitive psychology. Research that enables the study participants to talk about and otherwise disclose their thoughts and perceptions -- when they are engaged in creative activity or when they are thinking about how they use their imagination -- can provide qualitative data about the lived experiences of the participants. These individual accounts make up the thick and rich narratives of qualitative research data. Quantitative research does not provide the deep and introspective information that quantitative methods provide.

Qualitative researchers have long used the term thick rich description to describe an approach to achieving external validity in their studies (Goertz, 1973; Holloway, 1997; Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Ryle, 1949). The process of describing a phenomenon in sufficient detail provides a basis for a researcher to evaluate the degree to which conclusions can be drawn from the data, and perhaps transferred -- in general terms -- to other people, settings, situations, and times. Ryle (1949) first used the term thick description, and Goertz (1973) applied it to ethnography. A thin description is a superficial account and is not desirable in qualitative research. Holloway (1997) defined thick, rich description as a detailed account of the field observations and experiences that enable the researcher to make cultural patterns and social relationships explicit and located in their context.

The proposed research study is qualitative and is grounded in the phenomenological position. Qualitative research is holistic in approach and takes into account of the environments and situations in which individual experiences occur. This approach locates qualitative research so as to be concerned with particular instances or cases. A qualitative researcher in interested in understanding the perceptions and meaning-making of individuals in order to describe and explain behavior, phenomena, or social processes from the perspective of the research participants.

Purpose of the Pilot Study

The proposed research study has two purposes: 1) To increase understanding of the nature and functioning of imagination in the lives creative people, and 2) to contribute to theory of imagination based on research data. The purpose of the pilot study is to assess the utility of the interview protocol and investigate the reliability and validity of the instrumentation. Specifically, the pilot study will gauge the flow of the questions, identify any particular difficulties with wording, examine the answers provoked by the questions, and assess if the answers conveyed are relevant to both intrapersonal and interpersonal experiences. The questions will also be assessed with regard to answering the research questions related to the study topic.

What Will the Proposed Research Seek to Discover?

Research in the field of psychology that studies imagination and creativity has associated these psychological faculties with mental images. L.S. Vygotsky (2004) imagination central to human cognitive processes, and uses a cultural-historical approach to frame… [read more]

Cognitive Ability Testing Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,446 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


As being revealed in the Table 3, the standard deviation of the test scores is between 14.58 and 15.54 across the three test batteries.

Table 3: Test Scores



Instrument Scores



Standard Deviation





CogAT Standard Age Scores

Verbal SAS







Quantitative SAS






-0.46… [read more]

Feelings About Contemplative Psychology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (909 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Quite frankly, I am not sure how practical it would be to utilize this approach in clinical settings. Much of western society is purposefully designed to keep the individual preoccupied with his or her surroundings and environmental factors. The current preoccupation with technology is certainly evidence of this reality. However counterintuitive contemplative psychology might be to the patient, there is a degree of necessity that will facilitate a willingness for patients to try anything to ease their problems. In circumstances in which there is someone who is suffering from some sort of cognitive affliction, and he or she is not able to gain sufficient help using conventional western methodologies, such a person might be willing to undergo an initiation of sorts to actualize some of the important principles of eastern thought that are at the core of contemplative psychology.

Thus, it appears as though it might be possible to utilize contemplative psychotherapies as a potential personal theoretical orientation as a future clinician. Ultimately, how this approach were utilized would largely depend on the needs of the patients. Some patients would not have a true need for this approach since conventional western psychotherapy would work. On the other hand, those who were already familiar with eastern philosophy and whose needs could not be assuaged by typically western psychotherapy conventions might find some value in contemplative psychotherapy. The main point that a clinician would have to stay cognizant of would be to not force this approach on people. For those who are already familiar with Eastern philosophy, this approach could only enhance any sort of psychotherapeutic treatment that they underwent. Yet for those who are not familiar with it, its concepts might prove difficult to internalize and they could potentially find themselves in a situation in which their psychotherapy produces no tangible results for them -- which is always a possibility for patients.

The way in which contemplative psychotherapy could help to inform the work of a clinician is if he or she were familiar with this approach, and utilized some of its concepts to evaluate how successful treatment was with a patient. There are certain patients who encounter difficult undergoing psychotherapy, for any number of reasons. A clinician who is aware of the basic foundations of contemplative psychotherapy may be able to use them to discern where in the therapeutic process a patient is encountering difficulty, and then acting accordingly. By remaining attuned to one's fundamental self, such a therapist could ideally remain more in tune with his patients, their needs, and the best way to help them overcome their problems.… [read more]

Nursing Theory Framework Attachment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,702 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


The First Phase of Therapy

If the addictions turn out to be attempts of affect regulation by anxiously attached teenagers, as argued above, then attachment theory's therapeutic aim as a nurse to aid clients form safe attachments would need to be able to prove effective when it comes to the treatment of addictions. On the other hand, the first task… [read more]

Changing Attitudes With Goals and Memories Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,037 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Sampled Populations

Albarracin and Handley (2011) sampled undergraduates enrolled in an introductory psychology course, while Frye et al. (2012) sampled undergraduates generally. The gender of the psychology students was relatively balanced between men and women, while the undergraduates enrolled in the study by Frye and colleagues (2012) were heavily skewed toward females. Depending on which experiment the students were enrolled in, Albarracin and Handley (2011) selected for certain predilections, including favoring gun control, euthanasia, and vegetarianism. By contrast, the study subjects used by Frye et al. (2012) were required to describe their past actions and attitudes towards gay men. It is interesting that the study examining attitudes towards gay men enrolled over four times more women than men.

Study Limitations

Albarracin and Handley (2011) recognized the limitations inherent yo several of their experiments, which explains in part the need for so many in a single study. The main limitation is the generalizability of the findings given the narrowly-defined sample population: college students attending an introductory psychology course. The sample population for several of the experiments was also selected based on attitudes towards specific social issues. Generalizability issues also plagued the study by Frye et al. (2012), especially given the overrepresentation of women in a study examining attitudes towards sexual orientation. In addition, the authors of this study admitted that their findings are not immune to alternative explanations.

Results and Conclusions

Albarracin and Handley (2011) discovered that action- or inaction-priming words had differential effects on attitude change. When subjects were presented with action-priming words attitudes were recalled faster, were less likely to change, and were resistant to counter-attitude arguments. The final experiment revealed that the impact of action goals on attitude change was reduced when the goal was satisfied by an intervening task. The authors concluded that attitudes are more amenable to change when using inactive approaches. Frye and colleagues (2012) found that errors regarding memories of past positive actions towards a marginalized group facilitated attitude changes. In addition, the effect memory errors had on attitudes was increased if more time had elapsed since the imagined positive actions. The authors concluded that their findings provided empirical support for the source-monitoring framework proposed by Johnson (2006)

Future Research Directions

Albarracin and Handley (2011) suggested that researchers could next examine whether inaction goals could inhibit old habits, thereby increasing the probability of adopting alternative behaviors. Also suggested was conducting research to better understand whether change goals would be a better approach than inaction goals, when seeking psychological change. In their discussion, Frye et al. (2012) systematically examined all the counter-arguments that could be raised to undermine the strength of their findings, including the phenomena of memory enhancement and sleeper effect. Future research directions could therefore directly examine whether these alternative explanations for the current findings have any merit.


Albarracin, D., & Handley, I.M. (2011). The time for doing is not the time for change: Effects of general action and inaction goals on attitude retrieval and attitude change. Journal of Personality…… [read more]

Children With PTSD and Social Workers Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,227 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Diagnosis and Treatment


The DSM-5 criteria set for PTSD in children older than 6 and those younger than 6 are similar (Lubit, 2014). This is exposure to a real, actual or threatened death, injury or sexual attack. There should be one or more symptoms linked to the traumatic event or experience. These must be persistent avoidance of the stimulus… [read more]

Annotated Bibliography for Culturally Relevant Treatment Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  4 pages (1,730 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 6(4), 384-389.

Bernal, G., Jimenez-Chafey, M. & Domenech Rodriguez, M. (2009). Cultural adaptations of treatments: a resource for considering culture in evidence-based practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(4), 361-368.

Brady, K. & Back, S. (2012). Childhood trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, and alcohol dependence. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews, 34(4), 408-413.

Couineau, A. & Forbes, D. (2011). Using predictive models of behavior change to promote evidence-based treatment for PTSD. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 3(3), 266-275.

De Young, A., Kenardy, J., & Cobham, V. (2011). Trauma in early childhood: a neglected population. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev, 14, 231-250.

Eisenhruch, M. (1991). From post-traumatic stress disorder to cultural bereavement: diagnosis of Southeast Asian refugees. Soc Sci Med, 33(6), 673-80.

Hall, R. (2005). Childhood posttraumatic stress disorder: a comprehensive analysis of recognized treatment options considering the neurobiological impact of trauma (Doctoral dissertation). Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Chicago. Retrieved from ProQuest. (UMI 3239722).

Henry, J., Sloane, M. & Black-Pond, C. (2007). Neurobiology and neurodevelopmental impact of childhood traumatic stress and prenatal alcohol exposure. Language, Speech, & Hearing Services in Schools, 38(2), 99-108.

Murray, L., Cohen, J., & Mannarino, A. (2013). Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for youth who experience continuous traumatic exposure. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 19(2), 180-195.

Trautman, R., Tucker,…… [read more]

Group Dynamics and Social Influence Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (667 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


At that point, the victims would demands for freedom. Sixty-five percent of initial experiments led to participants withholding the last massive 450-volt experiment shock. However, many students became uncomfortable due to the experiment. Each participant stopped to question the experiment (Latto & Latto, 2008). Others sought to have their money refunded paid to participate in the progress experiment. The entire experiment subjected varying levels of stress and tension. Subjects underwent sweating, biting their lips, trembling, groaning, stuttering, fingernails digging into their skin and nervousness due to seizures. Obedience does not differ even though women experienced high-stress levels. Such influence was ideological, and the subjects reacted based on their belief about science. The experiment produces beneficial outcomes and information to the society.

Part III: Application in today's world

The experiment realizes shocking details through illustrating that people are easily transformed into oppressors. The explanation for this is that their "natural" conformity plays into the rules and roles issued by authorities. The conformance inclination suppresses the oppressors' ability to engage intellectually with a consciousness that they are doing wrong. Even though is highly influential, the thesis does not hold credibility through close empirical investigation. The experiment ignores evidence pointing at resistance even as studies demonstrate that elements of conformity are inevitable (Hergenhahn & Henley, 2013). The studies appreciate that people follow the authority and do evil are knowingly engaged. The experiment proves that oppressors blindly, actively, and creatively deliver the oppression activities. The actions are motivated by belief and not nature and necessity. The oppressors should be perceived and judged as stern followers and not blind conformists. The truly frightening concept about Eichmann was that he was aware of the impacts of his actions and believed they were right. Equally, Milgram's experiment delivers a shocking outcome as the oppressor shares distress about his actions. Participants construe them to be "service" through cause "goodness."


Hergenhahn, B., Henley, T., (2013) An Introduction to the History of Psychology. New York: Cengage Learning.

Latto, J., Latto,…… [read more]

Managing an Employee With Low Self-Esteem Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (901 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The guidance of behavior can be aided with the provision of clear guidelines regarding the performance it is expected, and boundaries. For example, the provision of a key job description, and reinforcement of the required standards may be beneficial (Paige, 2014).

Communication is also a key in the management of an individual with low self-esteem, not only in the context of communicating what is expected, but also in the provision of recognition of ability and positive outcomes, as well as achieving task goals (Paige, 2014). The recognition is not an important in terms of the successes achieved, the recognition of the individual's role in achieving success, in other words making sure they know it was more than just good luck (Paige, 2014). Ensuring an individual has the knowledge and confidence to achieve their task can also be very useful, which may include the provision of additional training and development opportunities. Empowerment, allowing employees to achieve the task within a given guidelines can also be beneficial, and help to increase confidence will support the development of higher levels of self-esteem (Paige, 2014; Walumbwa et al., 2011). However, for praise and recognition to be meaningful, the supervisor also needs to provide a balance, with acknowledgement when performance is not as expected, but undertaken in a positive manner providing guidance.

It has been argued that a useful tool can be the feedback provided through an appraisal system, however research on this point is mixed, and while positive feedback may be beneficial, the appraisal system may not always help to support employees with low self-esteem (Smither et al. 2005).

The role of the supervisor may not be able to transform the employees' self-esteem overnight, but may have the potential to impact positively and aid in individuals confidence, improving their own self-perception, which may impact on their self-esteem. However, the strategies discussed will aid the management of an individual with low self-esteem, and help to make the working relationship more productive, providing support for the employee that is needed.


Janssen, Onne; Gao, Liping, (2013), Supervisory Responsiveness and Employee Self-Perceived Status and Voice Behavior, Journal of Management, DOI: 10.1177/0149206314546192

Kuhnen, Camelia M; Tymula, Agnieszka, (2012), Feedback, Self-Esteem, and Performance in Organizations, Management Science, 58(1), 94-113

Paige, A, (2014), How to Supervise an Employee With Low Self-Esteem, Houston Chronical, accessed at http://smallbusiness.chron.com/supervise-employee-low-self-esteem-24023.html

Smither, J. W; London, MR; Reilly. R, (2005), Does performance improve following multisource feedback? A theoretical model, meta-analysis, and review of empirical findings, Personnel Psychology,. 58-33 -- 66

Walumbwa, Fred O; Mayer, David M; Wang, Wang, Peng Hui; Workman, Kristina; Christensen, Amanda L, (2011), Linking ethical leadership to employee performance: The…… [read more]

Involving an Individual Purported to Be Psychopathic Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,397 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Their moral insanity makes them unable of behaving morally in accordance with the stated social and legal regulations. Based on this, the sentencing of Peterson should consider the multifaceted dimensions of psychopathy that influence their future outcomes and recurrence of the undesired social behaviors.

Similarly, legal and moral perspectives of sentencing the psychopaths should also consider the concept of proportionality to ensure inclusiveness of the penalty to the parties involved in the case. In this case, the penalty imposed on Peterson should commensurate with the magnitude of the offense. However, if the suspect presents with mental related condition, the conflict between community and proportionality becomes apparent. Such conflicts leave the decision-making concerning the offense of the suspect to the attorneys to consider community protection and human rights of the suspect. According to Edens et al., (2009), the criminal justice systems should also take into consideration the rationale for sentencing of the psychopaths. Among the objectives such as reducing aggressiveness and violence behaviors and recurrence of the behavior are achievable with the use of strategies such as retribution, rehabilitation, specific deterrence, and general deterrence. Significant analysis shows that a combination of these strategies aims at ensuring the protection of the community and regulation of their psychopathic symptoms. Based on this, the jury should set outer limits that act as alternatives for promoting the realization of a common goal considered beneficial to the stakeholders involved.

Apart from the use of sentencing as an approach for preventing aggressive and offensive behaviors, analysis by Hare & Neumann (2008) showed that other interventions such as parole could be used to provide the required treatment to the psychopaths. Parole acts as the best alternative for the psychopaths as it provides the opportunities for identifying the most effective interventions for treating the psychopathy. The variation in the causes of psychopathy between the two genders also plays a part in influencing the treatment method used by criminal justice systems in relation to psychopaths. Moreover, Gendreau, Goggin, & Smith (2002) provide principles that should be considered by the attorneys when sentencing the psychopaths. Among the principles, include the fitness of the psychopath to plead, the decision of the attorneys to divert or prosecute, and sentencing of the suspect.

As such, various factors such as community safety and the health of the suspect should be taken into consideration when sentencing psychopaths. Other factors identified by Hare & Neumann (2008) from their research include considering the principles of deterrence that aims at preventing the recurrence of the behaviors shown by the suspects in the past. As such, operating on the premise makes it appropriate for the criminal justice organization to consider the most effective and applicable interventions that can be used to promote the safety of the suspect and the community as a whole.


In summary, psychopaths are at a high risk of causing significant challenges to their families and the society as a whole. Among the predisposing behaviors to criminality, include aggressiveness, violence, lack of empathy, and remorse among… [read more]

Multicultural Competency for Therapists Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (986 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


These skills are considered the foundation of counseling" (2012, p. 37).

Likewise, the Allen Ivey's Microcounseling Model is comprised of more than a dozen skill set components, including attending behaviors as well as (a) ethics and multicultural competence; (b) open and closed questions; (c) client observation; (d) encouraging, paraphrasing, and summarization; (e) reflection of feeling; (f) clinical interview structure; (g) confrontation; (h) focusing; (i) reflection of meaning; (j) influencing skills; (k) skill integration; and (l) determining personal style (Hawley, 2006, p. 199).


The Gestalt Therapy counseling approach draws on humanistic origins to provide a process-oriented therapeutical intervention that combines field theory, dialogue, and phenomenology (Novack & Park, 2013). On the one hand, Gestalt Therapy provides a useful and efficient framework for the therapist in which individuals' unique internal and external environmental factors can be identified and evaluated for positive and negative impacts. On the other hand, though, Gestalt Therapy is constrained by some methodological issues that adversely affect generalizability of studies using this approach. For instance, according to Novack and Park (2013), "Gestalt therapy values each client's unique context and diversity variables and strives to understand the client's experience from his or her perspective. Gestalt work is characterized by active experiments that can challenge traditional notions of counseling" (p. 484).

Despite these constraints, the confrontational nature of Gestalt Therapy can help evoke meaningful responses and effect positive changes in clients (Novack & Park, 2013). These benefits for the clients in Gestalt Therapy, though, are the direct result of counselors' cultivation of client awareness and empowering them to make better life choices (Novack & Park, 2013). Of particular interest for therapists is the empirical observation by Novack and Park (2013) that male clients are typically more willing to engage in confrontations as part of their clinical intervention, but some male clients may even become violent in the process.


An introduction to cultural competency. (2012). Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

Retrieved July 21, 2014 from https://www.racp.edu.au/index.cfm?objectid=FCBB0411-

9 DFF-0474-A0B250ACA0737BF8.

Hawley, L.D. (2006, Fall). Reflecting teams and microcounseling in beginning counselor training: Practice in collaboration. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 45(2), 198-202.

Koltz, R.L. & Felt, S.S. (2012, October 1). A phenomenological study: The experience of live supervision during a pre-practicum counseling techniques course. The Qualitative Report,


Krentzman, A.R. & Townsend, A.L. (2008, Spring-Summer). Review of multidisciplinary measures of cultural competence for use in social work education. Journal of Social Work

Education, 44(2), 7-10.

Larson, K.L. & Ott, M. (2010, Summer). International cultural immersion: En vivo reflections in cultural competence. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 17(2), 44-50.

McMillan, L.R. (2012, Spring). Exploring the world outside to increase cultural competence of the educator within. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 19(1), 23-29.

Novack, J. & Park, S.J. (2013, October). Integrated masculinity: Using Gestalt counseling with male clients. Journal of Counseling and Development, 91(4), 483-490.

Sharma, S. & Phillion, J.A. (2011, Fall).…… [read more]

WAIS-IV Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,161 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


There is strong evidence for reliability of the WAIS-IV based on three types of reliability estimates provided in the manual. Internal consistency estimates across the 13 age groups in a national standardization sample range from .97 for the full scale IQ score and from .87-.98 for the other indices (Canivez, 2010). Test -- retest reliability with retest periods ranging from eight to eighty two days indicated stable coefficients for the Full Scale IQ and Verbal Comprehension index, whereas several of the Perceptual Processing Index subtest scores had higher practice effects (start). Interrater reliability ranges from .91 -- .97 for the various subtests and indices (Canivez, 2010).

Validity estimates for the WAIS-IV are reported based on the factor structure of the tests, test content, convergent and divergent measures of validity, and differences in groups based on the standardization sample. The correlation matrices indicate that the subtests have significant correlations of subtests in the same domain and are not correlated significantly with other subtests (Canivez, 2010). Confirmatory factor analyses have supported the latent structure of the indices; however, there is some concern that confirmatory factor analytic studies are more supportive of latent factors than exploratory factor analytic studies (Frazier & Youngstrom, 2007) and some critics suggest that more exploratory analyses should be used. In studies of divergent and convergent validity the WAIS-IV has demonstrated adequate performance (Canivez, 2010).

In general, one of the major strengths of the WAIS-IV is its standardization sample that consists of 2200 participants from a wide range of demographic factors based on population census data (Canivez, 2010). Another advantage of the test is the standardized administration procedures that increases the reliability and adds to the potential validity of the instrument. In addition, the core and supplemental subtests supply adequate dimensions and contribute to the magnitude of the abilities that the test assesses which provide a more rounded view of the client's cognitive abilities than previous versions. The constructs measured by WAIS-

IV are perceived as being a complete view of cognitive capabilities and its theoretical assumptions are based on more than 50 years of research and empirical data (Canivez, 2010).

The test is not without limitations. First, it is lengthy to administer, requires specialized training, and requires an understanding of psychometrics in order to administer and interpret it (Whiston, 2012). Secondly, the test favors an academic notion of intelligence and does not tap into other areas of cognition such as emotional stability, etc. (Canivez, 2010). There is also some indication that at the lower ends of the IQ spectrum the WAIS-IV may overestimate cognitive ability (Canivez, 2010) and that there is a tendency for individuals to misinterpret the meaning of the obtained scores on intelligence tests (Whiston, 2012). Thus, it is extremely important that individuals administering the test understand the implications of the test and its appropriateness for use.


Canivez, G., L. (2010). Test review of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition. In R.A. Spies, J.F. Carlson, & K.F. Geisinger (Eds.), The eighteenth mental measurements… [read more]

PTSD and Spirituality Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,205 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Different people cope with stress and trauma in different ways. Many people do so in whole or in part by calling out to the god they believe in and hospitals should not steer them away from that if that is indeed what they want and believe in. However, not everyone is religious or spiritual and it should never be assumed… [read more]

One of the Very Rare Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,449 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Causes of Narcissistic Personality Disorder

It is important to note from the onset that there is no clearly identified cause of narcissistic disorder. There are however several theories that have been propagated to the cause of this disorder. There is an increasing number of professionals who buy into the explanation fronted by the biospychosocial model of causation. This approach indicates… [read more]

Therapeutic Approaches to Child Abuse Related PTSD Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  4 pages (987 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Further analyses in this study was used to determine if the effects observed were limited to child maltreatment that fell into certain specific categories.

Cloitre, M., Tovall-McClough, K.C., Nooner, K., Zorvas, P., Cherry, S., Jackson, C.L., Weijim, G., and Petkova, E. (2010, July). Treatment for PTSD related to childhood abuse: a randomized controlled trial. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(8), 915-924. dol: 10.1176/appl.ajp.2010.09081247

The focus of the investigation was potential treatment used to help patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to regulate their affect and interpersonal disturbances that contribute to the impairment of PTSD. Specifically, the researchers evaluated the benefits and risks from a phased intervention that combined skills training in affect and interpersonal regulation (STAIR) with a subsequent exposure, and compared it to control conditions: 1) Supportive counseling followed by exposure (referred to as Support / Exposure) and Supportive Counseling (referred to as STAIR / Support). Women diagnosed as having child abuse-related PTSD were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: STAIR / Exposure, Support / Exposure (exposure comparator), or STAIR / Support (skills comparator). The 104 women were assessed at post-treatment, 3-months, and 6-months.

The group treated with STAIR / Exposure was more likely to achieve full and sustained remission (27%) compared to study participants in the exposure comparator (0%) and than the skills comparator condition (13%). The STAIR / Exposure condition produced more improvement in regulation of emotion than the exposure comparator, and greater improvements in interpersonal problems that both of the conditions. The Cognitive Behavior Therapies (CBTs) were designed specifically to resolve PTSD symptoms. The CBT did not include interventions to explicitly address the additional emotion and interpersonal regulation difficulties observed among those with PTSD stemming from childhood abuse. This is noteworthy since these regulation issues can occur with the same or greater frequency than PTSD symptoms.

Dehlinger, E., Steer, R.A., and Lippmann, J., (1999). Two-year follow-up study of cognitive behavioral therapy for sexually abused children suffering post-traumatic stress symptoms. Child Abuse & Neglect, 23(12), 1371-1378.

The researchers were interested in learning if 2-year gains found in the earlier research by Dehlinger, et al. (1996) would also be shown in this research with 100 children who had been diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of being abused as children. The research by Dehlinger, et al. (1996) involved 12-session pre-test and post-test randomly assigned therapeutic treatments with sexually abused children and their non-offending mothers. The random group assignments were cognitive-behavioral treatments for the child only, for the mother only, for the mother and the child, or for a community comparison condition. The study participants were followed and assessed at 3-months, 6-months, one year, and two years after treatment.

The data was analyzed through the use of a repeated MANCOVA, while controlling for the pre-test scores. Three measures of psychopathology were taken at the assessment intervals, examining specifically for the following: depression, externalizing behavior problems, and PTSD symptoms.…… [read more]

Effects of Population Density on Territoriality, Privacy, Personal Space and Noise Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,673 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Experts have attempted to deal with the harmful effects of population density by various methods, including the introduction of nature into the urban environment and design to create the perception of ample space. Nature, such as an urban park, provides individuals with calming refuges that help bring them in tune with the rhythms and beauty of nature. Design to create the perception of ample space decreases the perception of encroachment on territoriality, privacy and personal space and therefore decreases the harmful effects of encroachment.

Noise is a sound wave that is unwanted or interferes with normal sound transmission. The perception of noise is highly subjective but can result in stress, high blood pressure and higher levels of cortisol, cardiovascular disease, sleep disturbances, anxiety and decreased ability to perform tasks, and the harmful effects of noise can be heightened by a person's perception and inability to control the noise. Children are also affected by noise, particularly in their learning abilities and verbal skills. The harmful effects of noise can be counteracted through several methods, including noise masking through the use of opposing noise and sound-absorbing materials in both the home and work environments. In the areas of territoriality, privacy, personal space and noise, perception appears to be highly important, both in creating harm and in counteracting harm.


Lebednik, Christine. "Types of Noise-Absorbing Materials." n.d. www.ehow.com Web site. Web. 6 July 2014.

Merriam-Webster, Inc. "Proxemics." 2014. www.merriam-webster.com Web site. Web. 6 July 2014.

National Geographic Society. "A Look at the Population Density of the United States." 2008. http://education.nationalgeographic.com Web site. Web. 6 Hykt 2014.

ProAudioSupport. "What is auditory masking?" 2014. www.proaudiosupport.com Web site. Web. 6 July 2014.

Straub, Richard O. Health Psychology, 3rd Edition. New York, NY: Worth Publishers, 2011. Print.

Ulrich, Robert S. Aesthetic and Emotional Influences of Vegetation: A Review of the Scientific Literature. White Paper - Aesthetics. Stockholm: Swedish Council for Building Research, 1985. Print.

Veitch, Russell and Daniel Arkkelin. Environmental Psychology: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. New York, NY: Prentice Hall International, 1995. Print.

Yates, David and Allan R. Ruff. Encouraging Nature in Urban Public Parks: The Consequences of Adopting a More Ecological Approach to Design and Maintenance. White Paper…… [read more]

Counselor Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,283 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Excessive consultant disclosure often comes from the counselor's own needs, and in these situations, customers' needs are secondary (Linton & O'Halloran, 2000).

Dealing with patients Who Lack Commitment

The field has some customers who appear to have very little investment in counseling. Many customers are involuntary in that a court order requires them to obtain therapy. In these circumstances, you… [read more]

Bipolar Treatment and Planning Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,945 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


The diagnosis of Appendix D of the DSM-5 is "Bipolar 2 Disorder, in which the primary symptom presentation is recurrent depression accompanied by hippomanic episodes (a milder state of mania in which the symptoms are not severe enough to cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning or need for hospitalization, but are sufficient to be observable by others) appears to be correct in regards to this patient. However, Z60.3 Acculturation difficulty should be added to the diagnosis as well as G47.9 Unspecified sleep-wake disorder. As stated earlier, drug screening will be used to assess the presence of substance abuse in this patient.

The treatment plan will involve the patient being prescribed a mood stabilizer if her parents will agree to the patient taking this type of medication. There is an ethical issue present because while the patient should have the confidentiality of the provider the parents also should be told the truth about any treatment provisions for the minor child. This issue will be addressed through counseling with the patient and family both together and separately to determine whether the parents will allow the patient to take this type of medication. The patient will be closely monitored across time so that any manic and/or depressive incidents can be noted. As well should the patient be allowed by her parents to take the medication prescribed the medication's effectiveness will be monitored as well.

The social system within which the patient is situated will impact the effectiveness of the treatment plan and specifically the patient's ability to adhere to taking the medication as prescribed which will be affected by the school's ability to administer the medication if doses are required during school hours. As well, economic impacts will include the family's ability to afford the medication and treatment plan as set out. The cooperativeness of the parents with the treatment plan will be a great deciding factor for the effectiveness of the treatment plan and therefore the biological basis for the diagnosis should be related to the parents so that they will understand that this is not a condition which the patient is responsible for or something that the patient can effectively change at her own will.


Bipolar Disorder (2014) Mayo clinic. Diseases. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bipolar-disorder/basics/tests-diagnosis/con-20027544

Bipolar Disorder (2014) University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved from: http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/bipolar-disorder

Bipolar Disorder Screening (2014) Center for Quality Assessment and Improvement in Mental Health (CQAIHM). Retrieved from: http://www.cqaimh.org/tool_bipolar.html

Bipolar Disorder Treatment (2014) NHS. Retrieved from: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Bipolar-disorder/Pages/Treatment.aspx

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th Edition.

Zupanick, CE (2014) The New DSM-5: Depressive and Bipolar Disorders. AMHC. Retrieved from: http://www.amhc.org/1418-dsm-5/article/51959-the-new-dsm-5-depressive-and-bipolar-disorders.… [read more]

Drugs Affecting Brain Chemistry Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (789 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In cases when drugs administered raise dopamine levels too much individuals can display symptoms similar to the ones felt by schizophrenia sufferers. Too little dopamine can make a person experience Parkinson-like symptoms while too much dopamine can have the individual go through schizophrenic episodes.

Fluoxetine is used to treat patients with depression. The substance is also known as Prozac and is effective as a consequence of altering the amount of serotonin in the brain. Serotonin and dopamine are probable to cause mood disorders if their levels are imbalanced. "A decrease in serotonin, for instance, may permit the levels of other neurotransmitters in the brain to vary more widely; these more complex interactions probably work together in some way to alter mood abnormally." (Nairne 495) Taking this into account, it would be safe to say that serotonin is linked to other chemicals in the brain and in order for the person to be able to lead a healthy life, he or she must find a way to balance chemicals to the point where everything is normal.

It would be wrong to say that chemicals in the brain are primarily responsible for mental disorders like depression or schizophrenia. However, it is generally accepted that they play an important role in controlling these respective disorders.

Antipsychotics are prescribed in accordance with the patient's needs, as stronger drugs can be prescribed in cases involving individuals experiencing severe episodes. Even with this, specialists can experience problems in determining the perfect solutions themselves. Doctors often try several options until they reach the best solution for their patients.

The majority of individuals using drugs to deal with their mental condition have experienced positive effects. Although they can make a person's life much better and can make it possible for the individual to integrate society as a normal person, drugs can sometimes have a limited effect -- they rarely remove all symptoms and they cannot completely cure a person. Individuals have to take them for prolonged periods of time in spite of the fact that they experience little to no symptoms. Many are likely to stop taking medication because they simply believe that they are well, thus risking to trigger symptoms again.

Works cited:

Nairne, J.S. Psychology. Cengage Learning.

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2012). What is…… [read more]

Possible Bipolar Diagnosis: Miranda Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,461 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


"Just because I'm an Asian girl they expect me to be smarter than everyone else. Well, I'm not smart, I can't help it."

To evaluate the mental health of Miranda requires several cultural factors to be taken into consideration when contextualizing her situation. Given their first-generation immigrant status, Miranda's parents may be more likely to interpret their daughter's behavior as… [read more]