Study "Psychology / Behavior / Psychiatry" Essays 56-110

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Abnormal Behavior and Psychopathology Although the Science Essay

… ¶ … Abnormal Behavior and Psychopathology

Although the science of psychopathology is relatively modern, it is reasonable to posit that there ancient mankind was afflicted by mental illness and that there has always been a need for effective ways to treat it. In the not-too-distant past, these problems were understood in terms of magic and religion, but these perspectives have been replaced in Western medicine by a more scientific view of mental illness and abnormal behavior that seeks to understand abnormal behaviors based on their biological, psychosocial and sociocultural origins. To determine how this transition from the magic and religious to the scientific has taken place over the years, this paper provides a description of the origins of abnormal psychology, a brief overview concerning how abnormal psychology has evolved into a scientific discipline and an assessment of the theoretical viewpoints and interpretations of the biological, psychosocial, and sociocultural models. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

a. Describe the origins of Abnormal Psychology.

People have always suffered from mental illness and there have always been efforts by humans to understand and treat these disorders. According to Kimble and Schlesinger (1985), "The very early history of psychopathology is scant in the extreme and we must be extremely hesitant to draw inferences from the few available data. There are a few records of psychological therapy dating from 3000 B.C. In Egypt and Mesopotamia" (p. 267). What is known for certain is that magic and religion were the primary ways that ancient peoples understood and sought to treat mental illness. For instance, Kimble and Schlesinger note that, "Illness was believed to be of divine origin and it followed that treatment consisted largely of magical-religious practices. Dream interpretations, incantations, religious rituals, and suggestion were employed" (p. 267). These points are also made by other historians of psychopathology. For example, in their seminal work, The Psychodynamics of Abnormal Behavior, Brown and Menninger (1940), report that, "Magic [and] religion are the chief methods through which man has tried to understand his place in the cosmos and to better it" (p. 23). Indeed, magical and religious views were highly influential in the manner in which mental illness was perceived by ancient peoples. In this regard, Kimble and Schlesinger note that, "Early views about madness have been inferred from Biblical references. For example, Deuteronomy 28:23, 34 views madness as punishment for disobeying the commandments" (p. 267). By any measure, the past two centuries have not been kind to humans and it is little wonder that mental illness is commonplace, but as the adage suggests, "The more things change, the more they stay the same" and this is the case with mental illness as well. For instance, Brown and Menninger add that, "Despite the fact that there is a widespread belief that mental disorder is a modern problem, we can be fairly sure that it has always existed. Although social anthropological research shows that among primitive people the psychoses and… [read more]

Organizational Behavior (Psychology) Applied Comprehension Organizational Psychologists Term Paper

… Organizational Behavior (Psychology)

Applied Comprehension

Organizational Psychologists continually seek the creation of relevant approaches for the application of organizational psychological principles. Central to the application of Industrial Organizational psychological principles, as an emergent approach, has been the elevation of consultation… [read more]

Psychology and Behavior Discuss Antipsychotic Drugs Term Paper

… Psychology and Behavior

Discuss antipsychotic drugs, and mention a few typical side effects. Briefly describe the category of anti-anxiety drugs called benzodiazepines, including side effects.

Antipsychotic drugs are a group of drugs used to treat psychosis in patients. They are… [read more]

Humanistic Psychology Term Paper

… Humanistic Psychology

Theoretical and practical applications in psychology, especially in clinical psychology, have been dominated by a small number of major paradigms. The major paradigms have related offshoots but typically historians consider the first two major paradigms in psychology to… [read more]

Specific Mental Disorder Analysis: Cluster B Personality Research Paper

… There are a number of methods through which the health of these patients can be improved by the family physicians. Some of these methods are pharmacotherapy, brief interventions and psychotherapy. There are three clusters that the personality disorders are divided… [read more]

Personality Theory Term Paper

… In a way the domains of individual differences which have similar surface manifestations are differentiated by the Big Five. Although it has only just started that we have begun to explicate the processes and structures which are underlying them. "Explication… [read more]

Social Psychology One Point Research Paper

… The current event is that the Chilean judges, who held office during Pinochet's brutal reign, came forward and apologized. Judges during Pinochet's rule, who had to have played a part in Pinochet's grip on power, publically apologized. They apologized publically to the victims during this military rule around the 40th anniversary of the coup that occurred in 1973 and brought nearly two decades of corruption and brutality to the Chilean people. No specific judge was quoted as the press statement was meant to reflect the words of all the judges coming forward to apologize. We may consider the judges as a body or group, distinctive from other public officials who came forward. In that sense, their actions and statements are individual.

This current event as an example could be a reflection of a change in social motives or the acquisition of new social motives. Or perhaps the social motives remained the same, but because time passed (forty years), then their perspectives on their social motives changed. For example, the social motives to cooperate and conform. In the 1970s, the judges may have felt the social motives to cooperate with Pinochet and conform to his changes. In the 2010s, the social motive to conform and cooperate may still be present, but the judges changed with whom they would like to cooperate with and to what standards they will conform. We live in a time when many people around the world are coming forward against the crimes of their governments and no longer remaining complicit in their participation in those crimes. We also live in a time where there is a lot of political and social violence between the people and government officials. The violence is brutal, and though the people suffer the worst of the injuries, those they fight do not always come away unscathed. Corrupt officials are going to prison, are getting humiliated via the press, and more, and sometimes worse.

In my profession, the need for affiliation is a social motivation is strong and present. It is a universal experience to know people or be a person who will do anything in the name of affiliation with a social group or other kind of formal group. This is a social motive I think I could use to predict some individual behaviors in my field, higher education.


BBC. (2013). Chile's judges apologise after coup. BBC News, Web, Available from: 2013 September 04.

Preserve Articles. (2013). Brief notes on Social Motives from psychological point-of-view. Preserve Articles, Web, Available from: 2013 September 03.… [read more]

Social Psychology Differ When Applied Term Paper

… For example in the Japanese culture the employees tend to identify themselves by the companies that they belong to rather than their own individual identities (Nakane, 1970)such as, if they meet someone instead of introducing themselves by talking about their… [read more]

Social Psychology Cognitive Dissonance Term Paper

… Social Psychology

Cognitive dissonance

This is the feeling that one has within them when they hold two conflicting feelings or thoughts within them at the same time. This usually highlights the importance of the subject within us. Dissonance is said… [read more]

Brain Dysfunction and Criminal Behavior Research Paper

… The frontal lobe is a very important part of the human brain because of its function not only in individual function of the body, but in terms of understanding social, legal, and moral rules and regulations within the society and disruption leads to misconduct and very often to criminal behaviors by the afflicted person which will end in tragedy. It is in this particular region of the brain where social morays are interpreted and the individual's ability to differentiation right and wrong is also located (Brower 2001,-page 720). Therefore, damage to this region of the brain either through congenital deformity or severe injury will logically impede the ability to understand right and wrong or also inhibit the ability to internalize social morays. If this particular part of the brain is damaged, then it will be difficult, if not impossible for the afflicted individual to conform to society's demands for behavior, but rather make the opposite situation far more likely.

There are physiological factors which can contribute to delinquency particularly in members of the youth population, such as mental retardation or psycho or sociopathy. However, most researchers agree that the most influential aspect of a child's life will be the psychological attitude in which it is raised (Shoemaker 2009,-page 95). Those who are raised in homes with violence or substance abuse are far more likely to descend into crime themselves than children who are reared in more functional homes. Children who are born into poor locations are more likely to commit robberies and to engage in gang-related criminality. One of the reasons behind this statistic, according to researchers, is that children who are raised in low income areas are more likely to have single-parent households and those adults are more likely to spend limited amounts of time in the house, either because of work hours or their own socialization. This means that their offspring have limited supervision. Without an adult telling their children what types of behavior are or are not appropriate, young people will very often get into trouble. Logically, those who engage in crime at a younger age will be more likely to engage in a lifetime of crime and be more resilient to rehabilitation.

Given the information currently available, it has been proven that dysfunction of the brain does indicate a high likelihood for criminal behavior. Individuals who have brain dysfunction, either through nature or accident should be monitored, particularly if they have indicated an interest in criminality. However, it must also be noted that a lack of brain dysfunction does not meant that the person will not become a criminal. The research is therefore important but by no means conclusive.

Works Cited

Brower, M.C. & Price, B.H. (2001). Neuropsychiatry of frontal lobe dysfunction in violent and criminal behavior: a critical review. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 71. 720-26.

Moskowitz, C. (2011). Criminal minds are different from yours, brain scans reveal. Live Science.

(2010, August 17). Secrets of Your Mind: the Brain and Violence [Web Video]. Retrieved… [read more]

Evolution of Cognitive Psychology as a Discipline Essay

… Evolution of Cognitive Psychology as a Discipline

The advancement of cognitive psychology since the era of Thomas Aquinas, who was the foremost person to divide behavior into two distinct areas; cognitive and affective has tremendously evolved. The lodging of research on the field provides practitioners a clear view of the subject matter. Cognitive psychology has been existent for centuries in diverse forms based on its defining culture (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). As science progressively gets sophisticated, numerous theories and beliefs have fallen aside in favor of more legitimate evidence towards contemporary developments in the discipline. Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes. During the nineteenth century, cognitive psychology became an emergent theme of concern in the discipline of psychology. This epoch saw numerous psychologists and scholars concentrate on the study of human behavior as it emanates from internal states such as moods, thoughts and feelings (Goldstein, 2008).


Cognition is the method of obtaining, keeping, using and applying knowledge and intelligence. It is typically the science of knowing. Cognition means all the processes through which the sensory input goes under transformation, reduction, elaboration, storage, recovery, and eventual application. Cognition is inclusive of the processing of information (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). It slightly excludes emotions processing. Cognition inculcates all mental processes. For instance, gaining knowledge, comprehending, recalling, assuming, analytical problem solving, and perceiving are all components of cognition.

Cognitive psychologists examine behavior as an avenue to decipher the underlying mental activities, same to how physicists decipher the existent gravitational force referencing from object behaviors on earth. Studying mental activities covers a large ground. They include an understanding of languages, problem solving, remembrance, attention and making decisions as expounded.

Since time immemorial, cognitive psychologists have applied the above concept applying scientific methods as their fundamental tool. These researchers assume that the mind is a machine type from where they elucidate how the machine works internally. Thinking is a process that all people undertake daily. This makes cognitive psychology a pertinent discipline (Goldstein, 2008).

Such a comprehensive definition shows that cognition encompasses everything all human beings would do; all psychological experiences are cognitive experiences. Though cognitive psychology relates to all human activities rather than segments, the apprehension is that it originates from a specific point-of-view yet other viewpoints are overtly necessary and justifiable.

The Interdisciplinary Perspective & Emergence of Cognitive Psychology

Being an essential part of psychology as a whole, cognitive psychology is also a component of the general interdisciplinary discipline of cognitive science. Cognitive science is the cross-disciplinary examination of intellect and psyche. It appreciates various fields such as neuroscience, anthropology, linguistics, philosophy and psychology (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). These other fields have had a consummate influence on cognitive psychology as it has influenced them.

These disciplines apply cognition based on psychology. Cognitive psychology is the interdisciplinary field that scholars apply to understand the mind. Researchers derive their conclusions from experiments. All the related fields share the same factors such as memory, attention, thinking and linguistics. This makes cognitive psychology an… [read more]

Psychology Essay

… Both positive and cognitive psychology uses the scientific technique to clarify the association that is among reasoning and behavior. Meanwhile positive psychology could couple with any other methods, cognitive psychology has lived without argument for practically four periods (Sweetland, 2009).… [read more]

Criminal Behavior Has Been Practiced Term Paper

… Criminal behavior has been practiced for as long as one can recall. However, it would not be wrong to say that not much importance has been given to the forensic mental health assessment of the people who go for any… [read more]

Theoretical Perspective of the Biological Term Paper

… An individual nature is the vehicle by which one expresses his/her values and emotions to others (Coon & Mitterer, 2008). The human brain processes the four major biochemicals in different manner, and this mixture determines ones nature and personality. The… [read more]

Clinical Focused the Humanistic Psychology Essay

… He demonstrated his hypothesis and techniques via lecturing, teaching workshops, audiovisual recordings and live demonstrations. He developed the client-centered approach in between 1940. In the course of development of Rogerian theory, Rogers demonstrated that social learning is paramount in establishment of a good therapeutic environment. Through development of the Rogerian theory, Rogers ascertained that social transmission must be faithful enough, and requires clients to weed out their maladaptive culture through assessing their own conducts (Magnus, Kimmo & Stefano, 2007). His theory is subjective in temperament and requires psychologists to comprehend clients, their worldviews and experiences. The Rogerian theory postulates that an individual realizes his/her final potential when not blocked by environmental aspects as well as personal experiences. The objective of the Rogerian therapy is to permit patients to identify their sense of worth. Rogers's person-centered or client-centered approach continues to exert an important power on the psychotherapy and counseling world besides serving as a basis for the counseling profession (Kirschenbaum, 2004).


Carducci, B. (2009). The psychology of personality: Viewpoints, research and applications. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

DeRobertis, E. (2006). Deriving a humanistic theory of child development from the works of Carl.R. Rogers and Karen Horney. The Humanistic Psychologist, 34 (2), 177-199.

Fernald, P. (2002). Carl Rogers: Body-centered counselor. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78 (2), 172-178.

Kirschenbaum, H. (2004). Carl Roger's life and work: An assessment on the 100th Anniversary of his birth. Journal of Counseling and Development, 82 (1), 116-124.

Magnus, E., Kimmo, E., & Stefano, G.(2007). Critical social learning: A solution to Roger's paradox of nonadaptive culture. American Anthropologist, 109 (4), 727-734.

Thyler, B., Dulmus, C. (2012). Human behavior in the social environment: Theories…… [read more]

Biopsychological Approach? A Physiological Assumption Multiple Chapters

… What are the major underlying assumptions of physiological psychology? First, behavior is a result of physiological processes. Second, animal models of behavior can mimic or approximate the behavior of humans. Third, human behavior is inferred via a comparative method. Fourth, the understanding of neural control of behavior can be inferred from animal models (Pinel, 2012).

What effect do these assumptions have on psychology? Nearly every field of psychology now considers the neural mechanisms that are involved in behavior due to the influence of physiological psychology. The neural control behavior is considered to result from a combination of inherit or genetic factors as well as experience that influences neural development and neural proliferation (plasticity). The nature vs. nurture debate has been largely replaced by an interactive model (Pinel, 2011).

What are some techniques or research methods used to examine the link between the brain and behavior?

Experiments are used to determine causal inferences in biological psychology. Much of the experimental research is performed on animals as ethical issues in stunning brain damage or performing brain surgery on humans for research purposes can arise, but simple noninvasive experiments are also performed on human participants. Quasi-experimental studies investigate biological foundations of behavior in intact groups of people such as people with brain damage or some other condition. Case studies focus on a single participant and are often used for rare and unusual conditions. Correlational research cannot infer cause but can look at associations between variables of interest to biological psychologists (Pinel, 2011).

What are some findings in biological psychology that can result or have resulted from these techniques or research methods?

Experimental studies of animals have identified key areas of the brain involved in addictive behaviors. Quasi-experimental studies with alcoholics have investigated how intellectual functions are affected by chronic alcohol use. Case studies of people with rare types of color blindness or aphasia have indicated the brain areas are involved in these functions. Correlational research has been able to identify risk factors for certain things like addictions, certain brain diseases, and other behaviors (Pinel, 2011).


Pinel, J. (2011). Biopsychology 8th ed.). Boston: Allyn and…… [read more]

Organizational Psychology an Interesting Subfield Term Paper

… Organizational has now become a scientific discipline in its own right and is recognized as an invaluable tool within organizations.

Factors giving more credence to the discipline of Organizational Psychology in the 1980's and the 1990's were multiple (Christine, 2011). The 'economy was becoming increasingly globalized' (Christine, 2011). The 'demographics within the workforce were changing' (Christine, 2011). Temporary employees and contract employees were being utilized more frequently (Christine, 2011). Essentially, because of increasing awareness of the workforce and management the term "job" took on a new conception (Christine, 2011).

While Organizational Psychology was developing, so were other related disciplines such as Organizational Behavior and Social Psychology (Koppes and Pickren, No Date). Organizational Behavior is concerned with a number of factors, but what differentiates it from Organizational Psychology is that it is concerned with the structure and strategies of the organization itself (Jex, 2002). Social Psychology is obviously a related discipline but differs in that it does not limit its focus to individual behavior within organizations (Koppes and Pickren, No date). Thus, though many fields share commonalities with Organizational Psychology, they have variations which make them distinguishable.

An extremely important aspect of Organizational Psychology is its application of the scientific method in studying organizations (Jex, 2002) . In fact, research and statistics are so important to this field that some would argue that they should be a subset of the discipline itself (Jex, 2002). Without quantifiable research methods and results, this discipline would not exist and it is impossible to apply Organizational Psychology without a thorough understanding of statistics and scientific research methodology (Jex, 2002).

As Christine documented, the evolution of Organizational Psychology was steered by the cultural and industrial changes which occurred over a relatively short time span (Christine, 2011). However, one must also consider that there were numerous advances prior to the twentieth century which also contributed to its rise as a respected and necessary discipline (Koppes and Pickren, No date). It was this combination of knowledge which allowed for significant advances in this field (Koppes and Pickren, No date). These advances, as well as the significant changes in the twentieth century, led to the modern conception of Organizational Psychology which enhances the efficiency within organizations and therefore benefits all effected by those organizations, be they business organizations or non-business related organizations (Koppes and Pickren, No date).


Christine, J. (2011). History of Organizational Psychology. Retrieved December 21, 2012 from website:

Jex, S. (2002). Organizational Psychology: A scientist-Practitioner Approach. New York:

John Wiley & Sons

Koppes, L. And Pickren, W. ( No…… [read more]

Sit-Down With an Experience Psychologist Term Paper

… This can lead to a quandary when trying to talk to the person in therapy because it's more of a relationship issue and/or a problem the other person has rather than something that is wrong with the person in the… [read more]

Structural Therapy Positive Psychology (PP) Literature Review

… Structural Therapy

Positive Psychology (PP) and Structural Family Therapy (SFT): A Literature Review

Abelsohn, D. & Saayman, G.S. (1991). Adolescent Adjustment to Parental Divorce: An Investigation from the Perspective of Basic Dimensions of Structural Family Therapy Theory. Family Process, 30(2),… [read more]

Psychology Theories of Personality Focus Essay

… Erikson presented eight different stages of personality growth and development. These included the infancy stage, where a person develops trust. The second stage is between ages one and three. At this stage, the individual develops autonomy, and if not, shame and doubt. Therefore, these early stages roughly correspond with Sigmund Freud's notions of how individuals develop shame and doubt feelings early in their psychosocial development. The way the person moves through these stages is shaped by the environmental factors, and then influences the personality.

Social learning theory was presented by Alfred Bandura. Alfred Bandura's social learning theory focuses on learning, just as the behaviorists did. However, unlike the behaviorists, Bandura's social learning theory suggests that people develop their personality as they watch others. For example, a child learns his or her behaviors from observing parents and older siblings. Bandura borrowed directly from some of the behaviorism ideas such as positive and negative reinforcement. Because Bandura was concerned more with outward expressions of personality such as behaviors, his theory is closer to behaviorism than to psychodynamic personality theories. But because social learning theory is based on social interactions more than anything else, it stands alone as a personality theory.

Humanistic personality theories are holistic in nature. Instead of reducing an individual to behaviors or measurable outcomes, the humanistic psychologist looks at the whole person. Carl Rogers was a humanistic psychologists, who believed that personality was related to the development of the person's self-image. Maslow's theory of self-actualization is a representative of humanistic personality theory. Maslow suggested that people are motivated by a need for self-actualization and finding meaning in life. This is also related to existential psychological theories of personality.

Finally, evolutionary personality theory is unique in that it encompasses a wider range of ideas than psychodynamic theory, Freudian theory of personality, humanistic, or behavioral personality theories. Evolutionary personality theory is the newest of all the personality theories. It is focused on broad patterns in human expressions and behaviors and explains personality in terms of why these phenomenon occur. Looking cross-culturally, evolutionary personality theory can show ways a person develops in relationship to the environment, culture, and other people. It is not like any of the other personality theories, but is as holistic as humanistic theories of personality.


Cherry, K. (n.d.). Theories of Personality. Retrieved online:

McLeod, S. (2007). Psychodynamic approach. Simply Psychology. Retrieved online:

"Psychodynamic Theories of Personality," (n.d.). Retrieved online:… [read more]

Coaching Color Psychology Term Paper

… Research on color psychology shows that coaching clients will respond to stimuli. For example, marketers use color regularly to alter consumer behavior. The same principles used in marketing can be applied to life coaching.


Adams, F.M. & Osgood, C.E. (1973). A cross-cultural study of the affective meanings of color. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 4(2): 135-156.

Bellizzi J.A., Crowley, A.E. & Hasty, R.W. (1983). The effects of color in store design. Journal of Retailing 59(1).

Cherry, K. (2012). Color psychology: How colors impact moods, feelings, and behaviors. Retrieved online:

"Color Psychology: The Emotional Effects of Colors," (2012). Art Therapy. Retrieved online:

"Color Psychology to Empower and Inspire You," (n.d.). Retrieved online:

Elliot, A.J. & Maier, M.A. (2007). Color and psychological functioning. Current Decisions in Psychological Sciences 16(5): 250-254.

Johnson, D. (2012). Color psychology: Do different colors affect your mood? Infoplease. Retrieved online:

"Lesson 5: Color Psychology," (n.d.). Retrieved online:

Singh, S. (2006). Impact of color on marketing. Management Decision 44(6):783 -- 789

Stone, N.J. (2001). Designing effective study environments. Journal of Environmental Psychology 21(2): 179-190.… [read more]

Sociopath or Psychopath Psychology Term Paper

… Family nurture does play a vital role. In addition to the family environment, the other very strong social force is the culture from which a person belongs to. Researches have pointed out that the incidence of psychopath and sociopath individuals is much higher in United States of America than in Japan. The reasons of these varying percentages of psychopaths and sociopaths are quite contingent on the culture they are part of. In Japanese culture, the family members share a tight bond with each other and there is lot of love and respect for one another. In contrary, higher percentages of American family consists of single parents who raise their kids alone. The negative influence of being part of a single parent family does influence the child and may enforce his or her negative behavior.


This paper has briefly identified some obvious differences that exist between a psychopath and a sociopath. However, both the disorders are opposite sides of the coin, but the root causes that are behind these personality disorders are different. Psychopath is a person who is born with a disorder while a sociopath person definitely has a history of lack of socialization and other social factors. In addition to this, the social forces present in the environment as well as the nature do play a vital role in making of these individuals. In fact, their presence condition can be improved or worsen due to the social variables present in the environment. Psychologists often a With reference to the material and text presented in this paper, and the personal insight that I have developed while researching for this topic, I would like to share my personal experience too. I was labeled as a psychopath while I was serving in the military. I was diagnosed with PSTD, an abbreviation of Post-traumatic stress disorder, MM, Bi polar and others that I wish not to disclose. My point of arguments is that all the disorders I have just mentioned, of which of was diagnosed of, tend to run concurrently and often overlap. For example, many symptoms of PSTD are similar to that of a psychopath. Through medications and therapy, I know today that I am as healthy, both physically and mentally as any other normal person. My basic argument is that it is very difficult to differentiate between a psychotic people from a non-psychotic one. Psychologists should work on drawing a clear line that can help them to differentiate between the two of them, rather than jumping conclusions at once.


Hare, R.D. (1993). Without conscience: The disturbing world of the psychopaths among us. New York: The Guilford Press.

Lykken, D.T. (1995). The antisocial personalities. New Jersey: Library of CongressCataloging-in-Publication data.

Pescosolido, B.A., Martin, J.K., McLeod, J.D., & Rogers, A. (2011). Handbook of the sociology of health, illness, and healing. London: Springer.

Psychopath vs. sociopath. (n.d.). Retrieved from… [read more]

Ethical Issues in Family Research Paper

… Family marriage and therapy and is more than just a new technique or excellent treatment technique - it comprises a whole tolerant of human behavior and the conceptualization of problems (Scher, 2012). Despite the fact all of the helping professions… [read more]

Psychology of Learning Summarize a Classic Experiment A-Level Coursework

… Psychology of Learning

Summarize a classic experiment in the Psychology of Learning.

One of the most interesting and profound experiments in all of psychology must be the Ivan Pavlov's work with the conditioning of dog's. Nearly every source surveyed makes some humorous reference to Pavlov and his dog experiments. For example, the official site of the Nobel Prize, an award that Pavlov himself won was awarded, titles an introductory section "Pavlov's drooling dogs" (Prize, 2001). His eeliest work was not dedicated on understanding behavior. Rather he worked to understand how the digestive system worked in mammals and used canines as subjects. Pavlov actually kind of stumbled on his behavioral work by noting that the dogs did not always salivate when expected. He later realized that it was the lab coat that was triggering the dog's response to salivate.

After noticing the response the dogs had to the lab coats somewhat by chance, Pavlov set out to further understand the signals that triggered the salivation of the responses of the dogs. Pavlov used a bell as a trigger which was timed in conjunction with the dogs regular feeding. The normal feedings would naturally trigger saliva to ooze from the dogs respective glands. However, after enough time had passed, the dogs would salivate with the sound of the bell alone with no food in sight. Pavlov's experiment is considered one of the "classic' experiments in psychology because it opened the door for a new way to study behavior.

2. Define CS, U.S., UR, and CR. Explain how advertisers can use classical conditioning to give consumers a positive feeling about their product and how they could use classical conditioning to give consumers a negative feeling about other products.

Unconditioned Stimulus -- this means that without any learning, a stimulus can elicit a reflex (Experiment Resouirces, N.d.). For example, in Pavlov's experiment it was the dog's food that served as the unconditional stimulus.

Unconditioned Response -- is the response to a stimulus that requires no learning. Again, in Pavlov's experiment, the unconditioned response was the drooling of the dogs which required no learning on their part since this is a natural phenomenon.

Conditioned Stimulus -- this is the artificial stimulus that is paired with the U.S. that has the potential to eventually lead to a conditioned response; this requires learning. In Pavlov's experiment, the conditioned stimulus was the bell.

Conditioned Response -- this is the response that is generated through learning to the conditioned stimulus. In this case the U.S. can no longer be present and the subject has learned the conditioned response to the conditioned stimulus. In the experiment it was the dog's reacting solely to the bell being rung.

An advertisement for a Vodka brand was found to illustrate what effects conditioning can have on consumers. In the ad an attractive female is positioned behind a clear vodka bottle. Behind the bottle there is an image of a snake that does not appear anywhere else…… [read more]

Child Clinical Psychology Research Paper

… Child Psychology

Child Clinical Psychology

Clinical child psychology as a practice field directly addresses the mental health needs of children and their families by providing professional services that seek to improve the effects of life events when these experiences dispute… [read more]

Behavior Social Influences Research Paper

… , 2010; Voncken et al., 2010). Severe cases of the disorder lead to a complete shut-down of social interactions, with behavioral changes in the way people hold themselves, make eye contact, speak, and even think, all based on a social context of unfamiliarity or in encountering unknown people, or simply a lack of control (Kashdan et al., 2010; Voncken et al., 2010).

The precursors of true social anxiety disorder can vary greatly, though many cases are brought on by histories of specific instances of trauma or ongoing environmental forces that lead to a reduced ability to make and maintain social connections or simply engage in social interactions (Kashdan et al., 2010). Consequences of social anxiety disorder, on the other hand, are fairly well documented, with changes in behavior so profound and fundamental that individuals will actually make themselves less likable through their behaviors in a self-fulfilling belief of their own inadequacy (Voncken et al., 2010). People that in comfortable and chosen social settings are normal, intelligent, and capable of full interactions can severally limit their opportunities and the quality of their lives through he behavioral changes that occur when they are in other social settings. Because of the extreme level of detriment that can be caused by social anxiety, including a real inability to care for oneself or lead a self-sufficient life in some extreme circumstances, true social anxiety is a socially-caused behavioral change that most certainly warrants a therapeutic intervention.


Code switching, social anxiety, and many other socially-caused changes in behavior can have varying degrees of extremity, and are experienced differently by different people. Some patterns of change are like social anxiety disorder in that they are limited only to certain individuals, not occurring at all for many. Like code switching, though, there are many behavioral changes that occur for almost everyone, every day.


Auer, P. (1999). Code Switching in Conversation. New York: Routledge.

Kashdan, T., Breen, W., Afram, A. & Terhar, D. (2010). Experiential avoidance in idiographic, autobiographical memories: Construct validity and links to social anxiety, depressive, and anger symptoms. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 24(5): 528-34.

Voncken, M., Dijk, C., de Jong, P., Roelofs, J. (2010). Not self-focused attention but negative beliefs affect poor social performance in social anxiety: An investigation…… [read more]

Philosophical, and Empirical Foundations of Psychology Argument Term Paper

… ¶ … Philosophical, and Empirical Foundations of Psychology


Pre-Modern Period (to 1650's)

Classical Period

Western Civilization, its intellectual and social aspects, was still dominated by Christianity, as it had been throughout the dark ages. Christianity was chiefly concerned with… [read more]

Evolution and Development of Behavioral Term Paper

… While Pavlov and his students may have been the first people to really describe conditioning, they failed to translate that into an active and thriving treatment modality. That does not mean that learning theories were not used in behavior modification. Perhaps one of the most famous studies was a clinical demonstration conducted by Mary Cover Jones, a student of Watson. "Jones speculated that if fears could be established by conditioning, perhaps they could be eliminated by use of the same principles. Her famous study was conducted with 3-year-old Peter, who was afraid of a variety of furry objects like rabbits, fur coats, and cotton. As Peter sat eating his favorite foods, a caged rabbit was brought into the room at sufficient distance not to interfere with his eating. Over time, the rabbit was brought progressively closer until it was close enough for him to touch" (Glass & Arnkoff, Year). This eventually led to extinction of the fear reaction, and may have been the first clinical description of behavior modification in a human subject.

Despite that early success, "it was not until the 1950s that behavior therapy as we know it today began to emerge" (Fishman & Franks, Year). That does not, however, mean that people were ignorant of some of the underlying principles in behavior therapy. For example, at a basic level, any person who trained an animal probably used some form of reward or punishment-based behavior modification to do so. Furthermore, many people had contemplated learning theory and how the human mind assimilated information. By the 1950s, these theories were combined with what was being learned about conditioning and then used that to engage in therapeutic behavior modification. However, these efforts were not always seen as welcome or beneficial. There were ethical issues surrounding the use of behavior modification, with the suggestion that behavior modification methods were generally cruel or coercive, which did not reflect the reality of the field, but did impact public perception of its acceptability. Moreover, it must be recognized that some behavior therapists have engaged in ethically questionable behavior. "For example, in the early 1970s a prominent method for attempting to change the sexual preference of homosexuals was orgasmic reconditioning, which involved gradually shifting the fantasies used in masturbation from same-sex to opposite-sex images"(Glass & Arnkoff). While mainstream behaviorists have largely abandoned attempts to change traits that are now seen as innate rather than learned, one can see the remainders of some of this early behavioral therapy overreaching in modern anti-gay therapy, making some of the concerns about behaviorism and its goals appear valid. Of course, the same can be said about much of psychology, as the definition of normal and adaptive behavior has certainly changed with shifts in societal norms.

Modern behavior therapy is no longer focused specifically on conditioned responses, but has branched out into the area of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). These new treatment modalities take the basic building blocks of behaviorism and apply them to specific scenarios. Those scenarios can be relatively… [read more]

Evolution of Cognitive Psychology Research Paper

… In his work, Wundt embraced introspection as a research methodology based on his belief that adequately trained psychologists should make observations of their experiences in similar ways to those of properly trained physicists. By using objective measures of performance like reaction time, the main focus of this psychologist was on the conscious experience that heralded the response. However, he was not concerned with the unconscious processes that are used to respond to simple stimuli i.e. The speedy information-processing operations because he regarded these factors as aspects of physiology rather than psychology (Braisby & Gellatly, n.d.).

Kulpe, the leader of Wurzburg school of introspection opposed Wundt's perspective by developing the other concept of conscious experience that could be revealed by introspection. Unlike Wundt's perspective, Kulpe stated that the contents of consciousness are determined in a top-down means depending on the task that the individual is engaged upon. Together with his colleagues, the psychologists examined simple tasks though they favored more complex tasks that were mainly based on mental acts like recognizing, attending, willing, and discriminating.

In the first two decades of the 20th Century, introspectionism approach went into a terminal decline through the various unresolved disagreements in the two schools of this approach. During this period, the introspectionists increased complex classifications of conscious experience despite of the declining interests in consciousness.

Gestalt psychology:

The seeming failure and decline in introspectionism stimulated several reactions by various intellectuals such as gestalt psychologists developed the work of Kulpe or Wurzburg school by stating that consciousness cannot be examined into minor components sensations. These psychologists stressed the significance of perception of stimulus that patterns people's conscious experience.

These works were also accompanied by the attempts by William James to oppose introspectionism through his functionalist psychology. The psychologist affirmed that the various ways of humans' feelings and thinking are products of people's utility in developing their interactions with the outside world. In addition to being regarded as an exponent of modern evolutionary psychology, James considered these functions of the mind as the suitable subject matter in psychology. Nonetheless, these ideas were quickly and largely brushed off by the emergence of a new thought in the United States known as behaviorism.


While this approach contributed to the terminal decline of Gestalt and functionalist psychology, the basis of behaviorism was not shared in common since its founders were driven by divergent motives. The main founder of behaviorism focused on moving psychological research from the laboratory and into the real world. Through public observation, behaviorism reflected a broad philosophical consensus as the actual nature of scientific analysis. As various psychologists become dissatisfied with the emphasis on external behavior by behaviorism, cognitive psychology developed to focus on internal processes.


Cognitive psychology has developed as a discipline in the field of psychology through various antecedents instead of a specific event. Some of the major antecedents that contributed to the evolution of the discipline include introspectionism, Gestalt psychology, and behaviorism.


Braisby, N. & Gellatly, A. (n.d.). Chapter 1 --… [read more]

Social Psychology Statement Research Paper

… Interviewing 262 undergraduate students the authors learned that in terms of feminine vs. unfeminine athletes, males are less interested in articles about female athletes are more masculine but males like women's volleyball (women wear shorts and tend to be more attractive). Female students reported more interest in more masculine sports players. There is a fascinating social psychological study within that subject.

Other writers are investigating the social psychological aspects of attitudes toward serious mental illness, about the behavioral control (or lack of control) young people have with respect to information technology, and the role social psychology plays with reference to customer retention for a particular cellular company.

The learner's response to the research

My original ideas were very narrowly focused, and I really had little comprehension as to the depth and width of the subject. Moreover, I did not realize that this field is as yet not widely used in schools environments, and that teachers are among those that should become proficient with the concepts and with the importance of understanding social psychology. For the benefit of minority students, and all students, instructors should be on the front line when it comes to understanding social psychology and how it can bring enlighten attitudes and ideas.

Works Cited

Cherry, Kendra. (2008) What is Social Psychology? Retrieved February 27, 2012,


Gehlbach, Hunter. The Social Side of School: Why Teachers Need Social Psychology.

Educational Psychological Review, 22(3), 349-362.

Jones, Amy, and Greer, Jennifer. (2011). You Don't Look Like an Athlete: The Effects of Feminine Appearance on Audience Perceptions of Female Athletes and Women's Sports.

Journal of Sport Behavior, 34(4), 358-377.

McCall,…… [read more]

Dialectical Behavior Therapy Dbt Research Paper

… Dialectical Behavior Therapy


Dialectical Behavior Therapy is a medication meant to treat persons with mental health disorders especially borderline personality disorder. These patients normally have a history of urges to induce self-harm, self-mutilation, suicidal ideation among others. This therapy… [read more]

Mind and Behaviour Investigators Essay

… Contingent problems of qualitative interviews are those which may or may not be issues depending on whether attention is given to certain aspects of the study. These types of problems include the interviewer being deleted from the interpretation of findings, flaws in how the interactions are represented, how specific observations are, not knowing how interviews are set up, and sometimes failure to see the interview situation as an interaction (Potter & Hepburn, 2005). These are widespread problems that are found commonly throughout research based on qualitative interviews, and psychological research in general could be drastically improved by correcting these problems (Potter & Hepburn, 2005). Potter & Hepburn (2005) suggest that a starting point toward correcting these problems would be for researchers to acknowledge the presence of these issues and in turn justify why certain components of the qualitative interviews are used and how they contribute to improved execution of the study.

The other category of problems in qualitative psychological research noted by Potter & Hepburn (2005) is necessary problems, those that are inherent to the interview process. These problems include the interview being flooded by social science agendas, the dominance asserted by the interviewer and interviewee, potential personal agendas on the behalf of the interviewer and interviewee, as well as cognitivism being reproduced (Potter & Hepburn, 2005). Since these problems are inherent to the interview process, they cannot be eliminated, and instead must be avoided as much as possible by consciously designing and conducting interviews with these potential problems in mind. The impact of these problems could be limited and reduced by effectively crafting introductions to interviews, questions, and analyzing responses without losing sight of the possible interference caused by necessary problems.


Potter, J. & Hepburn, A. (2005). Qualitative interviews in psychology: problems and possibilities. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 2, 1-27.

Stanovich,…… [read more]

Health Psychology Committee Report Research Proposal

… Health Psychology Committee Report

Health care reform plan

Duty list:

This would be the ideal assignment for a child psychologist. A child psychologist possesses intimate knowledge of childhood development issues and can help schools deal with psychological and academic challenges with children in a more effective manner. Children are not 'small adults.' Children have specific needs based upon the biology of their brains. That is why developmental psychology is a unique subfield of psychology: developmental psychologists "study the physiological, cognitive, and social development that takes place throughout life," which change depending on the life phase of the person (Psychologists, 2011, BLS).

Provide psychological preparation methods for children prior to medical procedures: Likewise, a child psychologist can help prepare children before procedures in an age-appropriate manner. A child's perception of a surgery, or a painful test, for example, will not be the same as an adult's who more fully understands what is going on. The in-patient therapist could also provide assistance in helping parents deal with the illnesses of their child.

Provide treatment for chronic pain: This would seem to be best-suited for an adult psychologist. He or she could combine psychological and medical ways to deal with pain that would be administered both in an in-patient and out-patient setting. "A psychologist can help you address the emotional impact of chronic pain. Using behavioral therapy techniques, a psychologist can help you identify and change negative thoughts -- thoughts that can exacerbate your pain. The psychologist can help you deal with any depression, anxiety, or other mood disorders often associated with chronic pain" (Walker 2011).

Provide psychological preparation methods for adults prior to medical procedures and surgery: This would be best-suited for an in-patient psychologist. The psychologist would be specifically charged with the duties of preparing adult patients for in-house procedures and surgery, focusing on short-term rather than long-term needs (Department of Psychology, 2011, Mass General Hospital).

Coordinate the use of recovery programs and structured programs for substance abuse, in conjunction with social worker: Dealing with the psychological and medical needs of substance abusers requires specific preparation and would be best delegated to a substance abuse counselor. Most major research hospitals have departments specifically devoted to the treatment of substance-abuse related complaints, given the expanding knowledge we now possess about how addition changes the addict's brain. "Despite the availability of many forms of effective treatment for addiction, the problem of relapse remains the major challenge to achieving sustained recovery. People trying to recover from drug abuse and addiction are often doing so with altered brains, strong drug-related memories and diminished impulse control" (Volkow 2011).

Diagnose stress disorders and aid in stress-relief interventions: These generalized psychological treatments would best be allocated to an adult psychologist who could help patients use such stress-reduction techniques outside of the facility in their daily lives. Stress relief can be helpful for both psychologically normal patients as well as individuals suffering from psychological complaints. Recently, a study in the Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging reported that all participants in an… [read more]

Psychology Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Cognitive Behavioral Research Paper

… It is thought that more than seventeen million adults go through at least one incident of major depression every year. Of those who seek help, just forty to sixty percent will react to initial therapy. Cognitive behavior therapy is a type of psychotherapy that is often utilized to take care of patients with depression, anxiety or other issues. It entails helping people to recognize negative patterns of thinking and reacting, and then replacing them with more productive options. Study findings have shown that CBT has a very precise action on the brain's control of its emotional reaction. While health professionals have known that psychotherapy was normally helpful for depression, they have not known before how targeted its effects have been (Fahy, 2006).

According to a study published in the January 2004 issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry, health professionals have been using Positron emission tomography (PET) to show the diverse effects of depression treatments on the brain. People who recuperate after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) show a model of brain alterations that is different from that of people who respond to medication. "By modifying attention and memory functions, affective bias, and maladaptive information processing, CBT teaches patients cognitive strategies to reduce automatic reactivity to negative thoughts. Unlike this top-down approach, which focuses on cortical brain areas and uses thought processes to change abnormal mood states; drug therapy is considered to be a bottom-up approach because it changes neurochemistry in the brain stem and limbic regions effecting basic emotional and circadian behaviors" (Barclay, 2004).


Barclay, Laurie. (2004). Brain PET Shows Different Effects of Depression Treatments. Retreived from

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. (2011). Retreived from


Fahy, Joe. (2006). Study finds brain imaging could predict best depression therapy. Retrieved

Neurological Changes Associated with Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy. (2008). Retrieved

from… [read more]

Psychological Disorders Word Count (Excluding Essay

… His conclusions have been influential in the field of psychiatry. He recommended greater education and renewed efforts in diagnoses, labeling, and treatment approaches.

Second Assignment

Psychophysiological Disorder Chapter 14, p.485; Webpage:

Psychophysiological disorders are conditions where the emotional or psychological state of the patient can cause or make worse physical symptoms or disease. Unlike hypochondria, a psychological disorder whereas the patient perceives illness, pain, or symptoms that do not actually exist, psychophysiological disorders produce physical harm to the body. Psychophysiological disorders are also called psychosomatic disorders. Physical symptoms can show throughout the body including skin irritations, digestive problems, or hallucinations. Physical symptoms affected by emotional stress can include nausea, tension headaches, ulcers, asthma, chest pain, or anorexia. Psychosomatic illnesses can be very serious and even result in death.

Treatment of Psychophysiological disorders addresses not only the physical symptoms but seek to discover the root emotional or psychological cause. This holistic approach includes such treatment as relaxation techniques, meditation, and biofeedback. Doctors who treat Psychophysiological patients also look into harmful life patterns such as smoking, obesity or other stress causing factors that can be eliminated or reduce in order to have a positive health outcome.

Psychoneuroimmunology and Stress Chapter 14, p. 487


Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is a field of study that is primarily concerned with the relationship between the nervous and immune systems, and the relationship between mental and physical health. Similar to Psychophysiological medicine, Psychoneuroimmunology has an interdisciplinary approach to healing. This field involves studies in psychology, immunology, endocrinology, physiology, and more.

In this field there are emerging theories. One set of researches have taken an interest in cytokine activity. It asserts that a function of the immune system is to send a message to the brain when infection or injury occurs in the body by the release of proteins called proinflammatory cytokines.

Research is discovering that cytokines travel to through the central nervous system which gives vital information to the brain concerning physical problems. As a response, the brain then sends its own cytokines to the nervous system to begin a series of responses such as the induction of fever. These responses cause the conservation of energy.

Another theory, developed by Hans Selye called the "General Adaptation Syndrome," emphasizes a common response to stress with a closely related set of hormones and changes in immunity. However, other theorist maintains that there are two different primary reactions to stress. One, they say, is the traditional "fight-or-flight" response, and the other a withdrawing reaction. In this reaction, a person is withdraws from the stress factor to conserve energy.… [read more]

Psychology History of Psychology Max Weitheimer (Laws Essay

… Psychology

History of Psychology

Max Weitheimer (Laws of Organization in Perceptual Forms)

Max Wertheimer was one of the principal proponents of Gestalt theory which emphasized higher-order cognitive processes in the midst of behaviorism. The center of Gestalt premise was the concept of grouping. The chief aspects that determine grouping include: proximity which involves elements being grouped together according to their nearness, similarity, where items of similar respect tend to be grouped together, closure where items are grouped together if they tend to complete some entity and simplicity where items will be organized into simple figures according to symmetry, regularity, and smoothness. These factors are referred to as the laws of organization and are explained in the context of awareness and problem-solving. The fundamental character of successful problem-solving behavior according to Wertheimer is that of being able to envision the overall construction of the problem.

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (Conditioned Reflexes: An investigation of the Physiological Activity of the Cerebral Cortex)

Pavlov was a Nobel Prize-winning physiologist, whose research into the process of the conditioned reflex is considered a landmark discovery in both modern physiology and behavioral psychology. Pavlov was recognized by the Nobel Committee for his work with mammalian digestion; however, later experiments with canine salivation led to his theorization of the learned or conditioned reflex, a physiological response to associated but otherwise unrelated stimuli. Pavlov saw that when dogs were offered some additional stimulus accompanied by regular feedings, such as a flash of light, could be made to salivate when only the added stimulation, and no food, was given. During experimentation, Pavlov ascertained the physiological basis of certain types of learned behavior. He also related his discovery of the conditioned reaction to humans.

Kurt Lewin (Experiments in Social Space)

Kurt Lewin's field theory was using the concept of fields of force to explain behavior in terms of one's field of social influences. His areas of interest included human motivation, which was involved describing human behavior in its total physical and social perspective. He paid close attention mainly to social problems that affect how people live and work. He worked hard to make factories more personal instead of industrial in order to make work more personally satisfying to the employees. His understanding of field theory in physics led him to the breakthrough of the life space. Lewin thought that a person's psychological activities happen within a kind of psychological field. He called this field the life space. The life space is made up of all events in a persons past, present and future that help shape and affect them. Each of the events is thought to help determine a person's behavior in any given situation. The life space is also made up of a person's needs in dealings with the psychological environment.

Edward…… [read more]

Positive Psychology Optimism Term Paper

… Positive Psychology: Optimism

The purpose of the present paper is to define and discuss the concept of "optimism" within the realms of positive psychology, exploring its relevance in this area. Positive psychology is a branch of psychology which has been… [read more]

Compare and Contrast Psychoanalytic, Behavior, and Existential Theories Research Paper

… Psychology Models

Since Sigmund Freud first introduced his psychoanalytic theory, numerous other theoretical models of psychopathology have been suggested with certain similarities and differences. They all share the same fundamental beliefs that each person is born with certain innate tendencies… [read more]

Social Psychology and Note Research Paper

… ¶ … social psychology and note how it is different from other, similar fields.

Unlike psychology, which tends to focus on the individual in the context of his or her immediate environment, social psychology focuses on how larger social forces affect the individual. Sociology, the study of individuals in groups, focuses on aggregates rather than individuals.

Discuss three ways in which the presence of others can affect the likelihood that people will help someone in need.

If an individual is being watched, he or she may be more likely to bestow aid. Also, if others immediately try to give help, groupthink may active the impulse to participate. However, there is also the bystander effect, whereby an individual not wanting to get involved assumes that 'someone else' has already called for help.

Q14. Describe how the self-concept develops from the perception of one's own behavior and from comparisons with other people.

Self-concept can be shaped by social forces. For example, some social scientists attribute the increase in obesity to the fact that the social norm of weight has increased, as all of America (and the world) grows fatter. However, it is impossible to see the 'self' exactly as others perceive it. For example, someone with social anxiety or low self-esteem may dread speaking in public because 'everyone is looking at me" and believe that he or she seems incompetent, when others do not judge him or her nearly as harshly.

15. Characterize modern racism. Describe when it is most, and least, likely to be evident.

Modern racism tends to be less overt than previous manifestations of racism. Individuals are less likely to engage in overt acts of discrimination, although unconscious or subtle acts of discrimination are far from uncommon.

Part B.

Television program: Network news

Physical assaults that involve using a weapon or object: 1

Physical assaults that do not involve a weapon or object: 0

Verbal threats of harm: 0

Insults or derogatory remarks: 10

Violent deaths: 0

Accidents in which someone is hurt: 2

On the particular edition of the network news I screened, the main news story was the upcoming health summit between President Obama and congressional leaders. The main acts of violence were the insults used by the Republicans against the president. There was also some coverage of the 'wild weather' sweeping the nation and the injuries caused by snow and ice. Had the focus of the news been upon Iraq, the tally may have been different. The network news is not consistently violent every night, although it can be, unlike…… [read more]

Clinical Disorder Clinical Psychology and Categorical Mental Thesis

… Clinical Disorder

Clinical Psychology and Categorical Mental Disorders

Clinical psychology is a field constructed on the intent to treat disorders and dysfunctions and to promote mental health and stability in its subject. Therefore, it is centered on the processes of… [read more]

Humanistic Psychology Research Proposal

… Humanistic Psychology


Psychologists found that a Third Force filled the void left by earlier approaches to understanding the workings of the human mind in its pursuit of genuine fulfillment and personal happiness. This… [read more]

Depression and Addictive Behavior Thesis

… Depression and Addictive Behavior

Double Cruel Hand

Comobid Conditions

Contemporary, Challenging Concerns Worldwide

Derangement of the Volition 7 Contemporary Addictions



Role of Cocaine Use in Depression

Clinical Techniques of Helping



Tried and True" Techniques


Points… [read more]

Human Interaction From a Psychology Perspective Thesis

… Psychology - Human Interaction


Human Behavior in Social Situations:

Human behavior reflects a complex interrelationship between elements of individual psychological development and external circumstances. In that regard, social situations involving other people is among the most significant external circumstances that influence the behavior of the individual. Normal psychological responses to social circumstances have the potential to be exploited and in the most extreme examples, may produce a social psychosis capable of transforming a society entirely.

Experiments into the Impact of Perceived Deferred Responsibility:

Stanley Milgram conducted an infamous series of experiments before the era where ethical guidelines prohibited certain types of experiments capable of traumatizing participants (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). The experimental design consisted of a mock laboratory in which volunteers believed they were assisting an experimenter conduct a study on human learning. In reality, the purpose of the experiment was to determine the limits of deference to authority.

Specifically, participants believed they were administering painful electric shocks to unseen subjects as a punishment for providing incorrect responses to test questions.

Many of the participants continued administering what they believed to be extremely painful shocks to subjects who screamed out in apparent pain and demanded to be released fro the experiment. Any appeals on behalf of the hidden subjects were met with verbal assurance fro official-looking experimenters dressed in white lab coats that they and not the study participants were fully responsible for any resulting harm to the supposed study subjects. Years later, even the participants expressed their own surprise and disappointment that they were capable of ignoring their own consciences by virtue of assurances that someone in higher authority was responsible for their actions (Macionis 2003).

The Significance of the Phenomenon of Deference to Authority:

In principle, the Milgram experiments demonstrated the degree to which normal individuals are susceptible to blind obedience and deference to authority. The implications of the experiment were that large-scale incidents of societal atrocities such as witnessed in connection with Nazi ideology during World War II are functions of normal human psychology rather than to a pathological psychosis as many had suggested previously (Henslin 2002)

While most individuals are susceptible to elements of this principle, different people vary substantially in their resistance to following directions that violate their sense of morality and their perception of the distinction between right and wrong. In that respect, higher levels of self-esteem are associated with greater psychological independence (Branden 1999). The Stanford Prison Experiment and the Impact of Social Situations and Groupthink:

In 1970, Stanford University Psychology professor Phillip Zimbardo conducted an experiment known as the Stanford Prison Experiment (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005) in which he randomly assigned student-participants to be either "prison guards" or "prisoners" in a jail that he set up in the basement of the Psychology building on the Stanford campus. Whereas the subjects in the Milgram experiments received verbal instructions and encouragement from individuals they perceived to be authority figures, Zimbardo provided no specific instructions to his… [read more]

Child Psychology Child Development Term Paper

… Child Psychology

Child development is a constantly changing psycho/social discipline with almost countless theories associated with it. The fundamental nature of children and how they develop to become either successful adults or unsuccessful adults to varying degrees is the essential… [read more]

Abnormal Psychology: OCD Diagnosis and Treatment Term Paper

… Abnormal Psychology: OCD Diagnosis and Treatment

In this case, the reader is asked to evaluate the case of "Jake," who has an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) which has reemerged after the birth of his child. Jake grew up in a relatively… [read more]

Mental Illness: What's in a Label? Term Paper

… Mental Illness: What's in a Label?

In a civil society, everyone is expected to adhere to certain set of "norms." Those that do not adhere to the prescribed norms are labeled and abnormal. Public knowledge about mental illness is at… [read more]

Psychology to Me, the Most Interesting Thing Term Paper

… Psychology

To me, the most interesting thing about psychology is the deeper understanding of people that can be found with it. I know that people are very complex and psychology does not give all the answers, but it gives such insight into human behavior, and that is something that I find very fascinating. Human beings are not only interesting, but they can be charming, frightening, dangerous, confused, and a thousand other things. Because of this, it seems as though it is important to understand why people do what they do. While this does not mean that the problems that people cause for themselves and others can be prevented, it does appear that a greater understanding of humanity would be very beneficial in determining the cause of some behaviors and therefore looking for ways to stop or at least understand the behaviors.

In a beginning psychology course, I would not expect to learn a really in-depth study of people and why they act the way they do. Instead, I would…… [read more]

Psychology of Criminals in Correctional Facilities Term Paper

… Psychology of Criminals in Correctional Facilities

This paper will analyze the psychology of criminal behavior. Specifically, it will assess the psychology of criminals in correctional facilities, assessing the mental status of criminals before entering correctional facilities and the training and resulting mental status of prisoners on release. The research will attempt to define whether any connections exist between an offender's personal background, such as age, sex, finances or family and rates of psychological impairment of mental illness resulting from their incarceration.

The paper will also provide statistical facts and figures linking mental and psychological illness with correctional facilities in an attempt to define the types of and causes for psychological and mental illness in criminals on release. Further, the paper will assess the psyche of offenders who commit crimes as they are released, including an overview of the psyche of those who would prefer to go back to jail compared with those who seek redemption or rehabilitation. To answer these questions and analyze these problems, the researcher will compare and contrast these issues using a person who is granted parole vs. one who is on probation. The results of the study will show whether probation is always the best answer for someone scarred with a mental illness resulting from their incarceration.


Pustilnik (2005) provides some of the most comprehensive research on the effects of prison or incarceration on the mind, especially with respect to mental illness resulting from incarceration. In fact, the researcher presents many of the questions the author attempts to answer, with scientific research providing detailed analysis of mental illness in criminal justice and resulting from incarceration. Pustilnik (2005) hypothesizes that confinement within correctional institutions may create "intangible social value" when criminals are taught personal responsibility. However, the author also notes that reform typically is only possible among criminals who feel remorse (p. 217) and among criminals who receive therapeutic assistance while incarcerated to address mental illness as it occurs in the correctional facility. For purposes of this paper and analysis, remorse may include feelings an offender has including guilt or an obligation to correct their actions after committing an offense. There is ample evidence that some criminals have remorse while others do not. The psychology supporting this is simple. Criminal confinement reinforces norms that equate to responsibility and reinforce one's social value in society, and provide social meaning for and a context for living a just and respectable life (Pustilnik, 2005).

With respect to mental illness, Pustilnik (2005), like many researchers before note (Lawrence, 1987), most criminals incarcerated have a predisposition to or suffer from some mental illness that may not be addressed on incarceration. The effects of incarceration often include a worsening of symptoms, preventing those on probation from leading normal lives unless their lives are strictly regulated (Gutterman, 2000). Statistics suggest that as much as 40% of those who are mentally ill are incarcerated not because they have committed so great an offense they deserve punishment, but rather because they are mentally ill, and… [read more]

Relation of Nonverbal Behavior to Client Reactions Term Paper

… Psychology of Nonverbal Behavior and Therapy Client Reactions

For therapists, developing a clear sense of their clients' reactions to therapy, whether positive or negative, is a crucial component in improving the quality of the therapy provided. One of the more… [read more]

Psychotherapy Comparing it to Behavior Therapy Term Paper

… Psychology

Psychotherapy vs. Behavior Therapy

Psychotherapy is a form of therapy that helps treat mental and behavioral disorders by talking about these disorders with a professional trained in mental health and psychotherapy. The therapy can be one-on-one or group oriented. Often, participants just call it "therapy' (Editors, 2006). Psychotherapy can help an individual deal with emotional issues, such as anger or aggression, and it helps understand relationships and reactions to people and situations, as well. Often, psychotherapy does not last a long time, and participants can choose when they feel they have gotten enough results from their therapy. Psychotherapy can help people deal with negative behaviors, but it also teaches them to set realistic goals, enjoy life, and solve problems effectively.

Behavior therapy, on the other hand, treats mental and behavioral disorders by attempting to teach alternate or acceptable behaviors to replace the disruptive or destructive behaviors. For example, an overly aggressive person may undergo behavior therapy to address their anger and dangerous behavior toward others. By changing their behaviors, they hope to…… [read more]

Psychology Cognitive Term Paper

… Cognitive Psychology


The different theories of famous psychologists Sigmund Freud, Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow all can be used to interpret and analyze certain characteristics and human behavior. In the example provided, John's anxious, frustrated and overly critical behavior as well as his lack of self-discipline and failure to plan ahead can be analyzed to support different explanations under the theories of Freud, Rogers and Maslow. This paper will explain his behavior under the contrasting views of psychodynamic theory, humanistic theory and social cognitive learning theory.

Maslow's theory is a theory of human motivation, which centers on the theory of "physiological needs." Maslow believed that if left to their own devices, animals will tend to eat and drink things that are good for them, and consume them in balanced proportions, with basic food and shelter needs at the bottom, and self-actualization at the top. Maslow's theory hinged upon the notion of self-concept, and the basic core idea that anything that helps an individual develop a better sense of self will be motivating. As related to the theory of human motivation all people have a need or desire for a stable, formally based, high evaluation of themselves, for self-respect, self-esteem, and respect from others. By firmly-based self-esteem, Maslow's theory was that which is based upon real capacity, achievement and respect from others. Under Maslow's theory, John's behavior can best be explained as follows. He fails to plan ahead because such things fall to the bottom of his list of what is important. He is overly critical because he is constantly seeking a better sense of his own self, and through criticizing others, he is able to develop a better sense of his self-worth. H is excessively anxious and lacks self-discipline because he has a continuous desire to seek self-respect, self-esteem and respect from others, and is always working toward achieving this.

Unlike Maslow's theory, Roger's theory is a clinical theory, in which he states that…… [read more]

Continuity of Mental Health Care for Mexican Americans With Schizophrenia Term Paper

… ¶ … Mental-Health Care for Mexican-Americans with Schizophrenia

What specific topic or subject area do you propose to explore?

Schizophrenia is a devastating mental illness that affects more than 2 million Americans and one percent of the world's population. Though… [read more]

Anxiety, or "Stress," May Be Chronic (Trait Term Paper

… Anxiety, or "stress," may be chronic (trait anxiety) or temporary (state anxiety) and is often triggered by life events brought on by uncontrolled circumstances or created by the stressor. (Garnefski, 2001) Anxiety and panic disorders affect an estimated 2.4 million Americans. Panic attacks are twice as common in women as in men. (Hitti, 2006)

Short-term stress doesn't have the same effect as long-term stress, as the following study shows. Being stressed out for long periods of time may increase anxiety. A study published in Behavior Neuroscience, lays some of the responsibility on stress hormones, cortisol and corticotripin-releasing hormone, to help the body respond to threats. But if these hormones remain in any measure in the body over a long period of time, they can increase anxiety and mood disorders. The research, done by Paul Ardayfio, BSC, a graduate student in molecular neurobiology at Harvard Medical School and Boston's McLean Hospital, studied female mice, to find out how chronic stress affects mood disorders. Corticosterone, a stress hormone was induced orally for 17 or 18 days to female mice, mimicking long-term exposure to the stress hormone. The control group received the spiked water only for the first day.

The mice got two tests, without any training: In the first test, the group that was allowed long-term exposure to the hormone was more hesitant to enter a well-lighted, exposed space after having been in a dark part of the cage. The researchers interpreted the hesitancy as anxiety. (Hitti, 2006)

In the second test, the mice were exposed to high-frequency sound. Mice under long-term exposure to corticosterone had a dulled reaction to the sound the first 10 times they heard it. This was interpreted as depression.

The study suggests that long-term stress may lead the one under stress to dimming reactions, depression and being less prepared to handle additional stress. Hesitancy to act (anxiety) and little reaction to additional stress (depression) appear to be the result of long-term stress.

Another study, published in Science, on July 17, 2003, describes variations in a gene called 5-HTT, which regulates levels of serotonin, a brain chemical. People with short versions of this gene were more likely to develop depression and suicidal tendencies in response to life stresses than people with a long version of the gene, according to Avshalom Caspi, MD. It is evident that a person's response to life is altered by his or her genetic makeup. Although the 5-HTT gene may not be directly associated with depression, it could moderate the amount of serotonin released in response to stress, he writes. (2003)

In their study, Caspi and colleagues followed 847 children, born in the early 1970s, from birth to adulthood. Genetic studies showed that 17% had two copies of the stress-sensitive short version; 31% had two copies of the protective long version, and 51% had one copy of each version.

The researchers charted stressful life events as the children grew up - from ages 21 to 26 - such as employment, financial, housing, health, and… [read more]

Humanistic Psychology the Current Manifestations Term Paper

… ¶ … Manifestations of Humanistic Psychology

Humanistic Psychology as practiced today can be divided roughly into three large categories of activities. A large mainstream group of humanistic psychotherapists, who subscribe to existential theories and use a variety of methods, work… [read more]

History of Psychology Term Paper

… ¶ … History of Psychology

In many ways, the history of psychology can be said to have come 'full circle,' from its early attributions of human behavior to purely biological causes, to psychoanalysis' stress upon the relationship of the mind's ability to control the body, to today's modern use of psychopharmacology to use chemicals to modify human behavior. However, the modern use of psychology is more often scientifically rather than anecdotally based -- the 19th century theorist Sigmund Freud developed his theory of human psychological development from a few case studies, which would not satisfy today's more rigorous demands of scientific objectivity and the need for results to be quantified, regarding client treatment. (Myers, p. 46)

In Freud's day, however, psychology did aspire to some form of scientific validity. Doctors tended to view the human mind as affected by biological complaints such as a 'wandering womb,' that produced hysteria in females. But Freud believed that human behavior could be explained by probing the inner psyche, or unconscious through the analysis of dreams, slips of the tongue, and patient resistance to certain ideas. (Myers, p. 568) Psychoanalysis, the therapy developed by Freud, attempted to give clients insight by bringing them into a state of personal, conscious awareness by interpreting previously repressed feelings. (Myers, p. 568)

However, later theorists were more apt…… [read more]

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