"Psychology / Behavior / Psychiatry" Essays

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Behavior Social Influences Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (836 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


, 2010; Voncken et al., 2010). Severe cases of the disorder lead to a complete shut-down of social interactions, with behavioral changes in the way people hold themselves, make eye contact, speak, and even think, all based on a social context of unfamiliarity or in encountering unknown people, or simply a lack of control (Kashdan et al., 2010; Voncken et al., 2010).

The precursors of true social anxiety disorder can vary greatly, though many cases are brought on by histories of specific instances of trauma or ongoing environmental forces that lead to a reduced ability to make and maintain social connections or simply engage in social interactions (Kashdan et al., 2010). Consequences of social anxiety disorder, on the other hand, are fairly well documented, with changes in behavior so profound and fundamental that individuals will actually make themselves less likable through their behaviors in a self-fulfilling belief of their own inadequacy (Voncken et al., 2010). People that in comfortable and chosen social settings are normal, intelligent, and capable of full interactions can severally limit their opportunities and the quality of their lives through he behavioral changes that occur when they are in other social settings. Because of the extreme level of detriment that can be caused by social anxiety, including a real inability to care for oneself or lead a self-sufficient life in some extreme circumstances, true social anxiety is a socially-caused behavioral change that most certainly warrants a therapeutic intervention.


Code switching, social anxiety, and many other socially-caused changes in behavior can have varying degrees of extremity, and are experienced differently by different people. Some patterns of change are like social anxiety disorder in that they are limited only to certain individuals, not occurring at all for many. Like code switching, though, there are many behavioral changes that occur for almost everyone, every day.


Auer, P. (1999). Code Switching in Conversation. New York: Routledge.

Kashdan, T., Breen, W., Afram, A. & Terhar, D. (2010). Experiential avoidance in idiographic, autobiographical memories: Construct validity and links to social anxiety, depressive, and anger symptoms. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 24(5): 528-34.

Voncken, M., Dijk, C., de Jong, P., Roelofs, J. (2010). Not self-focused attention but negative beliefs affect poor social performance in social anxiety: An investigation…… [read more]

Philosophical, and Empirical Foundations of Psychology Argument Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,427 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Philosophical, and Empirical Foundations of Psychology


Pre-Modern Period (to 1650's)

Classical Period

Western Civilization, its intellectual and social aspects, was still dominated by Christianity, as it had been throughout the dark ages. Christianity was chiefly concerned with the "why," the question of why we exist. It held that we exist in order to do God's willing, follow… [read more]

Evolution and Development of Behavioral Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,338 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


While Pavlov and his students may have been the first people to really describe conditioning, they failed to translate that into an active and thriving treatment modality. That does not mean that learning theories were not used in behavior modification. Perhaps one of the most famous studies was a clinical demonstration conducted by Mary Cover Jones, a student of Watson. "Jones speculated that if fears could be established by conditioning, perhaps they could be eliminated by use of the same principles. Her famous study was conducted with 3-year-old Peter, who was afraid of a variety of furry objects like rabbits, fur coats, and cotton. As Peter sat eating his favorite foods, a caged rabbit was brought into the room at sufficient distance not to interfere with his eating. Over time, the rabbit was brought progressively closer until it was close enough for him to touch" (Glass & Arnkoff, Year). This eventually led to extinction of the fear reaction, and may have been the first clinical description of behavior modification in a human subject.

Despite that early success, "it was not until the 1950s that behavior therapy as we know it today began to emerge" (Fishman & Franks, Year). That does not, however, mean that people were ignorant of some of the underlying principles in behavior therapy. For example, at a basic level, any person who trained an animal probably used some form of reward or punishment-based behavior modification to do so. Furthermore, many people had contemplated learning theory and how the human mind assimilated information. By the 1950s, these theories were combined with what was being learned about conditioning and then used that to engage in therapeutic behavior modification. However, these efforts were not always seen as welcome or beneficial. There were ethical issues surrounding the use of behavior modification, with the suggestion that behavior modification methods were generally cruel or coercive, which did not reflect the reality of the field, but did impact public perception of its acceptability. Moreover, it must be recognized that some behavior therapists have engaged in ethically questionable behavior. "For example, in the early 1970s a prominent method for attempting to change the sexual preference of homosexuals was orgasmic reconditioning, which involved gradually shifting the fantasies used in masturbation from same-sex to opposite-sex images"(Glass & Arnkoff). While mainstream behaviorists have largely abandoned attempts to change traits that are now seen as innate rather than learned, one can see the remainders of some of this early behavioral therapy overreaching in modern anti-gay therapy, making some of the concerns about behaviorism and its goals appear valid. Of course, the same can be said about much of psychology, as the definition of normal and adaptive behavior has certainly changed with shifts in societal norms.

Modern behavior therapy is no longer focused specifically on conditioned responses, but has branched out into the area of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). These new treatment modalities take the basic building blocks of behaviorism and apply them to specific scenarios. Those scenarios can be relatively… [read more]

Evolution of Cognitive Psychology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,097 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


In his work, Wundt embraced introspection as a research methodology based on his belief that adequately trained psychologists should make observations of their experiences in similar ways to those of properly trained physicists. By using objective measures of performance like reaction time, the main focus of this psychologist was on the conscious experience that heralded the response. However, he was not concerned with the unconscious processes that are used to respond to simple stimuli i.e. The speedy information-processing operations because he regarded these factors as aspects of physiology rather than psychology (Braisby & Gellatly, n.d.).

Kulpe, the leader of Wurzburg school of introspection opposed Wundt's perspective by developing the other concept of conscious experience that could be revealed by introspection. Unlike Wundt's perspective, Kulpe stated that the contents of consciousness are determined in a top-down means depending on the task that the individual is engaged upon. Together with his colleagues, the psychologists examined simple tasks though they favored more complex tasks that were mainly based on mental acts like recognizing, attending, willing, and discriminating.

In the first two decades of the 20th Century, introspectionism approach went into a terminal decline through the various unresolved disagreements in the two schools of this approach. During this period, the introspectionists increased complex classifications of conscious experience despite of the declining interests in consciousness.

Gestalt psychology:

The seeming failure and decline in introspectionism stimulated several reactions by various intellectuals such as gestalt psychologists developed the work of Kulpe or Wurzburg school by stating that consciousness cannot be examined into minor components sensations. These psychologists stressed the significance of perception of stimulus that patterns people's conscious experience.

These works were also accompanied by the attempts by William James to oppose introspectionism through his functionalist psychology. The psychologist affirmed that the various ways of humans' feelings and thinking are products of people's utility in developing their interactions with the outside world. In addition to being regarded as an exponent of modern evolutionary psychology, James considered these functions of the mind as the suitable subject matter in psychology. Nonetheless, these ideas were quickly and largely brushed off by the emergence of a new thought in the United States known as behaviorism.


While this approach contributed to the terminal decline of Gestalt and functionalist psychology, the basis of behaviorism was not shared in common since its founders were driven by divergent motives. The main founder of behaviorism focused on moving psychological research from the laboratory and into the real world. Through public observation, behaviorism reflected a broad philosophical consensus as the actual nature of scientific analysis. As various psychologists become dissatisfied with the emphasis on external behavior by behaviorism, cognitive psychology developed to focus on internal processes.


Cognitive psychology has developed as a discipline in the field of psychology through various antecedents instead of a specific event. Some of the major antecedents that contributed to the evolution of the discipline include introspectionism, Gestalt psychology, and behaviorism.


Braisby, N. & Gellatly, A. (n.d.). Chapter 1 --… [read more]

Social Psychology Statement Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,591 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Interviewing 262 undergraduate students the authors learned that in terms of feminine vs. unfeminine athletes, males are less interested in articles about female athletes are more masculine but males like women's volleyball (women wear shorts and tend to be more attractive). Female students reported more interest in more masculine sports players. There is a fascinating social psychological study within that subject.

Other writers are investigating the social psychological aspects of attitudes toward serious mental illness, about the behavioral control (or lack of control) young people have with respect to information technology, and the role social psychology plays with reference to customer retention for a particular cellular company.

The learner's response to the research

My original ideas were very narrowly focused, and I really had little comprehension as to the depth and width of the subject. Moreover, I did not realize that this field is as yet not widely used in schools environments, and that teachers are among those that should become proficient with the concepts and with the importance of understanding social psychology. For the benefit of minority students, and all students, instructors should be on the front line when it comes to understanding social psychology and how it can bring enlighten attitudes and ideas.

Works Cited

Cherry, Kendra. (2008) What is Social Psychology? About.com. Retrieved February 27, 2012,

From http://psychology.about.com/od/socialpsychology/f/socialpsych.htm?p=1.

Gehlbach, Hunter. The Social Side of School: Why Teachers Need Social Psychology.

Educational Psychological Review, 22(3), 349-362.

Jones, Amy, and Greer, Jennifer. (2011). You Don't Look Like an Athlete: The Effects of Feminine Appearance on Audience Perceptions of Female Athletes and Women's Sports.

Journal of Sport Behavior, 34(4), 358-377.

McCall,…… [read more]

Dialectical Behavior Therapy Dbt Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,722 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Dialectical Behavior Therapy


Dialectical Behavior Therapy is a medication meant to treat persons with mental health disorders especially borderline personality disorder. These patients normally have a history of urges to induce self-harm, self-mutilation, suicidal ideation among others. This therapy uses a cognitive-behavioral approach that deals with the psychological aspect of treatment (Heard, 2009). The theory depends on the approach… [read more]

Mind and Behaviour Investigators Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (608 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


Contingent problems of qualitative interviews are those which may or may not be issues depending on whether attention is given to certain aspects of the study. These types of problems include the interviewer being deleted from the interpretation of findings, flaws in how the interactions are represented, how specific observations are, not knowing how interviews are set up, and sometimes failure to see the interview situation as an interaction (Potter & Hepburn, 2005). These are widespread problems that are found commonly throughout research based on qualitative interviews, and psychological research in general could be drastically improved by correcting these problems (Potter & Hepburn, 2005). Potter & Hepburn (2005) suggest that a starting point toward correcting these problems would be for researchers to acknowledge the presence of these issues and in turn justify why certain components of the qualitative interviews are used and how they contribute to improved execution of the study.

The other category of problems in qualitative psychological research noted by Potter & Hepburn (2005) is necessary problems, those that are inherent to the interview process. These problems include the interview being flooded by social science agendas, the dominance asserted by the interviewer and interviewee, potential personal agendas on the behalf of the interviewer and interviewee, as well as cognitivism being reproduced (Potter & Hepburn, 2005). Since these problems are inherent to the interview process, they cannot be eliminated, and instead must be avoided as much as possible by consciously designing and conducting interviews with these potential problems in mind. The impact of these problems could be limited and reduced by effectively crafting introductions to interviews, questions, and analyzing responses without losing sight of the possible interference caused by necessary problems.


Potter, J. & Hepburn, A. (2005). Qualitative interviews in psychology: problems and possibilities. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 2, 1-27.

Stanovich,…… [read more]

Health Psychology Committee Report Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  4 pages (1,250 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Health Psychology Committee Report

Health care reform plan

Duty list:

This would be the ideal assignment for a child psychologist. A child psychologist possesses intimate knowledge of childhood development issues and can help schools deal with psychological and academic challenges with children in a more effective manner. Children are not 'small adults.' Children have specific needs based upon the biology of their brains. That is why developmental psychology is a unique subfield of psychology: developmental psychologists "study the physiological, cognitive, and social development that takes place throughout life," which change depending on the life phase of the person (Psychologists, 2011, BLS).

Provide psychological preparation methods for children prior to medical procedures: Likewise, a child psychologist can help prepare children before procedures in an age-appropriate manner. A child's perception of a surgery, or a painful test, for example, will not be the same as an adult's who more fully understands what is going on. The in-patient therapist could also provide assistance in helping parents deal with the illnesses of their child.

Provide treatment for chronic pain: This would seem to be best-suited for an adult psychologist. He or she could combine psychological and medical ways to deal with pain that would be administered both in an in-patient and out-patient setting. "A psychologist can help you address the emotional impact of chronic pain. Using behavioral therapy techniques, a psychologist can help you identify and change negative thoughts -- thoughts that can exacerbate your pain. The psychologist can help you deal with any depression, anxiety, or other mood disorders often associated with chronic pain" (Walker 2011).

Provide psychological preparation methods for adults prior to medical procedures and surgery: This would be best-suited for an in-patient psychologist. The psychologist would be specifically charged with the duties of preparing adult patients for in-house procedures and surgery, focusing on short-term rather than long-term needs (Department of Psychology, 2011, Mass General Hospital).

Coordinate the use of recovery programs and structured programs for substance abuse, in conjunction with social worker: Dealing with the psychological and medical needs of substance abusers requires specific preparation and would be best delegated to a substance abuse counselor. Most major research hospitals have departments specifically devoted to the treatment of substance-abuse related complaints, given the expanding knowledge we now possess about how addition changes the addict's brain. "Despite the availability of many forms of effective treatment for addiction, the problem of relapse remains the major challenge to achieving sustained recovery. People trying to recover from drug abuse and addiction are often doing so with altered brains, strong drug-related memories and diminished impulse control" (Volkow 2011).

Diagnose stress disorders and aid in stress-relief interventions: These generalized psychological treatments would best be allocated to an adult psychologist who could help patients use such stress-reduction techniques outside of the facility in their daily lives. Stress relief can be helpful for both psychologically normal patients as well as individuals suffering from psychological complaints. Recently, a study in the Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging reported that all participants in an… [read more]

Psychology Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Cognitive Behavioral Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


It is thought that more than seventeen million adults go through at least one incident of major depression every year. Of those who seek help, just forty to sixty percent will react to initial therapy. Cognitive behavior therapy is a type of psychotherapy that is often utilized to take care of patients with depression, anxiety or other issues. It entails helping people to recognize negative patterns of thinking and reacting, and then replacing them with more productive options. Study findings have shown that CBT has a very precise action on the brain's control of its emotional reaction. While health professionals have known that psychotherapy was normally helpful for depression, they have not known before how targeted its effects have been (Fahy, 2006).

According to a study published in the January 2004 issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry, health professionals have been using Positron emission tomography (PET) to show the diverse effects of depression treatments on the brain. People who recuperate after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) show a model of brain alterations that is different from that of people who respond to medication. "By modifying attention and memory functions, affective bias, and maladaptive information processing, CBT teaches patients cognitive strategies to reduce automatic reactivity to negative thoughts. Unlike this top-down approach, which focuses on cortical brain areas and uses thought processes to change abnormal mood states; drug therapy is considered to be a bottom-up approach because it changes neurochemistry in the brain stem and limbic regions effecting basic emotional and circadian behaviors" (Barclay, 2004).


Barclay, Laurie. (2004). Brain PET Shows Different Effects of Depression Treatments. Retreived from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/466497

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. (2011). Retreived from http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=About_Treatments_and_Supports&template


Fahy, Joe. (2006). Study finds brain imaging could predict best depression therapy. Retrieved http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/06095/679334-114.stm

Neurological Changes Associated with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy. (2008). Retrieved

from http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/exchange/node/2441… [read more]

Psychological Disorders Word Count (Excluding Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (931 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


His conclusions have been influential in the field of psychiatry. He recommended greater education and renewed efforts in diagnoses, labeling, and treatment approaches.

Second Assignment

Psychophysiological Disorder Chapter 14, p.485; Webpage: http://www.slideshare.net/dennis43/psychophysiological-disorders-thomas-g-bowers-phd

Psychophysiological disorders are conditions where the emotional or psychological state of the patient can cause or make worse physical symptoms or disease. Unlike hypochondria, a psychological disorder whereas the patient perceives illness, pain, or symptoms that do not actually exist, psychophysiological disorders produce physical harm to the body. Psychophysiological disorders are also called psychosomatic disorders. Physical symptoms can show throughout the body including skin irritations, digestive problems, or hallucinations. Physical symptoms affected by emotional stress can include nausea, tension headaches, ulcers, asthma, chest pain, or anorexia. Psychosomatic illnesses can be very serious and even result in death.

Treatment of Psychophysiological disorders addresses not only the physical symptoms but seek to discover the root emotional or psychological cause. This holistic approach includes such treatment as relaxation techniques, meditation, and biofeedback. Doctors who treat Psychophysiological patients also look into harmful life patterns such as smoking, obesity or other stress causing factors that can be eliminated or reduce in order to have a positive health outcome.

Psychoneuroimmunology and Stress Chapter 14, p. 487

Webpage: http://www.apa.org/monitor/jun02/brightfuture.aspx

Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is a field of study that is primarily concerned with the relationship between the nervous and immune systems, and the relationship between mental and physical health. Similar to Psychophysiological medicine, Psychoneuroimmunology has an interdisciplinary approach to healing. This field involves studies in psychology, immunology, endocrinology, physiology, and more.

In this field there are emerging theories. One set of researches have taken an interest in cytokine activity. It asserts that a function of the immune system is to send a message to the brain when infection or injury occurs in the body by the release of proteins called proinflammatory cytokines.

Research is discovering that cytokines travel to through the central nervous system which gives vital information to the brain concerning physical problems. As a response, the brain then sends its own cytokines to the nervous system to begin a series of responses such as the induction of fever. These responses cause the conservation of energy.

Another theory, developed by Hans Selye called the "General Adaptation Syndrome," emphasizes a common response to stress with a closely related set of hormones and changes in immunity. However, other theorist maintains that there are two different primary reactions to stress. One, they say, is the traditional "fight-or-flight" response, and the other a withdrawing reaction. In this reaction, a person is withdraws from the stress factor to conserve energy.… [read more]

Psychology History of Psychology Max Weitheimer (Laws Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (924 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



History of Psychology

Max Weitheimer (Laws of Organization in Perceptual Forms)

Max Wertheimer was one of the principal proponents of Gestalt theory which emphasized higher-order cognitive processes in the midst of behaviorism. The center of Gestalt premise was the concept of grouping. The chief aspects that determine grouping include: proximity which involves elements being grouped together according to their nearness, similarity, where items of similar respect tend to be grouped together, closure where items are grouped together if they tend to complete some entity and simplicity where items will be organized into simple figures according to symmetry, regularity, and smoothness. These factors are referred to as the laws of organization and are explained in the context of awareness and problem-solving. The fundamental character of successful problem-solving behavior according to Wertheimer is that of being able to envision the overall construction of the problem.

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (Conditioned Reflexes: An investigation of the Physiological Activity of the Cerebral Cortex)

Pavlov was a Nobel Prize-winning physiologist, whose research into the process of the conditioned reflex is considered a landmark discovery in both modern physiology and behavioral psychology. Pavlov was recognized by the Nobel Committee for his work with mammalian digestion; however, later experiments with canine salivation led to his theorization of the learned or conditioned reflex, a physiological response to associated but otherwise unrelated stimuli. Pavlov saw that when dogs were offered some additional stimulus accompanied by regular feedings, such as a flash of light, could be made to salivate when only the added stimulation, and no food, was given. During experimentation, Pavlov ascertained the physiological basis of certain types of learned behavior. He also related his discovery of the conditioned reaction to humans.

Kurt Lewin (Experiments in Social Space)

Kurt Lewin's field theory was using the concept of fields of force to explain behavior in terms of one's field of social influences. His areas of interest included human motivation, which was involved describing human behavior in its total physical and social perspective. He paid close attention mainly to social problems that affect how people live and work. He worked hard to make factories more personal instead of industrial in order to make work more personally satisfying to the employees. His understanding of field theory in physics led him to the breakthrough of the life space. Lewin thought that a person's psychological activities happen within a kind of psychological field. He called this field the life space. The life space is made up of all events in a persons past, present and future that help shape and affect them. Each of the events is thought to help determine a person's behavior in any given situation. The life space is also made up of a person's needs in dealings with the psychological environment.

Edward…… [read more]

Positive Psychology Optimism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,675 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Positive Psychology: Optimism

The purpose of the present paper is to define and discuss the concept of "optimism" within the realms of positive psychology, exploring its relevance in this area. Positive psychology is a branch of psychology which has been developed only recently. Its declared purpose is to understand the psychological mechanisms and instruments which could be used in order… [read more]

Compare and Contrast Psychoanalytic, Behavior, and Existential Theories Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,736 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Psychology Models

Since Sigmund Freud first introduced his psychoanalytic theory, numerous other theoretical models of psychopathology have been suggested with certain similarities and differences. They all share the same fundamental beliefs that each person is born with certain innate tendencies and psychological functions; that everyone's environment contributes to the type of person one becomes; that as a result of some… [read more]

Social Psychology and Note Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (849 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … social psychology and note how it is different from other, similar fields.

Unlike psychology, which tends to focus on the individual in the context of his or her immediate environment, social psychology focuses on how larger social forces affect the individual. Sociology, the study of individuals in groups, focuses on aggregates rather than individuals.

Discuss three ways in which the presence of others can affect the likelihood that people will help someone in need.

If an individual is being watched, he or she may be more likely to bestow aid. Also, if others immediately try to give help, groupthink may active the impulse to participate. However, there is also the bystander effect, whereby an individual not wanting to get involved assumes that 'someone else' has already called for help.

Q14. Describe how the self-concept develops from the perception of one's own behavior and from comparisons with other people.

Self-concept can be shaped by social forces. For example, some social scientists attribute the increase in obesity to the fact that the social norm of weight has increased, as all of America (and the world) grows fatter. However, it is impossible to see the 'self' exactly as others perceive it. For example, someone with social anxiety or low self-esteem may dread speaking in public because 'everyone is looking at me" and believe that he or she seems incompetent, when others do not judge him or her nearly as harshly.

15. Characterize modern racism. Describe when it is most, and least, likely to be evident.

Modern racism tends to be less overt than previous manifestations of racism. Individuals are less likely to engage in overt acts of discrimination, although unconscious or subtle acts of discrimination are far from uncommon.

Part B.

Television program: Network news

Physical assaults that involve using a weapon or object: 1

Physical assaults that do not involve a weapon or object: 0

Verbal threats of harm: 0

Insults or derogatory remarks: 10

Violent deaths: 0

Accidents in which someone is hurt: 2

On the particular edition of the network news I screened, the main news story was the upcoming health summit between President Obama and congressional leaders. The main acts of violence were the insults used by the Republicans against the president. There was also some coverage of the 'wild weather' sweeping the nation and the injuries caused by snow and ice. Had the focus of the news been upon Iraq, the tally may have been different. The network news is not consistently violent every night, although it can be, unlike…… [read more]

Clinical Disorder Clinical Psychology and Categorical Mental Thesis

Thesis  |  12 pages (3,626 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 25


Clinical Disorder

Clinical Psychology and Categorical Mental Disorders

Clinical psychology is a field constructed on the intent to treat disorders and dysfunctions and to promote mental health and stability in its subject. Therefore, it is centered on the processes of diagnosis and therapy, with the various disorders to which individuals are subject falling under a set of classifications discussed in… [read more]

Humanistic Psychology Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  12 pages (3,336 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 13


Humanistic Psychology


Psychologists found that a Third Force filled the void left by earlier approaches to understanding the workings of the human mind in its pursuit of genuine fulfillment and personal happiness. This Third Force centers on the unconditional worth of the individual, which guides him in his journey to optimal self-discovery and… [read more]

Depression and Addictive Behavior Thesis

Thesis  |  16 pages (4,458 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


Depression and Addictive Behavior

Double Cruel Hand

Comobid Conditions

Contemporary, Challenging Concerns Worldwide

Derangement of the Volition 7 Contemporary Addictions



Role of Cocaine Use in Depression

Clinical Techniques of Helping



Tried and True" Techniques


Points for Treatment Consideration

Clients' Reported Med Use When Admitted to Substance Abuse Clinics

Personal Growth and Maintenance (adapted from Daley,… [read more]

Human Interaction From a Psychology Perspective Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,059 words)
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Psychology - Human Interaction


Human Behavior in Social Situations:

Human behavior reflects a complex interrelationship between elements of individual psychological development and external circumstances. In that regard, social situations involving other people is among the most significant external circumstances that influence the behavior of the individual. Normal psychological responses to social circumstances have the potential to be exploited and in the most extreme examples, may produce a social psychosis capable of transforming a society entirely.

Experiments into the Impact of Perceived Deferred Responsibility:

Stanley Milgram conducted an infamous series of experiments before the era where ethical guidelines prohibited certain types of experiments capable of traumatizing participants (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). The experimental design consisted of a mock laboratory in which volunteers believed they were assisting an experimenter conduct a study on human learning. In reality, the purpose of the experiment was to determine the limits of deference to authority.

Specifically, participants believed they were administering painful electric shocks to unseen subjects as a punishment for providing incorrect responses to test questions.

Many of the participants continued administering what they believed to be extremely painful shocks to subjects who screamed out in apparent pain and demanded to be released fro the experiment. Any appeals on behalf of the hidden subjects were met with verbal assurance fro official-looking experimenters dressed in white lab coats that they and not the study participants were fully responsible for any resulting harm to the supposed study subjects. Years later, even the participants expressed their own surprise and disappointment that they were capable of ignoring their own consciences by virtue of assurances that someone in higher authority was responsible for their actions (Macionis 2003).

The Significance of the Phenomenon of Deference to Authority:

In principle, the Milgram experiments demonstrated the degree to which normal individuals are susceptible to blind obedience and deference to authority. The implications of the experiment were that large-scale incidents of societal atrocities such as witnessed in connection with Nazi ideology during World War II are functions of normal human psychology rather than to a pathological psychosis as many had suggested previously (Henslin 2002)

While most individuals are susceptible to elements of this principle, different people vary substantially in their resistance to following directions that violate their sense of morality and their perception of the distinction between right and wrong. In that respect, higher levels of self-esteem are associated with greater psychological independence (Branden 1999). The Stanford Prison Experiment and the Impact of Social Situations and Groupthink:

In 1970, Stanford University Psychology professor Phillip Zimbardo conducted an experiment known as the Stanford Prison Experiment (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005) in which he randomly assigned student-participants to be either "prison guards" or "prisoners" in a jail that he set up in the basement of the Psychology building on the Stanford campus. Whereas the subjects in the Milgram experiments received verbal instructions and encouragement from individuals they perceived to be authority figures, Zimbardo provided no specific instructions to his… [read more]

Child Psychology Child Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  18 pages (5,209 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


Child Psychology

Child development is a constantly changing psycho/social discipline with almost countless theories associated with it. The fundamental nature of children and how they develop to become either successful adults or unsuccessful adults to varying degrees is the essential question of the future and therefore the study of child development is a mass of information encompassing theories of all… [read more]

Abnormal Psychology: OCD Diagnosis and Treatment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,474 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Abnormal Psychology: OCD Diagnosis and Treatment

In this case, the reader is asked to evaluate the case of "Jake," who has an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) which has reemerged after the birth of his child. Jake grew up in a relatively sheltered environment, close to his mother and distant from his father. Always uncomfortable with outside stimuli, Jake pursued a cautious… [read more]

Mental Illness: What's in a Label? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,556 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Mental Illness: What's in a Label?

In a civil society, everyone is expected to adhere to certain set of "norms." Those that do not adhere to the prescribed norms are labeled and abnormal. Public knowledge about mental illness is at a level never before experienced in any society. The mass media promotes societal norms, that may not be considered all… [read more]

Psychology to Me, the Most Interesting Thing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (339 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



To me, the most interesting thing about psychology is the deeper understanding of people that can be found with it. I know that people are very complex and psychology does not give all the answers, but it gives such insight into human behavior, and that is something that I find very fascinating. Human beings are not only interesting, but they can be charming, frightening, dangerous, confused, and a thousand other things. Because of this, it seems as though it is important to understand why people do what they do. While this does not mean that the problems that people cause for themselves and others can be prevented, it does appear that a greater understanding of humanity would be very beneficial in determining the cause of some behaviors and therefore looking for ways to stop or at least understand the behaviors.

In a beginning psychology course, I would not expect to learn a really in-depth study of people and why they act the way they do. Instead, I would…… [read more]

Psychology of Criminals in Correctional Facilities Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,200 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Psychology of Criminals in Correctional Facilities

This paper will analyze the psychology of criminal behavior. Specifically, it will assess the psychology of criminals in correctional facilities, assessing the mental status of criminals before entering correctional facilities and the training and resulting mental status of prisoners on release. The research will attempt to define whether any connections exist between an offender's personal background, such as age, sex, finances or family and rates of psychological impairment of mental illness resulting from their incarceration.

The paper will also provide statistical facts and figures linking mental and psychological illness with correctional facilities in an attempt to define the types of and causes for psychological and mental illness in criminals on release. Further, the paper will assess the psyche of offenders who commit crimes as they are released, including an overview of the psyche of those who would prefer to go back to jail compared with those who seek redemption or rehabilitation. To answer these questions and analyze these problems, the researcher will compare and contrast these issues using a person who is granted parole vs. one who is on probation. The results of the study will show whether probation is always the best answer for someone scarred with a mental illness resulting from their incarceration.


Pustilnik (2005) provides some of the most comprehensive research on the effects of prison or incarceration on the mind, especially with respect to mental illness resulting from incarceration. In fact, the researcher presents many of the questions the author attempts to answer, with scientific research providing detailed analysis of mental illness in criminal justice and resulting from incarceration. Pustilnik (2005) hypothesizes that confinement within correctional institutions may create "intangible social value" when criminals are taught personal responsibility. However, the author also notes that reform typically is only possible among criminals who feel remorse (p. 217) and among criminals who receive therapeutic assistance while incarcerated to address mental illness as it occurs in the correctional facility. For purposes of this paper and analysis, remorse may include feelings an offender has including guilt or an obligation to correct their actions after committing an offense. There is ample evidence that some criminals have remorse while others do not. The psychology supporting this is simple. Criminal confinement reinforces norms that equate to responsibility and reinforce one's social value in society, and provide social meaning for and a context for living a just and respectable life (Pustilnik, 2005).

With respect to mental illness, Pustilnik (2005), like many researchers before note (Lawrence, 1987), most criminals incarcerated have a predisposition to or suffer from some mental illness that may not be addressed on incarceration. The effects of incarceration often include a worsening of symptoms, preventing those on probation from leading normal lives unless their lives are strictly regulated (Gutterman, 2000). Statistics suggest that as much as 40% of those who are mentally ill are incarcerated not because they have committed so great an offense they deserve punishment, but rather because they are mentally ill, and… [read more]

Relation of Nonverbal Behavior to Client Reactions Term Paper

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Psychology of Nonverbal Behavior and Therapy Client Reactions

For therapists, developing a clear sense of their clients' reactions to therapy, whether positive or negative, is a crucial component in improving the quality of the therapy provided. One of the more significant problems facing therapists who are interested in the evaluation of their own methods is that many clients are reluctant… [read more]

Psychotherapy Comparing it to Behavior Therapy Term Paper

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Psychotherapy vs. Behavior Therapy

Psychotherapy is a form of therapy that helps treat mental and behavioral disorders by talking about these disorders with a professional trained in mental health and psychotherapy. The therapy can be one-on-one or group oriented. Often, participants just call it "therapy' (Editors, 2006). Psychotherapy can help an individual deal with emotional issues, such as anger or aggression, and it helps understand relationships and reactions to people and situations, as well. Often, psychotherapy does not last a long time, and participants can choose when they feel they have gotten enough results from their therapy. Psychotherapy can help people deal with negative behaviors, but it also teaches them to set realistic goals, enjoy life, and solve problems effectively.

Behavior therapy, on the other hand, treats mental and behavioral disorders by attempting to teach alternate or acceptable behaviors to replace the disruptive or destructive behaviors. For example, an overly aggressive person may undergo behavior therapy to address their anger and dangerous behavior toward others. By changing their behaviors, they hope to…… [read more]

Psychology Cognitive Term Paper

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Cognitive Psychology


The different theories of famous psychologists Sigmund Freud, Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow all can be used to interpret and analyze certain characteristics and human behavior. In the example provided, John's anxious, frustrated and overly critical behavior as well as his lack of self-discipline and failure to plan ahead can be analyzed to support different explanations under the theories of Freud, Rogers and Maslow. This paper will explain his behavior under the contrasting views of psychodynamic theory, humanistic theory and social cognitive learning theory.

Maslow's theory is a theory of human motivation, which centers on the theory of "physiological needs." Maslow believed that if left to their own devices, animals will tend to eat and drink things that are good for them, and consume them in balanced proportions, with basic food and shelter needs at the bottom, and self-actualization at the top. Maslow's theory hinged upon the notion of self-concept, and the basic core idea that anything that helps an individual develop a better sense of self will be motivating. As related to the theory of human motivation all people have a need or desire for a stable, formally based, high evaluation of themselves, for self-respect, self-esteem, and respect from others. By firmly-based self-esteem, Maslow's theory was that which is based upon real capacity, achievement and respect from others. Under Maslow's theory, John's behavior can best be explained as follows. He fails to plan ahead because such things fall to the bottom of his list of what is important. He is overly critical because he is constantly seeking a better sense of his own self, and through criticizing others, he is able to develop a better sense of his self-worth. H is excessively anxious and lacks self-discipline because he has a continuous desire to seek self-respect, self-esteem and respect from others, and is always working toward achieving this.

Unlike Maslow's theory, Roger's theory is a clinical theory, in which he states that…… [read more]

Continuity of Mental Health Care for Mexican Americans With Schizophrenia Term Paper

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¶ … Mental-Health Care for Mexican-Americans with Schizophrenia

What specific topic or subject area do you propose to explore?

Schizophrenia is a devastating mental illness that affects more than 2 million Americans and one percent of the world's population. Though some studies have speculated that diagnoses of schizophrenia is significantly more frequent in minority populations, it has recently been found… [read more]

Anxiety, or "Stress," May Be Chronic (Trait Term Paper

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Anxiety, or "stress," may be chronic (trait anxiety) or temporary (state anxiety) and is often triggered by life events brought on by uncontrolled circumstances or created by the stressor. (Garnefski, 2001) Anxiety and panic disorders affect an estimated 2.4 million Americans. Panic attacks are twice as common in women as in men. (Hitti, 2006)

Short-term stress doesn't have the same effect as long-term stress, as the following study shows. Being stressed out for long periods of time may increase anxiety. A study published in Behavior Neuroscience, lays some of the responsibility on stress hormones, cortisol and corticotripin-releasing hormone, to help the body respond to threats. But if these hormones remain in any measure in the body over a long period of time, they can increase anxiety and mood disorders. The research, done by Paul Ardayfio, BSC, a graduate student in molecular neurobiology at Harvard Medical School and Boston's McLean Hospital, studied female mice, to find out how chronic stress affects mood disorders. Corticosterone, a stress hormone was induced orally for 17 or 18 days to female mice, mimicking long-term exposure to the stress hormone. The control group received the spiked water only for the first day.

The mice got two tests, without any training: In the first test, the group that was allowed long-term exposure to the hormone was more hesitant to enter a well-lighted, exposed space after having been in a dark part of the cage. The researchers interpreted the hesitancy as anxiety. (Hitti, 2006)

In the second test, the mice were exposed to high-frequency sound. Mice under long-term exposure to corticosterone had a dulled reaction to the sound the first 10 times they heard it. This was interpreted as depression.

The study suggests that long-term stress may lead the one under stress to dimming reactions, depression and being less prepared to handle additional stress. Hesitancy to act (anxiety) and little reaction to additional stress (depression) appear to be the result of long-term stress.

Another study, published in Science, on July 17, 2003, describes variations in a gene called 5-HTT, which regulates levels of serotonin, a brain chemical. People with short versions of this gene were more likely to develop depression and suicidal tendencies in response to life stresses than people with a long version of the gene, according to Avshalom Caspi, MD. It is evident that a person's response to life is altered by his or her genetic makeup. Although the 5-HTT gene may not be directly associated with depression, it could moderate the amount of serotonin released in response to stress, he writes. (2003)

In their study, Caspi and colleagues followed 847 children, born in the early 1970s, from birth to adulthood. Genetic studies showed that 17% had two copies of the stress-sensitive short version; 31% had two copies of the protective long version, and 51% had one copy of each version.

The researchers charted stressful life events as the children grew up - from ages 21 to 26 - such as employment, financial, housing, health, and… [read more]

Humanistic Psychology the Current Manifestations Term Paper

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¶ … Manifestations of Humanistic Psychology

Humanistic Psychology as practiced today can be divided roughly into three large categories of activities. A large mainstream group of humanistic psychotherapists, who subscribe to existential theories and use a variety of methods, work to help people who are in pain. Another group that specializes in self-actualization is concerned with helping individuals discover who… [read more]

History of Psychology Term Paper

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¶ … History of Psychology

In many ways, the history of psychology can be said to have come 'full circle,' from its early attributions of human behavior to purely biological causes, to psychoanalysis' stress upon the relationship of the mind's ability to control the body, to today's modern use of psychopharmacology to use chemicals to modify human behavior. However, the modern use of psychology is more often scientifically rather than anecdotally based -- the 19th century theorist Sigmund Freud developed his theory of human psychological development from a few case studies, which would not satisfy today's more rigorous demands of scientific objectivity and the need for results to be quantified, regarding client treatment. (Myers, p. 46)

In Freud's day, however, psychology did aspire to some form of scientific validity. Doctors tended to view the human mind as affected by biological complaints such as a 'wandering womb,' that produced hysteria in females. But Freud believed that human behavior could be explained by probing the inner psyche, or unconscious through the analysis of dreams, slips of the tongue, and patient resistance to certain ideas. (Myers, p. 568) Psychoanalysis, the therapy developed by Freud, attempted to give clients insight by bringing them into a state of personal, conscious awareness by interpreting previously repressed feelings. (Myers, p. 568)

However, later theorists were more apt…… [read more]

Buddhist Psychology Term Paper

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Buddhist Psychology

Compared to Western Psychology, what are the characteristic features Buddhist approaches to the mind? To what extent can these fruitfully interact?

Psychologist Daniel Goleman sums up one of the central disparities in the different views of mind between Buddhism and Western thought. He states:

It seems that one of the biggest gaps that must be crossed between the… [read more]

Psychology Briefly Describe the Differences Among Positive Term Paper

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Briefly describe the differences among positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment. Give examples of how each might be used to influence behavior.

Positive reinforcement refers to a reward given for behavior that is desirable. For example, if a dog performs a trick on command the owner might offer a cookie. Parents might offer positive reinforcement for their kids' good grades by raising their allowance or taking them out to dinner. Negative reinforcement involves behavioral training using aversion techniques, used also to encourage a desirable behavior. For example, the parents refused to give their kids any allowance money unless they brought home good grades, or made the child do the dishes every day until they brought home an "A." Punishment, on the other hand, refers to behavioral conditioning using a negative stimulus in order to discourage undesirable behavior. For example, if a child comes home with an "F" on his or her report card the parents might punish him or her by grounding or withholding allowance money.

2. With regard to needs, how do men and women different in needs for affiliation and power?

Some research shows that men and women differ in terms of their needs for affiliation and power. It is possible that men need to feel more powerful and therefore seek positions of power and control, while women need more to be affiliated with power. Some women are attracted to men who are powerful. This may be due to evolutionary needs.

3. Briefly describe what is meant by nature vs. nurture debate in psychology. Discuss what position most developmental psychologists take on this debate and give an example of a developmental process…… [read more]

Psychology Sensation and Perception Work Together Term Paper

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Sensation and perception work together to help us see the world. Most people use these terms as interchangeable concepts. However, they are separate functions and each compliments the other.

Sensation is the process that allows the body to take in the stimuli from outside of it. For example, when we smell cooking, it is our sense of smell that… [read more]

Psychology Analysis When I First Began Term Paper

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Psychology Analysis

When I first began this class, I felt that psychology was a field designed to help people who were 'mentally challenged' or having emotional troubles better deal with the challenges that faced them on an every day basis. As a business/finance major working full time for a residential/appraisal firm, I was not certain that I would benefit from a class on psychology, but was interested to learn about psychology in general. Much of my experience with psychology had been limited to things I had read in the newspaper or seen in the media. I assumed that most of psychology was concerned with counseling, and I had primarily considered the field of psychology as one reserved for social workers and medical physicians, and not something that could benefit an individual in an ordinary working environment.

My opinion of the field and its application to my life have changed significantly from this course. I feel that psychology is now tremendously relevant to any field and any industry, and can help people not only learn to communicate but also cope, interact and interpret behaviors and perceptions. I have learned through this course that psychology is a diverse field that is multi-faceted, with applications for the medical and also business community. I learned that human nature is the result of psychological processes.

During the course I began to recognize my own behavior patters, motivators and thinking processes, and also began to realize how my attitudes, beliefs and emotions might impact my relationships with others, personal and professional.

I would define psychology as the holistic study, observation, evaluation and even interpretation of human emotions, attitudes and behaviors. Psychology is a field that embraces human behaviors and attempts to define them. The field of psychology has also developed behavioral models that help explain methods of thinking and acting.

I feel that psychology can be applied to prevent and even eliminate problematic behaviors or conditions in people from a personal or a work perspective. It can also be used to help individuals excel in their chosen field, understand the complex nature of relationships, and build successful teams when used appropriately.

There is virtually no aspect of every day existence, human behavior or emotions that psychology does not address. Interestingly I learned that it is a profession that embraces educators and skilled counselors, employment and otherwise, to work toward a common goal of helping humans achieve their very best.

The field of psychology doesn't simply involve helping people with mental or emotional challenges. Rather the practice is wide ranging and involves many different areas including intelligence and personality, skills and abilities, psychological well being, behavior analysis, emotions and feelings, illness, injury, consultation and education. Psychology can be applied to individuals or groups.

I can use psychology in my chosen field to asses my own motivations and interests in employment and to help me interpret my own beliefs, attitudes and behaviors. I can also use it to analyze interactions and my interpersonal relationships with other members of… [read more]

on Abnormal Psychology Case Study

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Normal behavior does not neglect personal hygiene and eating habits. It neither favors abnormal sleeping habits and withdrawal both from fellow employees and close friends. Normal behavior cannot make Lamanda give up on her career ambitions and give up meeting Morris and her parents fearing disapproval. Lamanda occasionally drinks and has tasted marijuana and mushroom. Lamanda's behavioral change is obviously psychopathology case.

I would refer Lamanda for medical evaluation noting the serious changes in her physical body and her sporadic dating. Lamanda has lost her muscle mass, and her hair has become thinner and stringy. These symptoms are clear indications that she could need immediate medical evaluation and attention.

The additional assessment instruments I might use to assess Lamanda's condition and her risk for lethality and current substance abuse are interviews and observation. I will combine the use of structured, semi-structures and unstructured interview questions to assess her. In doing my observation, I will employ the mental status exam; rating scales specifically using personality tests; and behavioral coding systems. These assessment instruments will give me a true picture of the psychopathology of the patient.


In the treatment plan of Lamanda, a basic treatment plan is first doing and psychotherapy, in response to the assessment results, and then monitoring the patient closely through the therapies. The behaviors, symptoms and psychosocial behavior to be targeted through this therapy include the social alienation, the change in sleeping and eating habits, feeling of disinterest in things that were once important, low self-esteem and the sedentary lifestyle. During the therapies, Lamanda should be helped through behavioral changes and acquiring of new habits. In the event that Lamanda's case worsens, then the biotherapy and institutionalization treatment can be explored.


Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is an illness type, whose symptoms' severity changes over time. On the other hand, the Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) is a personality style that is overly rigid nature and does not change a lot in the lifetime of a person. OCD is often characterized with compulsions and obsessions, which OCPD is not associated with, in its expression. On the other hand, people with OCPD have rigid views on right vs. wrong things in life, while this does not characterize OCD people. People OCD struggle to get rid of the symptoms seen while the OCPD people find nothing wrong with their behavioral system.


Child development occurs right from birth to adulthood, but it was neglected in the past. However, research and work in the child development field has revealed the importance of considering the development in children. Any early childhood development worker, especially counselors, needs to be aware and understand the developmental theories to be effective in their work with children. The awareness of developmental theories will allow a counselor working with children to take account of the emotional, physical, cognitive, educational and social growth of children from birth into early adulthood. Some of these theories describe all aspects of child development, which when understood by a counselor, will be able to… [read more]

History of Social Psychology Research Paper

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The Supreme Court as evidence to prove that segregation would generate a feeling of inferiority later cited these results. Clark was also the first Africa American elected as President of the American Psychological Association.

Evelyn Hooker studied the psychosocial adjustment of gay men out of prison or hospital. She was the first social scientist to conduct such a study. The results of her study demonstrated heterosexual and gay men did not have any difference, which challenged the antigay stereotypes. Her results eventually led to the removal of homosexuality as a mental disorder from the American Psychiatric Association diagnostic manual (Baumeister & Finkel, 2010). Albert Bandura brought in the notion that it is possible to model behavior in the social world. He developed the social learning theory where he divided children into three groups. The children watched a video where the adult would be aggressive towards a doll. The adult would either be rewarded or published by another adult. The children who saw the video where the adult was rewarded were more likely to copy the adult's behavior. Leon Festinger, Stanley Schacter, and Black established cognitive dissonance in 1950. The argued that when a person holds on to beliefs, cognitions, and attitudes that are different they experience dissonance. Individuals will then try to change this by modifying their beliefs, thoughts, or attitudes. Dissonance will mostly occur when there are hard decisions or choices or when a person participates in a behavior that is against their attitude. Tajfel and Turner formulated the social identity theory, which stated that an individual has a need to maintain a positive sense of social and personal identity. The researchers conducted an experiment where they divided artificial groups. When the members of the group were requested to allocate points to others either in their group or the other group, they tended to award their group members more points.

Historic link to psychology and sociology

Social psychology is linked to sociology in that both these fields study the same topics. The major difference is that both of them are analyzing the topics from different perspectives. Social psychology focuses on the influence that people will have on an individual, but sociology will focus on the influence of societal variable like people's social role, socio-economic status, and cultural norms. There have been studies conducted to analyze how culture influences social behavior. Cultural influences are normally conducted in sociology and not social psychology. Understanding the roles of influence from other aspects would strengthen the field. Groups are formed based in different aspects. Social influence is studied to establish how group dynamics can influence an individual. Cultural aspects could also be studied in the group. In studies to demonstrate conformity, one can see that there is a link between sociology and social psychology. Sociology would analyze the group in terms of cultural influences, while social psychology would analyze the effects of the group on an individual. The study conducted by Solomon Asch on conformity is a good example of the link between… [read more]

Historical Milestones in Cognitive Psychology Term Paper

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What eventually emerged was the assumption that the behavioral choices of any organism, including humans, could be predicted if enough of an organisms learning history could be known. Clark Hull went so far as to propose that all behaviors could be reduced to mathematical equations. The most famous behaviorist by far was B.F. Skinner, who developed the principles of operant conditioning. Although behaviorism marginalized the importance of cognition, its influence helped make careful, objective approaches to research the cornerstone of cognitive psychology.

During World War II, information processing emerged as the solution to behaviorism's limits in explaining cognitive processes like thinking, memory, and language production (Kellogg, 1995, p. 13-14). The information processing model assumes mental processes are not that different from a computer capable of sensing and responding to environmental changes, but this discipline also suggested that it would be eventually possible to create machines that 'think.' A.M. Turing pioneered this work with computational theory, which eventually led to the development of the computer, artificial intelligence, and cognitive science. Information processing therefore helped counter behaviorism's rejection of the mind and thinking as important to behavioral outcomes and helped build the foundation upon which modern cognitive psychology would emerge.

Importance of Behavioral Observation

Cognitive psychology research depends on objective measures of mental processes (Kellogg, 1995, p. 20-26). The basic cognitive mechanisms of interest to cognitive psychologists are sensation, perception, attention, and memory, which can all be studied using behavioral observation. For example, memory processes can be studied by how well a subject is able to recall a word list. The independent variable might be the number of words included in the list, while the dependent variable could be the number of words the subject was able to recall. In contrast, experiments investigating sensation could involve the independent and dependent variables of color presentation and reaction time, respectively.


The theoretical foundations upon which cognitive psychology was built are diverse and include Darwin's theory of evolution, structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, and information processing. From this sometimes tumultuous philosophical milieu emerged a discipline emphasizing the scientific method and the importance of cognitive processes like thinking and language for determining behavioral outcomes. In a very real way, the emergence of cognitive psychology has depended on a process not unlike natural selection as the best from each theory was kept and improved and the worst rejected.


Kellogg, R.T. (1995). Cognitive Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Parsons, L.M. (2001). Integrating cognitive…… [read more]

Humanistic Psychology and Multiculturalism Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 8


With the current emphasis on individualizing therapeutic interventions juxtaposed against empirical science, there is an inherent tension with the "…more recent developments in the philosophy of science [that] reveal the impossibility of ever totally separating values from science" (Freidman & Robbins, 2012). Humanistic psychology embraces qualitative approaches, inviting "a 'feminine' version of existential psychology [that] really stresses the emphasis on depth, presence, and being" (Kass, 2014, p. 131). The liberal underpinnings of humanistic psychology that embrace feminism and multiculturalism are important from another perspective.

Biases can derive from cultural influences that are obtuse -- liberalism can serve to put the drivers of bias under a scientific microscope, so to speak. For instance, in a study of color preference, Duckitt and Wall (1999) found that preschoolers preferred the color white over the color black, and that these preferences carried over to their perceptions of other preschoolers in their South African context. A more liberal-leaning paradigm provides tacit approval for revealing this sort of culturally-based thinking.

While evidenced-based approaches continue to dominate the research, there is also recognition that individualized approaches can result in strong interventions that include multicultural factors, specifically, and diversity in general. These constructs are the purview of both positive psychology and humanistic psychology.


Duckitt, J. And Wall, C. (1999). Color bias and racial preferenes in white South African preschool children. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 160(2), 143-154.

Elkins, D.N. (2009). Why humanistic psychology lost its power and influence in American psychology: Implications for advancing humanistic psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 49(3), 267-291.

Friedman, H.L. And Robbins, B.D. (2012). The negative shadow cast by positive psychology: Contrasting views and implications of humanistic and positive psychology on resiliency. The Humanistic Psychologist, 40, 87-102.

Glazner, P.L. And Hill, J.P. (2013). Why most American universities have given up on human purpose and meaning: a critical exploration of the historical story. Journal of Beliefs and Values, 34(3), 289-299.

Kass, S.A. (2014). Don't fall into these stereotype traps: women and feminism in existential therapy. Journal of Humanistic Thinking, 54(2), 131-157.

Schneider, K.J. (2014, January). Humanistic and positive psychology need each other, and to advance, our field needs both. American Psychologist, 92. DOI:…… [read more]

Careers in Psychology Capstone Project

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Bibliography Sources: 6


Continuous update with emerging issues is of utmost importance or else the person will be obsolete in the practice. Moreover, some states require that a special body need to register the forensic psychologists after they do a certification exams.

The rewards of forensic psychologists lie on the hands of the experience, educational standards, and the location of practice. However, one is likely to earn not less than $61, 000 coupled with other benefits. One also finds satisfaction in the job as the families who are at a crisis of losing their friends or relatives through crimes finds justice. This is a specialization that I would like to find myself in after my basic psychology program.

Finally, being a bio-psychologist has never come into my mind, but after a detailed research, it dawned on me as a very interesting field with good results. In the study, I came up with a conclusive statement that psychology encompasses the whole body and not the mind only. It approaches a person holistically. Some small things such as diet, thinking process, attitude, rest, or sleep may seem very insignificant. However, with the knowledge of biopsychology, they are the core driving forces in the mental well-being of human life.

There erupted a surge in interest to pursue this course, due to various factors. It is interesting to note that I scored very well in Biology during the high school. This is the first area I majored. In addition, the interests of becoming a medical doctor were always in the heart. This is the time I can turn the tables and venture in the specialization closely related to medicine. My rich background in biology and biological ideas will be of good value to help in analyzing people's problems and help them in developing assistive conclusions. Specializing in this field is rewarding because biological issues have been a part of my interests for a long time.

Completing undergraduate programs in these fields required one to have a driving force that will enable someone to achieve the life dreams easily. Therefore, I must be involved in academic work and research on the emerging issues in these fields more than before if I have to remain knowledgeable. Furthermore, I must form linkages with the future employers so that I can learn more of practical things than the theoretical aspects. The practical aspects will foster the growth of skills and other technicalities before I specialize.


Accredited Forensic Psychology Schools and Degrees Online. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.psychologyschoolguide.net/forensic-psychology/

Biopsychology | The Psych Files. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.thepsychfiles.com/category/topics/biological-psychology/

Kuther, T.L., & Morgan, R.D. (2013). Careers in psychology: Opportunities in a changing world. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.

Perception | The Psych Files. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.thepsychfiles.com/category/topics/perception/

Social Psychology Careers. (n.d.). CareersInPsychologyorg. Retrieved February 8, 2014, from http://careersinpsychology.org/becoming-a-social-psychologist/

Social Psychology | The Psych Files. (n.d.). Social Psychology | The Psych Files. Retrieved February 9, 2014, from http://www.thepsychfiles.com/category/topics/social-psychology/… [read more]

Methodology of CBT Research Paper

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Studies of the efficiency of CBT for different disorders wanted to seek answers to common questions. Researchers explore whether CBT is an effective therapy method for a particular disorder through "open-label" trials, where all participants in the study receive CBT and change is analyzed from before to after treatment. If the treatment is demonstrated to be effective, it is vital to determine its long-term effectiveness once therapy sessions have ended (Roth, Eng,&Heimberg, 2002) . The article delves into the efficacy of CBT for a variety of disorders. First is mood disorders, CBT have not been shown to particularly effective over any other therapy treatment. A study conducted by the National Institutes of Mental Health showed that CBT was only slightly more effective than interpersonal psychotherapy and tricyclic antidepressants for mild depression but less effective for more severe cases (Roth, Eng,&Heimberg, 2002). For anxiety disorders, CBT is seen as the primary treatment of choice and has been used for years. In the case of bulimia nervosa, CBT has been associated with reductions in negative behaviors and negative though processes (Phillips & Rogers, 2011). CBT, like in anxiety disorders, has proven to be effective in the long-term, implying that clients learn to apply the principles after treatment has ended. CBT has also been used to treat alcohol disorders, successful treatments have been created by applying the foundation of CBT. The goal is not abstinence but moderation, by engaging in self-monitoring and understanding the motives behind drinking, learning ways to reduce drinking, and adapting coping mechanisms.

CBT is an effective treatment for several disorders but it is not perfect. It misperceives the symptoms of the disorder with the causes. Also, CBT studies are not double-blind. The patient is an active member in correcting their negative thoughts; therefore they are aware of the treatment they are receiving. According to Berger (2013), a recent meta-analysis examined the effectiveness of CBT when placed control and blindness were taken into consideration, the study concluded several factors: 1. CBT is no better than non-specific control interventions in the treatment of schizophrenia and does not reduce relapse rates 2. CBT is not effective for the prevention of relapse in bipolar disorder and 3. CBT treatment effects are small in treatment studies of MDD. Berger (2013) also found that results of unblended random clinical trials tend to bias the beneficial effects if the random clinical trials were subjective instead of objective. All these findings call into question the effectiveness of CBT and their findings. However, CBT is something that should be further studied and implemented as it still an alternative therapy that can be utilized if no other treatment is proved effective for a particular disorder.


Berger, D. (n.d.). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Escape From the Binds of Tight Methodology. Psychiatric Times. Retrieved March 25, 2014, from http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/cognitive-behavioral-therapy/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-escape-binds-tight-methodology/page/0/1?cid=fb

Phillips, K.A., & Rogers, J. (2011). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Youth with Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Current Status and Future Directions. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 20(2), 287-304.

Roth, D.A., Eng,… [read more]

Internet Psychology Introduction and Theory Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (837 words)
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Survey questions were about familiarity with Facebook, and potential barriers to use.

Conclusions of the Research

The majority of survey participants indicated some familiarity with social networking, with the majority (59.6%) also using Facebook on a daily basis. Forty percent of the participants did not use Facebook. The persons who did not use Facebook had various reasons for their avoidance of the social media website. Barriers included fears about security and also cognitive impairment. Many also mentioned a preference for in-person communications. The authors conclude that hands-on, direct training on how to use Facebook could help persons with traumatic brain injury overcome barriers to use. It was found that almost all participants who did not yet use Facebook are curious or interested in using the social networking site. Age and gender were not factors that impacted either usage or interest in using Facebook.

Conclusion: Relationship to Class Discussions

Because the research is concerned with the way behavioral change impacts changes in perception and cognition, the theoretical standpoint is clearly one of cognitive psychology and cognitive-behavioral psychology. However, there are other aspects of this research that connect with what we have discussed in class. Traumatic brain injury touches on neurobiology and related areas of psychological research. Related areas of research could be rooted in neurobiology. For example, a follow-up study might track the brain functions of participants to see if using Facebook actually altered neurochemistry or neurobiology. Perhaps increased social interactions have an effect on the brain. Another area of research could be cross-cultural psychology. The authors did not find any significant difference based on age or gender, but they do not mention what role culture or ethnicity plays either in prognosis for traumatic brain injury or social media attitudes. It is suggested, though, that the current research is biased because the surveys were conducted online. This means that the participants were already using the Internet regularly. Future research needs to have a broader sample population, including people who are not online because of lack of access or personal choice. This research also addresses social psychology. Facebook is a social media tool that allows individuals to connect with others online. Thus, Facebook is ideal for persons with social anxiety and other disorders. The research is limited, but has great potential for helping scientists understand the potential of social media.


Tsaousides, T., Matsuzawa, Y. & Lebowitz, M. (2011). Familiarity and prevalence of Facebook use for social networking among individuals with traumatic brain…… [read more]

Future Research Agenda That Judge Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,187 words)
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, 2008). In sum, Judge and his associates conclude that, "More research is needed to identify which levels of which traits are functional under what conditions" (p. 1993), and it is this question that is addressed in Part 2 below.

Part 2:


Why it is important to study your topic?

In many cases, sophisticated testing regimens for personality traits form part of the hiring decision and, poorly understood and administered, the potential for erroneous decisions based on these tests can be high (Chen & Chen, 2008). For instance, according to McTurk and Shakespeare-Finch (2008), "Barriers to employment are linked to individual factors such as thinking styles and personality traits" (p. 12). As Judge et al. (2008) noted above, response behaviors on personality tests are influenced by a wide range of factors that may skew the results. In this regard, Rost (2002) emphasizes that, "There are so many influences on response behaviour in a typical personality assessment situation that it is hard to imagine that all these factors can be reduced to a single latent trait" (p. 108).

The particularly challenging aspect of the problem is the fact that a sufficiently large number of studies do exist that support the notions concerning any of the various personality traits to the extent that they can be used to confirm or refute the accuracy of a hiring decision whether the decision was a good one in reality or not (Rost, 2002). Furthermore, personality trait testing has a lengthy track record of successfully predicting a wide range of employment outcomes within certain parameters, and busy human resource professionals need these types of tools in order to identify superior candidates for different positions (Rost, 2002).


How replying to your research question empirically may complement existing knowledge?

Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (1985) posited that most people tend to maximize the results of their efforts by identifying optimal ways of using their preferred thinking styles and decision-making abilities that are developed over time in response to individuals strengths and weaknesses. In other words, people develop a comfortable way of making decisions that is based on intuition, experience as well as trial and error. As a result, McTurk and Shakespeare-Finch (2008) report that, "The notion that particular personalities may be over-represented in the unemployed is not an insurmountable hurdle, but rather, knowledge of this may provide a starting point for the implementation of strategies that are tailored to particular personality types" (p. 11).


Who may benefit from the knowledge your suggested research might add, and in what ways?

Human resource practitioners can benefit from an improved understanding of personality traits as well as ways to measure them. In fact, Rost (2002) suggests that, "Personality assessment is not possible without assuring something like a trait. The trait explains the contingencies of observed behaviour, i.e. It explains why people that show a particular behaviour A, also tend to show behaviour B" (p. 109).


Chen, J-K & Chen, I-S. (2008, Fall). How can institutes of technology… [read more]

Forensic Psychology From the Perspective Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (669 words)
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The study concluded that suicidal behaviors occurred at similar rates in both developed and developing countries. Risk indices created via the survey database are able to predict suicide events with relatively good accuracy.

Forensic psychiatrists working with various populations in clinical settings such as prison hospitals or psychiatric institutions can use the created database to identify the risk and prevent suicide among inmates and patients.

The study can also serve as a basis for further research in the clinical setting, where the existing database can be used as inspiration for investigations of smaller, more concentrated populations during shorter spans of time. In other words, more specific risk factors might be identified for populations with a specific uniform risk factor, such as parent psychopathology, for example.

In conclusion, suicide is one of the leading causes of death across the world. An existing database to help create risk indices is very useful in clinical settings, in which the purpose of practice is healing and the preservation of life. In a clinical psychiatric setting, for example, the main advantage is not only saving lives, but also creating greater potential for healing and returning productive citizens to general society. In a forensic prison setting, preventing suicide in inmates can provide a basis for rehabilitation or at the very least the ability of prisoners to take responsibility for their actions.

Finally, investigating suicide risks creates a basis for further research, which could also be applied to more specific settings, such as among school age youth.


Borges, G., Nock, M.K., Haro Abad, J.M., Hwang, I., Sampson, N.A., Alonso, J., Andrade, L.H., Angermyre, M.C., Bautrais, A., Bromt, E., Bruffaerts, R., De Girolamo, G., Florescu, S., Lee, S., Levinson, D., Medina-Mora, M.E., Ormel, J., Posada-Villa, J., Sagar, R., Tomov, T., Uda, H., Williams, D.R., and Kessler, R.C. (2010, Dec.). Twelve Month Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 71(12). Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3000886/… [read more]

Cognitive Psychology: Emotions and Cognition Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (755 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Cognitive Psychology: Emotions and Cognition

Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that is predominantly occupied with the mental process. These would include how people think, perceive ideas and things, recall and also learn. It is related to other disciplines like philosophy, neuroscience and linguistics. According to Kendra Cherry (2011), cognitive psychology has to do with acquisition, encoding and storage of information in the human brain. It is worth noting at the onset that what makes cognitive psychology stand out is that, different from the behaviorism that predominantly focuses on the behaviors that can be seen, cognitive psychology will go beyond this by taking the observable behavior as a key to the internal mental status which is the main focus of cognitive psychology.

Of central concern here is the relationship between emotions and cognition since there have been varied arguments and discussion on the line between these two. Apparently the line between emotion and cognition seems faint and temporary. The two often go together or one evokes the other and in turn the response of an individual to a situation is as a result of both. There is also need to understand that there is not a fixed order that the emotion and cognition must come but there is variance depending on the situation or the event. Zajonc's R., (1984) indicated that emotional response to a large number of events occurred almost immediately, even before the event is processed in the cognitive part of the brain. Here, it was found out that man can emotionally respond to stimuli that are so subliminal that it can pass the human cognition and consciousness. When perceptual information is received, it is first, even before the cognitive processing, evaluated as good-bad judgment. Incase the stimuli is assessed as a bad one or a threat, then the physiological arousal and avoidance response is triggered. However, this initial response can be revised subsequently upon cognition. To illustrate this is the case where one flinches on a loud bang, before relaxing upon realizing it was not a firearm but a tire burst. Here there was an emotional response before the cognition came in later to clarify the stimuli hence changing the response as well. Here, in as much as the emotional response came first,…… [read more]

ADHD Case Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (978 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Additionally, in this case, the clinical psychologist can use the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale (WFIRS) in the case that the WURS does not provide enough or sufficient glimpse into the boy's behavior (Haavik et al. 2010 p 1572). This could be used either as a secondary measure or in correlation with the WURS assessment test. Similar to the WURS assessment test, the WFIRS deals with a number of variables, including behavioral, social, academic, and familial history. This test is for the boy himself to take, as is the self-assessment. As such, it has been designed with a certain degree of flexibility in order to detect any possible understatements that the individual might have about themselves or their condition. With this multifaceted approach to the assessment test, combining the parents and teachers scores can help provide a more effective evaluation of the boy's behavior and current condition. This would help provide a more well-rounded approach to the diagnosis of ADHD, as it counts on the use of third-party assessments, but also assessment from the boy himself.

This would then be finalized with a final assessment interview. In the interview, the boy would be alone with a clinical psychologist and would follow a series of open-ended questions regarding the nature of his behavioral problems. An interview would need to be open-ended because the clinical psychologist would need to have it flexible enough to run with topics that the boy might bring up on his own that signify the presence of a possible ADHD diagnosis. Moreover, the interview should be conducted after the assessment tests. When the interview comes after the self-assessment test, the clinical psychologist can use that self-assessment test as a way to structure interview questions. The clinical psychologist can ask the boy about particular answers that really stuck out within the assessment test. These interviews can be used to help answer any potential looming questions that the rating assessments left open, but also to solidify a potential ADHD diagnosis by actually communicating with the patient in question.

It is clear that the mind of a 13-year-old boy is extremely complicated, and thus understanding it from a clinical psychology perspective will take a number of different measures. As such, in order to provide an efficient assessment for an ADHD diagnosis, a clinical psychologist must undertake a multifaceted approach. This would include a rating scale provided to both the teachers and parents, with a separate one provided to the patient himself. This would then be solidified with patient interviews, which would help answer any looming questions.


Haavik, Jan, Halmay, Anne, & Lundervold, Astri. (2010). Clinical assessment and diagnosis of adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Expert Review of Neurotherapuetics, 10(10), 1569-1580.

University of British Colombia. (2011). Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Sef Report. Caddra. Web. http://www.caddra.ca/cms4/pdfs/caddraGuidelines2011WFIRS_S.pdf

Ward MF Wender PH Reimherr FW. The Wender Utah Rating Scale: An aid…… [read more]

Psychology Definitions Psychosis = Loss of Contact Research Paper

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Psychology Definitions

Psychosis = Loss of contact with reality.

Downward drift = Lower achievement than parents or family members in terms of social class, employment, and financial stability.

Positive vs. negative symptoms = Positive symptoms are present in the disorder and characterize it; Negative symptoms are present in normally functioning people, but absent in people with the disorder.

Delusions of persecution = the mistaken belief that someone or something is pursuing the individual and means him or her harm.

Difference between hallucinations and delusions = Hallucinations are sense perceptions, such as hearing, seeing, or smelling things that do not in fact exist in reality. Delusions are patterns of thought about the self or the world that are not true or realistic.

Types of schizophrenia (disorganized, catatonic, paranoid, undifferentiated) = Disorganized: Characterized by disorganized speech patterns.

Catatonic: Movement disturbances.

Paranoid: Including delusions and hallucinations.

Undifferentiated: A combination of symptoms.

Genetics and schizophrenia (first degree relatives of a schizophrenic person more likely than second or third degree relatives to develop schizophrenia) = Refers to the likelihood of inheriting the condition on a genetic level.

Stress-vulnerability model = the model according to which an individual's susceptibility to stress determines his or her likelihood to develop a mental disorder.

Token economy = Systematic positive reinforcement to encourage behavior change.

Milieu therapy = Environmental factors are used to encourage recovery.

Chapter 13

Personality = Elements of character and behavior that make an individual distinct from others.

Difference between personality characteristics and personality disorders = Personality characteristics identify a person as individual. These are generally not harmful. Personality disorders will create some form of disturbance for the sufferer or those around him or her.

Comorbidity = Symptoms of more than one condition experienced by the same…… [read more]

Memory, Cognitive Function, Mood Disorders, &amp Schizophrenia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,803 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Lashley sought to find the engram, the physiological representation of learning. In general terms, how would you recognize an engram if you saw one? That is, what would someone have to demonstrate before you could conclude that a particular change in the nervous system was really an engram?

Someone would have to demonstrate a physical representation of this… [read more]

According to Psychology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,378 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Although the Wizard of Oz is not expressly a film about human psychology, its colorful cast of characters lends itself well to the application of multiple theories and issues in psychology. With films such as Analyze This! And a Beautiful Mind, it would seem odd to focus on a film that avoids direct addressing of psychology themes. However, the Wizard of Oz, with enough creative interpretation, can offer an even richer understanding of how the concepts of psychology such as those outlined in the Ciccarelli (2011) text. The Wizard of Oz is about a young woman, Dorothy, who lives with her elder aunt and uncle in Kansas and her dog Toto. An old woman in town threatens to kill Toto because he occasionally runs into her yard. Whereas Aunt Em and Uncle Henry defer to the old woman's power and authority in the community, Dorothy has little respect for the woman and is unwilling to accept her edict. Thus, Dorothy runs away from home to save Toto's life. While she is away, a tornado strikes. Dorothy is knocked unconscious, and the rest of the movie takes place in a dream world in which Dorothy and Toto are on a quest to find the Wizard who can help them to return home. Therefore, theories of consciousness, sleep, dreams, hypnosis, and drugs (Chapter 4) can be applied directly to the Wizard of Oz. Characters like the Wicked Witch are counterparts to real-life characters in Dorothy's life back in Kansas. Therefore, the film can be interpreted on multiple levels, within the framework of psychology. Development (Chapter 8), Motivation (Chapter 9), Personality (Chapter 13), and Psychological Disorders (Chapter 14) are evident throughout the Wizard of Oz.

One of the most notable themes in the Wizard of Oz is related to Chapter 4 on consciousness, sleep, dreams, hypnosis, and drugs. Because most of the movie takes place in an alternate universe inside of Dorothy's mind, the viewer questions reality just as Dorothy does. When she awakens, she recognizes that the characters in Oz corresponded directly to the people in her life. The old woman who wanted to kill Toto corresponds directly to the Wicked Witch. Dorothy's consciousness is uniquely positioned between the two worlds. The dream states explored in the film illustrate how people's consciousness is connected to imagery, memory, and emotion. In addition to actual dreaming and dream states, Dorothy experiences what can easily be called hypnosis. When the Good Witch Glenda asks Dorothy to click her heels together three times and chant, "There's no place like home," Dorothy is hypnotizing herself. She is entering what is possibly the alpha brain wave state, which Ciccarelli describes in Chapter 4. Drugs also play a role in the unfolding of the Wizard of Oz, when the Wicked Witch puts a spell on Dorothy and her friends in the field of poppies. The witch chants, "Poppies! Poppies!" which are a source of the narcotic opium. Under the drug, Dorothy and her friends fall into a deep… [read more]

Psychology Assessment Multiple Choice Questions in Light Assessment

Assessment  |  3 pages (1,116 words)
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Psychology Assessment

Multiple Choice Questions

In light of problems posed by the concept of drive, Premack, one of Skinner's followers, proposes that we consider reinforcement:

In terms of the power of discriminative stimuli.

Responses that are intermittently rather than continuously reinforced are:

All of the above.

Skinner's attitude toward the theory of natural selection seemed basically:


Skinner argued that internal events such as thoughts:

Should only be studied if they can be observed and measured.

According to the text, the most basic difference between Skinner and the developmentalists has to do with:

The source of developmental change-inner or outer.

The text considers research on televised aggression as:

Supporting some theorists but not others.

In Bandura's theory, direct reinforcements primarily affect:

D. Performances rather than the acquisition of responses.

8.Over the years, Bandura has come to view Piaget's theory as:

B. Still wrong in major respects.

9.Studies on pro-social behavior suggest that:

B. Modeling a behavior for children always has stronger effects than issuing orders.

10. Five-year-olds seem to talk to themselves aloud more often as their work becomes increasingly difficult. This finding supports:

B. Vygotsky.

11. Luria found that when young children try to give themselves verbal commands:

D. They behave as if all commands initiate behavior.

12. One of Vygotsky's laws was that:

C. Children first learn the social forms of behavior, then apply it to themselves.

13. The text most strongly criticizes Vygotsky's educational approach for:

B. Lack of clarity.

14. The text suggests Vygotsky described the interactions between inner and outer forces behind development:

C. In a clearer manner with respect to language than school instruction.

15. Freud would suggest that a young man's anxiety over competition probably reflects earlier problems at:

C. The third stage.

16. What most puzzled Freud about the girl's Oedipus Complex was:

A. Why girls experience penis envy.

17. In general, the strongest fixation seems to be:

A. Excessive gratification.

Part II

The text suggests that the major difference between B.F. Skinner and Jean Piaget is the nature of how we build cognitive structures to analyze stimuli we encounter. Essentially, Skinner presents a more active participant in the image of the learner; he was one who proposed the need for a very active learner, one which required a student to be engaged in the learning process in order to really learn the material of whatever lesson is in question. This was reinforced with most of Piaget's theory as well, advocating an active role for the learner. The two theorists have a very similar notion of the importance of the engagement of the individual learner. Yet, there is one major difference between the two theorists. The text suggests that Piaget was adamant regarding the inner nature of building cognitive structures to understand the world and solve problems. This happened innately according to Piaget. Yet, Skinner believed that the structures for understanding external stimuli was also a learned behavior. Skinner saw the development for schemas to understand experiences was a result of conditioning… [read more]

Psychology Definitions Abnormal Essay

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Historical treatment approaches (demonology, trephination, asylums, and psychotropic medication) - Throughout time, societies have proposed several explanations of abnormal behavior within human beings. Beginning in some hunter-gatherer societies, animists have believed that people demonstrating abnormal behaviors are possessed by malevolent spirits. This idea has been associated with trepanation, the practice of cutting a hole into the individual's skull in order to release the malevolent spirits. Although it has been difficult to define abnormal psychology, one definition includes characteristics such as statistical infrequency. A more formalized response to spiritual beliefs about abnormality is the practice of exorcism. Performed by religious authorities, exorcism is thought of as another way to release evil spirits who cause pathological behavior within the person. In some instances, individuals exhibiting unusual thoughts or behaviors have been exiled from society or worse. Perceived witchcraft, for example, has been punished by death. Two Catholic Inquisitors wrote the Malleus Maleficarum (Latin for 'The Hammer against Witches'), that was used by many Inquisitors and witch-hunters. It contained an early taxonomy of perceived deviant behavior and proposed guidelines for prosecuting deviant individuals. The act of placing mentally ill individuals in a separate facility known as an asylum dates to 1547, when King Henry VIII of England established the St. Mary of Bethlehem asylum. Asylums remained popular throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance era. Psychotropic medications are psychiatric medicines that alter chemical levels in the brain which impact mood and behavior.

Client-centered therapy (unconditional positive regard, conditions of worth, authenticity) - Unconditional positive regard: basic acceptance and support of a person regardless of what the person says or does and is essential to healthy development. People who have not been exposed to it may come to… [read more]

Psychology of School Shootings and There Aftermath Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,964 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Psychology of School Shooting and Their Aftermath

Cyber LAW

As schools across the U.S. continue their everyday activities, in the aftermath of the recent shootings, teachers of teenagers may be motivated to observe their students more closely to see if any of them might be clever in doing a parallel violent attack. School massacres of any level contest various typecasts… [read more]

Psychology Learning Experience Understanding Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,090 words)
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Conditioned Stimulus: Petrol will be the conditioned stimulus. Since it possesses the chemical agent, petrol will act as a conditioned stimulus. The response that the body generated for the chemical agent will slowly began to be the response that the body generates for petrol.

Conditioned Response: The conditioned response will be the feeling associated with the chemical agent. You no longer have to provide the chemical agent to get that response, petrol will do the trick.

Similar to the example given above, it is important to understand that classical conditioning can be applied in different ways. For example, if you want a response towards petrol pump to be learned then you can keep petrol as the unconditioned stimulus and petrol pump as the conditioned stimulus. Due to this you will slowly start developing the same feelings for the petrol pump that you have for petrol.

Operant Conditioning and My Learning

You can also trigger learning via Operant Conditioning i.e. By altering consequences. Through operant conditioning the learning is assisted by behavior, reinforcement and punishments. Behavior is the act that is under consideration, punishments are the consequences while reinforcement is where the actual operant conditioning takes place.

Behavior: In this particular scenario the behavior will be referred to as how one would react to petrol fragrance.

Consequences: There will be two consequences of the operant conditioning. Negative punishment and positive punishment. Negative punishment is also known as the penalty. If I am supposed to like the petrol pump and I don't then I can be forced to learn to like it by negative punishment. In this scenario the negative punishment will be no petrol fragrance until I visit a petrol pump. Positive punishment will be given by associating petrol with the petrol pump. However in my case, negative punishment will be preferably used.

Reinforcement: When a behavior is rewarded with a positive result it is known as positive reinforcement and when it is rewarded with a negative result it is known as negative reinforcement. In this particular case, positive reinforcement will be preferred if a liking for petrol fragrance has to be developed and negative reinforcement will be preferred if a disliking has to be developed.

Learning via Cognitive Social Learning

As the name represents, people learn by watching people or by observing there environment. If I am greatly impressed by a friend and I watch him/her being addicted to the petrol fragrance, I'll automatically condition my mind towards liking it. While there are many other aspects to cognitive social learning, I think identification is the most applicable here. If I want to be like someone or if I identify with someone i.e. I feel someone is more or less the same, I am most likely to follow what they do.


Hence you can learn through various ways and you can condition responses according to your own will. The only trick you need to learn is the trick of controlling stimuli and consequences.


Kunz, M., & Lautenbacher, S. (2011).… [read more]

Psychology After Reviewing the "Vignette Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (876 words)
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If the therapist can change these and make them more rational, personality disorders might well be relieved. The therapeutic approach Beck developed describes specific cognitive distortions that characterize various neurotic conditions and outlines how the general principles of cognitive therapy can be used to treat these conditions, as well as to treat depression" (Magnavita, 2012). Miles should be taught how to handle stressful situations at work and at home, and how to recognize cues that might spur him to be depressed.

In the short goals, we will ask him to find something that is important to him and identify why it is important. Secondly, the therapist will reflect on the client's personal life and performance at work and home life so that the client begins to transition his thoughts of importance, which gets the patient to express something of importance in their life without focusing on the negative. In the short-term goals, the therapist will express to the client his marriage and work are important and that they are working towards a goal at home and work even though the patient does not get a sense of accomplishment within his mind (Corsini & Wedding, 2008).

The long-term goals will be to dealing with the functional consequences of thoughts and beliefs rather than on analyzing their content or truth value. This approach is all about action. Secondly, we will working on making mindful decisions about what is important in Miles' life and what he is going to do in order to live a valued life. Thirdly, this plan involves helping patients choose the values they hold dear, setting specific goals, and taking concrete steps to achieve these goals (Corsini & Wedding, 2008).

In order to know he is attaining his goals, first, it is expressed that the patient is happy when he has a good time without having to worry spending money or very little of it. Finally, we would help him to find a way to keep up his progress by offering him support groups in his community. For resources, there are support groups in the community that help with depression. There is also the community health department that can help the person to find assistance. There are also hotlines. We would see him wanting to maintain his progress without feeling the need to stay home in order save money.


Corsini, R. & Wedding, D. ( Eds.). (2008). Current Psychotherapies (8th ed.). California: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.

Hirsch, I. (2010). Discussion: On some contributions of the interpersonal tradition to contemporary psychoanalytic praxis. American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 70(1), 86-93. doi: 10.1057/ajp.2009.47

Magnavita, J.J. (2012). Theories…… [read more]

Psychologists Use Scientific Methods Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
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D. plant growth

9. In a formal experiment, which group is the control group?

A. The group that is subjected to manipulation

B. The randomly assigned group

C. The group that is not subjected to manipulation

D. The group that is representative of the general population

10. In a formal experiment, which group is the experimental group?

A. The group that is subjected to manipulation

B. The randomly assigned group

C. The group that is not subjected to manipulation

D. The group that is representative of the general population

11. Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 25, and 40. The mean of these five scores is

A. 10

B. 15

C. 20

D. 25

12. Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 25, and 40. The median of these five scores is

A. 10

B. 15

C. 20

D. 25

13. Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 20, and 40. The mode of these five scores is

A. 10

B. 15

C. 20

D. 25

14. The primary function of dendrites is to A. keep the cell alive.

B. transmit outgoing information.

C. secrete hormones.

D. receive incoming information.

15. Which subpart of the brain is located at the rear base of the skull?

A. forebrain

B. corpus callosum

C. midbrain

D. hindbrain

16. Conscious experience and voluntary actions are mediated by the A. limbic system.

B. cerebral cortex.

C. cerebellum.

D. cingulate cortex.

17. The area critical for processing visual information is the A. parietal lobe.

B. occipital lobe.

C. frontal lobe.

D. cerebellar cortex.

18. Most neurons send information to A. glial cells.

B.… [read more]

Psychology Statement of Purpose Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  2 pages (612 words)
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In the short-run, I also plan to gain practical experience in the clinical psychology field by working as a consultant in a medium sized hospital. In the long-run, a doctoral degree in psychology will come in handy as I seek to reach my full potential as a clinical psychologist. After attaining the said doctoral degree, I would wish to work in an outpatient mental health center. Further, I intend to acquire a teaching position in any of the nation's numerous universities offering psychology and related programs. Working in an academic setting will offer me a unique opportunity to grow as a professional while making significant contributions to the field of psychology through continued research.

In addition to being creative, I am also an effective communicator. I also have an insatiable thirst for knowledge. I believe that as an effective communicator, I will be able to relate relatively well with clients and their families. I will also get to put my creativity to work in the development of treatment approaches. My insatiable thirst for knowledge could see me further enhance my professional abilities in this particular field.

Seeing others overcome difficult experiences can be sufficiently rewarding. My desire to become a clinical psychologist is not chiefly driven by the monetary rewards associated with such a career. After all, this particular career has its own downsides including but not limited to the risk of burnout. My desire to become a clinical psychologist is instead driven by the need to make a difference in people's lives. Jenny (my cousin) is now living a normal life thanks to the intervention of a clinical psychologist. For me, making a difference in people's lives as a clinical psychologist would be sufficiently fulfilling. I believe that your institution has an enabling learning environment that would see me realize my…… [read more]

Daily Life Typically Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (822 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The evaluations of personnel in the work environment are based on the methods and principles of psychology. Books and seminars on improving management skills, job satisfaction, and productivity are all based on psychological principles (Jex & Britt, 2008).

There are also many instances in the legal system that are reflections of psychological principles. These include rehabilitation programs, pre-sentencing evaluations, profiles of people accused of crimes, methods police use to catch and interrogate lawbreakers, and a number of other areas. Punishment and sentencing methods used in the legal system are based on psychological principles.

Typically people use or are exposed to psychologically-based principles every day. The tendencies to make friends, develop relationships, fall in love, etc. reflect psychological principles. Whenever anyone mentions the notion of "personality" they will most likely evoke some sort of psychological principle People that own pets and train them to use a litter box or to eat at a certain time are invoking psychological principles. Training a child to walk, to eat from a bowl with a spoon, to become toilet trained often require the use of behavioral principles from psychology. The child's maturation and learning reflect psychological principles. In fact, people are themselves amateur psychologists who employ a number of principles from psychology (some not very effective) in their attitude formation, judgment, actions, and worldview. When one observes the animals changing their behaviors to accommodate the seasons, going through mating rituals, foraging for food, raising young, etc. one is being exposed to psychological principles.

In essence, because psychology focuses on the study of behavior, one can find examples of psychological principles in nearly every facet of daily life. Almost every work of fiction applies some psychological principle regarding behavior. When you go to a store and notice mirrors on the walls, this is actually based on a self-awareness principle that reduces shoplifting (Diener, 1979). As mentioned above, advertising, the legal system, the educational system, the entertainment industry, and even parenting all apply psychological principles in their everyday routines. Psychology is like math, it is everywhere!


American Psychological Association (2012). How does the APA define psychology? Retrieved on September 6, 2012 from http://www.apa.org/support/about/apa/psychology.aspx#answer.

Diener, E. (1979). Deindividuation, self-awareness, and disinhibition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(7), 1160-1171.

Jex, S.M., & Britt, T.W. (2008). Organizational psychology. Hoboken: Wiley.

Kline P. (2000). The handbook of psychological testing.…… [read more]

Social Advocacy in Counseling PhD Model Answer

PhD Model Answer  |  15 pages (5,374 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


" Indeed many of the tenets and precepts of current social justice advocates are aligned with the postmodernist philosophy, which has been associated with Marxist principles by many scholars (e.g., see Johnson, 2009; Nicholson & Seidman, 1995). This is not to suggest that social advocacy is a "communist plot" but instead is an attempt to understand how social justice advocates… [read more]

Clinical Psychology Many People Essay

Essay  |  1 pages (358 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


4. How would you explain the meaning of Figure 2 in the article by Warner et al. (2004) to an interested colleague?

Figure 2 presents a number of the findings in this piece of research. These include the following: There is no significant relationship between STPD and schizotypal personality traits; however, there is likely a significant relationship between personality change and later disorder change. The diagram allows the researcher to extrapolate from the present to the future condition of an individual.

5. In terms of defense mechanism use, what are some major differences between normal Thais and Americans? What is one explanation for the differences noted?

The researchers found that in Thais, self-concept and Buddhist beliefs were significantly related to unconscious coping. Thus those Thais who were more devoted Buddhists had more unconscious coping mechanisms, a fact that is directly related to the ways in which Buddhist beliefs and practices are constructed. Americans, on the other hand, were more…… [read more]

Psychological Scientists Are Levying Great Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (537 words)
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Firstly, naturalistic observation is a descriptive method and lacks explanatory nature. That is, without the controlled conditions of the laboratory, conclusions about cause-and-effect relationships cannot be drawn. Behavior can only be described, not explained. This method can also take a great amount of time. Researchers may have to wait for some time to observe the behavior or phenomenon of interest. Further limitations include the difficulty of observing behavior without disrupting it and the difficulty of coding results in a manner appropriate for statistical analysis. Other limitations include the obtrusive nature of this method which can alter the reaction of the subject to the presence of the observer. Interpersonal skills of the observer play a vital role in this method in order to gain trust of the subject and other sponsors. Note taking can be time consuming and neutral observations are difficult to make.


McBurney, DH, & White, T.L. (2006). Research methods. (7th ed.). Wadsworth Publishing.

Miller, D.B. (1977). Roles of naturalistic observation in comparative psychology. American Psychologist, 32(3), 211-219. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/amp/32/3/211/

Bratton, S., Ray, D., & Rhine, T. (2005). The efficacy of play therapy with children: A meta-analytic review of treatment outcomes. Journal of Professional Psychology Research and Practice, 36(4), 376-390.

Cook, R.E., Tessier, A. & Klein, M.D. (2000). Adapting early childhood curricula for children in inclusive settings (5th ed). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill Prentice- Hall.

Spero, M.H. (1977). Interpretations and ego readiness: A psychodynamic approach. . Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 14(1), 74-78. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/pst/14/1/74/… [read more]

Art Therapy Entails Creative Procedures Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Moreover, the methods section is reasonably sectioned an aspect that enhances the understanding of the reader.

Value of Article to Field of Psychology

The article is of exceptional value to the field of psychology given that it touches on the importance and the cost effectiveness of art therapy to people with schizophrenia. Particularly, through the article, psychologists can gain knowledge with respect to reduction of negative effects of schizophrenia as well as in enhancing the relationship between a therapist and a patient. More so, the articles form a strong basis for integration of psychosocial and social intervention in treatment of schizophrenia.

Value of Article to You, as a Consumer and Trainee

As a consumer and a trainee in the field of psychology, this article offers more information on the significance of social activities in treatment of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. I would use the information to enhance schizophrenia patient's health and improve their social functioning. With respect to research, the article has helped me understand the key constituents of a research such research design, study sample, ethical consideration to mention but a few. More so, the article has helped me understand the significance of literature review in the sense that it helps one ascertain gaps in literature, which consequently helps a researcher in determining a research topic.


Crawford, M., & Patterson S. (2007). Arts therapies for people with schizophrenia: an emerging evidence base. Evidence-Based Mental Health, 10, 69-70

Crawford, M., Killaspy, H., Barrett, B., Patterson, S., & Tyrer, P., & Waller, D.(2010). The Matisse study: A randomized trial of group art therapy for people with schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry, 10: 65-73.

Gilroy, A. (2006). Art therapy, research…… [read more]

Self-Concept Maintenance: Analysis of Self-Regulation, Social Comparison Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,121 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Self-Concept Maintenance: Analysis of Self-Regulation, Social Comparison, and Social Identity Theories

Humans as social animals assume different social roles and present various self-images that represent one facet of their personalities appropriate or necessary to the social situation. One's perception of the 'self' is fluid and could be different when one is alone by himself/herself, as compared to when one is in a group or public place. The private and public selves of the individual are ways in which one's self-concept is developed. In the study of human behavior, self-concept maintenance is necessary to "survive" socially: the kind of self-concept developed by the individual would depend on his/her socio-historical background, which include self-concept responses to specific social situations that have been proven favorable or agreeable to him/her at the time.

Thus, in this context of self-concept maintenance, this paper will discuss three (3) relevant and critical theories that will help further explain the nature of self-concept maintenance: self-regulation, social comparison, and social identity theories. These theories help describe the process of self-concept development, including a determination of the motivation that encourages individuals to develop a specific self-concept or image, especially when in public or in a specific social environment. In addition to a comparison of these theories, an application will also be discussed through the media program called "Virtual Office." In this application discussion, two female personalities are compared with each other with regards to their self-concept. Further, having discussed the theories of self-concept maintenance, the discussion would include an analysis of each female character's motivation or possible development of her self-concept based on the principles of each theory.

The theory of self-regulation is a self-concept maintenance theory that explains and describes the internal processes an individual goes through during the self-conceptualization stage. One's decision to assume a specific kind of image socially is a series of processes that are both dependent on the person's personal development and the response of his/her social environment to this/these personalities. Self-regulation posits that generally, individuals "control" their natural behavior. People develop self-concepts that are ultimately favorable to other people, and individuals exercise self-control in order to ensure that a desired self-concept or image is socially and consistently maintained. Success in "controlling" one's behavior would lead to "renewed efforts" for greater self-regulation, while lack of confidence or "doubt" in maintaining the image/public self "leads to a tendency to disengage" (Carver, 2001:322).

There are occasions, of course, when one experiences "lapses in self-control." Specific examples cited include binge eating, when a person's resolve to control his/her eating highly conflicts with his/her desire to eat. In this case, self-regulation succeeds when one is able to 'override' this desire to "overindulge." However, there are cases when lapses in self-control really happen, and this lapse is usually coupled with "mental fatigue" and "total exhaustion." Unfortunately, as confidence spirals down, so does self-control and the motivation to control and maintain his/her self-concept, and the downward spiral worsens, leading to the development of an entirely new personality -- a… [read more]

Adlerian Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  4 pages (1,682 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Leading the client to investigate and monitor his thoughts has been shown to be successful in mitigating depression as well as many other mental diseases (Hoifodt et al., 2011; Robertson, 2010).

The client then is helped in shaping his environment / implementing certain behavior that will lead to a more constructive situation and behavior. This is the behavioral component of the approach. Methods used here including positive / negative reinforcement, or operant conditioning, where certain constructive behavior is rewarded therefore encouraged, and negative, self-defeating behavior is punished / rejected therefore hopefully extinguished. The client is also shown how to engineer his environment so that his environment will help him obtain his goals. Modeling successful others is a component of CBT as well as keeping a journal, appraising progress, and other practical strategies (Gelder, 2000; Rachman, 1997).). The client and counselor work together in pursuing and appraising progress.

Indications of successful counseling

This has been addressed before.

Responses to diverse cultural / gender issues

General sensitivity to cultural and gender characteristics applies in both therapies as in all orientations. Counselor has to seek to understand cultural factors that drive client as well as aspects of gender that may influence him. This holds in both Adlerain and CBT regardless.

Pertinent research articles related to effectiveness of either approach nthis is beyond the scope of this essay.

Limitations of personal synthesis

Both have their own philosophy each of which contradicts the others. One is psychodynamic; the other rejects that mode. Reducing all to self-esteem / inferiority as per Adler can also conflict with CBT that sees the problem in a wider range and not necessarily involving esteem.


Ehrenwald, J. (1991). The History of Psychotherapy. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc.

Hoifodt RS, Strom C, Kolstrup N, Eisemann M, Waterloo K (2011). Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy in primary health care: a review. Fam Pract 28, 489 -- 504.

King, R. & Shelley, C. (2008). Community Feeling and Social Interest: Adlerian Parallels, Synergy, and Differences with the Field of Community Psychology. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 18, 96-107.

Rachman, S (1997). "The evolution of cognitive behaviour therapy." In Clark, D, Fairburn, CG & Gelder, MG. (2000) Science and practice of cognitive behaviour therapy. Oxford: Oxford…… [read more]

My Expectations of Psychology Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,053 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Expectations of Psychology

Prior to attending my General Psychology I class, I had no tangible understanding of psychology, nor did I have any expectations. At the time I enrolled for the course, my only exposure to psychology was what I witnessed on such television shows as the Sopranos. One of the characters on the show, Tony, would see a psychiatrist, and their interaction was my only introduction to psychology. My high school did not offer any psychology courses and I did not have any formal opportunities to learn about psychology until I was in college. After my first week of attending General Psychology I classes, my expectations shifted from zero, and unsure, to an overwhelming feeling. I was not aware of the depth of psychology, its history, and its relevance to everyday life. Prior to my time in psychology classes, I did not know I would be learning about the physiology of the brain, the different specialties within the psychology field, or about the range of psychological disorders and illnesses. When I enrolled in General Psychology I, I had no expectations about the discipline of psychology, but after a few weeks of classes, I was able to appreciate the diversity of the field, and have been intrigued the most by concepts of abnormal psychology.

My first, academic, exposure to the field of psychology was during my General Psychology I class at Bergen Community College. Prior to this, I really did not know what psychology was, and therefore did not have any expectation about the field, what it meant, or what it included. I heard references to psychology when people said such things as, "They are a psycho," or "psychological breakdown," or "psychological thriller," but I had no appreciation for what psychology encompassed. I would watch the television show, the Sopranos, and the main character, Tony, would see his psychiatrist. The conversations between Tony and his psychiatrist intrigued me, and I knew that psychology was involved in counseling, but I did not know how it worked, what it was, or what was in effect.

My experiences with psychology were so minimal, I did not know what to expect during my first day of General Psychology I class. After being handed the syllabus for the class, I started to understand that psychology is more complex than I had ever realized. During the course of the semester we covered such topics as memory, learning, gender and human sexuality, personality, motivation and emotion, psychological disorders, and several more. Before taking this course, I did not know that so many areas of human thought, expression, and motivation existed in psychological terms, or that they had their own areas of study. Shortly into the beginning of the semester, I was eager to know more about psychology. I had gone from no expectation whatsoever, to being completely interested and enjoying the depth of psychology.

While at Bergen Community College, I also enrolled in Abnormal Psychology. I did go into this course with an expectation to… [read more]

Psychology's Rodney Dangerfield Problem Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Psychology's Rodney Dangerfield Problem

The essence of psychology's Rodney Dangerfield problem is that this particular academic discipline and science incurs a definite lack of respect as compared to that of other sciences. The public view of psychology and of those who practice it is not on par with its view of other scientific disciplines, such as physics or chemistry, which are generally viewed as being more substantiated in hard facts and official scientific processes and methodologies. Psychology, however, is generally viewed as being a lot more subjective and given to individual interpretation. As a result, psychological findings and conclusions are a lot more likely to be received with skepticism, cynicism, and in some instances, frivolity (Stanovich, 1997, p. 15).

There are several factors that can account for this regard of psychology, some of the most important of which directly shape the public's perception of this field. Oftentimes, psychology is wrongfully confused with the proliferation of self-help books and guidance, the latter of which is very rarely based on scientific processes and is quite deserving of the public's general perception of psychology. Additionally, there are a number of pseudosciences that are viewed as extensions of and subsets of true psychology, which helps to further blur the line between unadulterated psychology and its methodology and that of fraudulent quacks. Lastly, the media also plays an active role in propagating an erroneous view of psychology towards the masses. Not only is the media actively propounding the notion that much of the aforementioned self-help guidance and pseudosciences are in fact the work or results of formal psychology, but it also is noted for sensationalizing the statements of (in certain instances) what may be questionable sources regarding psychological findings, as opposed to quoting an esteemed psychologist who is hesitant about giving a definite statement about whatever the topic in question happens to be (Stanovich 1997, p. 179).…… [read more]

Abnormal Behavior What Essentially Qualifies Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (677 words)
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Therefore any one of these four definitions alone would be lacking as a qualifier of what constitutes "abnormal behavior" but used together they can provide useful guidelines as to what qualifies as abnormal. This is essentially the approach of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) when developing the diagnostic criteria for the DSM series (APA, 2000).

Abnormal behavior for me is defined in terms of its departure from statistical and social norms and also by its maladaptiveness for the individual (the behavior results in aversive consequences ranging from social, physical, legal, occupational, and/or personal negative results). Despite these consequences the person continues to engage in the behavior. For me both of these qualifiers need be present. For me, I found myself drinking heavily at one stage of my life. Within my culture heavy drinking is considered "normal"; however, when the drinking leads to issues with one's social and occupational obligations it is no longer normal. I found that drinking several nights a week interfered significantly with other aspects of my life such as work, school, and family obligations. While drinking alcohol itself is not abnormal in society, I found my drinking habits to be quite dysfunctional given my goals and therefore would classify my use of alcohol as "abnormal." This resulted in personal efforts to correct this behavior and bring it more in line with balancing out my life.


American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders, IV- Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Porter, R. (2002). Madness: A brief history. New York: Oxford University Press.

Szasz, T. (2008).…… [read more]

Sex Differences in Neuropsychological Functioning Among Schizophrenia Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (907 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Sex Differences in Neuropsychological Functioning Among Schizophrenia Patients by Bozikas, Kosmidis, Peltekis, Giannakou, Nimatoudis, Karavatos, Fokas, and Garyfallos

Psychology and the related behavioral sciences have swung back and forth between the idea that all human beings start out as equal blank slates and the idea that gender provides significant differences for people. In fact, whether the impact of gender is innate or socialized, there is no question that gender is related to the prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders in groups. Moreover, gender may be related to recovery outcomes and influence the appropriate treatment options for a person suffering with a specific disease. This is a critical hypothesis, because it might not only direct future research into treatment, dictating that appropriate and responsible research take into account existing and potential gender differences.

One of the diseases where a noted sex-based difference exists is schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is known to impact males and females in different ways. These differences include, but are not limited to, differences in age at onset, intensity of the disease, and likelihood of a successful recovery from the disease. One area where gender appears to make a difference is in the level of cognitive impairment experienced by male and female schizophrenia patients; some researchers had found that males experience greater levels of cognitive impairment. Furthermore, women with schizophrenia generally have much more positive outcomes than men with schizophrenia. What makes this a particularly interesting facet of the gender breakdown of the disease is that there is an established difference in cognition in men and women who do not have mental illnesses. Therefore, whether schizophrenia exacerbates existing differences or whether those differences make women less vulnerable to the disease is an interesting question.

Previous studies have examined community functioning, one of the difficulties for schizophrenics who oftentimes have problems interacting with the outside world, and determined that community functioning was related to those areas where healthy women generally outperform healthy men, such as verbal memory, verbal fluency, and executive functioning.

To look at whether men and women experienced different levels of cognitive impairment when afflicted with schizophrenia, the researchers decided to examine patients who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia. The group of 94 people was divided into 56 men and 38 women, all of whom were on antipsychotic medications and considered stable. The patients had been diagnosed with the DSM-IV, and their diagnoses were confirmed by the Greek version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The control group consisted of 31 healthy men and 31 healthy women. To assess cognitive functioning, both groups were subjected to wide variety of tests that looked at the following cognitive abilities: auditory attention, abstraction, inhibition, fluency, verbal learning and memory, visual memory, working memory, visuospatial…… [read more]

Psychology Attitude Change and Persuasion Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,410 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Physical looks play a large part in mate selection. Women tend to prefer men with nice facial features that include clear, unblemished skin and nice eyes. Because these features point toward good health, it is thought that these people have good genes. Women also favor men who have masculine appearances like a strong jaw, facial hair, broader shoulders, narrower hips,… [read more]

Personality Theories in Psychology Essay

Essay  |  15 pages (6,049 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


For Freud's patients, the goal of psychoanalysis was to help mitigate some of these feelings and reconcile some of the differences between the id and the superego. Of course, human beings were able to reconcile these competing differences before the advent of psychoanalysis. They did so in a number of ways, which Freud referred to as defense mechanisms. Defense mechanisms… [read more]

Correspondence Bias Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,232 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


2. As a comparison, the Yale approach model is similar with the elaboration likelihood approach for the reason that it falls under the social psychology study that will allow people to change their attitude through persuasion. The contrasting issues is that it does not concerned with the personal activities and the explanation of a certain issue because it is more… [read more]

Psychology the Link Between Personality Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,039 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The chemicals then trickle over to the adjacent neuron, sometimes causing it to let off. This fundamental process of neurotransmission is carried out many by the ten billion or so neurons in the brain. A number of neurons are so lively that they let off as many as one hundred times per second, necessitating devices to uphold these elevated rates. The vesicles have a fundamental role in this progression because they allow neurons to let off when ready. Neurons utilize the vesicles to bundle the chemicals and move them in ahead of time so that they can let loose as soon as an electrical impulse is present. Since the release sites are not near the cell center, the vesicles must reprocess close by in order to continue their high rates of release (Nuance to Neurons, 2011).

According to Levine (2005), the arrangement of temperament and personality is made up of a rather small number of higher-order traits. Higher-order traits reveal emotional-motivational systems that have developed to increased variation to classes of stimuli connected with positive and negative support. Personality disorders can be understood as reflecting pathological amplifications of personality trait profiles. A lot of researchers have consequently supported, at least in principle, the development of a dimensional model that can describe both normal traits as well as personality disorders. Another reason for accepting such a model is that research has not come up with any reliable biological factors that associate with the present categories of personality disorders, whereas many studies have shown relationships between trait dimensions and measures of brain function (Paris, 2005).

While information about the biology of the brain and its association with personality will not permit for the prediction of a person's behavior, it may present a vocabulary to comprehend why some people are more prone to fits of anger, for instance, while others are excruciatingly shy, and afraid of social contact. Additionally comprehending the biologic vulnerabilities to traits such as impulsivity or irritability may also help doctors and caregivers to recognize drugs that will diminish bothersome inclinations (The frontiers of pharmacology, 1994).

As researchers learn more about the biology of the brain, they may become better able to regulate and alter the neurotransmitters important in mood and personality. There are some that ask whether people with normal variations could be in some way be improved with medication, and this is a question that still needs to be looked at (The frontiers of pharmacology, 1994).


Burke, S.M., van de Giessen, E.E., de Win, M.M., Schilt, T.T., van Herk, M.M., van den

Brink, W.W., & Booij, J.J. (2011). Serotonin and dopamine transporters in relation to neuropsychological functioning, personality traits and mood in young adult healthy subjects. Psychological Medicine: A Journal Of Research In Psychiatry And The

Allied Sciences, 41(2), 419-429.

Levine, D.S. (2005). Is all affiliation the same? Facilitation or complementarity? Behavioral

and Brain Sciences, 28(3), 356-357.

Nuance to Neurons. (2011). Science Teacher, 78(7), 19-20.

Paris, J. (2005). Neurobiological Dimensional Models Of Personality: A Review Of The… [read more]

Theorists From the History of Psychology Carl Jung and Carl Rogers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,406 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Beyond the contributions of Sigmund Freud, Carl Rogers and Carl Jung may be the two most important individuals in the development of the modern study of psychology. Jung, having studied under Freud, expanded on Freud's concept of the libido and theorized that libido was the aspect of human behavior that controlled all other traits while Rogers was the first to… [read more]

Day of Compassion Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (716 words)
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Social Psychology Day of Compassion

On November 11, 2011, I had the opportunity to observe and participate in a "Day of Compassion," which challenged individuals to live each minute of that day in as compassionate a way as possible, in other words, spending a full 24-hour period doing one's best to care for other people, be considerate and respectful, and to avoid causing harm to any living being. While I generally pride myself on acting with kindness and empathy in my daily encounters, spending an entire day conscious of the fact that each and every one of my actions should act in accordance with compassion, rather than only those that would more directly inspire me to act in such a way, I found the task alarmingly difficult at the start, but by the end of the day, I had noticed a true change in myself and in the way I interact with other living things.

Social psychologist, Jeanine Young-Mason (2001), describes compassion in a way that is easily relatable. She notes that understanding compassion means one must understand the nature of suffering, the inter-twining of moral, spiritual, psychological, and physical suffering of others, as like freedom, compassion is a word whose meaning becomes clearer and finally clarified only through practice (Young-Mason, 347). All living things have the capacity to receive compassion, though in my actions last Friday, I found myself interacting only with other human beings.

During the Day of Compassion, my behavior stemmed from the fact that throughout the day, I was hyper-aware of my actions and interactions with others, which leads me to believe that this is in at least minimal contrast with how I act on a regular basis. In certain ways, I preferred myself on this day, and in other ways, I did not. Overall, I found myself acting generously and compassionately toward others, helping them when I could, and trying to do so selflessly, but in others, I found myself doing so in a manner that seemed forced because of the hyper-awareness I experienced. For example, I found myself in a confrontation with another individual, and rather than asserting myself, feigned compassion took…… [read more]

Tom Shulich ("Coltish Hum Research Paper

Research Paper  |  13 pages (3,990 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


The Therapist's Role

Behavior therapy assumes a learning model of psychopathology. The central idea of this type of therapy is that psychological distress results from maladaptive behaviors that one has learned and that these behaviors can be unlearned or replaced with new adaptive behaviors. In BT, the therapist plays the role first of diagnostician, determining what behaviors are the source… [read more]

Post-Modern to Contemporary Psychology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,161 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Post-Modern to Contemporary Psych

Psychology: Post-modern to Contemporary

From its foundation as a separate science from philosophy and biology, psychology has been a dynamic and ever evolving discipline with ongoing debate as to how to explain and describe behavior and the human mind. Many attribute the beginning of psychology as a separate discipline to German physiologist Wilhelm Wundt, during the… [read more]

Psychological Testing the Science Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (763 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


(Calhoun, 1962) Simply put, when the rats became overpopulated, they began to behave in anti-social and unnatural ways. When this study was release in 1962, it had an incredible effect of society as a whole. This led people to believe they knew the reasons why crowded urban areas were filled with crime, riots, and other anti-social behaviors. ("Letting the Rat out of the Bag") This study became the impetus for the redesign of buildings, offices, and entire urban areas.

Calhoun's study is a legitimate study, but more in the field of animal Psychology than human. The assumptions made from this study, primarily that humans will act like rats when kept in confined spaces, was not proven by any means. Studies would have to be made on humans themselves, living in areas of high population density, to make the comparison stick. On the other hand, Calhoun's study did have some validity, and could be used as the basis of other research eventually culminating in a study that could predict the actions of humans. While humans and rats are different, studying rats can give some insight, however small, into the behavior of humans.

These two studies have had a significant impact not only on the field of psychology, but on society in general. Rorschach's test first presented the world with the idea that a test of perception could be a predictor of human behavior. This led others to begin to study human behavior in a number of different ways; creating new fields of Psychology. And Calhoun's population density study shocked the world into thinking that a population density which was too high would be bad for society. The result being a world filled with parks, wide streets, and open spaces, as well as offices filled with cubicles. ("Letting the Rat out of the Bag")


Calhoun, J.B. (1962). "Population Density and Social Pathology." Scientific American. 206, 139-48.

"Letting the Rat out of the Bag, The Cultural Influence of John B. Calhoun's Rodent Experiments." (2009) London School of Economics and Political Science. Retrieved from http://www2.lse.ac.uk/researchAndExpertise/researchHighlights/Environment/rats


Rorschach, Hermann. (1951). Psychodiagnostics: A Diagnostic Test Based on Perception, 2nd Ed.. Retrieved from http://www.archive.org/stream/psychodiagnostic011205mbp#page/n7/mode/2up… [read more]

Psychology- Social Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (648 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


All of these studies were observed by the researchers and results were calculated and reported.

4. Explain whether the study was descriptive, correlational, or experimental.

This study was experimental in nature. Experimental research is directed by hypotheses or several hypotheses that states a predictable relationship between two or more variables. An experiment is carried out to sustain or disconfirm this experimental hypothesis. In this study the researchers had a hypothesis that they tested using experimental groups in which they examined people and their behaviors. This was not descriptive research because it did not examine any statistics in regards to this group of people. It was not correlational research because it did not examine a statistical relationship between two or more variables.

5. Consider the ethics of the research. All studies must have passed some form of institutional review prior to being conducted, but what kinds of ethical concerns did the researchers have and what did they do to address those concerns specifically?

There was no mention in this article as to what ethical concerns that the researchers had. When doing research with human subjects it is important that informed consent be obtained and all risks and hazards be explained to each participant. How this was addressed in this study should have been included in this report so that those reading it would know what had been done. It is very important when doing this type of research that the rules and regulations are followed when it comes to using human subjects for research purposes. It is also important to record what has been done so that there is no question later on about whether the rules and regulations were followed or not.


Savitsky, Kenneth, Keysar, Boaz, Epley, Nicholas, Carter, Travis and Swanson, Ashley. (2010).

The closeness-communication bias: Increased egocentrism among friends vs. strangers. Journal of Experimental Social…… [read more]

Theory Principle or Concept Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (964 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Psychology offers a vast network of concepts, principles, and theories to explain and describe the mental and behavioral characteristics of an individual or group. It is a science that explores biological, cognitive, social, and various other aspects of the human mind and human interaction to explain mental processes. One such concept of psychology that attempts to explain a realm of mental processing is Behaviorism. Behaviorism is a philosophy of psychology that emphasizes how previous learning experiences influence, and are reflected, in shaping behaviors (Heffner). The core of Behaviorism centers on studying only observable behaviors, as behavioral research would be too subjective if mood, thoughts, or emotions were also considered.

Behavior Psychology is an umbrella topic of its own, and covers a multitude of principles and concepts. One subcategory of Behavioral Psychology is Operant Conditioning. Operant Conditioning is a type of learning, in which a behavior's preceding influences or its impending consequence manipulates the formed behavior. This type of behavioral conditioning operates as an ongoing evaluation of consequences, how one anticipates said consequences, and reflects them in their actions.

One of the critical tools in executing Operant Conditioning is the concept of Reinforcement. In terms of psychology, reinforcement refers to stimuli which strengthen or increases the probably of a specific response or behavior. A simple example of a reinforcer is teaching a dog how to sit, and giving them a treat every time they perform. The treat becomes the reinforcer and increases the probability of the sitting response (Heffner). There are four types of reinforcement: positive, negative, punishment, and extinction.

Positive reinforcement is the same as the dog example - giving a treat to evoke the sitting response. This involves giving positive responses to encourage the desired behavior. The two most common methods of positive reinforcement are praise and rewards. Examples of praise include telling someone "good job" or telling someone how nice they look when they dress-up. Rewards can involve a monetary bonus at work after a difficult project, or giving a child their favorite dessert to compliment well behavior during dinner. These positive incentives raise the probably of the desired behavior.

A negative reinforcer is the use of any negative stimulus to increase the wanted response or behavior. An example of a negative reinforcer is a fire alarm. The fire alarm sounds as the negative stimulus, and induces people to run out of the building. Another example is the fear of having a low grade on a test as a negative reinforcer for studying. In both of these instances, the negative stimuli reflect the anticipated consequences, and ultimately the appropriate behavior has been conditioned.

The third type of reinforcement, punishment, includes adding a stimulus that is apathetic in nature in order to decrease a behavior. Common examples of punishment revolve around the disciplining of children and adolescents. These types of punishments encompass a variety of parenting methods to time-outs,…… [read more]

Developmental History of Positive Psychology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,894 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Positive Psychology

The History and Development of Positive Psychology: An Overview of Perspectives and Theories

As the medical and even the human sciences go, psychology is still a relative newcomer to the real of academic scholarship and real-world practice. Surgeries and other investigations into the workings of the human body -- methods of determining the sources of illnesses and attempts… [read more]

Psychology Essay

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The following question requires you to write a brief answer consisting of a few sentences or a listing. List the five goals of psychology and briefly explain a situation in which you experienced two or more of these goals. The five goals of psychology are to 1) describe; 2) explain; 3) predict; 4) control; and, 5) improve. The first goal is to observe behavior and describe in detail what has been observed. The second goal, explain, means a psychologist has to go beyond what they observe and explain what they observed. Predict, the third goal, is the belief that once a psychologist knows what has happened in the past and why, they can better predict what's going to happen in the future. The fourth goal, control, refers to the idea that once a psychologist knows what happens and why it happens, they can begin to speculate what is going to happen in the future and try to control it in some way. An example would be, if every time you and your spouse has a fight it is because you are drunk, then we can predict that drinking can lead to fights, so the psychologist will want to take a look at the client's drinking and find a way to change the negative outcome of fighting by being more mindful of drinking or quitting altogether. Lastly, the fifth goal, improve, means that psychologists don't simply want to exert control over someone's behavior, but they truly want to work to improve it. Psychologists want to make an individual's life better, not worse.

2) the following question requires you to write a brief answer consisting of a few sentences or a listing. Explain the steps that psychologists take when conducting research. Psychologists have different steps they use when conducting research. They first must ask a certain question; then they design a study; next they will need to collect data; then they will analyze the results; after analyzing they will come to some conclusions; and lastly, they will share the findings.

3) the following question requires you to write a brief answer consisting of a few sentences or a listing. What is the difference between a person's behavioral and cognitive activities? Cite five examples of behavioral activities. Cognitive activities will occur because of processes that go on in the…… [read more]

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