Study "Psychology / Behavior / Psychiatry" Essays 111-164

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Buddhist Psychology Term Paper

… Buddhist Psychology

Compared to Western Psychology, what are the characteristic features Buddhist approaches to the mind? To what extent can these fruitfully interact?

Psychologist Daniel Goleman sums up one of the central disparities in the different views of mind between… [read more]


Psychology Briefly Describe the Differences Among Positive Term Paper

… Psychology

Briefly describe the differences among positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment. Give examples of how each might be used to influence behavior.

Positive reinforcement refers to a reward given for behavior that is desirable. For example, if a dog performs a trick on command the owner might offer a cookie. Parents might offer positive reinforcement for their kids' good grades by raising their allowance or taking them out to dinner. Negative reinforcement involves behavioral training using aversion techniques, used also to encourage a desirable behavior. For example, the parents refused to give their kids any allowance money unless they brought home good grades, or made the child do the dishes every day until they brought home an "A." Punishment, on the other hand, refers to behavioral conditioning using a negative stimulus in order to discourage undesirable behavior. For example, if a child comes home with an "F" on his or her report card the parents might punish him or her by grounding or withholding allowance money.

2. With regard to needs, how do men and women different in needs for affiliation and power?

Some research shows that men and women differ in terms of their needs for affiliation and power. It is possible that men need to feel more powerful and therefore seek positions of power and control, while women need more to be affiliated with power. Some women are attracted to men who are powerful. This may be due to evolutionary needs.

3. Briefly describe what is meant by nature vs. nurture debate in psychology. Discuss what position most developmental psychologists take on this debate and give an example of a developmental process…… [read more]


Psychology Sensation and Perception Work Together Term Paper

… Psychology

Sensation and perception work together to help us see the world. Most people use these terms as interchangeable concepts. However, they are separate functions and each compliments the other.

Sensation is the process that allows the body to take… [read more]


Psychology Analysis When I First Began Term Paper

… Psychology Analysis

When I first began this class, I felt that psychology was a field designed to help people who were 'mentally challenged' or having emotional troubles better deal with the challenges that faced them on an every day basis. As a business/finance major working full time for a residential/appraisal firm, I was not certain that I would benefit from a class on psychology, but was interested to learn about psychology in general. Much of my experience with psychology had been limited to things I had read in the newspaper or seen in the media. I assumed that most of psychology was concerned with counseling, and I had primarily considered the field of psychology as one reserved for social workers and medical physicians, and not something that could benefit an individual in an ordinary working environment.

My opinion of the field and its application to my life have changed significantly from this course. I feel that psychology is now tremendously relevant to any field and any industry, and can help people not only learn to communicate but also cope, interact and interpret behaviors and perceptions. I have learned through this course that psychology is a diverse field that is multi-faceted, with applications for the medical and also business community. I learned that human nature is the result of psychological processes.

During the course I began to recognize my own behavior patters, motivators and thinking processes, and also began to realize how my attitudes, beliefs and emotions might impact my relationships with others, personal and professional.

I would define psychology as the holistic study, observation, evaluation and even interpretation of human emotions, attitudes and behaviors. Psychology is a field that embraces human behaviors and attempts to define them. The field of psychology has also developed behavioral models that help explain methods of thinking and acting.

I feel that psychology can be applied to prevent and even eliminate problematic behaviors or conditions in people from a personal or a work perspective. It can also be used to help individuals excel in their chosen field, understand the complex nature of relationships, and build successful teams when used appropriately.

There is virtually no aspect of every day existence, human behavior or emotions that psychology does not address. Interestingly I learned that it is a profession that embraces educators and skilled counselors, employment and otherwise, to work toward a common goal of helping humans achieve their very best.

The field of psychology doesn't simply involve helping people with mental or emotional challenges. Rather the practice is wide ranging and involves many different areas including intelligence and personality, skills and abilities, psychological well being, behavior analysis, emotions and feelings, illness, injury, consultation and education. Psychology can be applied to individuals or groups.

I can use psychology in my chosen field to asses my own motivations and interests in employment and to help me interpret my own beliefs, attitudes and behaviors. I can also use it to analyze interactions and my interpersonal relationships with other members of… [read more]


on Abnormal Psychology Case Study

… Normal behavior does not neglect personal hygiene and eating habits. It neither favors abnormal sleeping habits and withdrawal both from fellow employees and close friends. Normal behavior cannot make Lamanda give up on her career ambitions and give up meeting Morris and her parents fearing disapproval. Lamanda occasionally drinks and has tasted marijuana and mushroom. Lamanda's behavioral change is obviously psychopathology case.

I would refer Lamanda for medical evaluation noting the serious changes in her physical body and her sporadic dating. Lamanda has lost her muscle mass, and her hair has become thinner and stringy. These symptoms are clear indications that she could need immediate medical evaluation and attention.

The additional assessment instruments I might use to assess Lamanda's condition and her risk for lethality and current substance abuse are interviews and observation. I will combine the use of structured, semi-structures and unstructured interview questions to assess her. In doing my observation, I will employ the mental status exam; rating scales specifically using personality tests; and behavioral coding systems. These assessment instruments will give me a true picture of the psychopathology of the patient.

Q2:

In the treatment plan of Lamanda, a basic treatment plan is first doing and psychotherapy, in response to the assessment results, and then monitoring the patient closely through the therapies. The behaviors, symptoms and psychosocial behavior to be targeted through this therapy include the social alienation, the change in sleeping and eating habits, feeling of disinterest in things that were once important, low self-esteem and the sedentary lifestyle. During the therapies, Lamanda should be helped through behavioral changes and acquiring of new habits. In the event that Lamanda's case worsens, then the biotherapy and institutionalization treatment can be explored.

Q3:

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is an illness type, whose symptoms' severity changes over time. On the other hand, the Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) is a personality style that is overly rigid nature and does not change a lot in the lifetime of a person. OCD is often characterized with compulsions and obsessions, which OCPD is not associated with, in its expression. On the other hand, people with OCPD have rigid views on right vs. wrong things in life, while this does not characterize OCD people. People OCD struggle to get rid of the symptoms seen while the OCPD people find nothing wrong with their behavioral system.

Q4

Child development occurs right from birth to adulthood, but it was neglected in the past. However, research and work in the child development field has revealed the importance of considering the development in children. Any early childhood development worker, especially counselors, needs to be aware and understand the developmental theories to be effective in their work with children. The awareness of developmental theories will allow a counselor working with children to take account of the emotional, physical, cognitive, educational and social growth of children from birth into early adulthood. Some of these theories describe all aspects of child development, which when understood by a counselor, will be able to… [read more]


History of Social Psychology Research Paper

… The Supreme Court as evidence to prove that segregation would generate a feeling of inferiority later cited these results. Clark was also the first Africa American elected as President of the American Psychological Association.

Evelyn Hooker studied the psychosocial adjustment of gay men out of prison or hospital. She was the first social scientist to conduct such a study. The results of her study demonstrated heterosexual and gay men did not have any difference, which challenged the antigay stereotypes. Her results eventually led to the removal of homosexuality as a mental disorder from the American Psychiatric Association diagnostic manual (Baumeister & Finkel, 2010). Albert Bandura brought in the notion that it is possible to model behavior in the social world. He developed the social learning theory where he divided children into three groups. The children watched a video where the adult would be aggressive towards a doll. The adult would either be rewarded or published by another adult. The children who saw the video where the adult was rewarded were more likely to copy the adult's behavior. Leon Festinger, Stanley Schacter, and Black established cognitive dissonance in 1950. The argued that when a person holds on to beliefs, cognitions, and attitudes that are different they experience dissonance. Individuals will then try to change this by modifying their beliefs, thoughts, or attitudes. Dissonance will mostly occur when there are hard decisions or choices or when a person participates in a behavior that is against their attitude. Tajfel and Turner formulated the social identity theory, which stated that an individual has a need to maintain a positive sense of social and personal identity. The researchers conducted an experiment where they divided artificial groups. When the members of the group were requested to allocate points to others either in their group or the other group, they tended to award their group members more points.

Historic link to psychology and sociology

Social psychology is linked to sociology in that both these fields study the same topics. The major difference is that both of them are analyzing the topics from different perspectives. Social psychology focuses on the influence that people will have on an individual, but sociology will focus on the influence of societal variable like people's social role, socio-economic status, and cultural norms. There have been studies conducted to analyze how culture influences social behavior. Cultural influences are normally conducted in sociology and not social psychology. Understanding the roles of influence from other aspects would strengthen the field. Groups are formed based in different aspects. Social influence is studied to establish how group dynamics can influence an individual. Cultural aspects could also be studied in the group. In studies to demonstrate conformity, one can see that there is a link between sociology and social psychology. Sociology would analyze the group in terms of cultural influences, while social psychology would analyze the effects of the group on an individual. The study conducted by Solomon Asch on conformity is a good example of the link between… [read more]


Historical Milestones in Cognitive Psychology Term Paper

… What eventually emerged was the assumption that the behavioral choices of any organism, including humans, could be predicted if enough of an organisms learning history could be known. Clark Hull went so far as to propose that all behaviors could be reduced to mathematical equations. The most famous behaviorist by far was B.F. Skinner, who developed the principles of operant conditioning. Although behaviorism marginalized the importance of cognition, its influence helped make careful, objective approaches to research the cornerstone of cognitive psychology.

During World War II, information processing emerged as the solution to behaviorism's limits in explaining cognitive processes like thinking, memory, and language production (Kellogg, 1995, p. 13-14). The information processing model assumes mental processes are not that different from a computer capable of sensing and responding to environmental changes, but this discipline also suggested that it would be eventually possible to create machines that 'think.' A.M. Turing pioneered this work with computational theory, which eventually led to the development of the computer, artificial intelligence, and cognitive science. Information processing therefore helped counter behaviorism's rejection of the mind and thinking as important to behavioral outcomes and helped build the foundation upon which modern cognitive psychology would emerge.

Importance of Behavioral Observation

Cognitive psychology research depends on objective measures of mental processes (Kellogg, 1995, p. 20-26). The basic cognitive mechanisms of interest to cognitive psychologists are sensation, perception, attention, and memory, which can all be studied using behavioral observation. For example, memory processes can be studied by how well a subject is able to recall a word list. The independent variable might be the number of words included in the list, while the dependent variable could be the number of words the subject was able to recall. In contrast, experiments investigating sensation could involve the independent and dependent variables of color presentation and reaction time, respectively.

Conclusions

The theoretical foundations upon which cognitive psychology was built are diverse and include Darwin's theory of evolution, structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, and information processing. From this sometimes tumultuous philosophical milieu emerged a discipline emphasizing the scientific method and the importance of cognitive processes like thinking and language for determining behavioral outcomes. In a very real way, the emergence of cognitive psychology has depended on a process not unlike natural selection as the best from each theory was kept and improved and the worst rejected.

References

Kellogg, R.T. (1995). Cognitive Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Parsons, L.M. (2001). Integrating cognitive…… [read more]


Humanistic Psychology and Multiculturalism Term Paper

… With the current emphasis on individualizing therapeutic interventions juxtaposed against empirical science, there is an inherent tension with the "…more recent developments in the philosophy of science [that] reveal the impossibility of ever totally separating values from science" (Freidman & Robbins, 2012). Humanistic psychology embraces qualitative approaches, inviting "a 'feminine' version of existential psychology [that] really stresses the emphasis on depth, presence, and being" (Kass, 2014, p. 131). The liberal underpinnings of humanistic psychology that embrace feminism and multiculturalism are important from another perspective.

Biases can derive from cultural influences that are obtuse -- liberalism can serve to put the drivers of bias under a scientific microscope, so to speak. For instance, in a study of color preference, Duckitt and Wall (1999) found that preschoolers preferred the color white over the color black, and that these preferences carried over to their perceptions of other preschoolers in their South African context. A more liberal-leaning paradigm provides tacit approval for revealing this sort of culturally-based thinking.

While evidenced-based approaches continue to dominate the research, there is also recognition that individualized approaches can result in strong interventions that include multicultural factors, specifically, and diversity in general. These constructs are the purview of both positive psychology and humanistic psychology.

References

Duckitt, J. And Wall, C. (1999). Color bias and racial preferenes in white South African preschool children. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 160(2), 143-154.

Elkins, D.N. (2009). Why humanistic psychology lost its power and influence in American psychology: Implications for advancing humanistic psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 49(3), 267-291.

Friedman, H.L. And Robbins, B.D. (2012). The negative shadow cast by positive psychology: Contrasting views and implications of humanistic and positive psychology on resiliency. The Humanistic Psychologist, 40, 87-102.

Glazner, P.L. And Hill, J.P. (2013). Why most American universities have given up on human purpose and meaning: a critical exploration of the historical story. Journal of Beliefs and Values, 34(3), 289-299.

Kass, S.A. (2014). Don't fall into these stereotype traps: women and feminism in existential therapy. Journal of Humanistic Thinking, 54(2), 131-157.

Schneider, K.J. (2014, January). Humanistic and positive psychology need each other, and to advance, our field needs both. American Psychologist, 92. DOI:…… [read more]


Careers in Psychology Capstone Project

… Continuous update with emerging issues is of utmost importance or else the person will be obsolete in the practice. Moreover, some states require that a special body need to register the forensic psychologists after they do a certification exams.

The rewards of forensic psychologists lie on the hands of the experience, educational standards, and the location of practice. However, one is likely to earn not less than $61, 000 coupled with other benefits. One also finds satisfaction in the job as the families who are at a crisis of losing their friends or relatives through crimes finds justice. This is a specialization that I would like to find myself in after my basic psychology program.

Finally, being a bio-psychologist has never come into my mind, but after a detailed research, it dawned on me as a very interesting field with good results. In the study, I came up with a conclusive statement that psychology encompasses the whole body and not the mind only. It approaches a person holistically. Some small things such as diet, thinking process, attitude, rest, or sleep may seem very insignificant. However, with the knowledge of biopsychology, they are the core driving forces in the mental well-being of human life.

There erupted a surge in interest to pursue this course, due to various factors. It is interesting to note that I scored very well in Biology during the high school. This is the first area I majored. In addition, the interests of becoming a medical doctor were always in the heart. This is the time I can turn the tables and venture in the specialization closely related to medicine. My rich background in biology and biological ideas will be of good value to help in analyzing people's problems and help them in developing assistive conclusions. Specializing in this field is rewarding because biological issues have been a part of my interests for a long time.

Completing undergraduate programs in these fields required one to have a driving force that will enable someone to achieve the life dreams easily. Therefore, I must be involved in academic work and research on the emerging issues in these fields more than before if I have to remain knowledgeable. Furthermore, I must form linkages with the future employers so that I can learn more of practical things than the theoretical aspects. The practical aspects will foster the growth of skills and other technicalities before I specialize.

References

Accredited Forensic Psychology Schools and Degrees Online. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.psychologyschoolguide.net/forensic-psychology/

Biopsychology | The Psych Files. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.thepsychfiles.com/category/topics/biological-psychology/

Kuther, T.L., & Morgan, R.D. (2013). Careers in psychology: Opportunities in a changing world. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.

Perception | The Psych Files. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.thepsychfiles.com/category/topics/perception/

Social Psychology Careers. (n.d.). CareersInPsychologyorg. Retrieved February 8, 2014, from http://careersinpsychology.org/becoming-a-social-psychologist/

Social Psychology | The Psych Files. (n.d.). Social Psychology | The Psych Files. Retrieved February 9, 2014, from http://www.thepsychfiles.com/category/topics/social-psychology/… [read more]


Methodology of CBT Research Paper

… Studies of the efficiency of CBT for different disorders wanted to seek answers to common questions. Researchers explore whether CBT is an effective therapy method for a particular disorder through "open-label" trials, where all participants in the study receive CBT and change is analyzed from before to after treatment. If the treatment is demonstrated to be effective, it is vital to determine its long-term effectiveness once therapy sessions have ended (Roth, Eng,&Heimberg, 2002) . The article delves into the efficacy of CBT for a variety of disorders. First is mood disorders, CBT have not been shown to particularly effective over any other therapy treatment. A study conducted by the National Institutes of Mental Health showed that CBT was only slightly more effective than interpersonal psychotherapy and tricyclic antidepressants for mild depression but less effective for more severe cases (Roth, Eng,&Heimberg, 2002). For anxiety disorders, CBT is seen as the primary treatment of choice and has been used for years. In the case of bulimia nervosa, CBT has been associated with reductions in negative behaviors and negative though processes (Phillips & Rogers, 2011). CBT, like in anxiety disorders, has proven to be effective in the long-term, implying that clients learn to apply the principles after treatment has ended. CBT has also been used to treat alcohol disorders, successful treatments have been created by applying the foundation of CBT. The goal is not abstinence but moderation, by engaging in self-monitoring and understanding the motives behind drinking, learning ways to reduce drinking, and adapting coping mechanisms.

CBT is an effective treatment for several disorders but it is not perfect. It misperceives the symptoms of the disorder with the causes. Also, CBT studies are not double-blind. The patient is an active member in correcting their negative thoughts; therefore they are aware of the treatment they are receiving. According to Berger (2013), a recent meta-analysis examined the effectiveness of CBT when placed control and blindness were taken into consideration, the study concluded several factors: 1. CBT is no better than non-specific control interventions in the treatment of schizophrenia and does not reduce relapse rates 2. CBT is not effective for the prevention of relapse in bipolar disorder and 3. CBT treatment effects are small in treatment studies of MDD. Berger (2013) also found that results of unblended random clinical trials tend to bias the beneficial effects if the random clinical trials were subjective instead of objective. All these findings call into question the effectiveness of CBT and their findings. However, CBT is something that should be further studied and implemented as it still an alternative therapy that can be utilized if no other treatment is proved effective for a particular disorder.

References:

Berger, D. (n.d.). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Escape From the Binds of Tight Methodology. Psychiatric Times. Retrieved March 25, 2014, from http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/cognitive-behavioral-therapy/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-escape-binds-tight-methodology/page/0/1?cid=fb

Phillips, K.A., & Rogers, J. (2011). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Youth with Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Current Status and Future Directions. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 20(2), 287-304.

Roth, D.A., Eng,… [read more]


Internet Psychology Introduction and Theory Research Paper

… Survey questions were about familiarity with Facebook, and potential barriers to use.

Conclusions of the Research

The majority of survey participants indicated some familiarity with social networking, with the majority (59.6%) also using Facebook on a daily basis. Forty percent of the participants did not use Facebook. The persons who did not use Facebook had various reasons for their avoidance of the social media website. Barriers included fears about security and also cognitive impairment. Many also mentioned a preference for in-person communications. The authors conclude that hands-on, direct training on how to use Facebook could help persons with traumatic brain injury overcome barriers to use. It was found that almost all participants who did not yet use Facebook are curious or interested in using the social networking site. Age and gender were not factors that impacted either usage or interest in using Facebook.

Conclusion: Relationship to Class Discussions

Because the research is concerned with the way behavioral change impacts changes in perception and cognition, the theoretical standpoint is clearly one of cognitive psychology and cognitive-behavioral psychology. However, there are other aspects of this research that connect with what we have discussed in class. Traumatic brain injury touches on neurobiology and related areas of psychological research. Related areas of research could be rooted in neurobiology. For example, a follow-up study might track the brain functions of participants to see if using Facebook actually altered neurochemistry or neurobiology. Perhaps increased social interactions have an effect on the brain. Another area of research could be cross-cultural psychology. The authors did not find any significant difference based on age or gender, but they do not mention what role culture or ethnicity plays either in prognosis for traumatic brain injury or social media attitudes. It is suggested, though, that the current research is biased because the surveys were conducted online. This means that the participants were already using the Internet regularly. Future research needs to have a broader sample population, including people who are not online because of lack of access or personal choice. This research also addresses social psychology. Facebook is a social media tool that allows individuals to connect with others online. Thus, Facebook is ideal for persons with social anxiety and other disorders. The research is limited, but has great potential for helping scientists understand the potential of social media.

Reference

Tsaousides, T., Matsuzawa, Y. & Lebowitz, M. (2011). Familiarity and prevalence of Facebook use for social networking among individuals with traumatic brain…… [read more]


Future Research Agenda That Judge Essay

… , 2008). In sum, Judge and his associates conclude that, "More research is needed to identify which levels of which traits are functional under what conditions" (p. 1993), and it is this question that is addressed in Part 2 below.

Part 2:

1.

Why it is important to study your topic?

In many cases, sophisticated testing regimens for personality traits form part of the hiring decision and, poorly understood and administered, the potential for erroneous decisions based on these tests can be high (Chen & Chen, 2008). For instance, according to McTurk and Shakespeare-Finch (2008), "Barriers to employment are linked to individual factors such as thinking styles and personality traits" (p. 12). As Judge et al. (2008) noted above, response behaviors on personality tests are influenced by a wide range of factors that may skew the results. In this regard, Rost (2002) emphasizes that, "There are so many influences on response behaviour in a typical personality assessment situation that it is hard to imagine that all these factors can be reduced to a single latent trait" (p. 108).

The particularly challenging aspect of the problem is the fact that a sufficiently large number of studies do exist that support the notions concerning any of the various personality traits to the extent that they can be used to confirm or refute the accuracy of a hiring decision whether the decision was a good one in reality or not (Rost, 2002). Furthermore, personality trait testing has a lengthy track record of successfully predicting a wide range of employment outcomes within certain parameters, and busy human resource professionals need these types of tools in order to identify superior candidates for different positions (Rost, 2002).

2.

How replying to your research question empirically may complement existing knowledge?

Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (1985) posited that most people tend to maximize the results of their efforts by identifying optimal ways of using their preferred thinking styles and decision-making abilities that are developed over time in response to individuals strengths and weaknesses. In other words, people develop a comfortable way of making decisions that is based on intuition, experience as well as trial and error. As a result, McTurk and Shakespeare-Finch (2008) report that, "The notion that particular personalities may be over-represented in the unemployed is not an insurmountable hurdle, but rather, knowledge of this may provide a starting point for the implementation of strategies that are tailored to particular personality types" (p. 11).

3.

Who may benefit from the knowledge your suggested research might add, and in what ways?

Human resource practitioners can benefit from an improved understanding of personality traits as well as ways to measure them. In fact, Rost (2002) suggests that, "Personality assessment is not possible without assuring something like a trait. The trait explains the contingencies of observed behaviour, i.e. It explains why people that show a particular behaviour A, also tend to show behaviour B" (p. 109).

References

Chen, J-K & Chen, I-S. (2008, Fall). How can institutes of technology… [read more]


Forensic Psychology From the Perspective Discussion Chapter

… The study concluded that suicidal behaviors occurred at similar rates in both developed and developing countries. Risk indices created via the survey database are able to predict suicide events with relatively good accuracy.

Forensic psychiatrists working with various populations in clinical settings such as prison hospitals or psychiatric institutions can use the created database to identify the risk and prevent suicide among inmates and patients.

The study can also serve as a basis for further research in the clinical setting, where the existing database can be used as inspiration for investigations of smaller, more concentrated populations during shorter spans of time. In other words, more specific risk factors might be identified for populations with a specific uniform risk factor, such as parent psychopathology, for example.

In conclusion, suicide is one of the leading causes of death across the world. An existing database to help create risk indices is very useful in clinical settings, in which the purpose of practice is healing and the preservation of life. In a clinical psychiatric setting, for example, the main advantage is not only saving lives, but also creating greater potential for healing and returning productive citizens to general society. In a forensic prison setting, preventing suicide in inmates can provide a basis for rehabilitation or at the very least the ability of prisoners to take responsibility for their actions.

Finally, investigating suicide risks creates a basis for further research, which could also be applied to more specific settings, such as among school age youth.

References

Borges, G., Nock, M.K., Haro Abad, J.M., Hwang, I., Sampson, N.A., Alonso, J., Andrade, L.H., Angermyre, M.C., Bautrais, A., Bromt, E., Bruffaerts, R., De Girolamo, G., Florescu, S., Lee, S., Levinson, D., Medina-Mora, M.E., Ormel, J., Posada-Villa, J., Sagar, R., Tomov, T., Uda, H., Williams, D.R., and Kessler, R.C. (2010, Dec.). Twelve Month Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 71(12). Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3000886/… [read more]


Cognitive Psychology: Emotions and Cognition Essay

… Cognitive Psychology: Emotions and Cognition

Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that is predominantly occupied with the mental process. These would include how people think, perceive ideas and things, recall and also learn. It is related to other disciplines like philosophy, neuroscience and linguistics. According to Kendra Cherry (2011), cognitive psychology has to do with acquisition, encoding and storage of information in the human brain. It is worth noting at the onset that what makes cognitive psychology stand out is that, different from the behaviorism that predominantly focuses on the behaviors that can be seen, cognitive psychology will go beyond this by taking the observable behavior as a key to the internal mental status which is the main focus of cognitive psychology.

Of central concern here is the relationship between emotions and cognition since there have been varied arguments and discussion on the line between these two. Apparently the line between emotion and cognition seems faint and temporary. The two often go together or one evokes the other and in turn the response of an individual to a situation is as a result of both. There is also need to understand that there is not a fixed order that the emotion and cognition must come but there is variance depending on the situation or the event. Zajonc's R., (1984) indicated that emotional response to a large number of events occurred almost immediately, even before the event is processed in the cognitive part of the brain. Here, it was found out that man can emotionally respond to stimuli that are so subliminal that it can pass the human cognition and consciousness. When perceptual information is received, it is first, even before the cognitive processing, evaluated as good-bad judgment. Incase the stimuli is assessed as a bad one or a threat, then the physiological arousal and avoidance response is triggered. However, this initial response can be revised subsequently upon cognition. To illustrate this is the case where one flinches on a loud bang, before relaxing upon realizing it was not a firearm but a tire burst. Here there was an emotional response before the cognition came in later to clarify the stimuli hence changing the response as well. Here, in as much as the emotional response came first,…… [read more]


ADHD Case Essay

… Additionally, in this case, the clinical psychologist can use the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale (WFIRS) in the case that the WURS does not provide enough or sufficient glimpse into the boy's behavior (Haavik et al. 2010 p 1572). This could be used either as a secondary measure or in correlation with the WURS assessment test. Similar to the WURS assessment test, the WFIRS deals with a number of variables, including behavioral, social, academic, and familial history. This test is for the boy himself to take, as is the self-assessment. As such, it has been designed with a certain degree of flexibility in order to detect any possible understatements that the individual might have about themselves or their condition. With this multifaceted approach to the assessment test, combining the parents and teachers scores can help provide a more effective evaluation of the boy's behavior and current condition. This would help provide a more well-rounded approach to the diagnosis of ADHD, as it counts on the use of third-party assessments, but also assessment from the boy himself.

This would then be finalized with a final assessment interview. In the interview, the boy would be alone with a clinical psychologist and would follow a series of open-ended questions regarding the nature of his behavioral problems. An interview would need to be open-ended because the clinical psychologist would need to have it flexible enough to run with topics that the boy might bring up on his own that signify the presence of a possible ADHD diagnosis. Moreover, the interview should be conducted after the assessment tests. When the interview comes after the self-assessment test, the clinical psychologist can use that self-assessment test as a way to structure interview questions. The clinical psychologist can ask the boy about particular answers that really stuck out within the assessment test. These interviews can be used to help answer any potential looming questions that the rating assessments left open, but also to solidify a potential ADHD diagnosis by actually communicating with the patient in question.

It is clear that the mind of a 13-year-old boy is extremely complicated, and thus understanding it from a clinical psychology perspective will take a number of different measures. As such, in order to provide an efficient assessment for an ADHD diagnosis, a clinical psychologist must undertake a multifaceted approach. This would include a rating scale provided to both the teachers and parents, with a separate one provided to the patient himself. This would then be solidified with patient interviews, which would help answer any looming questions.

References

Haavik, Jan, Halmay, Anne, & Lundervold, Astri. (2010). Clinical assessment and diagnosis of adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Expert Review of Neurotherapuetics, 10(10), 1569-1580.

University of British Colombia. (2011). Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Sef Report. Caddra. Web. http://www.caddra.ca/cms4/pdfs/caddraGuidelines2011WFIRS_S.pdf

Ward MF Wender PH Reimherr FW. The Wender Utah Rating Scale: An aid…… [read more]


Psychology Definitions Psychosis = Loss of Contact Research Paper

… Psychology Definitions

Psychosis = Loss of contact with reality.

Downward drift = Lower achievement than parents or family members in terms of social class, employment, and financial stability.

Positive vs. negative symptoms = Positive symptoms are present in the disorder and characterize it; Negative symptoms are present in normally functioning people, but absent in people with the disorder.

Delusions of persecution = the mistaken belief that someone or something is pursuing the individual and means him or her harm.

Difference between hallucinations and delusions = Hallucinations are sense perceptions, such as hearing, seeing, or smelling things that do not in fact exist in reality. Delusions are patterns of thought about the self or the world that are not true or realistic.

Types of schizophrenia (disorganized, catatonic, paranoid, undifferentiated) = Disorganized: Characterized by disorganized speech patterns.

Catatonic: Movement disturbances.

Paranoid: Including delusions and hallucinations.

Undifferentiated: A combination of symptoms.

Genetics and schizophrenia (first degree relatives of a schizophrenic person more likely than second or third degree relatives to develop schizophrenia) = Refers to the likelihood of inheriting the condition on a genetic level.

Stress-vulnerability model = the model according to which an individual's susceptibility to stress determines his or her likelihood to develop a mental disorder.

Token economy = Systematic positive reinforcement to encourage behavior change.

Milieu therapy = Environmental factors are used to encourage recovery.

Chapter 13

Personality = Elements of character and behavior that make an individual distinct from others.

Difference between personality characteristics and personality disorders = Personality characteristics identify a person as individual. These are generally not harmful. Personality disorders will create some form of disturbance for the sufferer or those around him or her.

Comorbidity = Symptoms of more than one condition experienced by the same…… [read more]


Memory, Cognitive Function, Mood Disorders, and Schizophrenia Term Paper

… ¶ … Lashley sought to find the engram, the physiological representation of learning. In general terms, how would you recognize an engram if you saw one? That is, what would someone have to demonstrate before you could conclude that a… [read more]


According to Psychology Term Paper

… Psychology

Although the Wizard of Oz is not expressly a film about human psychology, its colorful cast of characters lends itself well to the application of multiple theories and issues in psychology. With films such as Analyze This! And a Beautiful Mind, it would seem odd to focus on a film that avoids direct addressing of psychology themes. However, the Wizard of Oz, with enough creative interpretation, can offer an even richer understanding of how the concepts of psychology such as those outlined in the Ciccarelli (2011) text. The Wizard of Oz is about a young woman, Dorothy, who lives with her elder aunt and uncle in Kansas and her dog Toto. An old woman in town threatens to kill Toto because he occasionally runs into her yard. Whereas Aunt Em and Uncle Henry defer to the old woman's power and authority in the community, Dorothy has little respect for the woman and is unwilling to accept her edict. Thus, Dorothy runs away from home to save Toto's life. While she is away, a tornado strikes. Dorothy is knocked unconscious, and the rest of the movie takes place in a dream world in which Dorothy and Toto are on a quest to find the Wizard who can help them to return home. Therefore, theories of consciousness, sleep, dreams, hypnosis, and drugs (Chapter 4) can be applied directly to the Wizard of Oz. Characters like the Wicked Witch are counterparts to real-life characters in Dorothy's life back in Kansas. Therefore, the film can be interpreted on multiple levels, within the framework of psychology. Development (Chapter 8), Motivation (Chapter 9), Personality (Chapter 13), and Psychological Disorders (Chapter 14) are evident throughout the Wizard of Oz.

One of the most notable themes in the Wizard of Oz is related to Chapter 4 on consciousness, sleep, dreams, hypnosis, and drugs. Because most of the movie takes place in an alternate universe inside of Dorothy's mind, the viewer questions reality just as Dorothy does. When she awakens, she recognizes that the characters in Oz corresponded directly to the people in her life. The old woman who wanted to kill Toto corresponds directly to the Wicked Witch. Dorothy's consciousness is uniquely positioned between the two worlds. The dream states explored in the film illustrate how people's consciousness is connected to imagery, memory, and emotion. In addition to actual dreaming and dream states, Dorothy experiences what can easily be called hypnosis. When the Good Witch Glenda asks Dorothy to click her heels together three times and chant, "There's no place like home," Dorothy is hypnotizing herself. She is entering what is possibly the alpha brain wave state, which Ciccarelli describes in Chapter 4. Drugs also play a role in the unfolding of the Wizard of Oz, when the Wicked Witch puts a spell on Dorothy and her friends in the field of poppies. The witch chants, "Poppies! Poppies!" which are a source of the narcotic opium. Under the drug, Dorothy and her friends fall into a deep… [read more]


Psychology Assessment Multiple Choice Questions in Light Assessment

… Psychology Assessment

Multiple Choice Questions

In light of problems posed by the concept of drive, Premack, one of Skinner's followers, proposes that we consider reinforcement:

In terms of the power of discriminative stimuli.

Responses that are intermittently rather than continuously reinforced are:

All of the above.

Skinner's attitude toward the theory of natural selection seemed basically:

Unclear

Skinner argued that internal events such as thoughts:

Should only be studied if they can be observed and measured.

According to the text, the most basic difference between Skinner and the developmentalists has to do with:

The source of developmental change-inner or outer.

The text considers research on televised aggression as:

Supporting some theorists but not others.

In Bandura's theory, direct reinforcements primarily affect:

D. Performances rather than the acquisition of responses.

8.Over the years, Bandura has come to view Piaget's theory as:

B. Still wrong in major respects.

9.Studies on pro-social behavior suggest that:

B. Modeling a behavior for children always has stronger effects than issuing orders.

10. Five-year-olds seem to talk to themselves aloud more often as their work becomes increasingly difficult. This finding supports:

B. Vygotsky.

11. Luria found that when young children try to give themselves verbal commands:

D. They behave as if all commands initiate behavior.

12. One of Vygotsky's laws was that:

C. Children first learn the social forms of behavior, then apply it to themselves.

13. The text most strongly criticizes Vygotsky's educational approach for:

B. Lack of clarity.

14. The text suggests Vygotsky described the interactions between inner and outer forces behind development:

C. In a clearer manner with respect to language than school instruction.

15. Freud would suggest that a young man's anxiety over competition probably reflects earlier problems at:

C. The third stage.

16. What most puzzled Freud about the girl's Oedipus Complex was:

A. Why girls experience penis envy.

17. In general, the strongest fixation seems to be:

A. Excessive gratification.

Part II

The text suggests that the major difference between B.F. Skinner and Jean Piaget is the nature of how we build cognitive structures to analyze stimuli we encounter. Essentially, Skinner presents a more active participant in the image of the learner; he was one who proposed the need for a very active learner, one which required a student to be engaged in the learning process in order to really learn the material of whatever lesson is in question. This was reinforced with most of Piaget's theory as well, advocating an active role for the learner. The two theorists have a very similar notion of the importance of the engagement of the individual learner. Yet, there is one major difference between the two theorists. The text suggests that Piaget was adamant regarding the inner nature of building cognitive structures to understand the world and solve problems. This happened innately according to Piaget. Yet, Skinner believed that the structures for understanding external stimuli was also a learned behavior. Skinner saw the development for schemas to understand experiences was a result of conditioning… [read more]


Psychology Definitions Abnormal Essay

… Historical treatment approaches (demonology, trephination, asylums, and psychotropic medication) - Throughout time, societies have proposed several explanations of abnormal behavior within human beings. Beginning in some hunter-gatherer societies, animists have believed that people demonstrating abnormal behaviors are possessed by malevolent spirits. This idea has been associated with trepanation, the practice of cutting a hole into the individual's skull in order to release the malevolent spirits. Although it has been difficult to define abnormal psychology, one definition includes characteristics such as statistical infrequency. A more formalized response to spiritual beliefs about abnormality is the practice of exorcism. Performed by religious authorities, exorcism is thought of as another way to release evil spirits who cause pathological behavior within the person. In some instances, individuals exhibiting unusual thoughts or behaviors have been exiled from society or worse. Perceived witchcraft, for example, has been punished by death. Two Catholic Inquisitors wrote the Malleus Maleficarum (Latin for 'The Hammer against Witches'), that was used by many Inquisitors and witch-hunters. It contained an early taxonomy of perceived deviant behavior and proposed guidelines for prosecuting deviant individuals. The act of placing mentally ill individuals in a separate facility known as an asylum dates to 1547, when King Henry VIII of England established the St. Mary of Bethlehem asylum. Asylums remained popular throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance era. Psychotropic medications are psychiatric medicines that alter chemical levels in the brain which impact mood and behavior.

Client-centered therapy (unconditional positive regard, conditions of worth, authenticity) - Unconditional positive regard: basic acceptance and support of a person regardless of what the person says or does and is essential to healthy development. People who have not been exposed to it may come to… [read more]


Psychology of School Shootings and There Aftermath Term Paper

… Psychology of School Shooting and Their Aftermath

Cyber LAW

As schools across the U.S. continue their everyday activities, in the aftermath of the recent shootings, teachers of teenagers may be motivated to observe their students more closely to see if… [read more]


Psychology Learning Experience Understanding Term Paper

… Conditioned Stimulus: Petrol will be the conditioned stimulus. Since it possesses the chemical agent, petrol will act as a conditioned stimulus. The response that the body generated for the chemical agent will slowly began to be the response that the body generates for petrol.

Conditioned Response: The conditioned response will be the feeling associated with the chemical agent. You no longer have to provide the chemical agent to get that response, petrol will do the trick.

Similar to the example given above, it is important to understand that classical conditioning can be applied in different ways. For example, if you want a response towards petrol pump to be learned then you can keep petrol as the unconditioned stimulus and petrol pump as the conditioned stimulus. Due to this you will slowly start developing the same feelings for the petrol pump that you have for petrol.

Operant Conditioning and My Learning

You can also trigger learning via Operant Conditioning i.e. By altering consequences. Through operant conditioning the learning is assisted by behavior, reinforcement and punishments. Behavior is the act that is under consideration, punishments are the consequences while reinforcement is where the actual operant conditioning takes place.

Behavior: In this particular scenario the behavior will be referred to as how one would react to petrol fragrance.

Consequences: There will be two consequences of the operant conditioning. Negative punishment and positive punishment. Negative punishment is also known as the penalty. If I am supposed to like the petrol pump and I don't then I can be forced to learn to like it by negative punishment. In this scenario the negative punishment will be no petrol fragrance until I visit a petrol pump. Positive punishment will be given by associating petrol with the petrol pump. However in my case, negative punishment will be preferably used.

Reinforcement: When a behavior is rewarded with a positive result it is known as positive reinforcement and when it is rewarded with a negative result it is known as negative reinforcement. In this particular case, positive reinforcement will be preferred if a liking for petrol fragrance has to be developed and negative reinforcement will be preferred if a disliking has to be developed.

Learning via Cognitive Social Learning

As the name represents, people learn by watching people or by observing there environment. If I am greatly impressed by a friend and I watch him/her being addicted to the petrol fragrance, I'll automatically condition my mind towards liking it. While there are many other aspects to cognitive social learning, I think identification is the most applicable here. If I want to be like someone or if I identify with someone i.e. I feel someone is more or less the same, I am most likely to follow what they do.

Conclusion

Hence you can learn through various ways and you can condition responses according to your own will. The only trick you need to learn is the trick of controlling stimuli and consequences.

References

Kunz, M., & Lautenbacher, S. (2011).… [read more]


Psychology After Reviewing the "Vignette Essay

… If the therapist can change these and make them more rational, personality disorders might well be relieved. The therapeutic approach Beck developed describes specific cognitive distortions that characterize various neurotic conditions and outlines how the general principles of cognitive therapy can be used to treat these conditions, as well as to treat depression" (Magnavita, 2012). Miles should be taught how to handle stressful situations at work and at home, and how to recognize cues that might spur him to be depressed.

In the short goals, we will ask him to find something that is important to him and identify why it is important. Secondly, the therapist will reflect on the client's personal life and performance at work and home life so that the client begins to transition his thoughts of importance, which gets the patient to express something of importance in their life without focusing on the negative. In the short-term goals, the therapist will express to the client his marriage and work are important and that they are working towards a goal at home and work even though the patient does not get a sense of accomplishment within his mind (Corsini & Wedding, 2008).

The long-term goals will be to dealing with the functional consequences of thoughts and beliefs rather than on analyzing their content or truth value. This approach is all about action. Secondly, we will working on making mindful decisions about what is important in Miles' life and what he is going to do in order to live a valued life. Thirdly, this plan involves helping patients choose the values they hold dear, setting specific goals, and taking concrete steps to achieve these goals (Corsini & Wedding, 2008).

In order to know he is attaining his goals, first, it is expressed that the patient is happy when he has a good time without having to worry spending money or very little of it. Finally, we would help him to find a way to keep up his progress by offering him support groups in his community. For resources, there are support groups in the community that help with depression. There is also the community health department that can help the person to find assistance. There are also hotlines. We would see him wanting to maintain his progress without feeling the need to stay home in order save money.

References

Corsini, R. & Wedding, D. ( Eds.). (2008). Current Psychotherapies (8th ed.). California: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.

Hirsch, I. (2010). Discussion: On some contributions of the interpersonal tradition to contemporary psychoanalytic praxis. American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 70(1), 86-93. doi: 10.1057/ajp.2009.47

Magnavita, J.J. (2012). Theories…… [read more]


Psychologists Use Scientific Methods Essay

… talking

D. plant growth

9. In a formal experiment, which group is the control group?

A. The group that is subjected to manipulation

B. The randomly assigned group

C. The group that is not subjected to manipulation

D. The group that is representative of the general population

10. In a formal experiment, which group is the experimental group?

A. The group that is subjected to manipulation

B. The randomly assigned group

C. The group that is not subjected to manipulation

D. The group that is representative of the general population

11. Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 25, and 40. The mean of these five scores is

A. 10

B. 15

C. 20

D. 25

12. Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 25, and 40. The median of these five scores is

A. 10

B. 15

C. 20

D. 25

13. Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 20, and 40. The mode of these five scores is

A. 10

B. 15

C. 20

D. 25

14. The primary function of dendrites is to A. keep the cell alive.

B. transmit outgoing information.

C. secrete hormones.

D. receive incoming information.

15. Which subpart of the brain is located at the rear base of the skull?

A. forebrain

B. corpus callosum

C. midbrain

D. hindbrain

16. Conscious experience and voluntary actions are mediated by the A. limbic system.

B. cerebral cortex.

C. cerebellum.

D. cingulate cortex.

17. The area critical for processing visual information is the A. parietal lobe.

B. occipital lobe.

C. frontal lobe.

D. cerebellar cortex.

18. Most neurons send information to A. glial cells.

B.… [read more]


Psychology Statement of Purpose Admission Essay

… In the short-run, I also plan to gain practical experience in the clinical psychology field by working as a consultant in a medium sized hospital. In the long-run, a doctoral degree in psychology will come in handy as I seek to reach my full potential as a clinical psychologist. After attaining the said doctoral degree, I would wish to work in an outpatient mental health center. Further, I intend to acquire a teaching position in any of the nation's numerous universities offering psychology and related programs. Working in an academic setting will offer me a unique opportunity to grow as a professional while making significant contributions to the field of psychology through continued research.

In addition to being creative, I am also an effective communicator. I also have an insatiable thirst for knowledge. I believe that as an effective communicator, I will be able to relate relatively well with clients and their families. I will also get to put my creativity to work in the development of treatment approaches. My insatiable thirst for knowledge could see me further enhance my professional abilities in this particular field.

Seeing others overcome difficult experiences can be sufficiently rewarding. My desire to become a clinical psychologist is not chiefly driven by the monetary rewards associated with such a career. After all, this particular career has its own downsides including but not limited to the risk of burnout. My desire to become a clinical psychologist is instead driven by the need to make a difference in people's lives. Jenny (my cousin) is now living a normal life thanks to the intervention of a clinical psychologist. For me, making a difference in people's lives as a clinical psychologist would be sufficiently fulfilling. I believe that your institution has an enabling learning environment that would see me realize my…… [read more]


Daily Life Typically Essay

… The evaluations of personnel in the work environment are based on the methods and principles of psychology. Books and seminars on improving management skills, job satisfaction, and productivity are all based on psychological principles (Jex & Britt, 2008).

There are also many instances in the legal system that are reflections of psychological principles. These include rehabilitation programs, pre-sentencing evaluations, profiles of people accused of crimes, methods police use to catch and interrogate lawbreakers, and a number of other areas. Punishment and sentencing methods used in the legal system are based on psychological principles.

Typically people use or are exposed to psychologically-based principles every day. The tendencies to make friends, develop relationships, fall in love, etc. reflect psychological principles. Whenever anyone mentions the notion of "personality" they will most likely evoke some sort of psychological principle People that own pets and train them to use a litter box or to eat at a certain time are invoking psychological principles. Training a child to walk, to eat from a bowl with a spoon, to become toilet trained often require the use of behavioral principles from psychology. The child's maturation and learning reflect psychological principles. In fact, people are themselves amateur psychologists who employ a number of principles from psychology (some not very effective) in their attitude formation, judgment, actions, and worldview. When one observes the animals changing their behaviors to accommodate the seasons, going through mating rituals, foraging for food, raising young, etc. one is being exposed to psychological principles.

In essence, because psychology focuses on the study of behavior, one can find examples of psychological principles in nearly every facet of daily life. Almost every work of fiction applies some psychological principle regarding behavior. When you go to a store and notice mirrors on the walls, this is actually based on a self-awareness principle that reduces shoplifting (Diener, 1979). As mentioned above, advertising, the legal system, the educational system, the entertainment industry, and even parenting all apply psychological principles in their everyday routines. Psychology is like math, it is everywhere!

References

American Psychological Association (2012). How does the APA define psychology? Retrieved on September 6, 2012 from http://www.apa.org/support/about/apa/psychology.aspx#answer.

Diener, E. (1979). Deindividuation, self-awareness, and disinhibition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(7), 1160-1171.

Jex, S.M., & Britt, T.W. (2008). Organizational psychology. Hoboken: Wiley.

Kline P. (2000). The handbook of psychological testing.…… [read more]


Social Advocacy in Counseling PhD Model Answer

… " Indeed many of the tenets and precepts of current social justice advocates are aligned with the postmodernist philosophy, which has been associated with Marxist principles by many scholars (e.g., see Johnson, 2009; Nicholson & Seidman, 1995). This is not… [read more]


Clinical Psychology Many People Essay

… 4. How would you explain the meaning of Figure 2 in the article by Warner et al. (2004) to an interested colleague?

Figure 2 presents a number of the findings in this piece of research. These include the following: There is no significant relationship between STPD and schizotypal personality traits; however, there is likely a significant relationship between personality change and later disorder change. The diagram allows the researcher to extrapolate from the present to the future condition of an individual.

5. In terms of defense mechanism use, what are some major differences between normal Thais and Americans? What is one explanation for the differences noted?

The researchers found that in Thais, self-concept and Buddhist beliefs were significantly related to unconscious coping. Thus those Thais who were more devoted Buddhists had more unconscious coping mechanisms, a fact that is directly related to the ways in which Buddhist beliefs and practices are constructed. Americans, on the other hand, were more…… [read more]


Psychological Scientists Are Levying Great Term Paper

… Firstly, naturalistic observation is a descriptive method and lacks explanatory nature. That is, without the controlled conditions of the laboratory, conclusions about cause-and-effect relationships cannot be drawn. Behavior can only be described, not explained. This method can also take a great amount of time. Researchers may have to wait for some time to observe the behavior or phenomenon of interest. Further limitations include the difficulty of observing behavior without disrupting it and the difficulty of coding results in a manner appropriate for statistical analysis. Other limitations include the obtrusive nature of this method which can alter the reaction of the subject to the presence of the observer. Interpersonal skills of the observer play a vital role in this method in order to gain trust of the subject and other sponsors. Note taking can be time consuming and neutral observations are difficult to make.

References

McBurney, DH, & White, T.L. (2006). Research methods. (7th ed.). Wadsworth Publishing.

Miller, D.B. (1977). Roles of naturalistic observation in comparative psychology. American Psychologist, 32(3), 211-219. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/amp/32/3/211/

Bratton, S., Ray, D., & Rhine, T. (2005). The efficacy of play therapy with children: A meta-analytic review of treatment outcomes. Journal of Professional Psychology Research and Practice, 36(4), 376-390.

Cook, R.E., Tessier, A. & Klein, M.D. (2000). Adapting early childhood curricula for children in inclusive settings (5th ed). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill Prentice- Hall.

Spero, M.H. (1977). Interpretations and ego readiness: A psychodynamic approach. . Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 14(1), 74-78. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/pst/14/1/74/… [read more]


Art Therapy Entails Creative Procedures Research Paper

… Moreover, the methods section is reasonably sectioned an aspect that enhances the understanding of the reader.

Value of Article to Field of Psychology

The article is of exceptional value to the field of psychology given that it touches on the importance and the cost effectiveness of art therapy to people with schizophrenia. Particularly, through the article, psychologists can gain knowledge with respect to reduction of negative effects of schizophrenia as well as in enhancing the relationship between a therapist and a patient. More so, the articles form a strong basis for integration of psychosocial and social intervention in treatment of schizophrenia.

Value of Article to You, as a Consumer and Trainee

As a consumer and a trainee in the field of psychology, this article offers more information on the significance of social activities in treatment of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. I would use the information to enhance schizophrenia patient's health and improve their social functioning. With respect to research, the article has helped me understand the key constituents of a research such research design, study sample, ethical consideration to mention but a few. More so, the article has helped me understand the significance of literature review in the sense that it helps one ascertain gaps in literature, which consequently helps a researcher in determining a research topic.

Reference

Crawford, M., & Patterson S. (2007). Arts therapies for people with schizophrenia: an emerging evidence base. Evidence-Based Mental Health, 10, 69-70

Crawford, M., Killaspy, H., Barrett, B., Patterson, S., & Tyrer, P., & Waller, D.(2010). The Matisse study: A randomized trial of group art therapy for people with schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry, 10: 65-73.

Gilroy, A. (2006). Art therapy, research…… [read more]


Self-Concept Maintenance: Analysis of Self-Regulation, Social Comparison Research Paper

… ¶ … Self-Concept Maintenance: Analysis of Self-Regulation, Social Comparison, and Social Identity Theories

Humans as social animals assume different social roles and present various self-images that represent one facet of their personalities appropriate or necessary to the social situation. One's perception of the 'self' is fluid and could be different when one is alone by himself/herself, as compared to when one is in a group or public place. The private and public selves of the individual are ways in which one's self-concept is developed. In the study of human behavior, self-concept maintenance is necessary to "survive" socially: the kind of self-concept developed by the individual would depend on his/her socio-historical background, which include self-concept responses to specific social situations that have been proven favorable or agreeable to him/her at the time.

Thus, in this context of self-concept maintenance, this paper will discuss three (3) relevant and critical theories that will help further explain the nature of self-concept maintenance: self-regulation, social comparison, and social identity theories. These theories help describe the process of self-concept development, including a determination of the motivation that encourages individuals to develop a specific self-concept or image, especially when in public or in a specific social environment. In addition to a comparison of these theories, an application will also be discussed through the media program called "Virtual Office." In this application discussion, two female personalities are compared with each other with regards to their self-concept. Further, having discussed the theories of self-concept maintenance, the discussion would include an analysis of each female character's motivation or possible development of her self-concept based on the principles of each theory.

The theory of self-regulation is a self-concept maintenance theory that explains and describes the internal processes an individual goes through during the self-conceptualization stage. One's decision to assume a specific kind of image socially is a series of processes that are both dependent on the person's personal development and the response of his/her social environment to this/these personalities. Self-regulation posits that generally, individuals "control" their natural behavior. People develop self-concepts that are ultimately favorable to other people, and individuals exercise self-control in order to ensure that a desired self-concept or image is socially and consistently maintained. Success in "controlling" one's behavior would lead to "renewed efforts" for greater self-regulation, while lack of confidence or "doubt" in maintaining the image/public self "leads to a tendency to disengage" (Carver, 2001:322).

There are occasions, of course, when one experiences "lapses in self-control." Specific examples cited include binge eating, when a person's resolve to control his/her eating highly conflicts with his/her desire to eat. In this case, self-regulation succeeds when one is able to 'override' this desire to "overindulge." However, there are cases when lapses in self-control really happen, and this lapse is usually coupled with "mental fatigue" and "total exhaustion." Unfortunately, as confidence spirals down, so does self-control and the motivation to control and maintain his/her self-concept, and the downward spiral worsens, leading to the development of an entirely new personality -- a… [read more]


Adlerian Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Creative Writing

… Leading the client to investigate and monitor his thoughts has been shown to be successful in mitigating depression as well as many other mental diseases (Hoifodt et al., 2011; Robertson, 2010).

The client then is helped in shaping his environment / implementing certain behavior that will lead to a more constructive situation and behavior. This is the behavioral component of the approach. Methods used here including positive / negative reinforcement, or operant conditioning, where certain constructive behavior is rewarded therefore encouraged, and negative, self-defeating behavior is punished / rejected therefore hopefully extinguished. The client is also shown how to engineer his environment so that his environment will help him obtain his goals. Modeling successful others is a component of CBT as well as keeping a journal, appraising progress, and other practical strategies (Gelder, 2000; Rachman, 1997).). The client and counselor work together in pursuing and appraising progress.

Indications of successful counseling

This has been addressed before.

Responses to diverse cultural / gender issues

General sensitivity to cultural and gender characteristics applies in both therapies as in all orientations. Counselor has to seek to understand cultural factors that drive client as well as aspects of gender that may influence him. This holds in both Adlerain and CBT regardless.

Pertinent research articles related to effectiveness of either approach nthis is beyond the scope of this essay.

Limitations of personal synthesis

Both have their own philosophy each of which contradicts the others. One is psychodynamic; the other rejects that mode. Reducing all to self-esteem / inferiority as per Adler can also conflict with CBT that sees the problem in a wider range and not necessarily involving esteem.

Sources

Ehrenwald, J. (1991). The History of Psychotherapy. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc.

Hoifodt RS, Strom C, Kolstrup N, Eisemann M, Waterloo K (2011). Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy in primary health care: a review. Fam Pract 28, 489 -- 504.

King, R. & Shelley, C. (2008). Community Feeling and Social Interest: Adlerian Parallels, Synergy, and Differences with the Field of Community Psychology. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 18, 96-107.

Rachman, S (1997). "The evolution of cognitive behaviour therapy." In Clark, D, Fairburn, CG & Gelder, MG. (2000) Science and practice of cognitive behaviour therapy. Oxford: Oxford…… [read more]


My Expectations of Psychology Essay

… ¶ … Expectations of Psychology

Prior to attending my General Psychology I class, I had no tangible understanding of psychology, nor did I have any expectations. At the time I enrolled for the course, my only exposure to psychology was what I witnessed on such television shows as the Sopranos. One of the characters on the show, Tony, would see a psychiatrist, and their interaction was my only introduction to psychology. My high school did not offer any psychology courses and I did not have any formal opportunities to learn about psychology until I was in college. After my first week of attending General Psychology I classes, my expectations shifted from zero, and unsure, to an overwhelming feeling. I was not aware of the depth of psychology, its history, and its relevance to everyday life. Prior to my time in psychology classes, I did not know I would be learning about the physiology of the brain, the different specialties within the psychology field, or about the range of psychological disorders and illnesses. When I enrolled in General Psychology I, I had no expectations about the discipline of psychology, but after a few weeks of classes, I was able to appreciate the diversity of the field, and have been intrigued the most by concepts of abnormal psychology.

My first, academic, exposure to the field of psychology was during my General Psychology I class at Bergen Community College. Prior to this, I really did not know what psychology was, and therefore did not have any expectation about the field, what it meant, or what it included. I heard references to psychology when people said such things as, "They are a psycho," or "psychological breakdown," or "psychological thriller," but I had no appreciation for what psychology encompassed. I would watch the television show, the Sopranos, and the main character, Tony, would see his psychiatrist. The conversations between Tony and his psychiatrist intrigued me, and I knew that psychology was involved in counseling, but I did not know how it worked, what it was, or what was in effect.

My experiences with psychology were so minimal, I did not know what to expect during my first day of General Psychology I class. After being handed the syllabus for the class, I started to understand that psychology is more complex than I had ever realized. During the course of the semester we covered such topics as memory, learning, gender and human sexuality, personality, motivation and emotion, psychological disorders, and several more. Before taking this course, I did not know that so many areas of human thought, expression, and motivation existed in psychological terms, or that they had their own areas of study. Shortly into the beginning of the semester, I was eager to know more about psychology. I had gone from no expectation whatsoever, to being completely interested and enjoying the depth of psychology.

While at Bergen Community College, I also enrolled in Abnormal Psychology. I did go into this course with an expectation to… [read more]


Psychology's Rodney Dangerfield Problem Discussion Chapter

… Psychology's Rodney Dangerfield Problem

The essence of psychology's Rodney Dangerfield problem is that this particular academic discipline and science incurs a definite lack of respect as compared to that of other sciences. The public view of psychology and of those who practice it is not on par with its view of other scientific disciplines, such as physics or chemistry, which are generally viewed as being more substantiated in hard facts and official scientific processes and methodologies. Psychology, however, is generally viewed as being a lot more subjective and given to individual interpretation. As a result, psychological findings and conclusions are a lot more likely to be received with skepticism, cynicism, and in some instances, frivolity (Stanovich, 1997, p. 15).

There are several factors that can account for this regard of psychology, some of the most important of which directly shape the public's perception of this field. Oftentimes, psychology is wrongfully confused with the proliferation of self-help books and guidance, the latter of which is very rarely based on scientific processes and is quite deserving of the public's general perception of psychology. Additionally, there are a number of pseudosciences that are viewed as extensions of and subsets of true psychology, which helps to further blur the line between unadulterated psychology and its methodology and that of fraudulent quacks. Lastly, the media also plays an active role in propagating an erroneous view of psychology towards the masses. Not only is the media actively propounding the notion that much of the aforementioned self-help guidance and pseudosciences are in fact the work or results of formal psychology, but it also is noted for sensationalizing the statements of (in certain instances) what may be questionable sources regarding psychological findings, as opposed to quoting an esteemed psychologist who is hesitant about giving a definite statement about whatever the topic in question happens to be (Stanovich 1997, p. 179).…… [read more]


Abnormal Behavior What Essentially Qualifies Research Paper

… Therefore any one of these four definitions alone would be lacking as a qualifier of what constitutes "abnormal behavior" but used together they can provide useful guidelines as to what qualifies as abnormal. This is essentially the approach of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) when developing the diagnostic criteria for the DSM series (APA, 2000).

Abnormal behavior for me is defined in terms of its departure from statistical and social norms and also by its maladaptiveness for the individual (the behavior results in aversive consequences ranging from social, physical, legal, occupational, and/or personal negative results). Despite these consequences the person continues to engage in the behavior. For me both of these qualifiers need be present. For me, I found myself drinking heavily at one stage of my life. Within my culture heavy drinking is considered "normal"; however, when the drinking leads to issues with one's social and occupational obligations it is no longer normal. I found that drinking several nights a week interfered significantly with other aspects of my life such as work, school, and family obligations. While drinking alcohol itself is not abnormal in society, I found my drinking habits to be quite dysfunctional given my goals and therefore would classify my use of alcohol as "abnormal." This resulted in personal efforts to correct this behavior and bring it more in line with balancing out my life.

References

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders, IV- Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Porter, R. (2002). Madness: A brief history. New York: Oxford University Press.

Szasz, T. (2008).…… [read more]


Sex Differences in Neuropsychological Functioning Among Schizophrenia Essay

… ¶ … Sex Differences in Neuropsychological Functioning Among Schizophrenia Patients by Bozikas, Kosmidis, Peltekis, Giannakou, Nimatoudis, Karavatos, Fokas, and Garyfallos

Psychology and the related behavioral sciences have swung back and forth between the idea that all human beings start out as equal blank slates and the idea that gender provides significant differences for people. In fact, whether the impact of gender is innate or socialized, there is no question that gender is related to the prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders in groups. Moreover, gender may be related to recovery outcomes and influence the appropriate treatment options for a person suffering with a specific disease. This is a critical hypothesis, because it might not only direct future research into treatment, dictating that appropriate and responsible research take into account existing and potential gender differences.

One of the diseases where a noted sex-based difference exists is schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is known to impact males and females in different ways. These differences include, but are not limited to, differences in age at onset, intensity of the disease, and likelihood of a successful recovery from the disease. One area where gender appears to make a difference is in the level of cognitive impairment experienced by male and female schizophrenia patients; some researchers had found that males experience greater levels of cognitive impairment. Furthermore, women with schizophrenia generally have much more positive outcomes than men with schizophrenia. What makes this a particularly interesting facet of the gender breakdown of the disease is that there is an established difference in cognition in men and women who do not have mental illnesses. Therefore, whether schizophrenia exacerbates existing differences or whether those differences make women less vulnerable to the disease is an interesting question.

Previous studies have examined community functioning, one of the difficulties for schizophrenics who oftentimes have problems interacting with the outside world, and determined that community functioning was related to those areas where healthy women generally outperform healthy men, such as verbal memory, verbal fluency, and executive functioning.

To look at whether men and women experienced different levels of cognitive impairment when afflicted with schizophrenia, the researchers decided to examine patients who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia. The group of 94 people was divided into 56 men and 38 women, all of whom were on antipsychotic medications and considered stable. The patients had been diagnosed with the DSM-IV, and their diagnoses were confirmed by the Greek version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The control group consisted of 31 healthy men and 31 healthy women. To assess cognitive functioning, both groups were subjected to wide variety of tests that looked at the following cognitive abilities: auditory attention, abstraction, inhibition, fluency, verbal learning and memory, visual memory, working memory, visuospatial…… [read more]


Psychology Attitude Change and Persuasion Essay

… Physical looks play a large part in mate selection. Women tend to prefer men with nice facial features that include clear, unblemished skin and nice eyes. Because these features point toward good health, it is thought that these people have… [read more]


Personality Theories in Psychology Essay

… For Freud's patients, the goal of psychoanalysis was to help mitigate some of these feelings and reconcile some of the differences between the id and the superego. Of course, human beings were able to reconcile these competing differences before the… [read more]


Correspondence Bias Essay

… 2. As a comparison, the Yale approach model is similar with the elaboration likelihood approach for the reason that it falls under the social psychology study that will allow people to change their attitude through persuasion. The contrasting issues is… [read more]


Psychology the Link Between Personality Research Paper

… The chemicals then trickle over to the adjacent neuron, sometimes causing it to let off. This fundamental process of neurotransmission is carried out many by the ten billion or so neurons in the brain. A number of neurons are so lively that they let off as many as one hundred times per second, necessitating devices to uphold these elevated rates. The vesicles have a fundamental role in this progression because they allow neurons to let off when ready. Neurons utilize the vesicles to bundle the chemicals and move them in ahead of time so that they can let loose as soon as an electrical impulse is present. Since the release sites are not near the cell center, the vesicles must reprocess close by in order to continue their high rates of release (Nuance to Neurons, 2011).

According to Levine (2005), the arrangement of temperament and personality is made up of a rather small number of higher-order traits. Higher-order traits reveal emotional-motivational systems that have developed to increased variation to classes of stimuli connected with positive and negative support. Personality disorders can be understood as reflecting pathological amplifications of personality trait profiles. A lot of researchers have consequently supported, at least in principle, the development of a dimensional model that can describe both normal traits as well as personality disorders. Another reason for accepting such a model is that research has not come up with any reliable biological factors that associate with the present categories of personality disorders, whereas many studies have shown relationships between trait dimensions and measures of brain function (Paris, 2005).

While information about the biology of the brain and its association with personality will not permit for the prediction of a person's behavior, it may present a vocabulary to comprehend why some people are more prone to fits of anger, for instance, while others are excruciatingly shy, and afraid of social contact. Additionally comprehending the biologic vulnerabilities to traits such as impulsivity or irritability may also help doctors and caregivers to recognize drugs that will diminish bothersome inclinations (The frontiers of pharmacology, 1994).

As researchers learn more about the biology of the brain, they may become better able to regulate and alter the neurotransmitters important in mood and personality. There are some that ask whether people with normal variations could be in some way be improved with medication, and this is a question that still needs to be looked at (The frontiers of pharmacology, 1994).

References

Burke, S.M., van de Giessen, E.E., de Win, M.M., Schilt, T.T., van Herk, M.M., van den

Brink, W.W., & Booij, J.J. (2011). Serotonin and dopamine transporters in relation to neuropsychological functioning, personality traits and mood in young adult healthy subjects. Psychological Medicine: A Journal Of Research In Psychiatry And The

Allied Sciences, 41(2), 419-429.

Levine, D.S. (2005). Is all affiliation the same? Facilitation or complementarity? Behavioral

and Brain Sciences, 28(3), 356-357.

Nuance to Neurons. (2011). Science Teacher, 78(7), 19-20.

Paris, J. (2005). Neurobiological Dimensional Models Of Personality: A Review Of The… [read more]


Theorists From the History of Psychology Carl Jung and Carl Rogers Term Paper

… Beyond the contributions of Sigmund Freud, Carl Rogers and Carl Jung may be the two most important individuals in the development of the modern study of psychology. Jung, having studied under Freud, expanded on Freud's concept of the libido and… [read more]


Day of Compassion Essay

… Social Psychology Day of Compassion

On November 11, 2011, I had the opportunity to observe and participate in a "Day of Compassion," which challenged individuals to live each minute of that day in as compassionate a way as possible, in other words, spending a full 24-hour period doing one's best to care for other people, be considerate and respectful, and to avoid causing harm to any living being. While I generally pride myself on acting with kindness and empathy in my daily encounters, spending an entire day conscious of the fact that each and every one of my actions should act in accordance with compassion, rather than only those that would more directly inspire me to act in such a way, I found the task alarmingly difficult at the start, but by the end of the day, I had noticed a true change in myself and in the way I interact with other living things.

Social psychologist, Jeanine Young-Mason (2001), describes compassion in a way that is easily relatable. She notes that understanding compassion means one must understand the nature of suffering, the inter-twining of moral, spiritual, psychological, and physical suffering of others, as like freedom, compassion is a word whose meaning becomes clearer and finally clarified only through practice (Young-Mason, 347). All living things have the capacity to receive compassion, though in my actions last Friday, I found myself interacting only with other human beings.

During the Day of Compassion, my behavior stemmed from the fact that throughout the day, I was hyper-aware of my actions and interactions with others, which leads me to believe that this is in at least minimal contrast with how I act on a regular basis. In certain ways, I preferred myself on this day, and in other ways, I did not. Overall, I found myself acting generously and compassionately toward others, helping them when I could, and trying to do so selflessly, but in others, I found myself doing so in a manner that seemed forced because of the hyper-awareness I experienced. For example, I found myself in a confrontation with another individual, and rather than asserting myself, feigned compassion took…… [read more]


Tom Shulich ("Coltish Hum Research Paper

… The Therapist's Role

Behavior therapy assumes a learning model of psychopathology. The central idea of this type of therapy is that psychological distress results from maladaptive behaviors that one has learned and that these behaviors can be unlearned or replaced… [read more]


Post-Modern to Contemporary Psychology Research Paper

… Post-Modern to Contemporary Psych

Psychology: Post-modern to Contemporary

From its foundation as a separate science from philosophy and biology, psychology has been a dynamic and ever evolving discipline with ongoing debate as to how to explain and describe behavior and… [read more]


Psychological Testing the Science Research Paper

… (Calhoun, 1962) Simply put, when the rats became overpopulated, they began to behave in anti-social and unnatural ways. When this study was release in 1962, it had an incredible effect of society as a whole. This led people to believe they knew the reasons why crowded urban areas were filled with crime, riots, and other anti-social behaviors. ("Letting the Rat out of the Bag") This study became the impetus for the redesign of buildings, offices, and entire urban areas.

Calhoun's study is a legitimate study, but more in the field of animal Psychology than human. The assumptions made from this study, primarily that humans will act like rats when kept in confined spaces, was not proven by any means. Studies would have to be made on humans themselves, living in areas of high population density, to make the comparison stick. On the other hand, Calhoun's study did have some validity, and could be used as the basis of other research eventually culminating in a study that could predict the actions of humans. While humans and rats are different, studying rats can give some insight, however small, into the behavior of humans.

These two studies have had a significant impact not only on the field of psychology, but on society in general. Rorschach's test first presented the world with the idea that a test of perception could be a predictor of human behavior. This led others to begin to study human behavior in a number of different ways; creating new fields of Psychology. And Calhoun's population density study shocked the world into thinking that a population density which was too high would be bad for society. The result being a world filled with parks, wide streets, and open spaces, as well as offices filled with cubicles. ("Letting the Rat out of the Bag")

References

Calhoun, J.B. (1962). "Population Density and Social Pathology." Scientific American. 206, 139-48.

"Letting the Rat out of the Bag, The Cultural Influence of John B. Calhoun's Rodent Experiments." (2009) London School of Economics and Political Science. Retrieved from http://www2.lse.ac.uk/researchAndExpertise/researchHighlights/Environment/rats

.aspx

Rorschach, Hermann. (1951). Psychodiagnostics: A Diagnostic Test Based on Perception, 2nd Ed.. Retrieved from http://www.archive.org/stream/psychodiagnostic011205mbp#page/n7/mode/2up… [read more]


Psychology- Social Article Review

… All of these studies were observed by the researchers and results were calculated and reported.

4. Explain whether the study was descriptive, correlational, or experimental.

This study was experimental in nature. Experimental research is directed by hypotheses or several hypotheses that states a predictable relationship between two or more variables. An experiment is carried out to sustain or disconfirm this experimental hypothesis. In this study the researchers had a hypothesis that they tested using experimental groups in which they examined people and their behaviors. This was not descriptive research because it did not examine any statistics in regards to this group of people. It was not correlational research because it did not examine a statistical relationship between two or more variables.

5. Consider the ethics of the research. All studies must have passed some form of institutional review prior to being conducted, but what kinds of ethical concerns did the researchers have and what did they do to address those concerns specifically?

There was no mention in this article as to what ethical concerns that the researchers had. When doing research with human subjects it is important that informed consent be obtained and all risks and hazards be explained to each participant. How this was addressed in this study should have been included in this report so that those reading it would know what had been done. It is very important when doing this type of research that the rules and regulations are followed when it comes to using human subjects for research purposes. It is also important to record what has been done so that there is no question later on about whether the rules and regulations were followed or not.

References

Savitsky, Kenneth, Keysar, Boaz, Epley, Nicholas, Carter, Travis and Swanson, Ashley. (2010).

The closeness-communication bias: Increased egocentrism among friends vs. strangers. Journal of Experimental Social…… [read more]


Theory Principle or Concept Term Paper

… ¶ … Psychology offers a vast network of concepts, principles, and theories to explain and describe the mental and behavioral characteristics of an individual or group. It is a science that explores biological, cognitive, social, and various other aspects of the human mind and human interaction to explain mental processes. One such concept of psychology that attempts to explain a realm of mental processing is Behaviorism. Behaviorism is a philosophy of psychology that emphasizes how previous learning experiences influence, and are reflected, in shaping behaviors (Heffner). The core of Behaviorism centers on studying only observable behaviors, as behavioral research would be too subjective if mood, thoughts, or emotions were also considered.

Behavior Psychology is an umbrella topic of its own, and covers a multitude of principles and concepts. One subcategory of Behavioral Psychology is Operant Conditioning. Operant Conditioning is a type of learning, in which a behavior's preceding influences or its impending consequence manipulates the formed behavior. This type of behavioral conditioning operates as an ongoing evaluation of consequences, how one anticipates said consequences, and reflects them in their actions.

One of the critical tools in executing Operant Conditioning is the concept of Reinforcement. In terms of psychology, reinforcement refers to stimuli which strengthen or increases the probably of a specific response or behavior. A simple example of a reinforcer is teaching a dog how to sit, and giving them a treat every time they perform. The treat becomes the reinforcer and increases the probability of the sitting response (Heffner). There are four types of reinforcement: positive, negative, punishment, and extinction.

Positive reinforcement is the same as the dog example - giving a treat to evoke the sitting response. This involves giving positive responses to encourage the desired behavior. The two most common methods of positive reinforcement are praise and rewards. Examples of praise include telling someone "good job" or telling someone how nice they look when they dress-up. Rewards can involve a monetary bonus at work after a difficult project, or giving a child their favorite dessert to compliment well behavior during dinner. These positive incentives raise the probably of the desired behavior.

A negative reinforcer is the use of any negative stimulus to increase the wanted response or behavior. An example of a negative reinforcer is a fire alarm. The fire alarm sounds as the negative stimulus, and induces people to run out of the building. Another example is the fear of having a low grade on a test as a negative reinforcer for studying. In both of these instances, the negative stimuli reflect the anticipated consequences, and ultimately the appropriate behavior has been conditioned.

The third type of reinforcement, punishment, includes adding a stimulus that is apathetic in nature in order to decrease a behavior. Common examples of punishment revolve around the disciplining of children and adolescents. These types of punishments encompass a variety of parenting methods to time-outs,…… [read more]


Developmental History of Positive Psychology Research Paper

… Positive Psychology

The History and Development of Positive Psychology: An Overview of Perspectives and Theories

As the medical and even the human sciences go, psychology is still a relative newcomer to the real of academic scholarship and real-world practice. Surgeries… [read more]


Psychology Essay

… Psychology

The following question requires you to write a brief answer consisting of a few sentences or a listing. List the five goals of psychology and briefly explain a situation in which you experienced two or more of these goals. The five goals of psychology are to 1) describe; 2) explain; 3) predict; 4) control; and, 5) improve. The first goal is to observe behavior and describe in detail what has been observed. The second goal, explain, means a psychologist has to go beyond what they observe and explain what they observed. Predict, the third goal, is the belief that once a psychologist knows what has happened in the past and why, they can better predict what's going to happen in the future. The fourth goal, control, refers to the idea that once a psychologist knows what happens and why it happens, they can begin to speculate what is going to happen in the future and try to control it in some way. An example would be, if every time you and your spouse has a fight it is because you are drunk, then we can predict that drinking can lead to fights, so the psychologist will want to take a look at the client's drinking and find a way to change the negative outcome of fighting by being more mindful of drinking or quitting altogether. Lastly, the fifth goal, improve, means that psychologists don't simply want to exert control over someone's behavior, but they truly want to work to improve it. Psychologists want to make an individual's life better, not worse.

2) the following question requires you to write a brief answer consisting of a few sentences or a listing. Explain the steps that psychologists take when conducting research. Psychologists have different steps they use when conducting research. They first must ask a certain question; then they design a study; next they will need to collect data; then they will analyze the results; after analyzing they will come to some conclusions; and lastly, they will share the findings.

3) the following question requires you to write a brief answer consisting of a few sentences or a listing. What is the difference between a person's behavioral and cognitive activities? Cite five examples of behavioral activities. Cognitive activities will occur because of processes that go on in the…… [read more]


Populations Span From the Egregiously Poor-Functioning Substance Research Paper

… ¶ … Populations span from the egregiously poor-functioning substance abuser to a graduate student who is merely struggling with stress and financial related problems. The need outruns the resources, and, oftentimes counselors may feel themselves inadequately equipped to address the… [read more]


Freud and Positive Psychology Term Paper

… Within this simple statement of defense is a clear ideation of positive psychology. The individual must look inside him or herself and seek out a better way of behaving that might make him or her happier in the long run. Just because someone might have urges to do something socially unacceptable does not make him or her bad or unhappy but acting on that urge could change other's opinion of him or her and could ultimately make him or her unhappy. Changing that urge to a behavior that is more socially acceptable would then seem the best possible outcome as even though the individual did not get to do what he or she wanted he or she got the satisfaction of knowing he or she did the "right" thing and is not acting in accordance with society. What really could be "wrong" with that? Looking back on both these example learning processes, as well as the explanation of sublimation illuminate for me just how much principles of Freudian psychology and defense mechanisms are a part of Positive Psychology.

Positive psychology unlike most branches of psychology reiterates the idea that there is good in most things and there is no sense that this is not true in the case of Freudian psychology. Freudian psychology offers one of the first fundamental looks into the concept of the psyche at all. Though he is largely discredited, and many of his theories are seriously challenged in modern psychology, even by positive psychology itself they are valuable in the sense that they offer one of the first looks into motivations that might not be completely conscious as well as sincere ideations about the complicated inner workings of the mind.

Regardless of the manner in which Freud is discredited his work, and especially some of his more colorful theories became a starting point for discussion and debate regarding the whole gambit of human psychological conditions from euphoria to misery. Understanding Freudian theory and work therefore is essential to understanding the whole of psychology as well as positive psychology because not only does Freud come at theory in a pessimistic way, so we can see what not to do and think in terms of "normal" but he also makes positive contributions to understanding the human mind and offers points for departure of new thought.… [read more]


Abnormal Behavior Essay

… Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Psychological Disorder

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent obsessions and/or compulsions. Obsessions may manifest as recurrent thoughts, ideas, images, impulses, fears, or doubts. Compulsions also manifest in a variety of ways. Patients may feel compelled to touch, to count, to check, to have everything symmetrically arranged, or to repeatedly wash their hands. Attempts to resist the compulsion are met with increasing anxiety, which is relieved as soon as the patient gives in to the compulsion.

According to Steven Taylor, et. al. (2010) research indicates that three types of dysfunctional beliefs contribute to the development and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. These beliefs are described as inflated personal responsibility and the overestimation of threat, perfectionism and the intolerance of uncertainty, and over importance of one's thoughts and the need to control these thoughts.

OCD has many negative effects on the quality of one's life. Storch, Abramowitz and Keely (2009) report previous studies of individuals with OCD show patients with this condition are more likely to be unemployed, be of lower socio-economic status, have disrupted social and marital relationships, and make more use of health care than those without OCD. Furthermore, relative to individuals with other anxiety disorders, those with OCD are hospitalized more frequently, suggesting greater impairment. Research suggests that the amount of time spent performing compulsive rituals and the associated depressive symptoms contribute to this functional disability. In another study Cassin, Richter, Zhang, and Rector (2009) report that recent efforts to discern whether certain features of OCD are more detrimental in terms of quality of life have found the severity of obsessions to be more predictive of poor quality of life than the severity of compulsions. However, even more predictive than the severity of OCD symptoms has been the finding that secondary depression symptoms are the greatest predictor of poor quality of life in patients with primary OCD.

One common misunderstanding concerning the origins of OCD is that it stems from a neglectful or unbalanced upbringing. Research has provided clear evidence that the brain of someone with OCD does function differently than that of a person without OCD. OCD is triggered by a biochemical problem in the brain. These findings have done much to alleviate a great deal of shame and guilt some parents felt for their child's suffering.

Part II -- Motion Picture Analysis

Director James L. Brooks depicts the characteristics of an individual suffering from OCD in the movie as Good as it Gets (1997). The character of Melvin Udall, portrayed by Jack Nicholson, exhibits both obsessive and compulsive behaviors throughout the film. One of the criteria for a diagnosis of OCD according to the DSM IV-TR is repetitive behaviors or mental acts that the person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession, or according to rules that must be applied rigidly. Udall's rituals include turning the light switch off and on five times, and not letting his feet step on cracks. He also indicated that he needed to go to the restaurant at… [read more]


Behavior Therapy Research Paper

… Time out from positive reinforcement involves a temporary withdrawal from a person's access to a generalized reinforce which occurs immediately after the person performs the deceleration targeted behavior (Walker, 2004). This can be seen in the form of isolation, or a time out which can be used for children when they perform something undesirable.

Overcorrection is seen as decelerating maladaptive behaviors by having individuals correct the effects of their actions and later practice an appropriate behavior (Walker, 2004). This is when the individual makes amends for the wrong behavior or any damage done. This can be done through positive practice where the individual performs the appropriate behavior in an exaggerated fashion; this is usually seen in the repetition of the behavior.

Physical aversive consequences are when stimuli result in very unpleasant physical stimuli which are to decrease or remove a certain undesirable behavior. This can include pain and is not practiced today (Walker, 2004).

Aversive Therapy

Aversive therapy is a form of treatment in psychology (Watson & Reyner, 1920). This is when an individual is exposed to certain stimuli which comes in the form of discomfort to them. This is a type of conditioning where the stimuli causes the patient or subject to associate it with unpleasant sensations; the goal of this is to generally stop certain behaviors.

Aversion therapy can come in many different forms and is designed to stop unwanted behaviors or habits (Watson & Reyner, 1920). This can be done in pairing a certain behavior with electric shocks or certain types of intensities.

Like other therapies, aversion therapy is grounded using the learning theory. Its basic principle is in being that all behaviors are learned and that undesirable behaviors can then be unlearned through presentations of the right circumstances. The goal of this type of therapy is to decrease or eliminate certain types of behaviors which are seen as undesireable. According to Watson and Reyner (1920):

"Treatment focuses on changing a specific behavior itself, unlike insight-oriented approaches that focus on uncovering unconscious motives in order to produce change. The behaviors that have been treated with aversion therapy include such addictions as alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and smoking; pathological gambling; sexual deviations; and more benign habits -- including writer's cramp. Both the type of behavior to be changed and the characteristics of the aversive stimulus influence the treatment -- which may be administered in either outpatient or inpatient settings as a self-sufficient intervention or as part of a multimodal program." (qtd. Watson & Reyner, 1920)

A major use for this type of therapy is seen used in rehabilitation from addiction of alcohol or drugs (Watson & Reyner, 1920). This therapy is used using emotional associations with sight, smell and taste of alcohol and other drugs. This can also be seen used in self-help communities to treat minor behavioral issues in individuals or delinquents.

References

Masters, J.C., Burish, T.G., Holton, S.D., & Rimm, D.C. (1987). Behavior therapy: Techniques and empirical findings. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.

Michael, J.… [read more]


History of Modern Psychology of Personality Article Review

… History Of Modern Psychology of Personality

The Diversity of Theoretical and Methodological Approaches

One of the most fundamental distinctions in understanding the history of modern psychology of personality is between research into the psychology of the individual and research into psychology through statistical research on groups of study participants. Other fundamental distinctions include the influence of situations and the influence of inherent personal tendencies of individuals irrespective of situational variables. Modern psychology also recognizes the validity of extensive physiological and neurological variation among individuals that contributes to outward behavior, and it considers distinctions based on the chronological age at the time of specific behaviors. Finally, the wide range of modern psychological specialties and subspecialties give rise to another specialty: integrative models of psychology that draw from various different perspectives and methodologies to extract the optimal combined beneficial approaches of the entire field of psychology of personality.

The Culture of Personality, Psychiatry, Psychopathology, and Sociology

The common perception of personality in general originated in the early decades of the 20th century, before which the phrase "personality" was not widely associated with the formal study of psychology; nor was it part of the American lexicon. The impetus for the focus on personality (in general) was largely attributable to public fears about depersonalization as a consequence of rapid industrialization and urbanization of American society. The contemporaneous influence of the first-generation psychodynamic (i.e. Freudian) theorists also contributed greatly to the emerging focus on personality in psychology. Subsequently, the field of sociology had an influence on psychology by virtue of the growing use of social work…… [read more]

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