"Psychology / Behavior / Psychiatry" Essays

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Psychology Briefly Describe the Differences Among Positive Term Paper

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Psychology

Briefly describe the differences among positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment. Give examples of how each might be used to influence behavior.

Positive reinforcement refers to a reward given for behavior that is desirable. For example, if a dog performs a trick on command the owner might offer a cookie. Parents might offer positive reinforcement for their kids' good grades by raising their allowance or taking them out to dinner. Negative reinforcement involves behavioral training using aversion techniques, used also to encourage a desirable behavior. For example, the parents refused to give their kids any allowance money unless they brought home good grades, or made the child do the dishes every day until they brought home an "A." Punishment, on the other hand, refers to behavioral conditioning using a negative stimulus in order to discourage undesirable behavior. For example, if a child comes home with an "F" on his or her report card the parents might punish him or her by grounding or withholding allowance money.

2. With regard to needs, how do men and women different in needs for affiliation and power?

Some research shows that men and women differ in terms of their needs for affiliation and power. It is possible that men need to feel more powerful and therefore seek positions of power and control, while women need more to be affiliated with power. Some women are attracted to men who are powerful. This may be due to evolutionary needs.

3. Briefly describe what is meant by nature vs. nurture debate in psychology. Discuss what position most developmental psychologists take on this debate and give an example of a developmental process…… [read more]


Buddhist Psychology Term Paper

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Buddhist Psychology

Compared to Western Psychology, what are the characteristic features Buddhist approaches to the mind? To what extent can these fruitfully interact?

Psychologist Daniel Goleman sums up one of the central disparities in the different views of mind between Buddhism and Western thought. He states:

It seems that one of the biggest gaps that must be crossed between the… [read more]


History of Psychology Term Paper

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¶ … History of Psychology

In many ways, the history of psychology can be said to have come 'full circle,' from its early attributions of human behavior to purely biological causes, to psychoanalysis' stress upon the relationship of the mind's ability to control the body, to today's modern use of psychopharmacology to use chemicals to modify human behavior. However, the modern use of psychology is more often scientifically rather than anecdotally based -- the 19th century theorist Sigmund Freud developed his theory of human psychological development from a few case studies, which would not satisfy today's more rigorous demands of scientific objectivity and the need for results to be quantified, regarding client treatment. (Myers, p. 46)

In Freud's day, however, psychology did aspire to some form of scientific validity. Doctors tended to view the human mind as affected by biological complaints such as a 'wandering womb,' that produced hysteria in females. But Freud believed that human behavior could be explained by probing the inner psyche, or unconscious through the analysis of dreams, slips of the tongue, and patient resistance to certain ideas. (Myers, p. 568) Psychoanalysis, the therapy developed by Freud, attempted to give clients insight by bringing them into a state of personal, conscious awareness by interpreting previously repressed feelings. (Myers, p. 568)

However, later theorists were more apt…… [read more]


Child Clinical Psychology Research Paper

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Child Psychology

Child Clinical Psychology

Clinical child psychology as a practice field directly addresses the mental health needs of children and their families by providing professional services that seek to improve the effects of life events when these experiences dispute the anticipated course of development. The main role of clinical child psychologists is to provide therapeutic services for the wide… [read more]


Humanistic Psychology the Current Manifestations Term Paper

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¶ … Manifestations of Humanistic Psychology

Humanistic Psychology as practiced today can be divided roughly into three large categories of activities. A large mainstream group of humanistic psychotherapists, who subscribe to existential theories and use a variety of methods, work to help people who are in pain. Another group that specializes in self-actualization is concerned with helping individuals discover who… [read more]


Psychology of Learning Summarize a Classic Experiment A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  2 pages (987 words)
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Psychology of Learning

Summarize a classic experiment in the Psychology of Learning.

One of the most interesting and profound experiments in all of psychology must be the Ivan Pavlov's work with the conditioning of dog's. Nearly every source surveyed makes some humorous reference to Pavlov and his dog experiments. For example, the official site of the Nobel Prize, an award that Pavlov himself won was awarded, titles an introductory section "Pavlov's drooling dogs" (Prize, 2001). His eeliest work was not dedicated on understanding behavior. Rather he worked to understand how the digestive system worked in mammals and used canines as subjects. Pavlov actually kind of stumbled on his behavioral work by noting that the dogs did not always salivate when expected. He later realized that it was the lab coat that was triggering the dog's response to salivate.

After noticing the response the dogs had to the lab coats somewhat by chance, Pavlov set out to further understand the signals that triggered the salivation of the responses of the dogs. Pavlov used a bell as a trigger which was timed in conjunction with the dogs regular feeding. The normal feedings would naturally trigger saliva to ooze from the dogs respective glands. However, after enough time had passed, the dogs would salivate with the sound of the bell alone with no food in sight. Pavlov's experiment is considered one of the "classic' experiments in psychology because it opened the door for a new way to study behavior.

2. Define CS, U.S., UR, and CR. Explain how advertisers can use classical conditioning to give consumers a positive feeling about their product and how they could use classical conditioning to give consumers a negative feeling about other products.

Unconditioned Stimulus -- this means that without any learning, a stimulus can elicit a reflex (Experiment Resouirces, N.d.). For example, in Pavlov's experiment it was the dog's food that served as the unconditional stimulus.

Unconditioned Response -- is the response to a stimulus that requires no learning. Again, in Pavlov's experiment, the unconditioned response was the drooling of the dogs which required no learning on their part since this is a natural phenomenon.

Conditioned Stimulus -- this is the artificial stimulus that is paired with the U.S. that has the potential to eventually lead to a conditioned response; this requires learning. In Pavlov's experiment, the conditioned stimulus was the bell.

Conditioned Response -- this is the response that is generated through learning to the conditioned stimulus. In this case the U.S. can no longer be present and the subject has learned the conditioned response to the conditioned stimulus. In the experiment it was the dog's reacting solely to the bell being rung.

An advertisement for a Vodka brand was found to illustrate what effects conditioning can have on consumers. In the ad an attractive female is positioned behind a clear vodka bottle. Behind the bottle there is an image of a snake that does not appear anywhere else…… [read more]


Anxiety, or "Stress," May Be Chronic (Trait Term Paper

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Anxiety, or "stress," may be chronic (trait anxiety) or temporary (state anxiety) and is often triggered by life events brought on by uncontrolled circumstances or created by the stressor. (Garnefski, 2001) Anxiety and panic disorders affect an estimated 2.4 million Americans. Panic attacks are twice as common in women as in men. (Hitti, 2006)

Short-term stress doesn't have the same effect as long-term stress, as the following study shows. Being stressed out for long periods of time may increase anxiety. A study published in Behavior Neuroscience, lays some of the responsibility on stress hormones, cortisol and corticotripin-releasing hormone, to help the body respond to threats. But if these hormones remain in any measure in the body over a long period of time, they can increase anxiety and mood disorders. The research, done by Paul Ardayfio, BSC, a graduate student in molecular neurobiology at Harvard Medical School and Boston's McLean Hospital, studied female mice, to find out how chronic stress affects mood disorders. Corticosterone, a stress hormone was induced orally for 17 or 18 days to female mice, mimicking long-term exposure to the stress hormone. The control group received the spiked water only for the first day.

The mice got two tests, without any training: In the first test, the group that was allowed long-term exposure to the hormone was more hesitant to enter a well-lighted, exposed space after having been in a dark part of the cage. The researchers interpreted the hesitancy as anxiety. (Hitti, 2006)

In the second test, the mice were exposed to high-frequency sound. Mice under long-term exposure to corticosterone had a dulled reaction to the sound the first 10 times they heard it. This was interpreted as depression.

The study suggests that long-term stress may lead the one under stress to dimming reactions, depression and being less prepared to handle additional stress. Hesitancy to act (anxiety) and little reaction to additional stress (depression) appear to be the result of long-term stress.

Another study, published in Science, on July 17, 2003, describes variations in a gene called 5-HTT, which regulates levels of serotonin, a brain chemical. People with short versions of this gene were more likely to develop depression and suicidal tendencies in response to life stresses than people with a long version of the gene, according to Avshalom Caspi, MD. It is evident that a person's response to life is altered by his or her genetic makeup. Although the 5-HTT gene may not be directly associated with depression, it could moderate the amount of serotonin released in response to stress, he writes. (2003)

In their study, Caspi and colleagues followed 847 children, born in the early 1970s, from birth to adulthood. Genetic studies showed that 17% had two copies of the stress-sensitive short version; 31% had two copies of the protective long version, and 51% had one copy of each version.

The researchers charted stressful life events as the children grew up - from ages 21 to 26 - such as employment, financial, housing, health, and… [read more]


Continuity of Mental Health Care for Mexican Americans With Schizophrenia Term Paper

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¶ … Mental-Health Care for Mexican-Americans with Schizophrenia

What specific topic or subject area do you propose to explore?

Schizophrenia is a devastating mental illness that affects more than 2 million Americans and one percent of the world's population. Though some studies have speculated that diagnoses of schizophrenia is significantly more frequent in minority populations, it has recently been found… [read more]


Psychology Cognitive Term Paper

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Cognitive Psychology

COMPARISON of FREUD, ROGERS & MASLOW

The different theories of famous psychologists Sigmund Freud, Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow all can be used to interpret and analyze certain characteristics and human behavior. In the example provided, John's anxious, frustrated and overly critical behavior as well as his lack of self-discipline and failure to plan ahead can be analyzed to support different explanations under the theories of Freud, Rogers and Maslow. This paper will explain his behavior under the contrasting views of psychodynamic theory, humanistic theory and social cognitive learning theory.

Maslow's theory is a theory of human motivation, which centers on the theory of "physiological needs." Maslow believed that if left to their own devices, animals will tend to eat and drink things that are good for them, and consume them in balanced proportions, with basic food and shelter needs at the bottom, and self-actualization at the top. Maslow's theory hinged upon the notion of self-concept, and the basic core idea that anything that helps an individual develop a better sense of self will be motivating. As related to the theory of human motivation all people have a need or desire for a stable, formally based, high evaluation of themselves, for self-respect, self-esteem, and respect from others. By firmly-based self-esteem, Maslow's theory was that which is based upon real capacity, achievement and respect from others. Under Maslow's theory, John's behavior can best be explained as follows. He fails to plan ahead because such things fall to the bottom of his list of what is important. He is overly critical because he is constantly seeking a better sense of his own self, and through criticizing others, he is able to develop a better sense of his self-worth. H is excessively anxious and lacks self-discipline because he has a continuous desire to seek self-respect, self-esteem and respect from others, and is always working toward achieving this.

Unlike Maslow's theory, Roger's theory is a clinical theory, in which he states that…… [read more]


Psychology of Criminals in Correctional Facilities Term Paper

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Psychology of Criminals in Correctional Facilities

This paper will analyze the psychology of criminal behavior. Specifically, it will assess the psychology of criminals in correctional facilities, assessing the mental status of criminals before entering correctional facilities and the training and resulting mental status of prisoners on release. The research will attempt to define whether any connections exist between an offender's personal background, such as age, sex, finances or family and rates of psychological impairment of mental illness resulting from their incarceration.

The paper will also provide statistical facts and figures linking mental and psychological illness with correctional facilities in an attempt to define the types of and causes for psychological and mental illness in criminals on release. Further, the paper will assess the psyche of offenders who commit crimes as they are released, including an overview of the psyche of those who would prefer to go back to jail compared with those who seek redemption or rehabilitation. To answer these questions and analyze these problems, the researcher will compare and contrast these issues using a person who is granted parole vs. one who is on probation. The results of the study will show whether probation is always the best answer for someone scarred with a mental illness resulting from their incarceration.

Analysis

Pustilnik (2005) provides some of the most comprehensive research on the effects of prison or incarceration on the mind, especially with respect to mental illness resulting from incarceration. In fact, the researcher presents many of the questions the author attempts to answer, with scientific research providing detailed analysis of mental illness in criminal justice and resulting from incarceration. Pustilnik (2005) hypothesizes that confinement within correctional institutions may create "intangible social value" when criminals are taught personal responsibility. However, the author also notes that reform typically is only possible among criminals who feel remorse (p. 217) and among criminals who receive therapeutic assistance while incarcerated to address mental illness as it occurs in the correctional facility. For purposes of this paper and analysis, remorse may include feelings an offender has including guilt or an obligation to correct their actions after committing an offense. There is ample evidence that some criminals have remorse while others do not. The psychology supporting this is simple. Criminal confinement reinforces norms that equate to responsibility and reinforce one's social value in society, and provide social meaning for and a context for living a just and respectable life (Pustilnik, 2005).

With respect to mental illness, Pustilnik (2005), like many researchers before note (Lawrence, 1987), most criminals incarcerated have a predisposition to or suffer from some mental illness that may not be addressed on incarceration. The effects of incarceration often include a worsening of symptoms, preventing those on probation from leading normal lives unless their lives are strictly regulated (Gutterman, 2000). Statistics suggest that as much as 40% of those who are mentally ill are incarcerated not because they have committed so great an offense they deserve punishment, but rather because they are mentally ill, and… [read more]


Ethical Issues in Family Research Paper

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Family marriage and therapy and is more than just a new technique or excellent treatment technique - it comprises a whole tolerant of human behavior and the conceptualization of problems (Scher, 2012). Despite the fact all of the helping professions share a shared heritage, there are vital theoretical and methodological changes that need moral codes of behavior and consecutive training… [read more]


Structural Therapy Positive Psychology (PP) Literature Review Chapter

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Structural Therapy

Positive Psychology (PP) and Structural Family Therapy (SFT): A Literature Review

Abelsohn, D. & Saayman, G.S. (1991). Adolescent Adjustment to Parental Divorce: An Investigation from the Perspective of Basic Dimensions of Structural Family Therapy Theory. Family Process, 30(2), 177-191.

The study by Abelsohn & Saayman provides some empirical evidence of the need for Structural Family Therapy (SFT) for… [read more]


Sit-Down With an Experience Psychologist Term Paper

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This can lead to a quandary when trying to talk to the person in therapy because it's more of a relationship issue and/or a problem the other person has rather than something that is wrong with the person in the office. Even so, she said that it's still possible to gently nudge someone in the seemingly right direction without giving… [read more]


Organizational Psychology an Interesting Subfield Term Paper

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Organizational has now become a scientific discipline in its own right and is recognized as an invaluable tool within organizations.

Factors giving more credence to the discipline of Organizational Psychology in the 1980's and the 1990's were multiple (Christine, 2011). The 'economy was becoming increasingly globalized' (Christine, 2011). The 'demographics within the workforce were changing' (Christine, 2011). Temporary employees and contract employees were being utilized more frequently (Christine, 2011). Essentially, because of increasing awareness of the workforce and management the term "job" took on a new conception (Christine, 2011).

While Organizational Psychology was developing, so were other related disciplines such as Organizational Behavior and Social Psychology (Koppes and Pickren, No Date). Organizational Behavior is concerned with a number of factors, but what differentiates it from Organizational Psychology is that it is concerned with the structure and strategies of the organization itself (Jex, 2002). Social Psychology is obviously a related discipline but differs in that it does not limit its focus to individual behavior within organizations (Koppes and Pickren, No date). Thus, though many fields share commonalities with Organizational Psychology, they have variations which make them distinguishable.

An extremely important aspect of Organizational Psychology is its application of the scientific method in studying organizations (Jex, 2002) . In fact, research and statistics are so important to this field that some would argue that they should be a subset of the discipline itself (Jex, 2002). Without quantifiable research methods and results, this discipline would not exist and it is impossible to apply Organizational Psychology without a thorough understanding of statistics and scientific research methodology (Jex, 2002).

As Christine documented, the evolution of Organizational Psychology was steered by the cultural and industrial changes which occurred over a relatively short time span (Christine, 2011). However, one must also consider that there were numerous advances prior to the twentieth century which also contributed to its rise as a respected and necessary discipline (Koppes and Pickren, No date). It was this combination of knowledge which allowed for significant advances in this field (Koppes and Pickren, No date). These advances, as well as the significant changes in the twentieth century, led to the modern conception of Organizational Psychology which enhances the efficiency within organizations and therefore benefits all effected by those organizations, be they business organizations or non-business related organizations (Koppes and Pickren, No date).

References

Christine, J. (2011). History of Organizational Psychology. Retrieved December 21, 2012 from Slideshare.net website: http://www.slideshare.net/jeelchristine/history-of-organizational-psychology

Jex, S. (2002). Organizational Psychology: A scientist-Practitioner Approach. New York:

John Wiley & Sons

Koppes, L. And Pickren, W. ( No…… [read more]


Theoretical Perspective of the Biological Term Paper

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An individual nature is the vehicle by which one expresses his/her values and emotions to others (Coon & Mitterer, 2008). The human brain processes the four major biochemicals in different manner, and this mixture determines ones nature and personality. The chemical behavioral foundations comprise of hormones and neurotransmitters, which play a major role in interaction and nervous system's cells stimulation.… [read more]


Social Psychology Cognitive Dissonance Term Paper

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Social Psychology

Cognitive dissonance

This is the feeling that one has within them when they hold two conflicting feelings or thoughts within them at the same time. This usually highlights the importance of the subject within us. Dissonance is said to be strongest when we believe one thing within us and do directly the opposite. It is also said to… [read more]


Social Psychology Differ When Applied Term Paper

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For example in the Japanese culture the employees tend to identify themselves by the companies that they belong to rather than their own individual identities (Nakane, 1970)such as, if they meet someone instead of introducing themselves by talking about their position at the firm they will say that 'they belong to ABC firm' etc. In Japanese culture more importance is… [read more]


Social Psychology One Point Research Paper

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The current event is that the Chilean judges, who held office during Pinochet's brutal reign, came forward and apologized. Judges during Pinochet's rule, who had to have played a part in Pinochet's grip on power, publically apologized. They apologized publically to the victims during this military rule around the 40th anniversary of the coup that occurred in 1973 and brought nearly two decades of corruption and brutality to the Chilean people. No specific judge was quoted as the press statement was meant to reflect the words of all the judges coming forward to apologize. We may consider the judges as a body or group, distinctive from other public officials who came forward. In that sense, their actions and statements are individual.

This current event as an example could be a reflection of a change in social motives or the acquisition of new social motives. Or perhaps the social motives remained the same, but because time passed (forty years), then their perspectives on their social motives changed. For example, the social motives to cooperate and conform. In the 1970s, the judges may have felt the social motives to cooperate with Pinochet and conform to his changes. In the 2010s, the social motive to conform and cooperate may still be present, but the judges changed with whom they would like to cooperate with and to what standards they will conform. We live in a time when many people around the world are coming forward against the crimes of their governments and no longer remaining complicit in their participation in those crimes. We also live in a time where there is a lot of political and social violence between the people and government officials. The violence is brutal, and though the people suffer the worst of the injuries, those they fight do not always come away unscathed. Corrupt officials are going to prison, are getting humiliated via the press, and more, and sometimes worse.

In my profession, the need for affiliation is a social motivation is strong and present. It is a universal experience to know people or be a person who will do anything in the name of affiliation with a social group or other kind of formal group. This is a social motive I think I could use to predict some individual behaviors in my field, higher education.

References:

BBC. (2013). Chile's judges apologise after coup. BBC News, Web, Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-23967816. 2013 September 04.

Preserve Articles. (2013). Brief notes on Social Motives from psychological point-of-view. Preserve Articles, Web, Available from: http://www.preservearticles.com/201104165507/brief-notes-on-social-motives-from-psychological-point-of-view.html. 2013 September 03.… [read more]


Brain Dysfunction and Criminal Behavior Research Paper

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The frontal lobe is a very important part of the human brain because of its function not only in individual function of the body, but in terms of understanding social, legal, and moral rules and regulations within the society and disruption leads to misconduct and very often to criminal behaviors by the afflicted person which will end in tragedy. It is in this particular region of the brain where social morays are interpreted and the individual's ability to differentiation right and wrong is also located (Brower 2001,-page 720). Therefore, damage to this region of the brain either through congenital deformity or severe injury will logically impede the ability to understand right and wrong or also inhibit the ability to internalize social morays. If this particular part of the brain is damaged, then it will be difficult, if not impossible for the afflicted individual to conform to society's demands for behavior, but rather make the opposite situation far more likely.

There are physiological factors which can contribute to delinquency particularly in members of the youth population, such as mental retardation or psycho or sociopathy. However, most researchers agree that the most influential aspect of a child's life will be the psychological attitude in which it is raised (Shoemaker 2009,-page 95). Those who are raised in homes with violence or substance abuse are far more likely to descend into crime themselves than children who are reared in more functional homes. Children who are born into poor locations are more likely to commit robberies and to engage in gang-related criminality. One of the reasons behind this statistic, according to researchers, is that children who are raised in low income areas are more likely to have single-parent households and those adults are more likely to spend limited amounts of time in the house, either because of work hours or their own socialization. This means that their offspring have limited supervision. Without an adult telling their children what types of behavior are or are not appropriate, young people will very often get into trouble. Logically, those who engage in crime at a younger age will be more likely to engage in a lifetime of crime and be more resilient to rehabilitation.

Given the information currently available, it has been proven that dysfunction of the brain does indicate a high likelihood for criminal behavior. Individuals who have brain dysfunction, either through nature or accident should be monitored, particularly if they have indicated an interest in criminality. However, it must also be noted that a lack of brain dysfunction does not meant that the person will not become a criminal. The research is therefore important but by no means conclusive.

Works Cited

Brower, M.C. & Price, B.H. (2001). Neuropsychiatry of frontal lobe dysfunction in violent and criminal behavior: a critical review. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 71. 720-26.

Moskowitz, C. (2011). Criminal minds are different from yours, brain scans reveal. Live Science.

(2010, August 17). Secrets of Your Mind: the Brain and Violence [Web Video]. Retrieved… [read more]


Evolution of Cognitive Psychology as a Discipline Essay

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Evolution of Cognitive Psychology as a Discipline

The advancement of cognitive psychology since the era of Thomas Aquinas, who was the foremost person to divide behavior into two distinct areas; cognitive and affective has tremendously evolved. The lodging of research on the field provides practitioners a clear view of the subject matter. Cognitive psychology has been existent for centuries in diverse forms based on its defining culture (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). As science progressively gets sophisticated, numerous theories and beliefs have fallen aside in favor of more legitimate evidence towards contemporary developments in the discipline. Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes. During the nineteenth century, cognitive psychology became an emergent theme of concern in the discipline of psychology. This epoch saw numerous psychologists and scholars concentrate on the study of human behavior as it emanates from internal states such as moods, thoughts and feelings (Goldstein, 2008).

Cognition

Cognition is the method of obtaining, keeping, using and applying knowledge and intelligence. It is typically the science of knowing. Cognition means all the processes through which the sensory input goes under transformation, reduction, elaboration, storage, recovery, and eventual application. Cognition is inclusive of the processing of information (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). It slightly excludes emotions processing. Cognition inculcates all mental processes. For instance, gaining knowledge, comprehending, recalling, assuming, analytical problem solving, and perceiving are all components of cognition.

Cognitive psychologists examine behavior as an avenue to decipher the underlying mental activities, same to how physicists decipher the existent gravitational force referencing from object behaviors on earth. Studying mental activities covers a large ground. They include an understanding of languages, problem solving, remembrance, attention and making decisions as expounded.

Since time immemorial, cognitive psychologists have applied the above concept applying scientific methods as their fundamental tool. These researchers assume that the mind is a machine type from where they elucidate how the machine works internally. Thinking is a process that all people undertake daily. This makes cognitive psychology a pertinent discipline (Goldstein, 2008).

Such a comprehensive definition shows that cognition encompasses everything all human beings would do; all psychological experiences are cognitive experiences. Though cognitive psychology relates to all human activities rather than segments, the apprehension is that it originates from a specific point-of-view yet other viewpoints are overtly necessary and justifiable.

The Interdisciplinary Perspective & Emergence of Cognitive Psychology

Being an essential part of psychology as a whole, cognitive psychology is also a component of the general interdisciplinary discipline of cognitive science. Cognitive science is the cross-disciplinary examination of intellect and psyche. It appreciates various fields such as neuroscience, anthropology, linguistics, philosophy and psychology (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). These other fields have had a consummate influence on cognitive psychology as it has influenced them.

These disciplines apply cognition based on psychology. Cognitive psychology is the interdisciplinary field that scholars apply to understand the mind. Researchers derive their conclusions from experiments. All the related fields share the same factors such as memory, attention, thinking and linguistics. This makes cognitive psychology an… [read more]


Psychology Essay

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Both positive and cognitive psychology uses the scientific technique to clarify the association that is among reasoning and behavior. Meanwhile positive psychology could couple with any other methods, cognitive psychology has lived without argument for practically four periods (Sweetland, 2009). In the 21st century, progress and technology go hand-in-hand; as a result, the formation of artificial intelligence will probable outcome… [read more]


Criminal Behavior Has Been Practiced Term Paper

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Criminal behavior has been practiced for as long as one can recall. However, it would not be wrong to say that not much importance has been given to the forensic mental health assessment of the people who go for any acts that fall in the category of criminal behavior. When the word criminal behavior is mentioned, the first thing that… [read more]


Clinical Focused the Humanistic Psychology Essay

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He demonstrated his hypothesis and techniques via lecturing, teaching workshops, audiovisual recordings and live demonstrations. He developed the client-centered approach in between 1940. In the course of development of Rogerian theory, Rogers demonstrated that social learning is paramount in establishment of a good therapeutic environment. Through development of the Rogerian theory, Rogers ascertained that social transmission must be faithful enough, and requires clients to weed out their maladaptive culture through assessing their own conducts (Magnus, Kimmo & Stefano, 2007). His theory is subjective in temperament and requires psychologists to comprehend clients, their worldviews and experiences. The Rogerian theory postulates that an individual realizes his/her final potential when not blocked by environmental aspects as well as personal experiences. The objective of the Rogerian therapy is to permit patients to identify their sense of worth. Rogers's person-centered or client-centered approach continues to exert an important power on the psychotherapy and counseling world besides serving as a basis for the counseling profession (Kirschenbaum, 2004).

References

Carducci, B. (2009). The psychology of personality: Viewpoints, research and applications. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

DeRobertis, E. (2006). Deriving a humanistic theory of child development from the works of Carl.R. Rogers and Karen Horney. The Humanistic Psychologist, 34 (2), 177-199.

Fernald, P. (2002). Carl Rogers: Body-centered counselor. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78 (2), 172-178.

Kirschenbaum, H. (2004). Carl Roger's life and work: An assessment on the 100th Anniversary of his birth. Journal of Counseling and Development, 82 (1), 116-124.

Magnus, E., Kimmo, E., & Stefano, G.(2007). Critical social learning: A solution to Roger's paradox of nonadaptive culture. American Anthropologist, 109 (4), 727-734.

Thyler, B., Dulmus, C. (2012). Human behavior in the social environment: Theories…… [read more]


Biopsychological Approach? A Physiological Assumption Multiple Chapters

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What are the major underlying assumptions of physiological psychology? First, behavior is a result of physiological processes. Second, animal models of behavior can mimic or approximate the behavior of humans. Third, human behavior is inferred via a comparative method. Fourth, the understanding of neural control of behavior can be inferred from animal models (Pinel, 2012).

What effect do these assumptions have on psychology? Nearly every field of psychology now considers the neural mechanisms that are involved in behavior due to the influence of physiological psychology. The neural control behavior is considered to result from a combination of inherit or genetic factors as well as experience that influences neural development and neural proliferation (plasticity). The nature vs. nurture debate has been largely replaced by an interactive model (Pinel, 2011).

What are some techniques or research methods used to examine the link between the brain and behavior?

Experiments are used to determine causal inferences in biological psychology. Much of the experimental research is performed on animals as ethical issues in stunning brain damage or performing brain surgery on humans for research purposes can arise, but simple noninvasive experiments are also performed on human participants. Quasi-experimental studies investigate biological foundations of behavior in intact groups of people such as people with brain damage or some other condition. Case studies focus on a single participant and are often used for rare and unusual conditions. Correlational research cannot infer cause but can look at associations between variables of interest to biological psychologists (Pinel, 2011).

What are some findings in biological psychology that can result or have resulted from these techniques or research methods?

Experimental studies of animals have identified key areas of the brain involved in addictive behaviors. Quasi-experimental studies with alcoholics have investigated how intellectual functions are affected by chronic alcohol use. Case studies of people with rare types of color blindness or aphasia have indicated the brain areas are involved in these functions. Correlational research has been able to identify risk factors for certain things like addictions, certain brain diseases, and other behaviors (Pinel, 2011).

References

Pinel, J. (2011). Biopsychology 8th ed.). Boston: Allyn and…… [read more]


Psychology Theories of Personality Focus Essay

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Erikson presented eight different stages of personality growth and development. These included the infancy stage, where a person develops trust. The second stage is between ages one and three. At this stage, the individual develops autonomy, and if not, shame and doubt. Therefore, these early stages roughly correspond with Sigmund Freud's notions of how individuals develop shame and doubt feelings early in their psychosocial development. The way the person moves through these stages is shaped by the environmental factors, and then influences the personality.

Social learning theory was presented by Alfred Bandura. Alfred Bandura's social learning theory focuses on learning, just as the behaviorists did. However, unlike the behaviorists, Bandura's social learning theory suggests that people develop their personality as they watch others. For example, a child learns his or her behaviors from observing parents and older siblings. Bandura borrowed directly from some of the behaviorism ideas such as positive and negative reinforcement. Because Bandura was concerned more with outward expressions of personality such as behaviors, his theory is closer to behaviorism than to psychodynamic personality theories. But because social learning theory is based on social interactions more than anything else, it stands alone as a personality theory.

Humanistic personality theories are holistic in nature. Instead of reducing an individual to behaviors or measurable outcomes, the humanistic psychologist looks at the whole person. Carl Rogers was a humanistic psychologists, who believed that personality was related to the development of the person's self-image. Maslow's theory of self-actualization is a representative of humanistic personality theory. Maslow suggested that people are motivated by a need for self-actualization and finding meaning in life. This is also related to existential psychological theories of personality.

Finally, evolutionary personality theory is unique in that it encompasses a wider range of ideas than psychodynamic theory, Freudian theory of personality, humanistic, or behavioral personality theories. Evolutionary personality theory is the newest of all the personality theories. It is focused on broad patterns in human expressions and behaviors and explains personality in terms of why these phenomenon occur. Looking cross-culturally, evolutionary personality theory can show ways a person develops in relationship to the environment, culture, and other people. It is not like any of the other personality theories, but is as holistic as humanistic theories of personality.

References

Cherry, K. (n.d.). Theories of Personality. About.com. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologystudyguides/a/personalitysg_3.htm

McLeod, S. (2007). Psychodynamic approach. Simply Psychology. Retrieved online: http://www.simplypsychology.org/psychodynamic.html

"Psychodynamic Theories of Personality," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://explorable.com/psychodynamic-theories-of-personality.html… [read more]


Coaching Color Psychology Term Paper

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Research on color psychology shows that coaching clients will respond to stimuli. For example, marketers use color regularly to alter consumer behavior. The same principles used in marketing can be applied to life coaching.

References

Adams, F.M. & Osgood, C.E. (1973). A cross-cultural study of the affective meanings of color. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 4(2): 135-156.

Bellizzi J.A., Crowley, A.E. & Hasty, R.W. (1983). The effects of color in store design. Journal of Retailing 59(1).

Cherry, K. (2012). Color psychology: How colors impact moods, feelings, and behaviors. About.com. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/sensationandperception/a/colorpsych.htm

"Color Psychology: The Emotional Effects of Colors," (2012). Art Therapy. Retrieved online: http://www.arttherapyblog.com/online/color-psychology-psychologica-effects-of-colors/#.UIruWGn-vZw

"Color Psychology to Empower and Inspire You," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.empower-yourself-with-color-psychology.com/

Elliot, A.J. & Maier, M.A. (2007). Color and psychological functioning. Current Decisions in Psychological Sciences 16(5): 250-254.

Johnson, D. (2012). Color psychology: Do different colors affect your mood? Infoplease. Retrieved online: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/colors1.html

"Lesson 5: Color Psychology," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.uvsc.edu/disted/decourses/dgm/2740/IN/steinja/lessons/05/l05_08.html

Singh, S. (2006). Impact of color on marketing. Management Decision 44(6):783 -- 789

Stone, N.J. (2001). Designing effective study environments. Journal of Environmental Psychology 21(2): 179-190.… [read more]


Sociopath or Psychopath Psychology Term Paper

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Family nurture does play a vital role. In addition to the family environment, the other very strong social force is the culture from which a person belongs to. Researches have pointed out that the incidence of psychopath and sociopath individuals is much higher in United States of America than in Japan. The reasons of these varying percentages of psychopaths and sociopaths are quite contingent on the culture they are part of. In Japanese culture, the family members share a tight bond with each other and there is lot of love and respect for one another. In contrary, higher percentages of American family consists of single parents who raise their kids alone. The negative influence of being part of a single parent family does influence the child and may enforce his or her negative behavior.

Conclusion

This paper has briefly identified some obvious differences that exist between a psychopath and a sociopath. However, both the disorders are opposite sides of the coin, but the root causes that are behind these personality disorders are different. Psychopath is a person who is born with a disorder while a sociopath person definitely has a history of lack of socialization and other social factors. In addition to this, the social forces present in the environment as well as the nature do play a vital role in making of these individuals. In fact, their presence condition can be improved or worsen due to the social variables present in the environment. Psychologists often a With reference to the material and text presented in this paper, and the personal insight that I have developed while researching for this topic, I would like to share my personal experience too. I was labeled as a psychopath while I was serving in the military. I was diagnosed with PSTD, an abbreviation of Post-traumatic stress disorder, MM, Bi polar and others that I wish not to disclose. My point of arguments is that all the disorders I have just mentioned, of which of was diagnosed of, tend to run concurrently and often overlap. For example, many symptoms of PSTD are similar to that of a psychopath. Through medications and therapy, I know today that I am as healthy, both physically and mentally as any other normal person. My basic argument is that it is very difficult to differentiate between a psychotic people from a non-psychotic one. Psychologists should work on drawing a clear line that can help them to differentiate between the two of them, rather than jumping conclusions at once.

References

Hare, R.D. (1993). Without conscience: The disturbing world of the psychopaths among us. New York: The Guilford Press.

Lykken, D.T. (1995). The antisocial personalities. New Jersey: Library of CongressCataloging-in-Publication data.

Pescosolido, B.A., Martin, J.K., McLeod, J.D., & Rogers, A. (2011). Handbook of the sociology of health, illness, and healing. London: Springer.

Psychopath vs. sociopath. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.diffen.com/difference/Psychopath_vs_Sociopath… [read more]


Mind and Behaviour Investigators Essay

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Contingent problems of qualitative interviews are those which may or may not be issues depending on whether attention is given to certain aspects of the study. These types of problems include the interviewer being deleted from the interpretation of findings, flaws in how the interactions are represented, how specific observations are, not knowing how interviews are set up, and sometimes failure to see the interview situation as an interaction (Potter & Hepburn, 2005). These are widespread problems that are found commonly throughout research based on qualitative interviews, and psychological research in general could be drastically improved by correcting these problems (Potter & Hepburn, 2005). Potter & Hepburn (2005) suggest that a starting point toward correcting these problems would be for researchers to acknowledge the presence of these issues and in turn justify why certain components of the qualitative interviews are used and how they contribute to improved execution of the study.

The other category of problems in qualitative psychological research noted by Potter & Hepburn (2005) is necessary problems, those that are inherent to the interview process. These problems include the interview being flooded by social science agendas, the dominance asserted by the interviewer and interviewee, potential personal agendas on the behalf of the interviewer and interviewee, as well as cognitivism being reproduced (Potter & Hepburn, 2005). Since these problems are inherent to the interview process, they cannot be eliminated, and instead must be avoided as much as possible by consciously designing and conducting interviews with these potential problems in mind. The impact of these problems could be limited and reduced by effectively crafting introductions to interviews, questions, and analyzing responses without losing sight of the possible interference caused by necessary problems.

References

Potter, J. & Hepburn, A. (2005). Qualitative interviews in psychology: problems and possibilities. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 2, 1-27.

Stanovich,…… [read more]


Psychological Disorders Word Count (Excluding Essay

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His conclusions have been influential in the field of psychiatry. He recommended greater education and renewed efforts in diagnoses, labeling, and treatment approaches.

Second Assignment

Psychophysiological Disorder Chapter 14, p.485; Webpage: http://www.slideshare.net/dennis43/psychophysiological-disorders-thomas-g-bowers-phd

Psychophysiological disorders are conditions where the emotional or psychological state of the patient can cause or make worse physical symptoms or disease. Unlike hypochondria, a psychological disorder whereas the patient perceives illness, pain, or symptoms that do not actually exist, psychophysiological disorders produce physical harm to the body. Psychophysiological disorders are also called psychosomatic disorders. Physical symptoms can show throughout the body including skin irritations, digestive problems, or hallucinations. Physical symptoms affected by emotional stress can include nausea, tension headaches, ulcers, asthma, chest pain, or anorexia. Psychosomatic illnesses can be very serious and even result in death.

Treatment of Psychophysiological disorders addresses not only the physical symptoms but seek to discover the root emotional or psychological cause. This holistic approach includes such treatment as relaxation techniques, meditation, and biofeedback. Doctors who treat Psychophysiological patients also look into harmful life patterns such as smoking, obesity or other stress causing factors that can be eliminated or reduce in order to have a positive health outcome.

Psychoneuroimmunology and Stress Chapter 14, p. 487

Webpage: http://www.apa.org/monitor/jun02/brightfuture.aspx

Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is a field of study that is primarily concerned with the relationship between the nervous and immune systems, and the relationship between mental and physical health. Similar to Psychophysiological medicine, Psychoneuroimmunology has an interdisciplinary approach to healing. This field involves studies in psychology, immunology, endocrinology, physiology, and more.

In this field there are emerging theories. One set of researches have taken an interest in cytokine activity. It asserts that a function of the immune system is to send a message to the brain when infection or injury occurs in the body by the release of proteins called proinflammatory cytokines.

Research is discovering that cytokines travel to through the central nervous system which gives vital information to the brain concerning physical problems. As a response, the brain then sends its own cytokines to the nervous system to begin a series of responses such as the induction of fever. These responses cause the conservation of energy.

Another theory, developed by Hans Selye called the "General Adaptation Syndrome," emphasizes a common response to stress with a closely related set of hormones and changes in immunity. However, other theorist maintains that there are two different primary reactions to stress. One, they say, is the traditional "fight-or-flight" response, and the other a withdrawing reaction. In this reaction, a person is withdraws from the stress factor to conserve energy.… [read more]


Personality Theory Term Paper

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In a way the domains of individual differences which have similar surface manifestations are differentiated by the Big Five. Although it has only just started that we have begun to explicate the processes and structures which are underlying them. "Explication in explanatory and mechanistic terms will change the definition and assessment of the Big Five dimensions as we know them… [read more]


Specific Mental Disorder Analysis: Cluster B Personality Research Paper

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There are a number of methods through which the health of these patients can be improved by the family physicians. Some of these methods are pharmacotherapy, brief interventions and psychotherapy. There are three clusters that the personality disorders are divided into, these are A, B and C. Schizoid, paranoid and schizotypal personality disorders are included in cluster A; antisocial, borderline,… [read more]


Humanistic Psychology Term Paper

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Humanistic Psychology

Theoretical and practical applications in psychology, especially in clinical psychology, have been dominated by a small number of major paradigms. The major paradigms have related offshoots but typically historians consider the first two major paradigms in psychology to have been the psychodynamic and behavioral paradigms respectively (Hall, Lindzey, & Campbell, 1998). The "third force" in psychology was the… [read more]


Cognitive and Affective Psychology Essay

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Cognitive and Affective Psychology

According to Eysenck and Keane (2005, p. 1), cognitive psychology focuses upon how the human faculties make sense of th einvrionment, as well as the processes involved in making decisions regarding appropriate responses to the environment. The specific processes involved in cognitive psychology include attention, perception, learning, memory, language, problem solving, reasoning and thinking.

According to… [read more]


Clinical Psychology Approaches Term Paper

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Clinical Psychology Approaches

Of the four major clinical approaches, the psychodynamic model remains the most closely associated with the terminology and technical concerns of Freudian praxis (Bateman et al., 2000, p. 2). As its name implies, this approach looks to unexamined tensions between dynamic forces (or "drives") as the underlying cause of anxiety, psychic pain, and destructive behavior. With the therapist's assistance, the patient may arrive at a conscious understanding of these forces and so, in understanding them, resolve any conflicts that exist.

As in classical psychoanalysis, the dynamic therapeutic relationship is largely a matter of sustained conversation in pursuit of emotional resolution. However, while Freudian therapy is theoretically "interminable," dynamic therapists generally play a more active, problem-oriented role in order to bring the process to a productive conclusion within 10 to 25 weekly sessions; more intensive approaches strive to generate breakthroughs over even shorter time frames (Aveline, 2000, p. 373).

Cognitive-behavioral therapy acknowledges the importance of recognizing the causes of behavior, but is much more concerned with training the patient to avoid harmful activities and acquire new coping habits. Instead of focusing on discursive exploration of emotional content, the cognitive-behavioral therapist stresses skills training, repetition, and immediate feedback. While discussion is often part of the session, it is often considered a channel for the transmission of information and as a tool for monitoring the patient's overall condition (Carroll, 1998, p. 25).

Because of its explicitly problem-oriented nature, cognitive-behavioral therapy is often brought into play when explicitly pathological behaviors exist and need to be corrected: drug addiction, anxiety disorders, and so on, ideally within 12 to 16 weekly sessions (Carrol, 1998, p. 4). While incidental insight into motivation may result from such therapy, it is not the primary objective; progress toward objective performance goals is the only real measurement of success.

Humanistic approaches vary, but share an abiding theoretical interest in human beings as conscious actors and a corresponding distrust for models of the self that portray life as merely the sum of various emotional or instinctual drives. (Bugental, 1964, pp. 19-25) Practical treatment strategies are…… [read more]


Forensic Psychology Essay

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Forensic Psychology

Fulero, S. And L. Wrightsman. (2008). Forensic Psychology, 3rd edition. Wadsworth.

This is the third edition of a primary text in the subject of forensic psychology. The authors are experts in the field, and the book is organized in relevant, real-world situations by presenting information on the ways a psychologist would serve the legal system by being an expert witness, assessing juries, advocacy in child custody hearings, and criminal profilers. The authors focus on the multi-dimensionality of the field, as well as the danger of becoming an advocate for one view or another, instead of using objective scientific texts and data to understand what occurred. The authors also address the ethical and moral issues of practicing psychologists, and expand upon the role the forensic specialist might need to take in order to fit in under the umbrella of multiple horizontal priorities that is so common in contemporary law enforcement. Unlike many student texts, this book provides an accurate and realistic picture of the field, as well as the career paths available to someone with the interest and drive. Too, much of what the author's say about deviant behavior is just as poignant as it would be in a fictional story. It is, though, the tasks of the authors to correctly and truthfully portray the career as it is, not necessarily how we want it.

Overview- Forensic psychology is a sub-discipline of psychology that uses a multi-disciplinary approach by adding tools and techniques of criminology, sociology, and law to form a means of appropriate interaction with the criminal justice system. Forensic psychology often focuses on not only helping understand the mind of a criminal, but also to bring the language of psychology into the and understandability of the jury, as well as translating legalism into the appropriate format for rule of law as focused on the mindset of the offender. One of the key responsibilities of the forensic psychologist is to understand and be comfortable working within the adversarial legal/judicial system. Since psychology is not an exact science in the sense of every event or situation having the exact same effect upon every individual, but a series of major trends that tend to occur over time with a statistically robust part of the population.

For forensic psychology to be an effective tool within the rubric of the modern criminal justice system, the forensic psychologist must be conversant in a number of disciplines, an understanding of criminal pathology as well as deviant behavior, a multidisciplinary approach and background that spans numerous fields -- which makes the discipline itself one of the most rigorous and intellectually challenging components of psychology.

The Many Hats of the Forensic Psychologist -- as we have noted, forensic psychology is a multidimensional and multidisciplinary approach to a variety of fields that ultimately blends into the criminology field. The clientele of the forensic psychologist is wide as well -- stakeholders include members of the law profession at a variety of levels, the public, and even the accused.… [read more]


Diversity of Psychology as a Discipline Essay

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Diversity of Psychology

The Diverse Nature of Psychology

"Psychology is not about "getting rid" of symptoms. Unlike politics, and even unlike medicine, psychology is not about waging war or getting control of anything. Instead, it's about making peace with -- by listening to and understanding -- your symptoms. And, curiously enough, once you listen to, rather than fear, your symptoms you might be enlightened by a profound wisdom that will become a great blessing to your life."

(Guide to Psychology)

Psychology is the use of scientific methods to understand, explain, and predict human behavior (Cherry 2010). Within this broad definition, Psychologists adopt very different approaches to their task. Three of the most popular sub-disciplines are: psychoanalysis, cognitive therapy, and behavioral therapy.

Psychoanalysis first became popular in the early 1900s, following Freud's approach to understanding the mind and human behavior. Practitioners of psychoanalysis today may still hold to some of the early precepts associated with it, including a set of very specific pieces to the format of treatment sessions. These sessions must occur daily, and in a traditional format, with the client lying flat on a couch while the therapist sits behind the couch, out of sight. During these interactions, the therapist says very little, encouraging the client to "free associate"; from these narratives, the therapist can construct an interpretation and analysis of the client's unconscious mind. Often, sessions revolve around childhood experiences and relationships with family. Psychoanalysts believe that these primary relationships can tell them a lot about how the person currently functions in the world.

Cognitive approaches to therapy ask clients to more actively choose and make decisions in their lives. The focus is therefore much less on the unconscious, as in psychoanalysis, and more on the ability of people to make conscious changes in their lives by focusing on motivation, problem solving, and attention patterns (Cherry 2010). For example, some therapists who adopt this approach may work on helping troubled clients learn to control their own thought patterns. These changes may be taught through conditioning exercises or learned through reinforcement. What matters the most to therapists who follow this approach is that the behavior is effectively changed; how that change comes to pass is a question of strategy. Examples of cognitive techniques include the use of hypnosis and relaxation techniques. In both of these examples, clients are essentially re-programmed to stop behaviors that are counter-productive and instead adopt healthier modes of response.

Behavioral therapy has a lot in common with cognitive therapy, and indeed some…… [read more]


Psychology Emerging Issues in Multicultural Essay

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Psychology

Emerging Issues in Multicultural Psychology

It is apparent that the old rules in psychology have moved away from a monocultural to a multicultural basis and that these new rules recognize both an appreciation of differences as well as an understanding of the inherent ambiguity and complexity in psychological practice. One issue is the sensitivity to the impact of cultural, disability and diversity factors on the competence of a psychologist. Psychologists should not have to provide services when they lack needed knowledge and when scientific or professional knowledge has established that a certain understanding of age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, language, or socioeconomic status is essential in order for effective services to be delivered. It is evident that the necessary sensitivity required to provide psychological services to diverse populations is grounded in ethical thinking that takes into account multiple world views and identities and requires ongoing education, formal training, and supervised experience (Manesse, Saito and Rodolfa, n.d.)

It is thought that multiculturally competent practice involves the application of psychological skills that integrate a focus on the client based on their cultural background, using culturally appropriate assessment tools that have a broad range of interventions. Multicultural competence involves the dimensions of awareness of one's own attitudes and beliefs, knowledge about cultural differences and skills in working with diverse groups. Multicultural knowledge involves learning and seeking information about the cultures, world-views and experiences of different groups of people. Psychologists must have knowledge about the heritage, history, family structure, values, and beliefs of diverse groups. Psychologists must also have accurate information about institutional barriers, sociopolitical contexts, oppression and discrimination (Manesse, Saito and Rodolfa, n.d.)

In order to develop multicultural counseling skills, psychologists must use their self-awareness as well as their knowledge of specific cultures to develop culturally sensitive and appropriate interpersonal behaviors and interventions. Psychologists must expand and model a wide-ranging repertoire of behaviors and skills that are flexible and appropriate for clients from diverse groups. Psychologists must also model flexibility in utilizing both traditional and nontraditional assessment and intervention techniques. The development of these skills in working with diverse clients involves enhancing ones ability to recognize cultural issues, increasing their abilities to deal with clients in ways that are flexible and sensitive, and increasing their abilities to deal with their own reactions to clients. The bridge to the development of these skills is cultural self-exploration and awareness (Manesse, Saito and Rodolfa, n.d.)

Another issue that has arisen in multicultural psychology is the fact that the residents of the United States are racially and ethnically diverse, and that research participants, students, clients and the labor force are increasingly likely to come from these diverse cultures. Additionally, instructors of psychologists, psychological researchers, educators, and those providing psychological service who are implementing organizational change are encouraged to gain skills to work effectively with individuals and groups of varying cultural backgrounds. This premise is based on psychologists' ethical values to be capable to work with a variety of… [read more]


Forensic Psychology Review, V Fulero, S Term Paper

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Forensic Psychology Review, v

Fulero, S. And L. Wrightsman. (2008). Forensic Psychology. Cenage. Chapters 9-16.

Child Custody and Related Decisions -- Child custody issues are among the most difficult and challenging for the Forensic Psychologist. A child's mind is not fully developed, and it is often difficult to get at the heart of the matter; to understand what happened with events based on a child's memory. It is also necessary to be extra careful to ensure that the professional does not lead the child toward a conclusion. Thus, by the very nature, a Forensic Psychologist must play different, and sometimes difficult, roles with child custody hearings (mediator, expert, therapist, researcher).

The Court, however, is looking for a neutral professional to deal fairly with cogent explanations on family dynamics and childhood issues. It is necessary to avoid "isms" -- broad statements about lifestyle, predispositions, etc., and to remain unbiased when looking out for the welfare of the child and focusing on individual situations. It is also important to avoid the dual relationship paradigm: one cannot be a therapist and an objective analyst for the Court -- choose one and remain true to that course.

Chapter 10 -- Improving Eyewitness Identification Procedures -- Eyewitness procedures are often problematical because they rely on memory -- and memory is faulty. The Forensic Psychologist must use their expertise to reduce these eyewitness errors, to probe memory testimony and find any systematic variables to help ascertain the truth.

The Forensic Psychologist must be careful when acting as an information generator -- and must use interview content wisely to review, review, and review again, in order to limit bias and increase the accuracy of testimony. Spend extra time if a child is a witness; help that child separate fantasy, reality, and remove influence from the child's association of the event. However, it is also important not to assume prior jury or Court knowledge, and to encourage testimony and expertise to clear up any misunderstandings and/or refute anticipated jury bias.

Chapter 11- Interrogations and Confessions -- Depending on where and when the interrogation/confession took place, the Forensic Psychologist will often be called in to verify the statements and facts surrounding the case, and to interview the subject to ensure the confession was not coerced in any way. There are times, too, that a Forensic Psychologist will be used to help in a difficult interrogation, probing the suspect using psychological techniques. However, the role of evaluation in both confessions and interrogations is quite important -- the goals is to remain objective, bring in facts, not suppositions. Indeed, the Forensic Psychologist must remain aloof and unbiased.

False confessions and coerced or loaded interrogations are, unfortunately, a fact of most any legal system. Care must be taken to avoid hooks from sociopathic personalities. The Forensic Psychologist must refuse to be manipulated, especially when the subject claims to know something personally about you, or tried to manipulate you.

Without becoming adversarial, review police procedures and conduct during interrogation. Use the role of… [read more]


Criticisms of Psychology Essay

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¶ … discipline of psychology is often challenged in its entirety through a variety of concepts. The very concepts that it preaches are the very concepts that marks some of its weakest links. This paper extensively evaluates by way of extant literature the various criticisms and misunderstandings that are related to psychology. In order to fully cover these redundancies on the discipline of psychology. We evaluate the criticism of artificiality with a particular attention to abnormal psychology, social psychology and organizational psychology. In addition to above, we compare and contrast the various breakthrough models in the field of scientific research together with the principles of connectivity in the process of explaining the various events and their possible outcomes. Finally we evaluate the concept of single-cause explanation together with the principle of multiple causation in an effort to explain the events and their corresponding outcomes.

Scholars explain that concept of single-cause explanation together with the principle of multiple causation suffer weaknesses as being circular. The second is that they are centered around issues of anthrocentricism.

One misunderstanding that arises from "breakthrough

Introduction

Criticisms of artificiality

The psychological principle of artificiality has been criticised through its various sub-domains such as abnormal psychology, social psychology and organizational psychology.

The abnormal psychology model has been criticized for being incapable of bringing out a fully true understanding of certain other disciplines such as psychopathology (Carpenter, 1987; Engel, 1980). The use of abnormal psychology in the field of biology is highly criticised for the fact that biology cannot fully give an account of various psychological disorders. In order for the medical models of abnormal psychology to bring out meanings, it necessary to base it on various other sources and levels of information. These levels include various psychological processes that integrate both cognitive and social levels of psychology.

Social psychology is defined as 'the scientific investigation of how the thoughts, feelings and behaviours of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of others' Gordon Allport (1935) .The social psychology has also been criticised through extant literature from works of various scholars. Human beings in general are very compliant and have a tendency of easily being transformed by various social pressures and conditions. A person's self-esteem is often fragile and one's attitude is often out of touch with reality. As pointed out by Sears (1986) "To caricature the point, contemporary social psychology ... presents the human race as composed of lone, bland, compliant wimps who specialize in paper-and-pencil tests,." He further pointed out that an individual's passions and his or her…… [read more]


History of Psychology Research Paper

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History Of Psychology

Psychology is a science that grew out of other pursuits, including philosophy and physiology. Throughout its history, there have been a number of philosophers and scientists who have made significant contributions to the development of psychological thought and research and who have shaped the fundamental debates that inform the field. From the very beginnings, the argument of nature vs. nurture can be found in the differing perspectives of Rene Descartes and John Locke (Goodwin, 1999). It is difficult to select a single era of psychology's history that could be considered the most influential with respect to modern psychology, especially considering that modern psychology itself is made up of many different areas of research and investigation. However, if one area were to be selected as having the biggest influence on modern day psychology it would likely be the rise of cognitivism.

Although modern cognitive psychology is considered relatively young, with the majority of its roots developing in the years following World War II, it does in fact have roots that go much further back. An interest in the physical underpinnings of cognition can be traced back to 1700s and 1800s when Helmholtz investigated various issues of human perception. In addition, scientists were interested at this time in learning about the localization of brain functioning. In some cases the desire to understand the physical causes of human cognition were less than accurate, such as in the case of the phrenologists who believed they could discover the elements of human behavior and cognition through the condition of the human skull (Goodwin, 1999). Brain localization studies continued with the investigation of brain injuries, such as that of the famous Phineas Gage who, in 1848, survived an accident in which a pole was run through his head. The experience of the injury and his later personality change as a result taught early psychologists a great deal about the links between specific parts of the brain and human behavior and personality.

Cognitive psychology took on its more modern form beginning in the years following the Second World War. Despite the growth in popularity of behaviorism after the First World War, some researchers did continue to investigate the happenings "behind the curtain" of cognition and perception. One of the most famous psychological studies, and indeed likely the most replicated study, was conducted in 1935 by J. Ridley Stroop in which he documented what is now known as the Stroop Effect (MacLeod, 1992). The Stroop Effect demonstrates how one automatic process can be interrupted or disrupted by another automatic process (Goodwin, 1999). Another one of psychology's big names also appeared during the early 1900s -- when Jean Piaget introduced his theory of cognitive development in children and adolescents, and Ebbinghaus made large strides with his studies of memory.

Finally, Cognitive Psychology really took off with the introduction of computer science and the development of the computer. While computer science may in many ways appear to be the furthest thing away from…… [read more]


Future of Psychology Term Paper

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Future of Psychology

Psychology is a science that has a history in many other areas of inquiry but finally grew into its own discipline. Throughout its relatively short history, a number of different areas of concentration have attempted to dominate the field, but none has ever taken over entirely and thus it is difficult to predict that any single domain of inquiry will dominate the future of psychology. The future of psychology will undoubtedly continue to grow in many different diverse areas, but a few areas will be of particular interest over the next couple of decades, including neuroscience and evolutionary theory. Psychology will also continue to capture the minds and imaginations of the general populace, leading to a plethora of popular psychology publications that run alongside the more scientific journals. Although these two areas of publication provide very separate forms of disseminating psychological research to two different audiences, they do still play off of one another.

After World War II cognitivism grew rapidly as an area of psychological research and has made huge advances in our understanding of human thought and behavior (Goodwin, 1999). The introduction of the computer and computer science research has also impacted the way psychological research is done and the ways psychologists understand the functioning of the human mind. The computer became a model of the human brain, allowing researchers to test theories about how the brain is working. In addition, the computer has advanced the types of studies that can be conducted and also advanced the sophistication of statistical analyses that can be conducted, helping to establish psychology as a true science (Neisser, 2009). In many respects, cognitive psychology helped psychology to truly 'arrive' as a science. The next domain beyond cognitive psychology is neuroscience.

One of the most fascinating aspects of human life is the human brain itself. It is more powerful than any computer built, capable of instantaneous processing and multitasking, with unknown capacities for learning, healing and storing. The advancements in brain imaging technology have allowed psychologists and neuroscientists to learn a great deal about specific brain localization issues and how the brain functions under varying circumstances (Hayflix, 2000). Despite these advances, there is still a great deal of unknown information still to be uncovered concerning the functioning of the human brain. The next few decades will surely continue to uncover more and more of the mysteries that lie within the human mind, explaining why we do the things that we do, our unique thought patterns, and our not so unique thought patterns.

As psychologists and neuroscientists continue to investigate the human brain they will not only learn about how it works, but they will also learn about how it fails to work. With this knowledge there will hopefully be great advances in the treatment of mental illnesses and the prevention of mental deterioration. As a woman in my 40s, it is this area of Psychology's future that will most likely have the biggest impact on my life, as I grow… [read more]


Developmental History of Positive Psychology Research Paper

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Positive Psychology

The History and Development of Positive Psychology: An Overview of Perspectives and Theories

As the medical and even the human sciences go, psychology is still a relative newcomer to the real of academic scholarship and real-world practice. Surgeries and other investigations into the workings of the human body -- methods of determining the sources of illnesses and attempts… [read more]


Psychology Essay

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Psychology

The following question requires you to write a brief answer consisting of a few sentences or a listing. List the five goals of psychology and briefly explain a situation in which you experienced two or more of these goals. The five goals of psychology are to 1) describe; 2) explain; 3) predict; 4) control; and, 5) improve. The first goal is to observe behavior and describe in detail what has been observed. The second goal, explain, means a psychologist has to go beyond what they observe and explain what they observed. Predict, the third goal, is the belief that once a psychologist knows what has happened in the past and why, they can better predict what's going to happen in the future. The fourth goal, control, refers to the idea that once a psychologist knows what happens and why it happens, they can begin to speculate what is going to happen in the future and try to control it in some way. An example would be, if every time you and your spouse has a fight it is because you are drunk, then we can predict that drinking can lead to fights, so the psychologist will want to take a look at the client's drinking and find a way to change the negative outcome of fighting by being more mindful of drinking or quitting altogether. Lastly, the fifth goal, improve, means that psychologists don't simply want to exert control over someone's behavior, but they truly want to work to improve it. Psychologists want to make an individual's life better, not worse.

2) the following question requires you to write a brief answer consisting of a few sentences or a listing. Explain the steps that psychologists take when conducting research. Psychologists have different steps they use when conducting research. They first must ask a certain question; then they design a study; next they will need to collect data; then they will analyze the results; after analyzing they will come to some conclusions; and lastly, they will share the findings.

3) the following question requires you to write a brief answer consisting of a few sentences or a listing. What is the difference between a person's behavioral and cognitive activities? Cite five examples of behavioral activities. Cognitive activities will occur because of processes that go on in the…… [read more]


Populations Span From the Egregiously Poor-Functioning Substance Research Paper

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¶ … Populations span from the egregiously poor-functioning substance abuser to a graduate student who is merely struggling with stress and financial related problems. The need outruns the resources, and, oftentimes counselors may feel themselves inadequately equipped to address the need or situation. The literature on counseling and psychotherapy is vast. This essay introduces some of the pertinent, occasionally overlooked… [read more]


Freud and Positive Psychology Term Paper

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Within this simple statement of defense is a clear ideation of positive psychology. The individual must look inside him or herself and seek out a better way of behaving that might make him or her happier in the long run. Just because someone might have urges to do something socially unacceptable does not make him or her bad or unhappy but acting on that urge could change other's opinion of him or her and could ultimately make him or her unhappy. Changing that urge to a behavior that is more socially acceptable would then seem the best possible outcome as even though the individual did not get to do what he or she wanted he or she got the satisfaction of knowing he or she did the "right" thing and is not acting in accordance with society. What really could be "wrong" with that? Looking back on both these example learning processes, as well as the explanation of sublimation illuminate for me just how much principles of Freudian psychology and defense mechanisms are a part of Positive Psychology.

Positive psychology unlike most branches of psychology reiterates the idea that there is good in most things and there is no sense that this is not true in the case of Freudian psychology. Freudian psychology offers one of the first fundamental looks into the concept of the psyche at all. Though he is largely discredited, and many of his theories are seriously challenged in modern psychology, even by positive psychology itself they are valuable in the sense that they offer one of the first looks into motivations that might not be completely conscious as well as sincere ideations about the complicated inner workings of the mind.

Regardless of the manner in which Freud is discredited his work, and especially some of his more colorful theories became a starting point for discussion and debate regarding the whole gambit of human psychological conditions from euphoria to misery. Understanding Freudian theory and work therefore is essential to understanding the whole of psychology as well as positive psychology because not only does Freud come at theory in a pessimistic way, so we can see what not to do and think in terms of "normal" but he also makes positive contributions to understanding the human mind and offers points for departure of new thought.… [read more]


Abnormal Behavior Essay

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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Psychological Disorder

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent obsessions and/or compulsions. Obsessions may manifest as recurrent thoughts, ideas, images, impulses, fears, or doubts. Compulsions also manifest in a variety of ways. Patients may feel compelled to touch, to count, to check, to have everything symmetrically arranged, or to repeatedly wash their hands. Attempts to resist the compulsion are met with increasing anxiety, which is relieved as soon as the patient gives in to the compulsion.

According to Steven Taylor, et. al. (2010) research indicates that three types of dysfunctional beliefs contribute to the development and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. These beliefs are described as inflated personal responsibility and the overestimation of threat, perfectionism and the intolerance of uncertainty, and over importance of one's thoughts and the need to control these thoughts.

OCD has many negative effects on the quality of one's life. Storch, Abramowitz and Keely (2009) report previous studies of individuals with OCD show patients with this condition are more likely to be unemployed, be of lower socio-economic status, have disrupted social and marital relationships, and make more use of health care than those without OCD. Furthermore, relative to individuals with other anxiety disorders, those with OCD are hospitalized more frequently, suggesting greater impairment. Research suggests that the amount of time spent performing compulsive rituals and the associated depressive symptoms contribute to this functional disability. In another study Cassin, Richter, Zhang, and Rector (2009) report that recent efforts to discern whether certain features of OCD are more detrimental in terms of quality of life have found the severity of obsessions to be more predictive of poor quality of life than the severity of compulsions. However, even more predictive than the severity of OCD symptoms has been the finding that secondary depression symptoms are the greatest predictor of poor quality of life in patients with primary OCD.

One common misunderstanding concerning the origins of OCD is that it stems from a neglectful or unbalanced upbringing. Research has provided clear evidence that the brain of someone with OCD does function differently than that of a person without OCD. OCD is triggered by a biochemical problem in the brain. These findings have done much to alleviate a great deal of shame and guilt some parents felt for their child's suffering.

Part II -- Motion Picture Analysis

Director James L. Brooks depicts the characteristics of an individual suffering from OCD in the movie as Good as it Gets (1997). The character of Melvin Udall, portrayed by Jack Nicholson, exhibits both obsessive and compulsive behaviors throughout the film. One of the criteria for a diagnosis of OCD according to the DSM IV-TR is repetitive behaviors or mental acts that the person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession, or according to rules that must be applied rigidly. Udall's rituals include turning the light switch off and on five times, and not letting his feet step on cracks. He also indicated that he needed to go to the restaurant at… [read more]


James Hillman's Archetypal Psychology Term Paper

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Archetypal Psychology

James Hillman's Archetypal Psychology

Hillman's "poetic basis of mind" is comprised of all aspects of work -- theorizing, analyzing culture, and practicing therapy (Moore 1989). Hillman's archetypal psychology and his "poetic basis of mind" takes root in aesthetics and imagination as opposed to science. "By taking everything as poetry, Hillman frees consciousness from its thin, hard crust of… [read more]


Development of Abnormal Disorder Term Paper

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Psychoanalysis

From a psychoanalytic perspective, Lamanda is suffering from ego identity confusion (Erikson, 1968) that is manifesting itself in symptoms of depression, marked by a lack of interest, anxiety and social isolation. Her ego identity confusion is primary rooted in her biracial status (half African-American and half Caucasian) and also slightly by her experimentation with bisexuality and her transition from being unattractive to attractive.

In its clinical sense, ego psychology is most often associated with Sigmund Freud, who developed the theory of the id, the ego and the superego. Repression also plays a major role in psychoanalytic theory (Goldstein, 1995). Lamanda may be repressing the anger she has about being teased in school for being biracial, about a much older authority figure making sexual advances toward her, and resentment towards her parents for subjecting her to the difficulties of being an interracial child. Repressed anger can manifest itself in the types of symptoms of depression that Lamanda is exhibiting.

Behavioral

In the vein of behavioral theories, Lamanda's depression is part of a stimulus-response process that can be redirected by altering her reactions to stimuli (Taylor, 2005). For example, by altering her behavior and applying for jobs that she is worthy of and will enjoy, Lamanda will be taking steps towards eliminating the anxiety associated with her waitress job. From a behavioral perspective, there is no need to analyze why Lamanda has chosen destructive behaviors; she simply needs to change those behaviors in order for her life and well-being to improve (Taylor, 2005).

Additionally, through classical conditioning, a concept developed by Ivan Pavlov, Lamanda's behaviors can be changed by providing a stimulus that is associated with positive behaviors. For example, if she rewards herself with a day off of her waitress job for every five "better" jobs she applies for, she will be more likely to apply for more jobs and eventually obtain one.

Cognitive

Cognitive theories make a distinction between practical problems and emotional problems (Kohlberg, 1971). From a cognitive perspective, it is the thought process and the decision-making process that explain Lamanda's behaviors. For example, Lamanda has come to associate social interaction with anxiety. Therefore it is her thought process (i.e. The formation of this association) that shapes her behaviors (i.e. her lack of social interaction). By altering her thought process, Lamanda will, from a cognitive standpoint, then be able to then alter her behaviors.

Cognitive and behavioral theories are often combined into cognitive-behavioral theories, which form a basis for developmental theories such as Jean Piaget's (1963). From this perspective, as Lamanda's thought processes begin to mature and progress through the various stages of development, her ability to process and apply information in a helpful manner will improve. She will learn, for example, that choosing romantic relationships with males who are unable to commit has become a pattern in her life. Once she has reached this cognitive level of awareness,…… [read more]


Examine the Field of Organizational Psychology Research Paper

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Organizational Psychology

Definition of Organizational Psychology

Organizational psychology is the study of human group and individual behavior in the vocational environment (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008). It consists of numerous subtopics such as the manner in which business and other organizations develop defining cultures, the nature of vocational motivation, the relationship between reward, performance, and performance, the elements of leadership, as well as various aspects of employee recruitment, selection, training, and retention (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).

Evolution of the Discipline

The first major use of organizational psychology was the application of its principles to the recruitment, task-assignment, and training of soldiers in the United States in connection with its entry into World War I in 1918 (George & Jones, 2008; Robbins & Judge, 2009). In between the First and Second World Wars, the same principles, first introduced by the industrial psychologists and so-called "efficiency experts" such as American Frederick Taylor and Frenchman Henry Fayol were more widely applied to industrial work in peacetime (George & Jones, 2008).

More specifically, the scientific management principles devised by Taylor dictated operational changes designed to increase productivity (George & Jones, 2008). His approach involved making the necessary changes to the way that workers performed their essential functions (including changes to the tools they used) to increase organizational productivity by improving individual output. Meanwhile, the concepts developed by Fayol (and others) concerned the manner in which personnel management styles and variables relating to reward, compensation, and vocational motivation affected the same general dependent variables (George & Jones, 2008).

By the time the U.S. became directly involved in World War II in 1941, American industry had adopted principles of organizational psychology on a much more comprehensive scale and those principles were also applied to the recruitment, selection, assignment, training, and supervision of personnel throughout the American Armed Forces being assembled, trained, and deployed in connection with the country's involvement in World War II. In very large part, the tremendous industrial efficiency and production capacity of the U.S. that ultimately won the war was attributable to the contributions of organizational psychology in conjunction with other operational innovations such as the assembly-line production methods first introduced by Henry Ford shortly after the turn of the 20th century.

To a great degree, it was the manner in which American civilian industrial capacity was rapidly converted to the wartime…… [read more]


History of Modern Psychology of Personality Article Review

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History Of Modern Psychology of Personality

The Diversity of Theoretical and Methodological Approaches

One of the most fundamental distinctions in understanding the history of modern psychology of personality is between research into the psychology of the individual and research into psychology through statistical research on groups of study participants. Other fundamental distinctions include the influence of situations and the influence of inherent personal tendencies of individuals irrespective of situational variables. Modern psychology also recognizes the validity of extensive physiological and neurological variation among individuals that contributes to outward behavior, and it considers distinctions based on the chronological age at the time of specific behaviors. Finally, the wide range of modern psychological specialties and subspecialties give rise to another specialty: integrative models of psychology that draw from various different perspectives and methodologies to extract the optimal combined beneficial approaches of the entire field of psychology of personality.

The Culture of Personality, Psychiatry, Psychopathology, and Sociology

The common perception of personality in general originated in the early decades of the 20th century, before which the phrase "personality" was not widely associated with the formal study of psychology; nor was it part of the American lexicon. The impetus for the focus on personality (in general) was largely attributable to public fears about depersonalization as a consequence of rapid industrialization and urbanization of American society. The contemporaneous influence of the first-generation psychodynamic (i.e. Freudian) theorists also contributed greatly to the emerging focus on personality in psychology. Subsequently, the field of sociology had an influence on psychology by virtue of the growing use of social work…… [read more]


Foundations of Psychology Essay

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¶ … psychology: A brief history of the discipline

Psychology is technically classified as a social science. However, the scope of the discipline of psychology encompasses the work of Freud, whose emphasis on myth and the unconscious has lead him to be more often studied in literature classes -- and neuroscience, which encompasses the knowledge gleaned from the natural sciences (Nyman 2010). Psychology is thus broad in its sweep, even though the degree to which biology, sociology, or individual personality differences is emphasized varies from school to school.

Psychoanalysis

All histories of the modern study of the human mind begin with Freud: Freud first conceptualized the notion of the unconscious mind, or the idea that the mind had 'secrets' the individual was not necessarily aware of, until prompted by the techniques of free association. Freud's elaborate conception of the self as structured according to the primal, desiring id; the ego which strove to actualize the id's desires, and the superego, which socially regulates human impulses; has often been criticized as scientifically unsubstantiated.

Major school 2: Behaviorism

Behaviorists like B.F. Skinner focused on observable, learned behaviors. Conditioning through stimuli, either negative or positive, was the focus of the behaviorist school of psychology. Environmental shaping, rather than cognitive structuring, was the focus of behaviorism. Behavior is 'learned' and behavior that cannot be observed and tested is irrelevant, in the behaviorist's view.

Major school 3: Humanism

In striking contrast to Skinner, humanistic psychologists such as Karl Rogers stressed the need for self-actualization in the therapeutic process. Rather than direct…… [read more]


Theory Principle or Concept Term Paper

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¶ … Psychology offers a vast network of concepts, principles, and theories to explain and describe the mental and behavioral characteristics of an individual or group. It is a science that explores biological, cognitive, social, and various other aspects of the human mind and human interaction to explain mental processes. One such concept of psychology that attempts to explain a realm of mental processing is Behaviorism. Behaviorism is a philosophy of psychology that emphasizes how previous learning experiences influence, and are reflected, in shaping behaviors (Heffner). The core of Behaviorism centers on studying only observable behaviors, as behavioral research would be too subjective if mood, thoughts, or emotions were also considered.

Behavior Psychology is an umbrella topic of its own, and covers a multitude of principles and concepts. One subcategory of Behavioral Psychology is Operant Conditioning. Operant Conditioning is a type of learning, in which a behavior's preceding influences or its impending consequence manipulates the formed behavior. This type of behavioral conditioning operates as an ongoing evaluation of consequences, how one anticipates said consequences, and reflects them in their actions.

One of the critical tools in executing Operant Conditioning is the concept of Reinforcement. In terms of psychology, reinforcement refers to stimuli which strengthen or increases the probably of a specific response or behavior. A simple example of a reinforcer is teaching a dog how to sit, and giving them a treat every time they perform. The treat becomes the reinforcer and increases the probability of the sitting response (Heffner). There are four types of reinforcement: positive, negative, punishment, and extinction.

Positive reinforcement is the same as the dog example - giving a treat to evoke the sitting response. This involves giving positive responses to encourage the desired behavior. The two most common methods of positive reinforcement are praise and rewards. Examples of praise include telling someone "good job" or telling someone how nice they look when they dress-up. Rewards can involve a monetary bonus at work after a difficult project, or giving a child their favorite dessert to compliment well behavior during dinner. These positive incentives raise the probably of the desired behavior.

A negative reinforcer is the use of any negative stimulus to increase the wanted response or behavior. An example of a negative reinforcer is a fire alarm. The fire alarm sounds as the negative stimulus, and induces people to run out of the building. Another example is the fear of having a low grade on a test as a negative reinforcer for studying. In both of these instances, the negative stimuli reflect the anticipated consequences, and ultimately the appropriate behavior has been conditioned.

The third type of reinforcement, punishment, includes adding a stimulus that is apathetic in nature in order to decrease a behavior. Common examples of punishment revolve around the disciplining of children and adolescents. These types of punishments encompass a variety of parenting methods to time-outs,…… [read more]


Abnormal Psychology Psychopathology Term Paper

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Abnormal Psychology

Psychopathology

Discuss the criteria for abnormality and the meanings of psychological disorders, psychological dysfunction and "culturally expected" behaviors.

Abnormal psychology is the area devoted to the study of causes of mental dysfunction such as mental illness, psychopathology, maladjustment, emotional disturbance. Abnormal behavior brought about because of psychological dysfunction can have features of deviance depending on the culture, distress,… [read more]


Psychology History Essay

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Paul -- I made sure that there were at LEAST 300 words per answer, but did not double space since I know how you will be utilizing the data. Glad we connected again -- thank you!

Introspection was a method introduced by Wundt and then used by early psychologists such as Titchener. Wundt's method of introspection was often classified as structuralism, the breaking down of consciousness into its basic elements. We no longer believe that Wundt should be classified as a structuralist. Describe his research agenda and the methods of his research that he introduced to psychology, explaining the degree to which they did and did not involve the breakdown of consciousness into elements.

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) was a German physician, philosopher, and psychologist and, in many academic circles, known as the father of experimental psychology (Butler-Bowdon, 2006). Wundt, in fact, insisted that psychology should be a separate discipline at a time when it was seen as only a subcategory of some aspects of medicine, and believed it was more empirical than philosophy and more focused on the cognitive mind than physiology.

It was, in fact, Wundt's student, Tichener, who descriped Wundt as a structuralist, expcially the methodology used in his Prinicples of Physiological Psychology. One of the core issues of Wundt, though, when explaining his scholarly methodology, is an understanding that it evolved over a lengthy, 65-year career. This, at times, makes it difficult to pin Wundt into a single modality.

For example, Wundt shows tendencies as a foundationalist who focused on understanding the intricacies of knowledge from a more atomistic, coherent, understanding of the Universe (Boring, 1970). As he aged, though, Wundt understandably allowed the robustness of the emerging scholarship in psychology to influence his thoughts and writings.

His approach, though, to scientific inquiry was called Ganzheit Pscyhologie, or Holistic Psychology. This approach was often misunderstood in the United States because of a lack of appropriate translations, and even some misinterpretations by Wundt's students. The basic idea of Holistic Psychology, though, uses introspection to first investigate psychological phenomenon. It is the science of studying experiences that allows the mind to be uncovered -- albeit without spending an inordinate amount of philosophizing on the relationship between the soul and the body. According to Wundt, no one could observe an experience better than the person having the experience, and the method of introspection was therefore key in the study of psychology (Schultz, 2007).

Introspection does not merely involve self-reflection but for Wundt was a rigorous process that involved extracting the most simple of sensations and feelings from the conscious experience. The goal was to describe an experience without interpreting what was happening. What had to be described was the intensity, the duration, the mode (what sense was involved e.g. hearing), and quality (e.g. A shape) of the sensation. Along with reporting the dimensions of the sensations, the feelings that accompanied the sensations were also to be analyzed. Thus, for Wundt, the core method of uncovering psychological truth was in describing… [read more]


Motivation Theories and Organization Behavior Essay

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¶ … Motivation Theories and Organization Behavior

Motivation is an internal state or condition that influences an individual's external behavior. Ways of influencing motivation can be crude, as in the case of classical or operant conditioning. These techniques use external stimuli to create an association between the desired behavior and a reward and/or an association between a punishment and a negative behavior. Other motivational techniques are not nearly as crude: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs suggests that individuals are motivated by fulfilling intrinsic needs. However, basic physiological demands, such as shelter and security, must be fulfilled before a person can think of higher-level needs, such as self-actualization (Huitt 2001).

The Consistency Theory of Motivation suggests that individuals seek the comfort of aligning their inner and outer states. This is one reason why there is often such little motivation to change standard operating procedures, given the temporary discomfort it causes for the individual. Control theory suggests individuals seek a sense of control over the world, much like Attribution Theory suggests that individuals are apt to…… [read more]


Aggressive Behavior in 10-Year-Olds Term Paper

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Aggressive Behavior in Ten-Year-Olds: A Comparison of Cognitive and Socio-Cultural Perspectives

Persistent and/or escalating aggressive behavior in pre-adolescent children can be especially troubling for parents, educators, counselors, and physicians, and not simply because of the ethical questions involved in the treatment of the problem through the use of pharmaceuticals. The underlying cause of these ethical concerns -- the lack of an explanation for such behavior in many cases -- is also a troubling issue, and one that certainly warrants examination. The problem is, the various perspectives that have been brought to bear on the question are not in complete agreement as to the ultimate cause of aggressive behavior in re-adolescent children, or in the means of correcting such behaviors.

Some of the most famous experiments in this realm were those conducted by Albert Bandura, in which he showed children a video exhibiting aggressive behavior. In a subsequent portion of the experiment, these children engaged in more aggressive behavior, signaling a cognitive relationship to the behavior (Dakota 2009). Even the famous Pavlovian reaction to repeated stimuli has been theorized to have a cognitive basis of expectation at work, moving further away form a behaviorist perspective and into a more cognitive understanding of impulses and reactions (Dakota 2009). From this perspective, aggressive behavior would most often be the cause of learned patterns, however such behaviors can occur in infancy and without any noticeable model for instruction or observation (Anderson & Huesmann 2003). While there does seem to be a cognitive aspect to aggressive behavior, then, it does not appear to be simply an issue of learned behaviors.

Another perspective sees aggression not as something that is cognitively learned, but rather that is shaped, even as early late childhood, by a combination of social pressures and negotiations that establish…… [read more]


Organizational Psychology Definition of Organizational Psychology Industrial Essay

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Organizational Psychology

Definition of Organizational Psychology

Industrial and Organizational Psychology, also sometimes referred as industrial-organizational psychology, or I-O psychology, is defined as "the scientific study of the relationship between man and the world of work.... In the process of making a living" (Guion, 1965, p. 817). Another more pertinent definition is, "…the application or extension of psychological facts and principles to the problems concerning human beings operating within the context of business and industry" (Blum and Naylor, 1968, p 4).

Taking both these definitions into account, we can say that in essence organizational psychology is the utilization of scientifically verified psychological principles and research methods in order to understand behavior in various organizations. An important aspect of this discipline is that it is the application of psychological principles to all working environments, which vary in terms of type of situation and problems encountered. Secondly, the intention or aim of the understanding that is obtained from psychological research is to improve work standards and performance through the improvement of aspect such a job satisfaction in the organizational structure.

Central to this field is the fact that it is concerned mainly with group settings and focuses on issues that occur in the workplace. In this regard the organizational psychologist "… takes theories, research, and intervention and communication strategies and applies them to groups in both work and non-work settings" (What is Organizational Psychology? 2) Basically, this form of psychology is concerned with assisting people in work and other organizations to understand mutual interaction in a way that can provide better communication and understanding and improve work output and productivity.

2. The role of research and statistics in organizational psychology

In order to attain to the above-mentioned goals of organizational psychology, research is necessary in order to understand the way that the organization functions and to uncover any problem areas that impede performance and production. The aspect of human relationships is often a complex area, especially in large organizations, and therefore scientific and comprehensive methods of research and inquiry are necessary. Psychological research that is scientifically-based can be extremely useful in eradicating problem areas and conflicts and in improving workflow and production.

Because of the complexity of large organizations, statistics and quantifiable research methods are often implemented by industrial and organizational psychologists to ascertain trends and perceptions in the organization. However, qualitative research methodologies are also used in interviews and other more intimate research projects to improve working relationships and identify problem areas.

3. The Use of Organizational Psychology in Organizations

Something of the importance of the discipline of organizational psychology can be gleaned from the following quotation.

….today's world of team-based…… [read more]


Environmental Psychology Term Paper

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In other words, how the 'acts of knowing' alter man's course. We continually perceive, remember, problem solve, reason, and understand for example. The approach often studies younger people because infants, children, and adolescents tend to go through more changes in a shorter period of time than older adults. That is not saying adults do not change just that children go though more dramatic shifts. The structural approach is different in the sense that it focuses on the person and how they related to their external world through relationships with other people. The structural approach concurs with a Freudian like basic understanding of the self as always existing in and being defined in terms of relationships. The structural approach uses the ideals of remembering, desiring, or creating to define life experiences. The approach also focuses heavily on change during youth and the affects of relationships in that adolescent span because the nature of the relationships shape and change the self as we perceive ourselves.

This science of environmental psychology is vitally important. It allows us to understand the various aspects of interaction between human and with their world view of their surroundings. Environmental psychology has helped to define man's environment more broadly and allowed for us to understand the affects of change from our natural environment, social settings, and learning environments. The concept of our solving problems through human and environmental interactions can help shape and predict how we human will react in certain situations and help us define what logical responses to certain stimuli truly are or should be. The environmental psychology approach can also help us create models to help us design, manage, protect and restore our environment because we are better able to diagnose problem situations and see them for what they are.

In conclusion, the objective of this paper was to examine the discipline of environmental psychology with an added objective of defining the science and comparing and contrasting some underlying theoretical approaches.

References

Das, Jagannath P., and Naglieri, Jack A. (1997). The Cognitive Assessment System. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.

Koltko-Rivera, Mark E. (2004). The Psychology of Worldviews. Review of General Psychology. 2004, Vol. 8, No. 1, 3 -- 58.

Woolf, Linda M. (2009). Theoretical Perspectives Relevant to Developmental Psychology. Retrieved on December 5, 2009, from Webster…… [read more]


Psychology - Counseling Intro to Guidance/Counseling Core Thesis

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Psychology - Counseling

Intro to Guidance/Counseling Core Assessment

Introduction to guidance and counseling core assessment

Review of key concepts and theories pertaining to counseling.

Empathic understanding: Empathic understanding involves seeing the world from the client's perspective, although not necessarily validating the external reality of what the client feels. For example, if a man feels his wife does not understand him,… [read more]


Behavior Researching the Other Side: Counselor Thesis

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¶ … Behavior Research

Researching the Other Side: Counselor Behavior Study

The bulk of most behavioral research rests in exploring and measuring the behaviors of the client, or patient, and not that of the therapist involved in the context of therapeutic behavioral counseling itself. Yet, this is the prime focus of a 2000 research study conducted by Sharpley et al., entitled "The Use of Counselor Verbal Response Modes and Client-Perceived Rapport." This study focused its research on examining and assessing the behaviors of therapists mid session in order to help determine which behaviors are most effective for building client rapport.

The article and research method in question focuses on exploring the counselor-client interaction variables, and how successful those variables have proven to be in terms of building a strong client-counselor rapport within the various sessions experienced. The study was commissioned in order to help explore underlying elements of building client-counselor rapport. Understanding such variables can help clarify important steps needed to be taken within the context of client sessions. Such an understanding can then help counselors build a stronger rapport with their clients. A method of determining a time period for such rapport building could then also be constructed and manipulated by the counselor. There has been a great body of research regarding various styles of counseling strategies, but there has been little empirical research conducted on the effectiveness and time sensitivity of these strategies used mid-session in a way to provide comparable analysis for objective determination of success or failures. Within this study, the primary understanding of the client-counselor relationship is presented through the Working Alliance model. This model is broken down into three parts bonds, which refer "to the degree of trust and emotional closeness experienced by the clients and counselors set them as a result of undergoing the counseling process," (3). The bonding process of this interaction is of the greatest importance, for it helps establish the relationship and provide for future interaction. The goals are then the "changes in behavior" initiated by the counselor which aims to help guide the patient through the counseling process. Last, tasks are how counselors achieve their goals.

What was the method used?

The method of this study used a trained specialist to sit in lieu of a real client, who rated the behavior in terms of its ability to build or decrease rapport. The study "developed a methodology for examining behaviors which counselor behaviors are associated with the success as defined by the degree of rapport experienced by the client," (2). It featured fifty-nine counselors in training, all of whom were between the ages of 21 and 60. These counselors were a mix of both genders, both male and female. Thus a wide survey of therapists was examined within their individual sessions. This presented a plethora of different types and styles of therapy. All therapists in training conducted a single interview of fifty minutes each. Now, the therapists were not interviewing real clients, but rather highly trained individuals who then… [read more]


Identifying Three Social Psychological Principles That Appear to Be Operating in the Movie Shrek 2001 Thesis

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Social Psychology Principles in Shrek

Social-Psychological Principles in Shrek (2001)

For most people, movies are made for entertainment. However, there are also movies that go beyond merely entertaining its audience. There are films that have been created making use of psychological principles, which enrich the movie-viewing experience of audiences. This paper will focus on the movie Shrek, which was released… [read more]


Social Psychology Thesis

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Social Psychology

"The social sciences are dedicated to understanding the human conditions, ideally to the extent that the singular and collective behaviors of human beings can be understood and even predicted," social psychology tries to understand the human psyche based on our behaviors and cultural influences (Kearl 2009:1). It is obvious that there are plenty of innate aspects of our… [read more]


Abnormal Psychology Within Any Society Throughout History Thesis

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Abnormal Psychology

Within any society throughout history, there have been an accepted set of rules and behaviors. Also within every society are those individuals who break those rules and present abnormal behaviors based on deep rooted psychological issues. The history of the scientific discipline of abnormal psychology began with mysticism and religious treatments of such behaviors. However, this was eventually morphed into a scientific discipline through recognizing and studying the various patterns within general categories of abnormal behaviors. Since the onset of the Twentieth century, the scientific study and treatment of abnormal behaviors has been honed down to a variety of separate and individual disciplines that aim to diagnose, study, and treat disorders of abnormal psychology as a way to better the lives of the individuals who suffer from such psychological disorders.

The era of Greek and Romans was a rich one for knowledge in general. It was during this time period that abnormal psychology began to unfold its roots within general human psychology. Greeks and Romans had identified and treated various psychological disorders including mania, dementia, delusions, and hallucinations (Comer 2006). These disorders still prevail within the field of abnormal psychology today. However the wave of knowledge ended as Europe returned into the Dark Ages. When this occurred, treatment for abnormal behaviors once again returned to mystic and religious practices such as exorcism, where "the idea was to coax the evil spirits to leave or to make the person's body an uncomfortable place in which to live," (Comer 2006:9). As the Western world slowly pulled itself out of the Dark Ages, real scientific inquiry once again surfaced as a way to treat an confront abnormal behaviors.

During the Renaissance, scientists began to open up asylums to study and treat individuals exhibiting abnormal behavior. This slowly morphed into more and more diversified treatments for various types…… [read more]


Abnormal Psychology: Theories, Issues, Diagnosis Thesis

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Abnormal Psychology: Theories, Issues, Diagnosis

Abnormal psychology: Definitions of abnormality

What is abnormal psychology? The concept of abnormal psychology implies a controversial question: what is normalcy? On the face of it, abnormality can be defined in a fairly narrow fashion, namely as a deviation from the statistical 'norm.' A good example of this is intelligence, namely that intelligence, as graphed… [read more]


Psychology Mental Health Recovery Program Research Paper

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Psychology

Mental Health Recovery Program

Why does evaluation matter so much counseling programs? When one evaluates a program, they can be more certain that what is being done is making a difference. Practitioners have a professional responsibility to show that what they are doing is effective. Evaluation results demonstrate the impact and value of the work to key stakeholders which… [read more]


History of Abnormal Psychology Essay

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¶ … Human behavior has long been studied in order to understand how people generally interact with one another. Ideas about what is considered "normal" versus "abnormal" have changed since ancient times, and a quick summary of the origins of abnormal psychology, its evolution into a scientific discipline, and the basic theoretical models will provide a better insight into this topic.

Abnormal psychology is the study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning (Hansell & Damour, 2005). Since ancient times, many societies have attempted to treat and understand mental disorders. Some early societies believed that the mentally ill (or the abnormal group) were dangerous people with insufficient self-control to be normal (Comer, 2003). As far as historians can ascertain, Paleolithic people saw no distinction between medicine, magic, and religion. Thus, mentally ill patients were dealt with harshly, inhumanely, and with extreme methods of releasing the demons or spirits that were believed to live in the minds of the "abnormal." Examples of this mindset are shown in archaeological digs dating back as far as 8,000 B.C where skulls are found with holes drilled into them (Long, 2009). Furthermore, many early societies believed that demons caused abnormal behavior and those who were suspected to be affected by evil spirits were sent to prison or asylums.

Since the treatment of abnormal behaviors was wholly based on the cultural perception of the abnormal, ancient societies viewed torture as an option. As previously mentioned, the drilling of a hole into a person's skull, or trepanation, was thought to allow the demon or spirits to escape the individual, thus correcting the abnormal behavior, according to Comer (2003). During the inquisition, individuals displaying deviant or abnormal behavior were subject to being burned, pressed, hung and murdered. In the early part of the 20th century, asylums still existed, however the work of Sigmund Freud

and others led to the development of psychotherapy to help treat those with 'abnormal' behaviors. Modern science and physicians began to understand that 'abnormal' behaviors were based on cultural relativism and were not always significant of a mental illness or a disease (Long, 2009). During the 1700's and 1800's, people started investigating the idea that abnormal behavior could be caused by serious personal problems and even physical conditions. Comer introduces the German psychiatrist, Emil Kraepelin, and then Sigmund Freud, the famous Austrian doctor, as the developers of theoretical models for abnormal behavior. Their work and the research of others led to the development of psychotherapy to help treat those with 'abnormal' behavior.

Becoming a Scientific…… [read more]


Evolution of Cognitive Psychology Essay

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Evolution of Cognitive Psychology

Cognition is a term that means "the process of thought." It has been at the very basis for science, philosophy, and cultural debate since societies came together to form groups that differentiated individuals and allowed some to ponder the eternal questions: how do humans think? Is what we think reality? How do we gather information? Cognitive… [read more]


How Cognitive Psychology With Cognitive Restructuring Impacts Rape Victims Research Paper

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¶ … rape victims deal with the consequences of their experience, they may need assistance in areas such as communication, decision making and problem solving. The purpose of this paper will be to discuss and describe successful cognitive restructuring methods, cognitive coping styles and other effective types of therapy which help victims cope with post rape fear and anxiety symptoms, including ways to overcome the underlying fear that rape victims might continue to have after standard therapy and counseling. Since it has been found that victims who perceive within themselves a strong sense of control over present, as well as future circumstances, experience less depression and exhibit less social withdrawal than survivors with little experience of control over their environment or their future, the goal of determining the victim's long-term reaction to rape appears to be one of cognitive flexibility and openness vs. inflexibility. I believe reaching this goal is affected by a combination of the victim's resilience and the type of therapy used. Types of cognitive restructuring therapies which foster a sense of self-efficacy in patients will be examined. However, as victims of rape who have undergone cognitive therapy exhibit symptoms "associated with reductions in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and problematic . . . thoughts as well as increases in the number of…… [read more]


Conceptual Foundations of Social Psychology Essay

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Social psychology is the study of how groups and people interact with one another. Psychologists study this, and sociologists study it, as well (Livingston & Judge, 2008). There are different goals that these two groups have, though, and they look at the issue differently and for different reasons (Livingston & Judge, 2008). The interactions of people are fascinating to a lot of scholars, but whether groups are studied or whether individuals are studied more closely has a lot to do with whether one is looking at a sociologist or a psychologist. Regardless of who is being studied, however, what is studied is very similar. Situationism is one area that is very important to explore, because it flies in the face of most of the previous theories (Molden & Dweck, 2006).

Situationism basically says that how a person reacts to his or her circumstances and situation has much more to do with that individual's personality than genetic traits (Livingston & Judge, 2008). If people are really influenced more by their situations than they are by their motivations and other internal factors, that will seriously upset many of the ideas that are seen in the field of psychology today. Social psychology, therefore, is a concept that not everyone can agree on (Livingston & Judge, 2008). One area where these kinds of theories and beliefs can be more easily tested is work and employment, because it is much different in many cases from home life.

First impressions in the workplace are usually fairly accurate, and someone can generally tell after a few minutes whether they are going to like someone else, or whether the differences between the two of them are too great to overlook. These situational issues are at the heart of situationism and play a large role in social psychology. People who can respect others' differences are important to the dynamics of any group, and will greatly contribute to decision-making (Livingston & Judge, 2008). Likewise, some differences are important in all kinds of work environments, because they contribute to group dynamics and therefore help with decision making, but differences that are too large can sometimes cause people to spend too much time worrying about or arguing about differences instead…… [read more]


Social Psychology Any Attempt to Find Essay

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Social Psychology

Any attempt to find a single definition of social psychology will locate several versions, which, from extreme to extreme, seem to actually conflict with each other. This definition has varied considerably over time, since a century ago when this field was studied within the realm of sociology and not psychology. Psychologists of the late 19th century had no interest.

But, to make a long story short, we will use a definition of social psychology from Applied Social Psychology, (Schneider, Gruman, & Coutts, SAGE, 2005) which was adapted from several other books, (e.g. Feldman, 1998; Myers, 2002), thus we feel safe that this is a somewhat generally accepted definition: "social psychology may be defined as the science that seeks to understand how people think about, feel about, relate to, and influence one another."

The basic assumption of this science is that the way individuals think and how they behave are always influenced by their circumstances at the time -- their situation.

Today, social psychology has a practical ring to it. The science and the research accompanying it are used to examine phenomena such as the influence of advertising of all kinds on human behavior, and many of the consumer behaviors, like why people purchase the things they do.

Social psychology in today's world is also focused on group behavior, and both individual and group opinions about every kind of social issue such as the general quality of life, quality of work life, and violence. This leads to explanations for how people deal with stress and the consequences of their behaviors in attempting to handle the various stresses they are under such as anti-social behavior.

Social Psychology vs. Clinical Psychology

Clinical psychologists treat individuals and people in groups, but they generally are focused on treating individual emotional disorders along with mental and behavioral problems. They…… [read more]


Social Behavior Essay

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Altruism

Social Behavior

Empathy: Selfless identification or selfless aid?

The experimental psychologist Daniel Batson (1981) defined empathy as the degree to which another human being is able to selflessly identify with another individual's plight. In one experiment, he subjected an individual known as 'Elaine' to mild electric shocks. Elaine was, in fact, a confederate of the experimenters, not a fellow test subject as the actual subject was lead to believe. The real test subject was asked, after Elaine was subjected to two shocks, if he or she would change places with Elaine. Different variables were introduced into the experiment to increase the likelihood of empathy with the subject. The experiment also involved two scenarios -- one in which the test subject was given an easy 'escape' (he or she was given the option of leaving, after witnessing two shocks) or a difficult 'escape' (he or she would have to witness ten shocks).

For example, Elaine was described as someone with similar values to the test subject, as well as someone who had previously experienced a traumatic incident when she was electrically shocked by accident. An 'easy' escape and a low rate of empathic sameness tended to result in people refusing to switch. An easy escape and a high rate of perceived similarity increased the likelihood that the subject would switch places, and mimicked more closely the scenario when the test subject was put into a situation where it was difficult to politely extricate him or herself from switching places. Another experiment confirming Batson's belief in the existence of empathy can be found in the case of his 'Janet' experiment, whereby a confederate 'Janet' read a sad story -- after being induced into a high or low empathic state, subjects were asked how much time they would like to spend with Janet. High empathy test subjects reported a desire to spend longer period of time with Janet than those in lower empathic states.

However, according to Cialdini (1987), purely empathetic identification does not originate with a forgetting of the self and identification with another human being, but is designed to alter a personal feeling of discomfort. Cialdini's experiments suggested "an observer of a suffering other is likely to react in one of two primary ways to the victim's plight: by reducing the other's need through helping or by escaping the situation. The egoistically motivated observer would be expected to choose the option entailing the smallest personal cost…. An altruistically motivated observer, however, should be principally concerned with reducing the other's suffering" (Cialdini et al. 1987, p.750). The focus is always on the self, in other words and the intensity of the need to relieve one's personal pain, not the pain of the subject. 'True' empathy, after all, would mean that subjects were always willing to change places with Elaine even if they had the option of leaving and did not have to witness more shocks.

Cialdini suggests that…… [read more]


Cognitive Psychology Research Paper

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Cognitive psychology is stated to be "concerned with the advances in the study of memory, language processing, perception, problem solving and thinking" according to editor of the Journal of Cognitive Psychology, G.D. Logan. (2009) Logan states that areas of research in cognitive psychology include the areas relating to: (1) artificial intelligence; (2) developmental psychology; (3) linguistics; (4) neurophysiology; and (5) social psychology. (Logan, 2009) This work will identify four key milestones in the development of cognitive psychology as a discipline and will discuss the importance of behavioral observation in cognitive psychology.

Introspection

Introspection was first stated by Wilhelm Wundt in a 1907 paper that criticized the Wurzburg psychologists' thought experiments. Wundt stated four rules for the introspective practice as follows: (1) the introspective observer must be able to decide for himself at what point to begin observing the mental process under investigation; (2) the observer must be in a state of heightened attention; (3) each observation must be repeated again and again under the same conditions; and (4) circumstances under which the phenomenon occurs must be investigated by varying the accompanying experimental situations. Wundt's rules and practices for scientific introspection are related to contemporary debates in cognitive science over the nature and proper use of introspection.

II. Behaviorism

The Behaviorist school of thought arose in a response to Wundt's introspection. This view is one described by John B. Watson as a view that is a "...purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness. The behaviorist, in his efforts to get a unitary scheme of animal response, recognizes no dividing line between man and brute. The behavior of man, with all of its refinement and complexity, forms only a part of the behaviorist's total scheme of investigation." (1878-1958)

III. Structuralism

Also a key milestone in the development of cognitive psychology was the school of thought referred to as Structuralism. Structuralism has as its focus the division of mental processes into the basic components. Difficulties noted with Structuralism included the fact that observers were highly trained however, there was no consistency in self-reporting across individuals and furthermore, the contents of reports were not observable and this led to difficulty in scientific study. John B. Watson states of Structuralism that while he did not wish to "... unduly...criticize psychology" that he believed that it had failed "to make its place in the world as an undisputed natural science. Psychology, as it is generally thought of, has something…… [read more]


Biological Psychology Essay

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Psychology - Biological Psychology

BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL CONCEPTS

The Origin and Development of Biological Theories of Psychology:

The earliest known origin of biological theories of human psychology go back to antiquity, as much as a millennium before the Common Era. More recently, classical philosophers of the Middle Ages, and later, of the post-Enlightenment era considered the relationship of biology and human psychology in relation to concepts of free will, biological determinism, and moral responsibility (Pinker, 2002). In the 17th century, Rene Descartes postulated that all human behavior could be explained by a sufficiently detailed understanding of biological processes and systemic reactions (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2005).

In the 19th century, Paul Broca investigated the role of brain injury and abnormalities in relation to human speech. Broca was eventually able to establish through empirical evidence that a specific region of the brain was responsible for human speech; in connection with that discovery, the region was later named Broca's area in recognition of the importance of his foundational work in the field of biopsychology (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2005). At approximately the same time, the both the medical world and the emerging field of neuropsychology were advanced substantially by the accident that occurred to railway worker Phineas Gage in 1848.

Gage had been the victim of an explosion accident that caused a 3-foot, 7-inch steel rod to pierce his skull and lodge itself through his brain, its ends protruding from below his left eye socket and from the top of his skull in the area of the frontal cortex.

The fact that Gage survived in the pre-antibiotic era of medicine and before Lister's Germ Theory of disease was unexpected. The fact that he did provided some of the earliest evidence of the extent to which specific areas of the brain are responsible for specific aspects of human personality (Dennet, 1991). Gage survived the accident but with significant personality changes that were attributable directly to the destruction of a portion of his frontal cortex.

Major Underlying Assumption of Biological Theory of Psychology:

The major underlying assumptions of biological theories of psychology are that psychological behavior is merely the external expression of variations in biological structure, processes, and responses to stimuli. According to the bio-psychological or neurophysiological theory of human behavior, hard-wired elements of brain structure and other individual characteristics of biological structure determine the way that organisms respond to the external environment. This…… [read more]


Psychology - Freud the Freudian Perspective Essay

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Psychology - Freud

THE FREUDIAN PERSPECTIVE of PERSONALITY STRUCTURE

Explain Freud's views on the structure of personality and the functions of each of the structures he proposed.

Freud described the human mind as comprising three specific major components, each with distinct - and in some cases, conflicting - characteristics and functions (Gerrig and Zimbardo 2005). The "Id" corresponds to unexamined and unchecked human desires; consequently, it also represents the childhood phase of human personality development in which the individual relates to the external world exclusively in terms of wants. Freud emphasized the connection between the Id and the "pleasure principle" and suggested that it is the primary basis for the dominance of sexual pleasure, particular, in the hierarchy of human energy (Gerrig and Zimbardo 2005).

The "Super Ego" represents the polar opposite of the Id by virtue of its function to limit the degree to which the adult behavior is controlled by the Id (Pinker 2002). It equates with human moral conscience because it is responsible for maintaining learned social rules and the principles valued by parents and society. Freud conceived of the Super Ego as consisting of (1) the Ideal, representing behaviors known by the individual to be desired by parents and other authority figures, and (2) the conscience, representing the individual's innate need to comply with the Ideal. Therefore, the Super Ego is also the source of human guilt (Pinker 2002).

The "Ego" is a modulating force that, according to Freud, mediates between the unexamined wants of the Id and the limitations of the Super Ego. The Ego is synonymous with rationality and adulthood; more specifically, the Ego provides the proverbial "voice of reason" that keeps the individual from gravitating to close to either of the two polar extremes represented by the Id and the Super Ego (Gerrig…… [read more]


Psychology Master's Degree: Methodology Degree Concentration Term Paper

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Psychology Master's Degree: Methodology

Degree Concentration:
Master of Sciences in Interdisciplinary Studies with a concentration in
Psychology

Degree Rationale:
By establishing a base education in Psychology that is centered in
interdisciplinary contexts, I anticipate creating a wide array of
opportunities for participation in practice, research or instruction which
can incorporate any number of scholastic subjects. For instance, though my
attention… [read more]


Child Psychology Term Paper

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Child Psychology

DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES

The nature vs. nurture theory has been around since time immemorial. Academicians and great thinkers alike had been baffled by the mysteries of the human mind and the human being himself. So great is the mystery of God's most precious creature that various disciplines were established just to solve the mystery. There is Anatomy that studies… [read more]


Organizational Behavior Has Emerged as a Prominent Term Paper

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Organizational behavior has emerged as a prominent field of study because of the desire of managers and leaders to better understand the intrinsic and extrinsic variables that shape the development and success of operations. While investigations into organizational behavior have demonstrated that there are a wide range of variables which can impact outcomes for the organization, in recent years, attention… [read more]


Discovery of Psychology Term Paper

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Discovery of Psychology

At the end of the 19th century the basis of psychology as a science were laid by Wundt, William James, and Ribot. In general lines, across decades the points of interest seem to have remained the same while the perspective changed, focusing more and more upon the experimental approach.

In an article published in 1917, Pillsbury stated that at first, with some important exceptions, experiment has been confined to sensation, to Weber's Law, space perception and to reaction times. Ebbinghaus had worked on memory, while only preliminary experiments had been made upon association and the ideational processes. There were few studies on the physiological correlates of mental processes and most of the results obtained were found later to be incorrect. In the early period of psychology there was an interest to the central problems of science but the applications in various fields were completely neglected. For instance, even the educational problems were not considered in relation to this field.

After the developments in each field have been traced, it would be interesting to note the progress made for each domain (for instance, animal psychology, cognitive psychology etc.). The main areas of interest have been, from the beginning intelligence testing, personality, perception, emotion, how does the brain work etc. In time, this main areas of interest formed separate branches of psychology. For instance, neuropsychology, personality psychology, social psychology, statistics and methodology, developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, animal psychology, experimental psychology etc.

If we should refer to the major concerns in 19th century psychology, it is important to mention free will and consciousness. In the 20th century, the major moves in psychology made the greatest accomplishments. For instance, Freud and psychoanalysis recognized the importance of the unconscious, Skinner and behaviorism shifted the focus to what is observable and measurable: the human behavior and promoted important behavioral techniques to change behavior; Gestalt psychology was established by Wertheimer, focusing on the Gestalt or the unified or meaningful whole; according to this theory people are built to experience the structured whole as well as the…… [read more]


Psychology of Women Term Paper

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¶ … Psychology in women [...] depression in women as a result of emotional, physical, and mental abuse. Psychologically, women are more likely to suffer from depression than men (Editors). Women suffer from depression for a variety of reasons, from post-partum depression after giving birth to any number of emotional and physical reasons, such as abuse and fear of abuse.… [read more]


Depression Disorder Term Paper

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Depression Disorder

Psychology-Disorders

This paper is about depression. It will cover the DSM diagnostic criteria, and discuss the development of depression from two viewpoints, CBT (cognitive-behavioral therapy) and the biochemical and environmental components which are linked causative factors. This paper will then cover the four key indicators of depression, including physical, cognitive, social and emotional symptoms.

Description of depression

DSM-IV… [read more]

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