"Psychology / Behavior / Psychiatry" Essays

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Psychology of Women Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,562 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Psychology in women [...] depression in women as a result of emotional, physical, and mental abuse. Psychologically, women are more likely to suffer from depression than men (Editors). Women suffer from depression for a variety of reasons, from post-partum depression after giving birth to any number of emotional and physical reasons, such as abuse and fear of abuse.… [read more]

Depression Disorder Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,762 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 7


Depression Disorder


This paper is about depression. It will cover the DSM diagnostic criteria, and discuss the development of depression from two viewpoints, CBT (cognitive-behavioral therapy) and the biochemical and environmental components which are linked causative factors. This paper will then cover the four key indicators of depression, including physical, cognitive, social and emotional symptoms.

Description of depression

DSM-IV… [read more]

Psychology (Personality) Hypo-Egoic Self-Regulation: Exercising Self-Control Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,639 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Psychology (Personality)

Hypo-egoic self-regulation: Exercising self-control by diminishing the influence of the self" by M. Leary, C. Adams and E. Tate

In this article by Leary et. al., the concept of hypo-egoic self-regulation was developed through an integration of different components that ultimately make self-regulation possible. In developing the concept of hypo-egoic self-regulation, the authors posited that "hypo-egoic states may… [read more]

Education Psychology Theory Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,302 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Psychology and Education

Psychological Counseling and Education

The 10th grade student looked at in this report, called Tom, was a quiet boy who played football because of his size. He was extremely intelligent, made good grades and seemed popular with the girls, though he appeared to be quiet and moody. Tom was known to have a temper that, along with his large size, made him mistrusted as a team-mate and feared as an opponent. He occasionally threw tantrums.

One day on the football field he grabbed a smaller boy from behind, wrapped his arms around him and clenching his hands together, lifted him high in the air and squeezed. A cracking noise was heard and the boy fell to the ground with internal injuries and a rib broken. Tom declared he had only been horsing around, but some of the other boys claimed he was angry at the boy for teasing him. It was not the first time Tom had been known to do something physical in retaliation for teasing.

The principal met with the School Board, court officials, a doctor and the school mental health counselor. Tom was removed from the football team, suspended from school and ordered to see a behavioral therapist for counseling.

Upon counseling, the mental health counselor reported that Tom, was an only child and his widowed mother was extremely controlling. She was an emotionally needy person and called him an unloving son because he was "cold and had no emotions." He ignored her most of the time, but she managed to control everything in his life. His constant reading annoyed her. She wanted him to be sports-minded like other boys. But he knew he was not like other boys and, since he was suspended, wanted to drop out of school.

His mother had been glad when he joined the football team and had bought him expensive clothing to wear to school. He liked name brand clothing. For punishment she had taken his good clothes and the phone away. She was so angry at him for being dropped from the team that she would not talk to him. In the past, she had gone for three days at a time without talking to him or doing anything for him, in order to punish him, even when he was small. He had had to find his own food, dress himself and go to bed by himself. This was the way she had controlled him from early on. Her silences had once made him down on his knees and beg her, weeping, to talk to him, but she would not until she felt he was sufficiently punished. When he was small she had tied him to the toilet until he voided every morning. Now that he was older, she controlled him and his temper by withdrawing love, clothes and contact with the outside world.

Erickson's psychosocial stage theory might explain Tom's behavior as it deals with the development of ego identity. Tom was not allowed to develop… [read more]

Anti-Psychology Theme Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (880 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4



Wherefore art thou, psychology? -- would psychology by any other name be as helpful?

Psychology is too pessimistic. Psychology is forgetting its great origins in the sweeping theories of Freud and has become too narrow in its focus. Psychology fails to deal with the reality of evil. Psychology is pseudoscience. Psychologists are incompetent. Psychology provides incompetent patients and criminal defendants with excuses for poor behavior, and a refuge from real life problems in New Age babble. Psychology is for the wealthy. Psychology is a symptom of a culture of mass consumption All of these allegations, some of which contradict one another, are reasons that psychology is in a crisis, says Carl Goldberg. As a solution to psychology's image problem, Goldberg provides the answer of a humanistic psychology that treats the individual to bring that individual into harmony with the community, and enables the patient to help others.

However, one issue that Goldberg touches upon, but does not explicitly tease out, is that his multiple critiques demonstrate that what is called psychology is not one, solidified discipline, although it may seem so in the popular imagination. The media has distorted the definition of psychology, and even therapists and patients use the term loosely. Some people who say they hate psychology only despise the popular, highly personalized, and often reductive 'Oprah' version of psychology, of the 'I love bad men because I was abused as a child,' school. Others critique increasingly neurological and pharmacological model that seems to people merely as constellations of neurotransmitters and symptoms. Goldberg instead envisions a world where people value their own "compassion and worthy" and are thus equipped to create a more just society for all human beings (Goldberg, 2000:681).

Ideally, psychology uses both tools of rehabilitation to treat the human mind and body. For example, increasingly, neither pills nor therapy alone seems to provide a full solution for many mental problems. Take manic depression, which was once thought to demand a fairly straightforward prescription for lithium, or a new variation of the drug. Now, therapists find "drugs are not effective enough...psychotherapy can help patients learn new coping styles and interpersonal habits," to contain their symptoms in combination with drug treatment (Marano, 2002). This relates Goldberg's rather sweeping claim to a specific instance. The treatment of both the human mind and brain chemistry of someone suffering from mania is required for effective alleviation of suffering and to make the person a productive member of society once again.

There is an imprecision to the correct balance of therapy, medication, and other treatments that will likely lack the cleanness of some of the other scientific disciplines, although it…… [read more]

Generally Speaking, Psychology Concerns Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (312 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Generally speaking, psychology concerns the study of human behavior
and the processes and functions of the mind, especially related to the
social and physical environments in which humans live and work. There are
many branches of psychology, some being behavioral psychology, clinical
psychology, humanistic psychology and even animal psychology. Psychology is
also a profession that involves studying how and why human beings act as
they do in specific social situations as either individuals or groups.
Personally, psychology is one of the most fascinating of all the
social sciences, due to three important reasons. First, it reveals the
inner workings of the human mind which once understood can help a person in
many ways, such as interacting with other human beings in a social setting
or coming to understand why people behave as they do. Second, psychology
can be used in almost any human situation to help solve particular problems
related to the social environment. Third, psychology…… [read more]

Differentiate Between Normal Psychology and Abnormal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (344 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3



Abnormal Psychology

Normal psychology (or psychoanalysis) is what most people think of when they think of the term psychology. It treats people with mild stresses or troubles, such as dissatisfaction with their work or home life, or some other aspects of their life or personality, and they seek professional help from a psychologist to help them understand themselves and their feelings with more depth. Psychology has five main perspectives: biological, learning, cognitive, sociocultural, and psychodynamic, and for the most part, psychologists study all of these areas and blend at least one or two into their own specialization. However, psychologists do more than treat patients. Psychology covers teaching, research, psychoanalysis, and much more, and there are many specialties inside psychology for psychologists to choose from, such as abnormal psychology.

Abnormal psychology, however, is the study of behaviors that deviate from the "norm," and so they are abnormal. Very simply, abnormal can be defined as "personal stress," but many people are stressed and that does not make them psychologically abnormal. What does make…… [read more]

Humanistic Psychology Today, People See Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,806 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Humanistic Psychology

Today, people see a wide variety of psychologists and psychiatrists for their mental healthcare needs. Although all of these professionals have the same goal of providing the psychological care the clients/patients require, they use different approaches.

The value of different methodology offers people a wide choice in care, since individuals respond better to some approaches than others.

Toward… [read more]

Abnormal Psychology Amnestic Syndrome Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,463 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Abnormal Psychology

Amnestic syndrome is an abnormal mental state where all cognitive functions are intact except memory and learning. Amnestic disorders can be either transient or persistent and can be caused by accidents, trauma, seizures, alcohol, tumors, encephalitis, carbon monoxide poisoning, and other conditions. There are some fascinating clinical cases on record where after severe brain trauma, an individual was… [read more]

Psychology- Social Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (648 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


All of these studies were observed by the researchers and results were calculated and reported.

4. Explain whether the study was descriptive, correlational, or experimental.

This study was experimental in nature. Experimental research is directed by hypotheses or several hypotheses that states a predictable relationship between two or more variables. An experiment is carried out to sustain or disconfirm this experimental hypothesis. In this study the researchers had a hypothesis that they tested using experimental groups in which they examined people and their behaviors. This was not descriptive research because it did not examine any statistics in regards to this group of people. It was not correlational research because it did not examine a statistical relationship between two or more variables.

5. Consider the ethics of the research. All studies must have passed some form of institutional review prior to being conducted, but what kinds of ethical concerns did the researchers have and what did they do to address those concerns specifically?

There was no mention in this article as to what ethical concerns that the researchers had. When doing research with human subjects it is important that informed consent be obtained and all risks and hazards be explained to each participant. How this was addressed in this study should have been included in this report so that those reading it would know what had been done. It is very important when doing this type of research that the rules and regulations are followed when it comes to using human subjects for research purposes. It is also important to record what has been done so that there is no question later on about whether the rules and regulations were followed or not.


Savitsky, Kenneth, Keysar, Boaz, Epley, Nicholas, Carter, Travis and Swanson, Ashley. (2010).

The closeness-communication bias: Increased egocentrism among friends vs. strangers. Journal of Experimental Social…… [read more]

Post-Modern to Contemporary Psychology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,161 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Post-Modern to Contemporary Psych

Psychology: Post-modern to Contemporary

From its foundation as a separate science from philosophy and biology, psychology has been a dynamic and ever evolving discipline with ongoing debate as to how to explain and describe behavior and the human mind. Many attribute the beginning of psychology as a separate discipline to German physiologist Wilhelm Wundt, during the… [read more]

Day of Compassion Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (716 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Social Psychology Day of Compassion

On November 11, 2011, I had the opportunity to observe and participate in a "Day of Compassion," which challenged individuals to live each minute of that day in as compassionate a way as possible, in other words, spending a full 24-hour period doing one's best to care for other people, be considerate and respectful, and to avoid causing harm to any living being. While I generally pride myself on acting with kindness and empathy in my daily encounters, spending an entire day conscious of the fact that each and every one of my actions should act in accordance with compassion, rather than only those that would more directly inspire me to act in such a way, I found the task alarmingly difficult at the start, but by the end of the day, I had noticed a true change in myself and in the way I interact with other living things.

Social psychologist, Jeanine Young-Mason (2001), describes compassion in a way that is easily relatable. She notes that understanding compassion means one must understand the nature of suffering, the inter-twining of moral, spiritual, psychological, and physical suffering of others, as like freedom, compassion is a word whose meaning becomes clearer and finally clarified only through practice (Young-Mason, 347). All living things have the capacity to receive compassion, though in my actions last Friday, I found myself interacting only with other human beings.

During the Day of Compassion, my behavior stemmed from the fact that throughout the day, I was hyper-aware of my actions and interactions with others, which leads me to believe that this is in at least minimal contrast with how I act on a regular basis. In certain ways, I preferred myself on this day, and in other ways, I did not. Overall, I found myself acting generously and compassionately toward others, helping them when I could, and trying to do so selflessly, but in others, I found myself doing so in a manner that seemed forced because of the hyper-awareness I experienced. For example, I found myself in a confrontation with another individual, and rather than asserting myself, feigned compassion took…… [read more]

Theorists From the History of Psychology Carl Jung and Carl Rogers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,406 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Beyond the contributions of Sigmund Freud, Carl Rogers and Carl Jung may be the two most important individuals in the development of the modern study of psychology. Jung, having studied under Freud, expanded on Freud's concept of the libido and theorized that libido was the aspect of human behavior that controlled all other traits while Rogers was the first to… [read more]

Psychology the Link Between Personality Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,039 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


The chemicals then trickle over to the adjacent neuron, sometimes causing it to let off. This fundamental process of neurotransmission is carried out many by the ten billion or so neurons in the brain. A number of neurons are so lively that they let off as many as one hundred times per second, necessitating devices to uphold these elevated rates. The vesicles have a fundamental role in this progression because they allow neurons to let off when ready. Neurons utilize the vesicles to bundle the chemicals and move them in ahead of time so that they can let loose as soon as an electrical impulse is present. Since the release sites are not near the cell center, the vesicles must reprocess close by in order to continue their high rates of release (Nuance to Neurons, 2011).

According to Levine (2005), the arrangement of temperament and personality is made up of a rather small number of higher-order traits. Higher-order traits reveal emotional-motivational systems that have developed to increased variation to classes of stimuli connected with positive and negative support. Personality disorders can be understood as reflecting pathological amplifications of personality trait profiles. A lot of researchers have consequently supported, at least in principle, the development of a dimensional model that can describe both normal traits as well as personality disorders. Another reason for accepting such a model is that research has not come up with any reliable biological factors that associate with the present categories of personality disorders, whereas many studies have shown relationships between trait dimensions and measures of brain function (Paris, 2005).

While information about the biology of the brain and its association with personality will not permit for the prediction of a person's behavior, it may present a vocabulary to comprehend why some people are more prone to fits of anger, for instance, while others are excruciatingly shy, and afraid of social contact. Additionally comprehending the biologic vulnerabilities to traits such as impulsivity or irritability may also help doctors and caregivers to recognize drugs that will diminish bothersome inclinations (The frontiers of pharmacology, 1994).

As researchers learn more about the biology of the brain, they may become better able to regulate and alter the neurotransmitters important in mood and personality. There are some that ask whether people with normal variations could be in some way be improved with medication, and this is a question that still needs to be looked at (The frontiers of pharmacology, 1994).


Burke, S.M., van de Giessen, E.E., de Win, M.M., Schilt, T.T., van Herk, M.M., van den

Brink, W.W., & Booij, J.J. (2011). Serotonin and dopamine transporters in relation to neuropsychological functioning, personality traits and mood in young adult healthy subjects. Psychological Medicine: A Journal Of Research In Psychiatry And The

Allied Sciences, 41(2), 419-429.

Levine, D.S. (2005). Is all affiliation the same? Facilitation or complementarity? Behavioral

and Brain Sciences, 28(3), 356-357.

Nuance to Neurons. (2011). Science Teacher, 78(7), 19-20.

Paris, J. (2005). Neurobiological Dimensional Models Of Personality: A Review Of The… [read more]

Correspondence Bias Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (2,232 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


2. As a comparison, the Yale approach model is similar with the elaboration likelihood approach for the reason that it falls under the social psychology study that will allow people to change their attitude through persuasion. The contrasting issues is that it does not concerned with the personal activities and the explanation of a certain issue because it is more… [read more]

Personality Theories in Psychology Essay

Essay  |  15 pages (6,049 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


For Freud's patients, the goal of psychoanalysis was to help mitigate some of these feelings and reconcile some of the differences between the id and the superego. Of course, human beings were able to reconcile these competing differences before the advent of psychoanalysis. They did so in a number of ways, which Freud referred to as defense mechanisms. Defense mechanisms… [read more]

Psychology Attitude Change and Persuasion Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,410 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Physical looks play a large part in mate selection. Women tend to prefer men with nice facial features that include clear, unblemished skin and nice eyes. Because these features point toward good health, it is thought that these people have good genes. Women also favor men who have masculine appearances like a strong jaw, facial hair, broader shoulders, narrower hips,… [read more]

Sex Differences in Neuropsychological Functioning Among Schizophrenia Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (907 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … Sex Differences in Neuropsychological Functioning Among Schizophrenia Patients by Bozikas, Kosmidis, Peltekis, Giannakou, Nimatoudis, Karavatos, Fokas, and Garyfallos

Psychology and the related behavioral sciences have swung back and forth between the idea that all human beings start out as equal blank slates and the idea that gender provides significant differences for people. In fact, whether the impact of gender is innate or socialized, there is no question that gender is related to the prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders in groups. Moreover, gender may be related to recovery outcomes and influence the appropriate treatment options for a person suffering with a specific disease. This is a critical hypothesis, because it might not only direct future research into treatment, dictating that appropriate and responsible research take into account existing and potential gender differences.

One of the diseases where a noted sex-based difference exists is schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is known to impact males and females in different ways. These differences include, but are not limited to, differences in age at onset, intensity of the disease, and likelihood of a successful recovery from the disease. One area where gender appears to make a difference is in the level of cognitive impairment experienced by male and female schizophrenia patients; some researchers had found that males experience greater levels of cognitive impairment. Furthermore, women with schizophrenia generally have much more positive outcomes than men with schizophrenia. What makes this a particularly interesting facet of the gender breakdown of the disease is that there is an established difference in cognition in men and women who do not have mental illnesses. Therefore, whether schizophrenia exacerbates existing differences or whether those differences make women less vulnerable to the disease is an interesting question.

Previous studies have examined community functioning, one of the difficulties for schizophrenics who oftentimes have problems interacting with the outside world, and determined that community functioning was related to those areas where healthy women generally outperform healthy men, such as verbal memory, verbal fluency, and executive functioning.

To look at whether men and women experienced different levels of cognitive impairment when afflicted with schizophrenia, the researchers decided to examine patients who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia. The group of 94 people was divided into 56 men and 38 women, all of whom were on antipsychotic medications and considered stable. The patients had been diagnosed with the DSM-IV, and their diagnoses were confirmed by the Greek version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The control group consisted of 31 healthy men and 31 healthy women. To assess cognitive functioning, both groups were subjected to wide variety of tests that looked at the following cognitive abilities: auditory attention, abstraction, inhibition, fluency, verbal learning and memory, visual memory, working memory, visuospatial…… [read more]

Psychology's Rodney Dangerfield Problem Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (624 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Psychology's Rodney Dangerfield Problem

The essence of psychology's Rodney Dangerfield problem is that this particular academic discipline and science incurs a definite lack of respect as compared to that of other sciences. The public view of psychology and of those who practice it is not on par with its view of other scientific disciplines, such as physics or chemistry, which are generally viewed as being more substantiated in hard facts and official scientific processes and methodologies. Psychology, however, is generally viewed as being a lot more subjective and given to individual interpretation. As a result, psychological findings and conclusions are a lot more likely to be received with skepticism, cynicism, and in some instances, frivolity (Stanovich, 1997, p. 15).

There are several factors that can account for this regard of psychology, some of the most important of which directly shape the public's perception of this field. Oftentimes, psychology is wrongfully confused with the proliferation of self-help books and guidance, the latter of which is very rarely based on scientific processes and is quite deserving of the public's general perception of psychology. Additionally, there are a number of pseudosciences that are viewed as extensions of and subsets of true psychology, which helps to further blur the line between unadulterated psychology and its methodology and that of fraudulent quacks. Lastly, the media also plays an active role in propagating an erroneous view of psychology towards the masses. Not only is the media actively propounding the notion that much of the aforementioned self-help guidance and pseudosciences are in fact the work or results of formal psychology, but it also is noted for sensationalizing the statements of (in certain instances) what may be questionable sources regarding psychological findings, as opposed to quoting an esteemed psychologist who is hesitant about giving a definite statement about whatever the topic in question happens to be (Stanovich 1997, p. 179).…… [read more]

John Latane and Bibb Darley Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,551 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Prosocial Behaviour

Prosocial Behavior

The murder of Kitty Genovese in New York City in 1964 prompted many social psychologists to consider the nature of emergency helping behavior. Thirty-eight of Genovese's neighbors witnessed the attack without intervening. No one even contacted the police. (Baron & Byrne, 2003). Some researchers, such as Bibb Latane and John Darley, considered the possibility that no… [read more]

My Expectations of Psychology Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,053 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Expectations of Psychology

Prior to attending my General Psychology I class, I had no tangible understanding of psychology, nor did I have any expectations. At the time I enrolled for the course, my only exposure to psychology was what I witnessed on such television shows as the Sopranos. One of the characters on the show, Tony, would see a psychiatrist, and their interaction was my only introduction to psychology. My high school did not offer any psychology courses and I did not have any formal opportunities to learn about psychology until I was in college. After my first week of attending General Psychology I classes, my expectations shifted from zero, and unsure, to an overwhelming feeling. I was not aware of the depth of psychology, its history, and its relevance to everyday life. Prior to my time in psychology classes, I did not know I would be learning about the physiology of the brain, the different specialties within the psychology field, or about the range of psychological disorders and illnesses. When I enrolled in General Psychology I, I had no expectations about the discipline of psychology, but after a few weeks of classes, I was able to appreciate the diversity of the field, and have been intrigued the most by concepts of abnormal psychology.

My first, academic, exposure to the field of psychology was during my General Psychology I class at Bergen Community College. Prior to this, I really did not know what psychology was, and therefore did not have any expectation about the field, what it meant, or what it included. I heard references to psychology when people said such things as, "They are a psycho," or "psychological breakdown," or "psychological thriller," but I had no appreciation for what psychology encompassed. I would watch the television show, the Sopranos, and the main character, Tony, would see his psychiatrist. The conversations between Tony and his psychiatrist intrigued me, and I knew that psychology was involved in counseling, but I did not know how it worked, what it was, or what was in effect.

My experiences with psychology were so minimal, I did not know what to expect during my first day of General Psychology I class. After being handed the syllabus for the class, I started to understand that psychology is more complex than I had ever realized. During the course of the semester we covered such topics as memory, learning, gender and human sexuality, personality, motivation and emotion, psychological disorders, and several more. Before taking this course, I did not know that so many areas of human thought, expression, and motivation existed in psychological terms, or that they had their own areas of study. Shortly into the beginning of the semester, I was eager to know more about psychology. I had gone from no expectation whatsoever, to being completely interested and enjoying the depth of psychology.

While at Bergen Community College, I also enrolled in Abnormal Psychology. I did go into this course with an expectation to… [read more]

Adlerian Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  4 pages (1,682 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Leading the client to investigate and monitor his thoughts has been shown to be successful in mitigating depression as well as many other mental diseases (Hoifodt et al., 2011; Robertson, 2010).

The client then is helped in shaping his environment / implementing certain behavior that will lead to a more constructive situation and behavior. This is the behavioral component of the approach. Methods used here including positive / negative reinforcement, or operant conditioning, where certain constructive behavior is rewarded therefore encouraged, and negative, self-defeating behavior is punished / rejected therefore hopefully extinguished. The client is also shown how to engineer his environment so that his environment will help him obtain his goals. Modeling successful others is a component of CBT as well as keeping a journal, appraising progress, and other practical strategies (Gelder, 2000; Rachman, 1997).). The client and counselor work together in pursuing and appraising progress.

Indications of successful counseling

This has been addressed before.

Responses to diverse cultural / gender issues

General sensitivity to cultural and gender characteristics applies in both therapies as in all orientations. Counselor has to seek to understand cultural factors that drive client as well as aspects of gender that may influence him. This holds in both Adlerain and CBT regardless.

Pertinent research articles related to effectiveness of either approach nthis is beyond the scope of this essay.

Limitations of personal synthesis

Both have their own philosophy each of which contradicts the others. One is psychodynamic; the other rejects that mode. Reducing all to self-esteem / inferiority as per Adler can also conflict with CBT that sees the problem in a wider range and not necessarily involving esteem.


Ehrenwald, J. (1991). The History of Psychotherapy. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc.

Hoifodt RS, Strom C, Kolstrup N, Eisemann M, Waterloo K (2011). Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy in primary health care: a review. Fam Pract 28, 489 -- 504.

King, R. & Shelley, C. (2008). Community Feeling and Social Interest: Adlerian Parallels, Synergy, and Differences with the Field of Community Psychology. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 18, 96-107.

Rachman, S (1997). "The evolution of cognitive behaviour therapy." In Clark, D, Fairburn, CG & Gelder, MG. (2000) Science and practice of cognitive behaviour therapy. Oxford: Oxford…… [read more]

Developmental Psychology Body Image Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,850 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Several psychiatric disorders might lead to increasing risk of eating disorder, including neurotic and depressive symptoms, bipolar disorder, manic depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive personality characteristics, history of sexual abuse, severe family problems, extreme social pressures, insecurity, being controlled by others, distorted body image, etc. (NIMH, 2001). In addition, extreme negative dissatisfaction with their bodies may be a factor in its existence,… [read more]

History of Psychology Although the Science Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (857 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


History Of Psychology

Although the science of psychology has only been recognized for only about 100 years, human behavior has been of interest from the earliest historical times. Psychology is the practice of studying, teaching or applying an understanding of the mind, thought and behavior.

Over the last century, psychologists have suggested a number of different ways to explain human behavior. Many of these approaches were indicative of the thought at that time and have since either diminished in popularity or changed significantly. Others have their origin in more recent years as new information came to light about the human mind and actions. Psychologists normally adhere to a particular approach or a combination of methodologies when studying behavior or helping patients.

Behaviorism explains human behavior in terms of external physical stimuli, responses and learning histories. John Watson began using the term in the early 1900s, but it was B.F. Skinner who was one of the first advocates of this approach. In this school, new behavior is learned through conditioning or when natural reflexes respond to stimuli or a response to stimuli is reinforced. The major example is Ivan Pavlov's dog, which was trained to salvitate each time it heard a tone even if the food was not available. After many decades of support in the field, behaviorism is losing favor and turning instead to cognitive behaviorism or the study of thinking and consciousness.

Cognitive psychologists believe that the inner thoughts and their consciousness, or mental processes, prove that they are not simply a product of positive and negative reinforcement and therefore have free will. Cognitive therapy first developed in the mid-1900s with the WWII focus on human performance and attention. Noam Chomsky's review of Skinner's book on language is considered the point of origin. Chomsky argued that language cannot be explained solely through a stimulus-response process. The creative use of language can be better explained as a central process than a peripheral one. Over the years, these two approaches have melded into cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. This is based on the scientific fact that our thoughts cause our feelings and behaviors, not external things, like people, situations, and events. We can thus change the way we think to feel and act better even if the situation does not change. Therapists help people change their thoughts so they have control over their own behavior. CBT has become a mainstream approach to treating emotional and behavioral problems.

Gestalt psychology began as a reaction to the behaviorism in the end of the 19th century. Gestalt's argument with behaviorism was the…… [read more]

Self-Concept Maintenance: Analysis of Self-Regulation, Social Comparison Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,121 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Self-Concept Maintenance: Analysis of Self-Regulation, Social Comparison, and Social Identity Theories

Humans as social animals assume different social roles and present various self-images that represent one facet of their personalities appropriate or necessary to the social situation. One's perception of the 'self' is fluid and could be different when one is alone by himself/herself, as compared to when one is in a group or public place. The private and public selves of the individual are ways in which one's self-concept is developed. In the study of human behavior, self-concept maintenance is necessary to "survive" socially: the kind of self-concept developed by the individual would depend on his/her socio-historical background, which include self-concept responses to specific social situations that have been proven favorable or agreeable to him/her at the time.

Thus, in this context of self-concept maintenance, this paper will discuss three (3) relevant and critical theories that will help further explain the nature of self-concept maintenance: self-regulation, social comparison, and social identity theories. These theories help describe the process of self-concept development, including a determination of the motivation that encourages individuals to develop a specific self-concept or image, especially when in public or in a specific social environment. In addition to a comparison of these theories, an application will also be discussed through the media program called "Virtual Office." In this application discussion, two female personalities are compared with each other with regards to their self-concept. Further, having discussed the theories of self-concept maintenance, the discussion would include an analysis of each female character's motivation or possible development of her self-concept based on the principles of each theory.

The theory of self-regulation is a self-concept maintenance theory that explains and describes the internal processes an individual goes through during the self-conceptualization stage. One's decision to assume a specific kind of image socially is a series of processes that are both dependent on the person's personal development and the response of his/her social environment to this/these personalities. Self-regulation posits that generally, individuals "control" their natural behavior. People develop self-concepts that are ultimately favorable to other people, and individuals exercise self-control in order to ensure that a desired self-concept or image is socially and consistently maintained. Success in "controlling" one's behavior would lead to "renewed efforts" for greater self-regulation, while lack of confidence or "doubt" in maintaining the image/public self "leads to a tendency to disengage" (Carver, 2001:322).

There are occasions, of course, when one experiences "lapses in self-control." Specific examples cited include binge eating, when a person's resolve to control his/her eating highly conflicts with his/her desire to eat. In this case, self-regulation succeeds when one is able to 'override' this desire to "overindulge." However, there are cases when lapses in self-control really happen, and this lapse is usually coupled with "mental fatigue" and "total exhaustion." Unfortunately, as confidence spirals down, so does self-control and the motivation to control and maintain his/her self-concept, and the downward spiral worsens, leading to the development of an entirely new personality -- a… [read more]

Psychology Is a Multifaceted Field of Study Essay

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Psychology is a multifaceted field of study with a difficult if not impossible task, assigned it. The challenge of creating a record of the inner workings of the human mind is substantial, as the mind is often unknown even to the possessor of its thoughts. With this said it must be made clear that the next best recordable measurement is… [read more]

Ego Psychology Theorists Term Paper

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When you are becoming older, you begin to acquire more and more principles. (Psychology of Behavior)

The distinctive mold of psychological and behavioral characteristics that differentiates each of us from everyone else is the Personality. The distinctiveness of the individual Personality is comparatively constant and lasting, frequently developed in childhood and influence the way we think, act, feel and behave. The study of personality involves five major methods with their own way of evaluating personality. These are Psychodynamic, Humanistic, Behavioral, Trait and Bio-psychological theories. Psychodynamic theories highlight the relationship of Unconscious mental processes in shaping human thinking, conduct and feelings. It is a Conflict approach that presumes that contrasting forces within an individual are continuously disagreeing. According to humanistic theorist Carl Rogers, the 'Self' is fundamental to personality. We recognize the world and our understanding through our notions about the 'Self', our Self-Concept. Rogers sees the Self-Concept as nucleus to comprehending human behavior and personality because we "act according to our self-concept," be it optimistic or pessimistic. According to Trait theorists, personality can be fully appreciated by recognizing personality traits, lasting characteristics that classify and manage behavior across circumstances. Traits are features such as aloof, believing, controlled, nervous, grim and docile that influence behavior. (Personality Theory and Assessment)


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Western University. Retrieved from http://galton.psych.nwu.edu/papers/plaut.html Accessed on 25 February 2005

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Accessed on 25 February 2005

"Psychology of Behavior" retrieved from http://library.thinkquest.org/26618/en-1.1.1=Freud.htm Accessed on 25 February 2005… [read more]

How Individuals That Hear Voices and Therapists Relate With the Experience of Hearing Term Paper

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Hearing Voices, Patients/Therapists

In an issue that aimed to reconsider the contributions that phenomenology offers to the practice of clinical psychology, Davidson outlined the ways in which transcendental psychology reconceptualized both research and clinical practice. One of the things he attempted to do in his investigation was to bring 'suspicious' events, such as hearing voices (auditory hallucinations) into a more… [read more]

Issues Addressed by Psychologists Term Paper

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The roles of nature vs. nurture in a person's psychology has been debated for decades. By "nature," most people mean traits that are present in us when we are born, and with today's knowledge, genetics. By "nurture," people usually mean those things that can be used to influence how we grow up and how we act, including how we are parented and other factors beyond our innate biology. At one time behaviorists told us that humans could be completely programmed using behavior modification, overcoming any natural tendencies the individual had. We know that isn't true. We also know that a person's innate traits can be modified or overcome via nurture. Nature we would think of today as genetics. We know that bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have genetic components, and yet not everyone inheriting that history develops those disorders, but we don't really know why one person develops bipolar disorder while another does not. It seems possible that something in the person's environment, the nurturing factor, either allowed the disorder's development or helped guard against it. Once such a disorder has developed, another outside influence, or nurturing, would be the treatment the person does or does not receive, such as psychotherapy and appropriate use of medications.

Sometimes people make conscious decisions, decisions they intend to make and for which they can give reasons. Sometimes people's behavior is unconscious, or behavior where the person does not know why he or she does it. Various psychotherapists have suggested why we exhibit unconscious behaviors. Freud talked about the Id, the Ego and the Superego and neuroses. Others suggested that we all have a "collective unconscious" that causes us to naturally believe certain things and that can influence our behaviors. Others believe the personality goes through…… [read more]

Psychological Scientists Are Levying Great Term Paper

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Firstly, naturalistic observation is a descriptive method and lacks explanatory nature. That is, without the controlled conditions of the laboratory, conclusions about cause-and-effect relationships cannot be drawn. Behavior can only be described, not explained. This method can also take a great amount of time. Researchers may have to wait for some time to observe the behavior or phenomenon of interest. Further limitations include the difficulty of observing behavior without disrupting it and the difficulty of coding results in a manner appropriate for statistical analysis. Other limitations include the obtrusive nature of this method which can alter the reaction of the subject to the presence of the observer. Interpersonal skills of the observer play a vital role in this method in order to gain trust of the subject and other sponsors. Note taking can be time consuming and neutral observations are difficult to make.


McBurney, DH, & White, T.L. (2006). Research methods. (7th ed.). Wadsworth Publishing.

Miller, D.B. (1977). Roles of naturalistic observation in comparative psychology. American Psychologist, 32(3), 211-219. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/amp/32/3/211/

Bratton, S., Ray, D., & Rhine, T. (2005). The efficacy of play therapy with children: A meta-analytic review of treatment outcomes. Journal of Professional Psychology Research and Practice, 36(4), 376-390.

Cook, R.E., Tessier, A. & Klein, M.D. (2000). Adapting early childhood curricula for children in inclusive settings (5th ed). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill Prentice- Hall.

Spero, M.H. (1977). Interpretations and ego readiness: A psychodynamic approach. . Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 14(1), 74-78. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/pst/14/1/74/… [read more]

Behavior and Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Developing My Personal Style Term Paper

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Personal Counseling Theory

Traditional counseling theories have varied in their background, purpose, application, and treatment methods. Over this past semester, I have been exposed to a number of different counseling theories, psychotherapy systems, strategies and related skills. A synthesis of these different theories has enabled me to develop by own personal counseling style. Historically, both psychoanalytical and cognitive behavioral approaches… [read more]

Is Psychology a Science? Term Paper

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The Science of Psychology

Various subjects have been studied scientifically since the 17th century. As science developed, it came to be considered as the only valid way to understand the world and its workings. However, trying to understand the world based only on science is also limiting. This is true because not all subjects can be studied scientifically. Psychology… [read more]

Classical Conditioning and Phobia Treatment Fear Term Paper

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Classical Conditioning and Phobia Treatment

Fear is a natural, human emotion. Psychologists have long believed that fear of the unknown protected our ancestors from engaging in reckless and life-threatening behavior. Ancient humans who had a healthy sense of fear in the unknown avoided taking unnecessary risks. They were therefore survivors, who were able to pass their genes to their progeny.… [read more]

Cognitive-Behavior and Reality Therapies Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Term Paper

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Cognitive-Behavior and Reality Therapies

Cognitive-Behavior Therapy

Behavior Therapy began with Dr. Joseph Wolpe in the United States and his parallel in England, Hans Eysenck. Later, combined with Cognitive Therapy, it was termed Cognitive- Behavior Therapy by Ellis (1962), Beck (1975) and Meichenbaum (1977). There are several approaches to Cognitive-Behavioral therapy, including Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, Rational Behavior Therapy, Rational Living… [read more]

Reality Therapy a New Approach to Psychiatry Term Paper

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¶ … Reality Therapy; a New Approach to Psychiatry by Dr. William Glasser. The writer explores the book and its contents and holds it against other theories in the field of mental health to more fully explain Glasser's viewpoint. There was one source used to complete this paper.

The field of mental health while still in its relative infancy has… [read more]

Psychology and Critical Thinking Term Paper

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Psychology and Critical Thinking

Critical Thinking and Psychology

Critical thinking is the examination and test of propositions of any kind which are offered for acceptance, in order to find out whether they correspond to reality or not.... It is our only guarantee against delusion, deception, superstition, and misapprehension of ourselves and our earthly circumstances." William Graham Sumner spoke these words early in the 19th century and since then his influence in the field of critical thinking has grown. Educators today use critical thinking as a basic method of teaching and therapists using various cognitive-behaviorial techniques, use it to teach their clients to analyze their own thoughts and actions as a result of Sumner's guidance. (Sumner, 1963, 95) therapist, realizing that much of our thinking, left to itself, is biased, distorted, partial, uninformed or down-right prejudiced, and therefore may try to get his or her patient to think critically; that is, to stop manipulating ideas to make them fit interests, realizing that the quality of life, all the goals the patient produces, the relationships the patient makes, and the environments the patient builds around them depends precisely on the quality…… [read more]

Behavior Modification Techniques Applied to Overeating Term Paper

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¶ … behavior modification techniques that can be applied to overeating. The writer explores overeating and produces a workable list of behavior modification techniques that might apply to a patient who has difficulty controlling food consumption. There were three sources used to complete this paper.

Almost nightly news reports across America tell society that it is overweight. Commercials for diet plans, exercise equipment and pills "guaranteed" to take off pounds feed a multibillion dollar industry designed to help people become thin. Yet, the nation as a whole continues to grow. The basic premise to maintaining a healthy weight is not to take in more calories than one expends with physical energy. On the surface it sounds like a simple concept however, when factors such as emotional problems, cravings, and sedentary lifestyles are added to the mix it is not difficult to understand why America is growing. "One-third of the U.S. population is currently considered obese, with a body mass index of 30 kg/[m.sup.2] or greater, and more than two-thirds are overweight, with BMIs at or above 25(Tucker, 2005)."As these statistics continue to rise the medical community continues to discover the long-term health issues that being overweight can cause. Within five years of losing large amounts of weight 90% of Americans gain it back. The key to permanent weight loss is not in a new drug, or piece of exercise equipment of a fad diet. The key to permanent weight loss and weight management is behavior modification.


Behavior modification is a tool that is widely used in the mental health field to help patients break the overeating habits they have developed.

Overeating is often caused by underlying psychological concerns or issues that can include:

Self-worth and satisfaction.

A sense of wealth or ease.

Safety and distance.


Sense of identity (Mulcahy, 2003)."

Understanding these benefits that overweight people gain from overeating is important as it can help set the stage to reduce overeating through behavior modifications.

Using behavior modification to prevent overeating involves the use of techniques to include self-monitoring, cognitive restructuring, social support, stress management and stimulus control. When these techniques are used effectively the incidence of overeating will be reduced and the chances of becoming overweight will be reduced.

For one to understand how behavior modification can work to reduce overeating one needs to have an understanding of behavior modification and how it works in general. Behavior modification is a technique used in the mental health field and classrooms around the world to change one's undesirable behaviors.

It promotes the belief that if one changes behaviors then desired results will soon follow which will in turn enforce the benefits of behavior modifications thereby strengthening the resolve to continue those behaviors (FOREYT, 2000).

There are many ways that behavior modification can be incorporated into the problem of overeating.

Overeating is often a difficult problem to address because the behavior modifications cannot include things that will help a person stop the activity completely. Unlike drug use, smoking cigarettes or… [read more]

Integrative Approaches to Psychology and Christianity Term Paper

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¶ … integrative approach to psychology and Christianity

Entwistle, David N. An Integrative Approach to Psychology and Christianity. Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2004.

Faith and science, in contemporary culture, have been constructed as polarized hermeneutical frameworks. Psychology, an analytic discipline that sprang from science, is similarly seen as incompatible with faith and Christianity. This puts pastoral counselors in something of… [read more]

Psychology Statement of Purpose Admission Essay

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In the short-run, I also plan to gain practical experience in the clinical psychology field by working as a consultant in a medium sized hospital. In the long-run, a doctoral degree in psychology will come in handy as I seek to reach my full potential as a clinical psychologist. After attaining the said doctoral degree, I would wish to work in an outpatient mental health center. Further, I intend to acquire a teaching position in any of the nation's numerous universities offering psychology and related programs. Working in an academic setting will offer me a unique opportunity to grow as a professional while making significant contributions to the field of psychology through continued research.

In addition to being creative, I am also an effective communicator. I also have an insatiable thirst for knowledge. I believe that as an effective communicator, I will be able to relate relatively well with clients and their families. I will also get to put my creativity to work in the development of treatment approaches. My insatiable thirst for knowledge could see me further enhance my professional abilities in this particular field.

Seeing others overcome difficult experiences can be sufficiently rewarding. My desire to become a clinical psychologist is not chiefly driven by the monetary rewards associated with such a career. After all, this particular career has its own downsides including but not limited to the risk of burnout. My desire to become a clinical psychologist is instead driven by the need to make a difference in people's lives. Jenny (my cousin) is now living a normal life thanks to the intervention of a clinical psychologist. For me, making a difference in people's lives as a clinical psychologist would be sufficiently fulfilling. I believe that your institution has an enabling learning environment that would see me realize my…… [read more]

Psychology Learning Experience Understanding Term Paper

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Conditioned Stimulus: Petrol will be the conditioned stimulus. Since it possesses the chemical agent, petrol will act as a conditioned stimulus. The response that the body generated for the chemical agent will slowly began to be the response that the body generates for petrol.

Conditioned Response: The conditioned response will be the feeling associated with the chemical agent. You no longer have to provide the chemical agent to get that response, petrol will do the trick.

Similar to the example given above, it is important to understand that classical conditioning can be applied in different ways. For example, if you want a response towards petrol pump to be learned then you can keep petrol as the unconditioned stimulus and petrol pump as the conditioned stimulus. Due to this you will slowly start developing the same feelings for the petrol pump that you have for petrol.

Operant Conditioning and My Learning

You can also trigger learning via Operant Conditioning i.e. By altering consequences. Through operant conditioning the learning is assisted by behavior, reinforcement and punishments. Behavior is the act that is under consideration, punishments are the consequences while reinforcement is where the actual operant conditioning takes place.

Behavior: In this particular scenario the behavior will be referred to as how one would react to petrol fragrance.

Consequences: There will be two consequences of the operant conditioning. Negative punishment and positive punishment. Negative punishment is also known as the penalty. If I am supposed to like the petrol pump and I don't then I can be forced to learn to like it by negative punishment. In this scenario the negative punishment will be no petrol fragrance until I visit a petrol pump. Positive punishment will be given by associating petrol with the petrol pump. However in my case, negative punishment will be preferably used.

Reinforcement: When a behavior is rewarded with a positive result it is known as positive reinforcement and when it is rewarded with a negative result it is known as negative reinforcement. In this particular case, positive reinforcement will be preferred if a liking for petrol fragrance has to be developed and negative reinforcement will be preferred if a disliking has to be developed.

Learning via Cognitive Social Learning

As the name represents, people learn by watching people or by observing there environment. If I am greatly impressed by a friend and I watch him/her being addicted to the petrol fragrance, I'll automatically condition my mind towards liking it. While there are many other aspects to cognitive social learning, I think identification is the most applicable here. If I want to be like someone or if I identify with someone i.e. I feel someone is more or less the same, I am most likely to follow what they do.


Hence you can learn through various ways and you can condition responses according to your own will. The only trick you need to learn is the trick of controlling stimuli and consequences.


Kunz, M., & Lautenbacher, S. (2011).… [read more]

Clinical Psychology Many People Essay

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4. How would you explain the meaning of Figure 2 in the article by Warner et al. (2004) to an interested colleague?

Figure 2 presents a number of the findings in this piece of research. These include the following: There is no significant relationship between STPD and schizotypal personality traits; however, there is likely a significant relationship between personality change and later disorder change. The diagram allows the researcher to extrapolate from the present to the future condition of an individual.

5. In terms of defense mechanism use, what are some major differences between normal Thais and Americans? What is one explanation for the differences noted?

The researchers found that in Thais, self-concept and Buddhist beliefs were significantly related to unconscious coping. Thus those Thais who were more devoted Buddhists had more unconscious coping mechanisms, a fact that is directly related to the ways in which Buddhist beliefs and practices are constructed. Americans, on the other hand, were more…… [read more]

Daily Life Typically Essay

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The evaluations of personnel in the work environment are based on the methods and principles of psychology. Books and seminars on improving management skills, job satisfaction, and productivity are all based on psychological principles (Jex & Britt, 2008).

There are also many instances in the legal system that are reflections of psychological principles. These include rehabilitation programs, pre-sentencing evaluations, profiles of people accused of crimes, methods police use to catch and interrogate lawbreakers, and a number of other areas. Punishment and sentencing methods used in the legal system are based on psychological principles.

Typically people use or are exposed to psychologically-based principles every day. The tendencies to make friends, develop relationships, fall in love, etc. reflect psychological principles. Whenever anyone mentions the notion of "personality" they will most likely evoke some sort of psychological principle People that own pets and train them to use a litter box or to eat at a certain time are invoking psychological principles. Training a child to walk, to eat from a bowl with a spoon, to become toilet trained often require the use of behavioral principles from psychology. The child's maturation and learning reflect psychological principles. In fact, people are themselves amateur psychologists who employ a number of principles from psychology (some not very effective) in their attitude formation, judgment, actions, and worldview. When one observes the animals changing their behaviors to accommodate the seasons, going through mating rituals, foraging for food, raising young, etc. one is being exposed to psychological principles.

In essence, because psychology focuses on the study of behavior, one can find examples of psychological principles in nearly every facet of daily life. Almost every work of fiction applies some psychological principle regarding behavior. When you go to a store and notice mirrors on the walls, this is actually based on a self-awareness principle that reduces shoplifting (Diener, 1979). As mentioned above, advertising, the legal system, the educational system, the entertainment industry, and even parenting all apply psychological principles in their everyday routines. Psychology is like math, it is everywhere!


American Psychological Association (2012). How does the APA define psychology? Retrieved on September 6, 2012 from http://www.apa.org/support/about/apa/psychology.aspx#answer.

Diener, E. (1979). Deindividuation, self-awareness, and disinhibition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(7), 1160-1171.

Jex, S.M., & Britt, T.W. (2008). Organizational psychology. Hoboken: Wiley.

Kline P. (2000). The handbook of psychological testing.…… [read more]

Psychology After Reviewing the "Vignette Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (876 words)
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If the therapist can change these and make them more rational, personality disorders might well be relieved. The therapeutic approach Beck developed describes specific cognitive distortions that characterize various neurotic conditions and outlines how the general principles of cognitive therapy can be used to treat these conditions, as well as to treat depression" (Magnavita, 2012). Miles should be taught how to handle stressful situations at work and at home, and how to recognize cues that might spur him to be depressed.

In the short goals, we will ask him to find something that is important to him and identify why it is important. Secondly, the therapist will reflect on the client's personal life and performance at work and home life so that the client begins to transition his thoughts of importance, which gets the patient to express something of importance in their life without focusing on the negative. In the short-term goals, the therapist will express to the client his marriage and work are important and that they are working towards a goal at home and work even though the patient does not get a sense of accomplishment within his mind (Corsini & Wedding, 2008).

The long-term goals will be to dealing with the functional consequences of thoughts and beliefs rather than on analyzing their content or truth value. This approach is all about action. Secondly, we will working on making mindful decisions about what is important in Miles' life and what he is going to do in order to live a valued life. Thirdly, this plan involves helping patients choose the values they hold dear, setting specific goals, and taking concrete steps to achieve these goals (Corsini & Wedding, 2008).

In order to know he is attaining his goals, first, it is expressed that the patient is happy when he has a good time without having to worry spending money or very little of it. Finally, we would help him to find a way to keep up his progress by offering him support groups in his community. For resources, there are support groups in the community that help with depression. There is also the community health department that can help the person to find assistance. There are also hotlines. We would see him wanting to maintain his progress without feeling the need to stay home in order save money.


Corsini, R. & Wedding, D. ( Eds.). (2008). Current Psychotherapies (8th ed.). California: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.

Hirsch, I. (2010). Discussion: On some contributions of the interpersonal tradition to contemporary psychoanalytic praxis. American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 70(1), 86-93. doi: 10.1057/ajp.2009.47

Magnavita, J.J. (2012). Theories…… [read more]

Psychology of School Shootings and There Aftermath Term Paper

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Psychology of School Shooting and Their Aftermath

Cyber LAW

As schools across the U.S. continue their everyday activities, in the aftermath of the recent shootings, teachers of teenagers may be motivated to observe their students more closely to see if any of them might be clever in doing a parallel violent attack. School massacres of any level contest various typecasts… [read more]

Psychology Assessment Multiple Choice Questions in Light Assessment

Assessment  |  3 pages (1,116 words)
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Psychology Assessment

Multiple Choice Questions

In light of problems posed by the concept of drive, Premack, one of Skinner's followers, proposes that we consider reinforcement:

In terms of the power of discriminative stimuli.

Responses that are intermittently rather than continuously reinforced are:

All of the above.

Skinner's attitude toward the theory of natural selection seemed basically:


Skinner argued that internal events such as thoughts:

Should only be studied if they can be observed and measured.

According to the text, the most basic difference between Skinner and the developmentalists has to do with:

The source of developmental change-inner or outer.

The text considers research on televised aggression as:

Supporting some theorists but not others.

In Bandura's theory, direct reinforcements primarily affect:

D. Performances rather than the acquisition of responses.

8.Over the years, Bandura has come to view Piaget's theory as:

B. Still wrong in major respects.

9.Studies on pro-social behavior suggest that:

B. Modeling a behavior for children always has stronger effects than issuing orders.

10. Five-year-olds seem to talk to themselves aloud more often as their work becomes increasingly difficult. This finding supports:

B. Vygotsky.

11. Luria found that when young children try to give themselves verbal commands:

D. They behave as if all commands initiate behavior.

12. One of Vygotsky's laws was that:

C. Children first learn the social forms of behavior, then apply it to themselves.

13. The text most strongly criticizes Vygotsky's educational approach for:

B. Lack of clarity.

14. The text suggests Vygotsky described the interactions between inner and outer forces behind development:

C. In a clearer manner with respect to language than school instruction.

15. Freud would suggest that a young man's anxiety over competition probably reflects earlier problems at:

C. The third stage.

16. What most puzzled Freud about the girl's Oedipus Complex was:

A. Why girls experience penis envy.

17. In general, the strongest fixation seems to be:

A. Excessive gratification.

Part II

The text suggests that the major difference between B.F. Skinner and Jean Piaget is the nature of how we build cognitive structures to analyze stimuli we encounter. Essentially, Skinner presents a more active participant in the image of the learner; he was one who proposed the need for a very active learner, one which required a student to be engaged in the learning process in order to really learn the material of whatever lesson is in question. This was reinforced with most of Piaget's theory as well, advocating an active role for the learner. The two theorists have a very similar notion of the importance of the engagement of the individual learner. Yet, there is one major difference between the two theorists. The text suggests that Piaget was adamant regarding the inner nature of building cognitive structures to understand the world and solve problems. This happened innately according to Piaget. Yet, Skinner believed that the structures for understanding external stimuli was also a learned behavior. Skinner saw the development for schemas to understand experiences was a result of conditioning… [read more]

Memory, Cognitive Function, Mood Disorders, &amp Schizophrenia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,803 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Lashley sought to find the engram, the physiological representation of learning. In general terms, how would you recognize an engram if you saw one? That is, what would someone have to demonstrate before you could conclude that a particular change in the nervous system was really an engram?

Someone would have to demonstrate a physical representation of this… [read more]

Psychology Definitions Psychosis = Loss of Contact Research Paper

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Psychology Definitions

Psychosis = Loss of contact with reality.

Downward drift = Lower achievement than parents or family members in terms of social class, employment, and financial stability.

Positive vs. negative symptoms = Positive symptoms are present in the disorder and characterize it; Negative symptoms are present in normally functioning people, but absent in people with the disorder.

Delusions of persecution = the mistaken belief that someone or something is pursuing the individual and means him or her harm.

Difference between hallucinations and delusions = Hallucinations are sense perceptions, such as hearing, seeing, or smelling things that do not in fact exist in reality. Delusions are patterns of thought about the self or the world that are not true or realistic.

Types of schizophrenia (disorganized, catatonic, paranoid, undifferentiated) = Disorganized: Characterized by disorganized speech patterns.

Catatonic: Movement disturbances.

Paranoid: Including delusions and hallucinations.

Undifferentiated: A combination of symptoms.

Genetics and schizophrenia (first degree relatives of a schizophrenic person more likely than second or third degree relatives to develop schizophrenia) = Refers to the likelihood of inheriting the condition on a genetic level.

Stress-vulnerability model = the model according to which an individual's susceptibility to stress determines his or her likelihood to develop a mental disorder.

Token economy = Systematic positive reinforcement to encourage behavior change.

Milieu therapy = Environmental factors are used to encourage recovery.

Chapter 13

Personality = Elements of character and behavior that make an individual distinct from others.

Difference between personality characteristics and personality disorders = Personality characteristics identify a person as individual. These are generally not harmful. Personality disorders will create some form of disturbance for the sufferer or those around him or her.

Comorbidity = Symptoms of more than one condition experienced by the same…… [read more]

ADHD Case Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (978 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Additionally, in this case, the clinical psychologist can use the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale (WFIRS) in the case that the WURS does not provide enough or sufficient glimpse into the boy's behavior (Haavik et al. 2010 p 1572). This could be used either as a secondary measure or in correlation with the WURS assessment test. Similar to the WURS assessment test, the WFIRS deals with a number of variables, including behavioral, social, academic, and familial history. This test is for the boy himself to take, as is the self-assessment. As such, it has been designed with a certain degree of flexibility in order to detect any possible understatements that the individual might have about themselves or their condition. With this multifaceted approach to the assessment test, combining the parents and teachers scores can help provide a more effective evaluation of the boy's behavior and current condition. This would help provide a more well-rounded approach to the diagnosis of ADHD, as it counts on the use of third-party assessments, but also assessment from the boy himself.

This would then be finalized with a final assessment interview. In the interview, the boy would be alone with a clinical psychologist and would follow a series of open-ended questions regarding the nature of his behavioral problems. An interview would need to be open-ended because the clinical psychologist would need to have it flexible enough to run with topics that the boy might bring up on his own that signify the presence of a possible ADHD diagnosis. Moreover, the interview should be conducted after the assessment tests. When the interview comes after the self-assessment test, the clinical psychologist can use that self-assessment test as a way to structure interview questions. The clinical psychologist can ask the boy about particular answers that really stuck out within the assessment test. These interviews can be used to help answer any potential looming questions that the rating assessments left open, but also to solidify a potential ADHD diagnosis by actually communicating with the patient in question.

It is clear that the mind of a 13-year-old boy is extremely complicated, and thus understanding it from a clinical psychology perspective will take a number of different measures. As such, in order to provide an efficient assessment for an ADHD diagnosis, a clinical psychologist must undertake a multifaceted approach. This would include a rating scale provided to both the teachers and parents, with a separate one provided to the patient himself. This would then be solidified with patient interviews, which would help answer any looming questions.


Haavik, Jan, Halmay, Anne, & Lundervold, Astri. (2010). Clinical assessment and diagnosis of adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Expert Review of Neurotherapuetics, 10(10), 1569-1580.

University of British Colombia. (2011). Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Sef Report. Caddra. Web. http://www.caddra.ca/cms4/pdfs/caddraGuidelines2011WFIRS_S.pdf

Ward MF Wender PH Reimherr FW. The Wender Utah Rating Scale: An aid…… [read more]

Cognitive Psychology: Emotions and Cognition Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (755 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Cognitive Psychology: Emotions and Cognition

Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that is predominantly occupied with the mental process. These would include how people think, perceive ideas and things, recall and also learn. It is related to other disciplines like philosophy, neuroscience and linguistics. According to Kendra Cherry (2011), cognitive psychology has to do with acquisition, encoding and storage of information in the human brain. It is worth noting at the onset that what makes cognitive psychology stand out is that, different from the behaviorism that predominantly focuses on the behaviors that can be seen, cognitive psychology will go beyond this by taking the observable behavior as a key to the internal mental status which is the main focus of cognitive psychology.

Of central concern here is the relationship between emotions and cognition since there have been varied arguments and discussion on the line between these two. Apparently the line between emotion and cognition seems faint and temporary. The two often go together or one evokes the other and in turn the response of an individual to a situation is as a result of both. There is also need to understand that there is not a fixed order that the emotion and cognition must come but there is variance depending on the situation or the event. Zajonc's R., (1984) indicated that emotional response to a large number of events occurred almost immediately, even before the event is processed in the cognitive part of the brain. Here, it was found out that man can emotionally respond to stimuli that are so subliminal that it can pass the human cognition and consciousness. When perceptual information is received, it is first, even before the cognitive processing, evaluated as good-bad judgment. Incase the stimuli is assessed as a bad one or a threat, then the physiological arousal and avoidance response is triggered. However, this initial response can be revised subsequently upon cognition. To illustrate this is the case where one flinches on a loud bang, before relaxing upon realizing it was not a firearm but a tire burst. Here there was an emotional response before the cognition came in later to clarify the stimuli hence changing the response as well. Here, in as much as the emotional response came first,…… [read more]

Forensic Psychology From the Perspective Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The study concluded that suicidal behaviors occurred at similar rates in both developed and developing countries. Risk indices created via the survey database are able to predict suicide events with relatively good accuracy.

Forensic psychiatrists working with various populations in clinical settings such as prison hospitals or psychiatric institutions can use the created database to identify the risk and prevent suicide among inmates and patients.

The study can also serve as a basis for further research in the clinical setting, where the existing database can be used as inspiration for investigations of smaller, more concentrated populations during shorter spans of time. In other words, more specific risk factors might be identified for populations with a specific uniform risk factor, such as parent psychopathology, for example.

In conclusion, suicide is one of the leading causes of death across the world. An existing database to help create risk indices is very useful in clinical settings, in which the purpose of practice is healing and the preservation of life. In a clinical psychiatric setting, for example, the main advantage is not only saving lives, but also creating greater potential for healing and returning productive citizens to general society. In a forensic prison setting, preventing suicide in inmates can provide a basis for rehabilitation or at the very least the ability of prisoners to take responsibility for their actions.

Finally, investigating suicide risks creates a basis for further research, which could also be applied to more specific settings, such as among school age youth.


Borges, G., Nock, M.K., Haro Abad, J.M., Hwang, I., Sampson, N.A., Alonso, J., Andrade, L.H., Angermyre, M.C., Bautrais, A., Bromt, E., Bruffaerts, R., De Girolamo, G., Florescu, S., Lee, S., Levinson, D., Medina-Mora, M.E., Ormel, J., Posada-Villa, J., Sagar, R., Tomov, T., Uda, H., Williams, D.R., and Kessler, R.C. (2010, Dec.). Twelve Month Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 71(12). Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3000886/… [read more]

According to Psychology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,378 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4



Although the Wizard of Oz is not expressly a film about human psychology, its colorful cast of characters lends itself well to the application of multiple theories and issues in psychology. With films such as Analyze This! And a Beautiful Mind, it would seem odd to focus on a film that avoids direct addressing of psychology themes. However, the Wizard of Oz, with enough creative interpretation, can offer an even richer understanding of how the concepts of psychology such as those outlined in the Ciccarelli (2011) text. The Wizard of Oz is about a young woman, Dorothy, who lives with her elder aunt and uncle in Kansas and her dog Toto. An old woman in town threatens to kill Toto because he occasionally runs into her yard. Whereas Aunt Em and Uncle Henry defer to the old woman's power and authority in the community, Dorothy has little respect for the woman and is unwilling to accept her edict. Thus, Dorothy runs away from home to save Toto's life. While she is away, a tornado strikes. Dorothy is knocked unconscious, and the rest of the movie takes place in a dream world in which Dorothy and Toto are on a quest to find the Wizard who can help them to return home. Therefore, theories of consciousness, sleep, dreams, hypnosis, and drugs (Chapter 4) can be applied directly to the Wizard of Oz. Characters like the Wicked Witch are counterparts to real-life characters in Dorothy's life back in Kansas. Therefore, the film can be interpreted on multiple levels, within the framework of psychology. Development (Chapter 8), Motivation (Chapter 9), Personality (Chapter 13), and Psychological Disorders (Chapter 14) are evident throughout the Wizard of Oz.

One of the most notable themes in the Wizard of Oz is related to Chapter 4 on consciousness, sleep, dreams, hypnosis, and drugs. Because most of the movie takes place in an alternate universe inside of Dorothy's mind, the viewer questions reality just as Dorothy does. When she awakens, she recognizes that the characters in Oz corresponded directly to the people in her life. The old woman who wanted to kill Toto corresponds directly to the Wicked Witch. Dorothy's consciousness is uniquely positioned between the two worlds. The dream states explored in the film illustrate how people's consciousness is connected to imagery, memory, and emotion. In addition to actual dreaming and dream states, Dorothy experiences what can easily be called hypnosis. When the Good Witch Glenda asks Dorothy to click her heels together three times and chant, "There's no place like home," Dorothy is hypnotizing herself. She is entering what is possibly the alpha brain wave state, which Ciccarelli describes in Chapter 4. Drugs also play a role in the unfolding of the Wizard of Oz, when the Wicked Witch puts a spell on Dorothy and her friends in the field of poppies. The witch chants, "Poppies! Poppies!" which are a source of the narcotic opium. Under the drug, Dorothy and her friends fall into a deep… [read more]

Psychology Definitions Abnormal Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
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Historical treatment approaches (demonology, trephination, asylums, and psychotropic medication) - Throughout time, societies have proposed several explanations of abnormal behavior within human beings. Beginning in some hunter-gatherer societies, animists have believed that people demonstrating abnormal behaviors are possessed by malevolent spirits. This idea has been associated with trepanation, the practice of cutting a hole into the individual's skull in order to release the malevolent spirits. Although it has been difficult to define abnormal psychology, one definition includes characteristics such as statistical infrequency. A more formalized response to spiritual beliefs about abnormality is the practice of exorcism. Performed by religious authorities, exorcism is thought of as another way to release evil spirits who cause pathological behavior within the person. In some instances, individuals exhibiting unusual thoughts or behaviors have been exiled from society or worse. Perceived witchcraft, for example, has been punished by death. Two Catholic Inquisitors wrote the Malleus Maleficarum (Latin for 'The Hammer against Witches'), that was used by many Inquisitors and witch-hunters. It contained an early taxonomy of perceived deviant behavior and proposed guidelines for prosecuting deviant individuals. The act of placing mentally ill individuals in a separate facility known as an asylum dates to 1547, when King Henry VIII of England established the St. Mary of Bethlehem asylum. Asylums remained popular throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance era. Psychotropic medications are psychiatric medicines that alter chemical levels in the brain which impact mood and behavior.

Client-centered therapy (unconditional positive regard, conditions of worth, authenticity) - Unconditional positive regard: basic acceptance and support of a person regardless of what the person says or does and is essential to healthy development. People who have not been exposed to it may come to… [read more]

Psychologists Use Scientific Methods Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (580 words)
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D. plant growth

9. In a formal experiment, which group is the control group?

A. The group that is subjected to manipulation

B. The randomly assigned group

C. The group that is not subjected to manipulation

D. The group that is representative of the general population

10. In a formal experiment, which group is the experimental group?

A. The group that is subjected to manipulation

B. The randomly assigned group

C. The group that is not subjected to manipulation

D. The group that is representative of the general population

11. Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 25, and 40. The mean of these five scores is

A. 10

B. 15

C. 20

D. 25

12. Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 25, and 40. The median of these five scores is

A. 10

B. 15

C. 20

D. 25

13. Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 20, and 40. The mode of these five scores is

A. 10

B. 15

C. 20

D. 25

14. The primary function of dendrites is to A. keep the cell alive.

B. transmit outgoing information.

C. secrete hormones.

D. receive incoming information.

15. Which subpart of the brain is located at the rear base of the skull?

A. forebrain

B. corpus callosum

C. midbrain

D. hindbrain

16. Conscious experience and voluntary actions are mediated by the A. limbic system.

B. cerebral cortex.

C. cerebellum.

D. cingulate cortex.

17. The area critical for processing visual information is the A. parietal lobe.

B. occipital lobe.

C. frontal lobe.

D. cerebellar cortex.

18. Most neurons send information to A. glial cells.

B.… [read more]

Social Advocacy in Counseling PhD Model Answer

PhD Model Answer  |  15 pages (5,374 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


" Indeed many of the tenets and precepts of current social justice advocates are aligned with the postmodernist philosophy, which has been associated with Marxist principles by many scholars (e.g., see Johnson, 2009; Nicholson & Seidman, 1995). This is not to suggest that social advocacy is a "communist plot" but instead is an attempt to understand how social justice advocates… [read more]

Art Therapy Entails Creative Procedures Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,602 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Moreover, the methods section is reasonably sectioned an aspect that enhances the understanding of the reader.

Value of Article to Field of Psychology

The article is of exceptional value to the field of psychology given that it touches on the importance and the cost effectiveness of art therapy to people with schizophrenia. Particularly, through the article, psychologists can gain knowledge with respect to reduction of negative effects of schizophrenia as well as in enhancing the relationship between a therapist and a patient. More so, the articles form a strong basis for integration of psychosocial and social intervention in treatment of schizophrenia.

Value of Article to You, as a Consumer and Trainee

As a consumer and a trainee in the field of psychology, this article offers more information on the significance of social activities in treatment of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. I would use the information to enhance schizophrenia patient's health and improve their social functioning. With respect to research, the article has helped me understand the key constituents of a research such research design, study sample, ethical consideration to mention but a few. More so, the article has helped me understand the significance of literature review in the sense that it helps one ascertain gaps in literature, which consequently helps a researcher in determining a research topic.


Crawford, M., & Patterson S. (2007). Arts therapies for people with schizophrenia: an emerging evidence base. Evidence-Based Mental Health, 10, 69-70

Crawford, M., Killaspy, H., Barrett, B., Patterson, S., & Tyrer, P., & Waller, D.(2010). The Matisse study: A randomized trial of group art therapy for people with schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry, 10: 65-73.

Gilroy, A. (2006). Art therapy, research…… [read more]

Abnormal Behavior What Essentially Qualifies Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (677 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Therefore any one of these four definitions alone would be lacking as a qualifier of what constitutes "abnormal behavior" but used together they can provide useful guidelines as to what qualifies as abnormal. This is essentially the approach of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) when developing the diagnostic criteria for the DSM series (APA, 2000).

Abnormal behavior for me is defined in terms of its departure from statistical and social norms and also by its maladaptiveness for the individual (the behavior results in aversive consequences ranging from social, physical, legal, occupational, and/or personal negative results). Despite these consequences the person continues to engage in the behavior. For me both of these qualifiers need be present. For me, I found myself drinking heavily at one stage of my life. Within my culture heavy drinking is considered "normal"; however, when the drinking leads to issues with one's social and occupational obligations it is no longer normal. I found that drinking several nights a week interfered significantly with other aspects of my life such as work, school, and family obligations. While drinking alcohol itself is not abnormal in society, I found my drinking habits to be quite dysfunctional given my goals and therefore would classify my use of alcohol as "abnormal." This resulted in personal efforts to correct this behavior and bring it more in line with balancing out my life.


American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders, IV- Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Porter, R. (2002). Madness: A brief history. New York: Oxford University Press.

Szasz, T. (2008).…… [read more]

Tom Shulich ("Coltish Hum Research Paper

Research Paper  |  13 pages (3,990 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


The Therapist's Role

Behavior therapy assumes a learning model of psychopathology. The central idea of this type of therapy is that psychological distress results from maladaptive behaviors that one has learned and that these behaviors can be unlearned or replaced with new adaptive behaviors. In BT, the therapist plays the role first of diagnostician, determining what behaviors are the source… [read more]

Psychological Testing the Science Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (763 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


(Calhoun, 1962) Simply put, when the rats became overpopulated, they began to behave in anti-social and unnatural ways. When this study was release in 1962, it had an incredible effect of society as a whole. This led people to believe they knew the reasons why crowded urban areas were filled with crime, riots, and other anti-social behaviors. ("Letting the Rat out of the Bag") This study became the impetus for the redesign of buildings, offices, and entire urban areas.

Calhoun's study is a legitimate study, but more in the field of animal Psychology than human. The assumptions made from this study, primarily that humans will act like rats when kept in confined spaces, was not proven by any means. Studies would have to be made on humans themselves, living in areas of high population density, to make the comparison stick. On the other hand, Calhoun's study did have some validity, and could be used as the basis of other research eventually culminating in a study that could predict the actions of humans. While humans and rats are different, studying rats can give some insight, however small, into the behavior of humans.

These two studies have had a significant impact not only on the field of psychology, but on society in general. Rorschach's test first presented the world with the idea that a test of perception could be a predictor of human behavior. This led others to begin to study human behavior in a number of different ways; creating new fields of Psychology. And Calhoun's population density study shocked the world into thinking that a population density which was too high would be bad for society. The result being a world filled with parks, wide streets, and open spaces, as well as offices filled with cubicles. ("Letting the Rat out of the Bag")


Calhoun, J.B. (1962). "Population Density and Social Pathology." Scientific American. 206, 139-48.

"Letting the Rat out of the Bag, The Cultural Influence of John B. Calhoun's Rodent Experiments." (2009) London School of Economics and Political Science. Retrieved from http://www2.lse.ac.uk/researchAndExpertise/researchHighlights/Environment/rats


Rorschach, Hermann. (1951). Psychodiagnostics: A Diagnostic Test Based on Perception, 2nd Ed.. Retrieved from http://www.archive.org/stream/psychodiagnostic011205mbp#page/n7/mode/2up… [read more]

Behavior Therapy Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,060 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Time out from positive reinforcement involves a temporary withdrawal from a person's access to a generalized reinforce which occurs immediately after the person performs the deceleration targeted behavior (Walker, 2004). This can be seen in the form of isolation, or a time out which can be used for children when they perform something undesirable.

Overcorrection is seen as decelerating maladaptive behaviors by having individuals correct the effects of their actions and later practice an appropriate behavior (Walker, 2004). This is when the individual makes amends for the wrong behavior or any damage done. This can be done through positive practice where the individual performs the appropriate behavior in an exaggerated fashion; this is usually seen in the repetition of the behavior.

Physical aversive consequences are when stimuli result in very unpleasant physical stimuli which are to decrease or remove a certain undesirable behavior. This can include pain and is not practiced today (Walker, 2004).

Aversive Therapy

Aversive therapy is a form of treatment in psychology (Watson & Reyner, 1920). This is when an individual is exposed to certain stimuli which comes in the form of discomfort to them. This is a type of conditioning where the stimuli causes the patient or subject to associate it with unpleasant sensations; the goal of this is to generally stop certain behaviors.

Aversion therapy can come in many different forms and is designed to stop unwanted behaviors or habits (Watson & Reyner, 1920). This can be done in pairing a certain behavior with electric shocks or certain types of intensities.

Like other therapies, aversion therapy is grounded using the learning theory. Its basic principle is in being that all behaviors are learned and that undesirable behaviors can then be unlearned through presentations of the right circumstances. The goal of this type of therapy is to decrease or eliminate certain types of behaviors which are seen as undesireable. According to Watson and Reyner (1920):

"Treatment focuses on changing a specific behavior itself, unlike insight-oriented approaches that focus on uncovering unconscious motives in order to produce change. The behaviors that have been treated with aversion therapy include such addictions as alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and smoking; pathological gambling; sexual deviations; and more benign habits -- including writer's cramp. Both the type of behavior to be changed and the characteristics of the aversive stimulus influence the treatment -- which may be administered in either outpatient or inpatient settings as a self-sufficient intervention or as part of a multimodal program." (qtd. Watson & Reyner, 1920)

A major use for this type of therapy is seen used in rehabilitation from addiction of alcohol or drugs (Watson & Reyner, 1920). This therapy is used using emotional associations with sight, smell and taste of alcohol and other drugs. This can also be seen used in self-help communities to treat minor behavioral issues in individuals or delinquents.


Masters, J.C., Burish, T.G., Holton, S.D., & Rimm, D.C. (1987). Behavior therapy: Techniques and empirical findings. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.

Michael, J.… [read more]

Future Research Agenda That Judge Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,187 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


, 2008). In sum, Judge and his associates conclude that, "More research is needed to identify which levels of which traits are functional under what conditions" (p. 1993), and it is this question that is addressed in Part 2 below.

Part 2:


Why it is important to study your topic?

In many cases, sophisticated testing regimens for personality traits form part of the hiring decision and, poorly understood and administered, the potential for erroneous decisions based on these tests can be high (Chen & Chen, 2008). For instance, according to McTurk and Shakespeare-Finch (2008), "Barriers to employment are linked to individual factors such as thinking styles and personality traits" (p. 12). As Judge et al. (2008) noted above, response behaviors on personality tests are influenced by a wide range of factors that may skew the results. In this regard, Rost (2002) emphasizes that, "There are so many influences on response behaviour in a typical personality assessment situation that it is hard to imagine that all these factors can be reduced to a single latent trait" (p. 108).

The particularly challenging aspect of the problem is the fact that a sufficiently large number of studies do exist that support the notions concerning any of the various personality traits to the extent that they can be used to confirm or refute the accuracy of a hiring decision whether the decision was a good one in reality or not (Rost, 2002). Furthermore, personality trait testing has a lengthy track record of successfully predicting a wide range of employment outcomes within certain parameters, and busy human resource professionals need these types of tools in order to identify superior candidates for different positions (Rost, 2002).


How replying to your research question empirically may complement existing knowledge?

Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (1985) posited that most people tend to maximize the results of their efforts by identifying optimal ways of using their preferred thinking styles and decision-making abilities that are developed over time in response to individuals strengths and weaknesses. In other words, people develop a comfortable way of making decisions that is based on intuition, experience as well as trial and error. As a result, McTurk and Shakespeare-Finch (2008) report that, "The notion that particular personalities may be over-represented in the unemployed is not an insurmountable hurdle, but rather, knowledge of this may provide a starting point for the implementation of strategies that are tailored to particular personality types" (p. 11).


Who may benefit from the knowledge your suggested research might add, and in what ways?

Human resource practitioners can benefit from an improved understanding of personality traits as well as ways to measure them. In fact, Rost (2002) suggests that, "Personality assessment is not possible without assuring something like a trait. The trait explains the contingencies of observed behaviour, i.e. It explains why people that show a particular behaviour A, also tend to show behaviour B" (p. 109).


Chen, J-K & Chen, I-S. (2008, Fall). How can institutes of technology… [read more]

Internet Psychology Introduction and Theory Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (837 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Survey questions were about familiarity with Facebook, and potential barriers to use.

Conclusions of the Research

The majority of survey participants indicated some familiarity with social networking, with the majority (59.6%) also using Facebook on a daily basis. Forty percent of the participants did not use Facebook. The persons who did not use Facebook had various reasons for their avoidance of the social media website. Barriers included fears about security and also cognitive impairment. Many also mentioned a preference for in-person communications. The authors conclude that hands-on, direct training on how to use Facebook could help persons with traumatic brain injury overcome barriers to use. It was found that almost all participants who did not yet use Facebook are curious or interested in using the social networking site. Age and gender were not factors that impacted either usage or interest in using Facebook.

Conclusion: Relationship to Class Discussions

Because the research is concerned with the way behavioral change impacts changes in perception and cognition, the theoretical standpoint is clearly one of cognitive psychology and cognitive-behavioral psychology. However, there are other aspects of this research that connect with what we have discussed in class. Traumatic brain injury touches on neurobiology and related areas of psychological research. Related areas of research could be rooted in neurobiology. For example, a follow-up study might track the brain functions of participants to see if using Facebook actually altered neurochemistry or neurobiology. Perhaps increased social interactions have an effect on the brain. Another area of research could be cross-cultural psychology. The authors did not find any significant difference based on age or gender, but they do not mention what role culture or ethnicity plays either in prognosis for traumatic brain injury or social media attitudes. It is suggested, though, that the current research is biased because the surveys were conducted online. This means that the participants were already using the Internet regularly. Future research needs to have a broader sample population, including people who are not online because of lack of access or personal choice. This research also addresses social psychology. Facebook is a social media tool that allows individuals to connect with others online. Thus, Facebook is ideal for persons with social anxiety and other disorders. The research is limited, but has great potential for helping scientists understand the potential of social media.


Tsaousides, T., Matsuzawa, Y. & Lebowitz, M. (2011). Familiarity and prevalence of Facebook use for social networking among individuals with traumatic brain…… [read more]

Abnormal Psychology: Schizophrenia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,183 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The guideline describes the best and most appropriate treatments available to patients with schizophrenia, including psychopharmacological treatments, ECT, and psychosocial and community interventions. It delineates the process of treatment planning and identifies areas in which research may improve our understanding and management of this condition. This guideline will also help managed care organizations develop more scientifically based and clinically sensitive criteria for the utilization and reimbursement of psychiatric services."

Nonetheless, some people are not exceedingly comforted by available treatments or may too hastily discontinue treatment in view of obnoxious side effects or other reasons. Even when treatment is potent, unrelenting aftereffect of the disorder results in, missed opportunities, disrepute, residual symptoms, and drugs side effects which may be very distressing. The initial signs of schizophrenia generally appear as puzzling, or even appalling, alteration in behavior. Coping with the symptoms of schizophrenia can be distinctively strenuous for family members who reminisce how involved or lively a person was prior to he became sick.

Most psychiatrists today believe that the above -- genetic predisposition, environmental factors such as viral infection, stressors from the environment such as poverty and emotional or physical abuse -- form a constellation of "stress factors" that should be taken into account in understanding schizophrenia."

People with schizophrenia may have cognition of actuality that is eminently distinct from the truth seen and understood by others around them. Existing in a world askew by aberrations and delusions, people with schizophrenia may feel apprehensive, distressed, and perplexed. In part by reason of the peculiar realities they encounter, people with schizophrenia may act very contrarily at numerous times. Occasionally they may appear far away, cut off, or absorbed and may even sit as stiffly as a stone, not moving for hours or vocalizing a sound.

For the vast majority of persons with schizophrenia, the future is bright with optimism -- new and more effective medications are on the horizon, neuroscientists are learning more and more about the function of the brain and how it goes awry in schizophrenia, and psychosocial rehabilitation programs are increasingly successful in restoring functioning and quality of life."

The present state of information does not permit for an adequately precise foretelling of long-term result for this disease. Bestowed the confusion of schizophrenia, the primary questions in regard to this disorder, its basis, avoidance, and handling need to be addressed with exploration and research. In spite of the fact that advancement has been made in the direction of better understanding and treatment of schizophrenia, continued investigation is urgently required for a lasting solution.

Works Cited



Copyright 1988 American Psychiatric Association

Revised 1994


New Medications Aid Cognition in Schizophrenia

Lynne Lamberg

JAMA contributor

© 1998 American Medical Association. All rights reserved

Negative Symptom and Cognitive Deficit

Treatment Response in Schizophrenia

Edited by Richard S.E. Keefe, Ph.D., and Joseph P. McEvoy, M.D. http://www.healthyplace.com/site/psychiatric_medications.htm

Antipsychotic Drugs

Psychiatric Medications

2000 HealthyPlace.com, Inc. All rights reserved http://apu.sfn.org/content/Publications/BrainBriefings/schizophrenia.html

The Prefrontal Cortex and Schizophrenia

Illustration by Lydia Kibiuk, Copyright © 1995 Lydia Kibiuk… [read more]

Psychology on a Medical Radiologist Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,622 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


This will help with developing understanding and a good working relationship. I can also use what I learnt about personality and behavior to understand how my superior reacts to things and to find hidden meanings. For example, I have been in other work situations where a boss has said everything is fine, when really they are unhappy about something. By using my knowledge of psychology I can assess my superior's real feelings. This will help me to deal with situations, rather than have a situation occur where the relationship becomes strained.

Secondly, I will have to develop relationships with peers and people in other departments. My knowledge of perceptions, communication, personality and behavior will all help manage these relationships. I can use empathy to consider how others perceive me. I can also use my psychology knowledge to recognize any conflict situations and deal with the conflict.

Finally, it is likely that in my career I will be in a role where I supervise others. My psychology knowledge has taught me a lot about what motivates people and how different personalities require different forms of leadership. Understanding this, I will be able to adapt my leadership style to meet the needs of the different people I am leading. I will also be able to recognize how I am perceived by my employees and recognize if there are any conflict situations. This will allow me to manage people more effectively.

Overall then, I see my psychology knowledge as impacting on many areas of my working life. It will help me deal with patients, it will help me understand myself and to cope effectively with the stress of the work environment and it will help me build effective relationships with supervisors, peers and subordinates. In this way, my understanding of psychology will be a constant resource that will help me to understand and deal with many important areas within my…… [read more]

Applying Psychology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (633 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


What is brought to the table as a result of one's educational and professional training in psychology is a combination of respect for individual differences and the sensitivity that those differences are what will influence the acceptance or rejection of circumstances that are not within the individual's control. The benefits of a psychology background, of course, are not just limited to interpersonal relations on the job. Individuals engaged in high risk occupations or those which involve counseling and intervention on a regular basis are particularly prone to incidents of substance abuse, depression, alcoholism, job burn-out, and feelings of inadequacy regarding the prevention or resolution of other people's problems. Being equipped with the necessary evaluation tools to routinely identify, adjust and monitor potential problems in one's own behavior and attitude is paramount to being able to respond to similar conditions observed among the client base. Regardless of the profession ultimately chosen, a foundation which includes coursework in psychology better enables the user to understand his or her short-term motivations as they pertain to long-term goals.

Last but not least, a background in psychology provides the key to recognizing when a problem extends beyond the expertise and/or control of the person who is attempting to provide assistance, necessitating the need for back-up or higher authority. Too often in the zeal to be helpful, the overstepping of boundaries or the predilection to simply take over the situation can result in a larger problem than the one initially confronted. An awareness of one's personal limits and intentions enables the practitioner to select the best methods for assisting others in surviving disasters, adapting to unbidden changes, and evolving into stronger individuals.… [read more]

Psychology's Contribution to the War Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (570 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The experiments were an attempt to study the relationship between lighting and efficiency (McCarthy pg). The results concluded that "increased lighting resulted in increased efficiency" (McCarthy pg). However, the experiments also showed that even after lighting was dimmed to 'faint moonlight levels,' efficiency continued to improve (McCarthy pg). These surprising results were explained in "terms of previously unrecognized aspects of human behavior in the workplace" (McCarthy pg). The researchers concluded that it was the employees' desire to please them that led to the results. It seems the workers were flattered that distinguished Harvard investigators were studying them, thus, they were trying to impress the researchers by being more productive (McCarthy pg). Once the employees had grown used to the researchers' presence, they returned to their normal levels of productivity (McCarthy).

This change in behavior following novel treatment, such as increased attention, and then returning to original behavior once the novelty dissipates, is known as the Hawthorne Effect (McCarthy pg). These studies "showed the existence of informal employee groups and their effects on production, the importance of employee attitudes," the value of a compassionate supervisor, and the need to see workers as people, not capital (McCarthy pg). The Hawthorne studies began the 'human relations' movement and became one of the benchmark events in the development of I/O psychology (McCarthy pg).

Works Cited

Chapter 1. Introduction: Definitions and History." http://www.cod.edu/people/faculty/grayke/210Ch1.htm.(accessed 02-13-2003).

Historical Overview." American Psychological Association. http://www.apa.org/divisions/div19/info.html.(accessed 02-13-2003).

McCarthy, Patrick, Dr. "Brief Outline of the History of I/O Psychology." http://www.mtsu.edu/~pmccarth/io_hist.htm.(accessed 02-13-2003).… [read more]

Psychology in Order to Develop Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,369 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This team claims that when nausea is used as an unconditional response, aversions develop to undesired activity after a relatively small number of trials.

The physiology of neurological appetites and aversion has been studied at length. These studies included stimulating animals electronically with implanted electrodes. Scientists confirmed that overt behaviors such as flight, threat, or defensive areas were directly correlated to chemical imperatives in the brain. These effected the periventricular-periaquenductal gray matter and parts of the amygdala. Stutied found that electrical stimuli were an example of how to abate cravings thought of as undesirable, such as heavy drug abuse.

Thompson, Dews and Barrett 129) According to Oriental scientists.

Moreover, a correspondence between the aversive behavior of laboratory animals and subjective discomfort was established when patients undergoing stereotaxic neurosurgery reported strong feelings of fear, impending death, or nonlocalized pain sensations caused by electrical stimulation of the amygdala (Chapman et al., 1954) and of the dorsal midbrain, near or inside the periaqueductal gray matter.

Thompson, Dews and Barrett 129)

There is overwhelming evidence that addiction is genetic and inherited from one generation to the next, pointing to the existence of certain metabolisms that are particularly susceptible. Studies have showed that the children of alcoholics were four to five times as likely to develop drinking problems as the children of non-alcoholics. Whereas a margin of error could be attributed to environmental factors common to the children of alcoholics, this variance doesn't statistically allow us to discount the effect of inhereitance. Although "no precise biological mechanism corresponding to metabolic imbalance has ever been located, the best that can be said about this theory is that the treatment program based on it, methadone maintenance, has helped a certain proportion of addicts."

Some psychological theories associated with drug use also stress personality differences between people who use drugs and those who abstain. Although these theories deserve our attention, they are secondary in importance to studies of addiction and brain physiology in that they are less likely to describe the nature of addiction and more likely to reflect an individual's proclivity to accept societal norms. Even if we can prove this to be a physiological distinction, this predilection is materially different from the mechanism of addiction.

Most behavioral neuroscience points to the idea that breaking addictive propensities would entail the forcible dissociation of the act of using a drug with its pleasurable effects. Unfortunately, many of the methodologies utilized in the laboratory on animals aren't suitable for use with humans, such as using electric currents to generate nausea. Despite this, neuroscience has taught medical practitioners the nature of addiction as an illness and helped medical experts, psychologists and drug counselors to recognize its propensities. With time, new methods could be developed that could readily divorce people from their unwanted addictions.

Works Cited


Bolles, Robert C., ed. The Hedonics of Taste. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1991. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=14214733

Isralowitz, Richard E., and Darwin Telias. Drug Use, Policy, and Management. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1998. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=87280154

Leaf, Russell… [read more]

Social Psychology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (660 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Other considerations for a social psychologist include geography and the economic background of the individuals and groups they study. Language is also important. Even the way a group of people dresses could be important to a social psychologist.

For a social psychologist, all this information helps them understand why a person will change his or her behavior in different groups. This is the psychology part: it studies how each person's identity changes or how they see themselves differently depending on whether they are visiting their grandmother, hanging out with friends, or applying for a job. It would also try to understand what type of personality might become a serial killer in a particular society, or who would become a saintly person, sacrificing himself or her self for others in the same society. When a society is changing, as modern society has recently done from pre-computer to post-computer, social psychologists try to explain what types of behavior will change, and why, and for whom.

Social psychologists use all the material they develop to try to explain the society we live in, and to help the institutions that operate in the society, such as schools and government, operate more effectively. In addition to psychology and sociology, a social psychologist may also need to study other fields, such as anthropology, economics, religion, history, anthropology, linguistics and even biology.

He or she may also need to study some cultural areas, such as food and art, to understand how groups of people work and what factors influence them. They may also need to study how sports and the military are affected by and affect groups and individuals.

In short, social psychology is the study of just about any discipline because seeing how each aspect of human life affects individuals and groups can help us understand those individuals and groups better, and even help them to create a better life.… [read more]

Humanistic Psychology Centers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,368 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Modern theorists have described self-actualization as an open rather than a closed process, where individuals continuously have the ability to aspire to new heights (Kiel, 1999). Learning in Humanistic Psychology is demonstrated by the student's knowledge of the psychological issues related to the development of human wholeness, identity, values, fulfillment, and creativity.

As a twenty-seven-year-old male, I feel that I have truly embarked on a path of self-actualization and individuation, much like that described by the psychologists above. My environment has influenced some of this self-actualization, as suggested by Carl Rogers. I have grown up in an environment with loving parents, an 18-year-old brother and other supportive family members. I do not have any children and am currently not married, but I realize that this is a path I simply have yet to realize or embark upon. Maslow would suggest perhaps that in a hierarchical sense, I will aspire to realize the aspiration to settle down and have children as I fulfill other basic needs that need to be realized first. This makes perfect sense; however I also believe in the possibility that an individual may become "stuck" in a phase of life where they feel that they have realized all that they need to. I could come for example, to a point where I don't feel the need to continue, where I feel that I might already be self-actualized and realized.

I do agree with the notion that individuals aspire to find fulfillment and meaning in life, and that this is an innate feeling and desire. Self-actualization and individuation are the means through which individuals have the ability to achieve these goals. Jung's idea of a universal consciousness is a little more difficult to grasp. It is possible to grasp the notion that every individual is born with a natural tendency to self-actualize. The archetypes that people are brought up into can and probably do influence how individuals perceive their life and their ability to self-realize or seek out an identity. True to form also most individuals seek out meaning in their life via self-realization. Still, the notion of a universal consciousness from a personal perspective is harder to grasp. I can however relate to it in the context of family. All of the members of my family for example hold similar ideals and notions related to identity, unity and wholeness. Perhaps this matches more closely Jung's sentiment than an actual shared consciousness. Rather one might interpret his ideas as common goals or realities and realizations.

I feel that I am moving toward a sense of identity, a coming into my own the older I get and the more I explore my inner needs and feelings. I am incorporating the idea of individuation and discovering that meaning comes from personal fulfillment of the goals and objectives I aspire to achieve. I realize that my environment thus far has influenced my success, and under certain circumstances it is likely that my goals and aspirations might be changed. The hierarchical order… [read more]

Methodology of CBT Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,068 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Studies of the efficiency of CBT for different disorders wanted to seek answers to common questions. Researchers explore whether CBT is an effective therapy method for a particular disorder through "open-label" trials, where all participants in the study receive CBT and change is analyzed from before to after treatment. If the treatment is demonstrated to be effective, it is vital to determine its long-term effectiveness once therapy sessions have ended (Roth, Eng,&Heimberg, 2002) . The article delves into the efficacy of CBT for a variety of disorders. First is mood disorders, CBT have not been shown to particularly effective over any other therapy treatment. A study conducted by the National Institutes of Mental Health showed that CBT was only slightly more effective than interpersonal psychotherapy and tricyclic antidepressants for mild depression but less effective for more severe cases (Roth, Eng,&Heimberg, 2002). For anxiety disorders, CBT is seen as the primary treatment of choice and has been used for years. In the case of bulimia nervosa, CBT has been associated with reductions in negative behaviors and negative though processes (Phillips & Rogers, 2011). CBT, like in anxiety disorders, has proven to be effective in the long-term, implying that clients learn to apply the principles after treatment has ended. CBT has also been used to treat alcohol disorders, successful treatments have been created by applying the foundation of CBT. The goal is not abstinence but moderation, by engaging in self-monitoring and understanding the motives behind drinking, learning ways to reduce drinking, and adapting coping mechanisms.

CBT is an effective treatment for several disorders but it is not perfect. It misperceives the symptoms of the disorder with the causes. Also, CBT studies are not double-blind. The patient is an active member in correcting their negative thoughts; therefore they are aware of the treatment they are receiving. According to Berger (2013), a recent meta-analysis examined the effectiveness of CBT when placed control and blindness were taken into consideration, the study concluded several factors: 1. CBT is no better than non-specific control interventions in the treatment of schizophrenia and does not reduce relapse rates 2. CBT is not effective for the prevention of relapse in bipolar disorder and 3. CBT treatment effects are small in treatment studies of MDD. Berger (2013) also found that results of unblended random clinical trials tend to bias the beneficial effects if the random clinical trials were subjective instead of objective. All these findings call into question the effectiveness of CBT and their findings. However, CBT is something that should be further studied and implemented as it still an alternative therapy that can be utilized if no other treatment is proved effective for a particular disorder.


Berger, D. (n.d.). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Escape From the Binds of Tight Methodology. Psychiatric Times. Retrieved March 25, 2014, from http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/cognitive-behavioral-therapy/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-escape-binds-tight-methodology/page/0/1?cid=fb

Phillips, K.A., & Rogers, J. (2011). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Youth with Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Current Status and Future Directions. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 20(2), 287-304.

Roth, D.A., Eng,… [read more]

Careers in Psychology Capstone Project

Capstone Project  |  3 pages (1,002 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


Continuous update with emerging issues is of utmost importance or else the person will be obsolete in the practice. Moreover, some states require that a special body need to register the forensic psychologists after they do a certification exams.

The rewards of forensic psychologists lie on the hands of the experience, educational standards, and the location of practice. However, one is likely to earn not less than $61, 000 coupled with other benefits. One also finds satisfaction in the job as the families who are at a crisis of losing their friends or relatives through crimes finds justice. This is a specialization that I would like to find myself in after my basic psychology program.

Finally, being a bio-psychologist has never come into my mind, but after a detailed research, it dawned on me as a very interesting field with good results. In the study, I came up with a conclusive statement that psychology encompasses the whole body and not the mind only. It approaches a person holistically. Some small things such as diet, thinking process, attitude, rest, or sleep may seem very insignificant. However, with the knowledge of biopsychology, they are the core driving forces in the mental well-being of human life.

There erupted a surge in interest to pursue this course, due to various factors. It is interesting to note that I scored very well in Biology during the high school. This is the first area I majored. In addition, the interests of becoming a medical doctor were always in the heart. This is the time I can turn the tables and venture in the specialization closely related to medicine. My rich background in biology and biological ideas will be of good value to help in analyzing people's problems and help them in developing assistive conclusions. Specializing in this field is rewarding because biological issues have been a part of my interests for a long time.

Completing undergraduate programs in these fields required one to have a driving force that will enable someone to achieve the life dreams easily. Therefore, I must be involved in academic work and research on the emerging issues in these fields more than before if I have to remain knowledgeable. Furthermore, I must form linkages with the future employers so that I can learn more of practical things than the theoretical aspects. The practical aspects will foster the growth of skills and other technicalities before I specialize.


Accredited Forensic Psychology Schools and Degrees Online. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.psychologyschoolguide.net/forensic-psychology/

Biopsychology | The Psych Files. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.thepsychfiles.com/category/topics/biological-psychology/

Kuther, T.L., & Morgan, R.D. (2013). Careers in psychology: Opportunities in a changing world. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.

Perception | The Psych Files. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.thepsychfiles.com/category/topics/perception/

Social Psychology Careers. (n.d.). CareersInPsychologyorg. Retrieved February 8, 2014, from http://careersinpsychology.org/becoming-a-social-psychologist/

Social Psychology | The Psych Files. (n.d.). Social Psychology | The Psych Files. Retrieved February 9, 2014, from http://www.thepsychfiles.com/category/topics/social-psychology/… [read more]

Humanistic Psychology and Multiculturalism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (727 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


With the current emphasis on individualizing therapeutic interventions juxtaposed against empirical science, there is an inherent tension with the "…more recent developments in the philosophy of science [that] reveal the impossibility of ever totally separating values from science" (Freidman & Robbins, 2012). Humanistic psychology embraces qualitative approaches, inviting "a 'feminine' version of existential psychology [that] really stresses the emphasis on depth, presence, and being" (Kass, 2014, p. 131). The liberal underpinnings of humanistic psychology that embrace feminism and multiculturalism are important from another perspective.

Biases can derive from cultural influences that are obtuse -- liberalism can serve to put the drivers of bias under a scientific microscope, so to speak. For instance, in a study of color preference, Duckitt and Wall (1999) found that preschoolers preferred the color white over the color black, and that these preferences carried over to their perceptions of other preschoolers in their South African context. A more liberal-leaning paradigm provides tacit approval for revealing this sort of culturally-based thinking.

While evidenced-based approaches continue to dominate the research, there is also recognition that individualized approaches can result in strong interventions that include multicultural factors, specifically, and diversity in general. These constructs are the purview of both positive psychology and humanistic psychology.


Duckitt, J. And Wall, C. (1999). Color bias and racial preferenes in white South African preschool children. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 160(2), 143-154.

Elkins, D.N. (2009). Why humanistic psychology lost its power and influence in American psychology: Implications for advancing humanistic psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 49(3), 267-291.

Friedman, H.L. And Robbins, B.D. (2012). The negative shadow cast by positive psychology: Contrasting views and implications of humanistic and positive psychology on resiliency. The Humanistic Psychologist, 40, 87-102.

Glazner, P.L. And Hill, J.P. (2013). Why most American universities have given up on human purpose and meaning: a critical exploration of the historical story. Journal of Beliefs and Values, 34(3), 289-299.

Kass, S.A. (2014). Don't fall into these stereotype traps: women and feminism in existential therapy. Journal of Humanistic Thinking, 54(2), 131-157.

Schneider, K.J. (2014, January). Humanistic and positive psychology need each other, and to advance, our field needs both. American Psychologist, 92. DOI:…… [read more]

Historical Milestones in Cognitive Psychology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (846 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


What eventually emerged was the assumption that the behavioral choices of any organism, including humans, could be predicted if enough of an organisms learning history could be known. Clark Hull went so far as to propose that all behaviors could be reduced to mathematical equations. The most famous behaviorist by far was B.F. Skinner, who developed the principles of operant conditioning. Although behaviorism marginalized the importance of cognition, its influence helped make careful, objective approaches to research the cornerstone of cognitive psychology.

During World War II, information processing emerged as the solution to behaviorism's limits in explaining cognitive processes like thinking, memory, and language production (Kellogg, 1995, p. 13-14). The information processing model assumes mental processes are not that different from a computer capable of sensing and responding to environmental changes, but this discipline also suggested that it would be eventually possible to create machines that 'think.' A.M. Turing pioneered this work with computational theory, which eventually led to the development of the computer, artificial intelligence, and cognitive science. Information processing therefore helped counter behaviorism's rejection of the mind and thinking as important to behavioral outcomes and helped build the foundation upon which modern cognitive psychology would emerge.

Importance of Behavioral Observation

Cognitive psychology research depends on objective measures of mental processes (Kellogg, 1995, p. 20-26). The basic cognitive mechanisms of interest to cognitive psychologists are sensation, perception, attention, and memory, which can all be studied using behavioral observation. For example, memory processes can be studied by how well a subject is able to recall a word list. The independent variable might be the number of words included in the list, while the dependent variable could be the number of words the subject was able to recall. In contrast, experiments investigating sensation could involve the independent and dependent variables of color presentation and reaction time, respectively.


The theoretical foundations upon which cognitive psychology was built are diverse and include Darwin's theory of evolution, structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, and information processing. From this sometimes tumultuous philosophical milieu emerged a discipline emphasizing the scientific method and the importance of cognitive processes like thinking and language for determining behavioral outcomes. In a very real way, the emergence of cognitive psychology has depended on a process not unlike natural selection as the best from each theory was kept and improved and the worst rejected.


Kellogg, R.T. (1995). Cognitive Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Parsons, L.M. (2001). Integrating cognitive…… [read more]

History of Social Psychology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,320 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


The Supreme Court as evidence to prove that segregation would generate a feeling of inferiority later cited these results. Clark was also the first Africa American elected as President of the American Psychological Association.

Evelyn Hooker studied the psychosocial adjustment of gay men out of prison or hospital. She was the first social scientist to conduct such a study. The results of her study demonstrated heterosexual and gay men did not have any difference, which challenged the antigay stereotypes. Her results eventually led to the removal of homosexuality as a mental disorder from the American Psychiatric Association diagnostic manual (Baumeister & Finkel, 2010). Albert Bandura brought in the notion that it is possible to model behavior in the social world. He developed the social learning theory where he divided children into three groups. The children watched a video where the adult would be aggressive towards a doll. The adult would either be rewarded or published by another adult. The children who saw the video where the adult was rewarded were more likely to copy the adult's behavior. Leon Festinger, Stanley Schacter, and Black established cognitive dissonance in 1950. The argued that when a person holds on to beliefs, cognitions, and attitudes that are different they experience dissonance. Individuals will then try to change this by modifying their beliefs, thoughts, or attitudes. Dissonance will mostly occur when there are hard decisions or choices or when a person participates in a behavior that is against their attitude. Tajfel and Turner formulated the social identity theory, which stated that an individual has a need to maintain a positive sense of social and personal identity. The researchers conducted an experiment where they divided artificial groups. When the members of the group were requested to allocate points to others either in their group or the other group, they tended to award their group members more points.

Historic link to psychology and sociology

Social psychology is linked to sociology in that both these fields study the same topics. The major difference is that both of them are analyzing the topics from different perspectives. Social psychology focuses on the influence that people will have on an individual, but sociology will focus on the influence of societal variable like people's social role, socio-economic status, and cultural norms. There have been studies conducted to analyze how culture influences social behavior. Cultural influences are normally conducted in sociology and not social psychology. Understanding the roles of influence from other aspects would strengthen the field. Groups are formed based in different aspects. Social influence is studied to establish how group dynamics can influence an individual. Cultural aspects could also be studied in the group. In studies to demonstrate conformity, one can see that there is a link between sociology and social psychology. Sociology would analyze the group in terms of cultural influences, while social psychology would analyze the effects of the group on an individual. The study conducted by Solomon Asch on conformity is a good example of the link between… [read more]

on Abnormal Psychology Case Study

Case Study  |  3 pages (1,045 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Normal behavior does not neglect personal hygiene and eating habits. It neither favors abnormal sleeping habits and withdrawal both from fellow employees and close friends. Normal behavior cannot make Lamanda give up on her career ambitions and give up meeting Morris and her parents fearing disapproval. Lamanda occasionally drinks and has tasted marijuana and mushroom. Lamanda's behavioral change is obviously psychopathology case.

I would refer Lamanda for medical evaluation noting the serious changes in her physical body and her sporadic dating. Lamanda has lost her muscle mass, and her hair has become thinner and stringy. These symptoms are clear indications that she could need immediate medical evaluation and attention.

The additional assessment instruments I might use to assess Lamanda's condition and her risk for lethality and current substance abuse are interviews and observation. I will combine the use of structured, semi-structures and unstructured interview questions to assess her. In doing my observation, I will employ the mental status exam; rating scales specifically using personality tests; and behavioral coding systems. These assessment instruments will give me a true picture of the psychopathology of the patient.


In the treatment plan of Lamanda, a basic treatment plan is first doing and psychotherapy, in response to the assessment results, and then monitoring the patient closely through the therapies. The behaviors, symptoms and psychosocial behavior to be targeted through this therapy include the social alienation, the change in sleeping and eating habits, feeling of disinterest in things that were once important, low self-esteem and the sedentary lifestyle. During the therapies, Lamanda should be helped through behavioral changes and acquiring of new habits. In the event that Lamanda's case worsens, then the biotherapy and institutionalization treatment can be explored.


Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is an illness type, whose symptoms' severity changes over time. On the other hand, the Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) is a personality style that is overly rigid nature and does not change a lot in the lifetime of a person. OCD is often characterized with compulsions and obsessions, which OCPD is not associated with, in its expression. On the other hand, people with OCPD have rigid views on right vs. wrong things in life, while this does not characterize OCD people. People OCD struggle to get rid of the symptoms seen while the OCPD people find nothing wrong with their behavioral system.


Child development occurs right from birth to adulthood, but it was neglected in the past. However, research and work in the child development field has revealed the importance of considering the development in children. Any early childhood development worker, especially counselors, needs to be aware and understand the developmental theories to be effective in their work with children. The awareness of developmental theories will allow a counselor working with children to take account of the emotional, physical, cognitive, educational and social growth of children from birth into early adulthood. Some of these theories describe all aspects of child development, which when understood by a counselor, will be able to… [read more]

Clinical Psychology Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (657 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Clinical psychology and counseling psychology are the two most popular and leading fields in psychology. The professionals in these fields deal with the roots, avoidance, diagnosis and treatment of people with psychological problems. The degree of the severity causes the considerable difference of the problems (Bloom, 2000). This means that the clinical and counseling psychologists vary depending on the patients they treat. Clinical psychologists take care of patients with severe disorders, which include bipolar disorders, irrational fear and schizophrenia. Counseling psychologists treat individuals who suffer from everyday stresses such as marriage and family difficulties, academic performance and career planning.

Clinical psychology began because of a psychologist's work with a student who was a constant bad speller in 1986. In its initial stages, clinical psychology had not yet been associated with harsh disorder and emotional problems. Lightner Witmer was the psychologist working with the student and later developed a clinic where children with learning and other difficulties could be reviewed and treated. The clinic was also educational as teachers and parents would be given advice on dealing with their children's conditions. Sigmund Freud and other psychologists began instituting their own hypothesis on the treatment of psychological disturbances.

Throughout the years, many psychologists have developed their own theories impacted by their own family background, countries which they lived in and their exposure to other people during their professional career development. To date, many new theories are being developed. Clinical counseling psychology continues to evolve due to psychologists who choose different theoretical orientation guides or the specific disorder that this psychologist is a professional in treating. This in turn leads to the growth of the various subfields in both clinical and counseling psychology.

Research plays an important role in clinical counseling psychology. The professionals in this field are always doing research in order to experiment the effectiveness of psychoanalysis and to answer many other psychological questions. When answers to these questions are found, the research will aid in the growth of…… [read more]

Psychology of Advertising: Since Early Times Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,425 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Psychology of Advertising:

Since early times, advertising has been a form of exalting or gaining publicity for goods and merchandise. Actually, since the beginning of civilizations, advertising has been in existence as an informal concept. However, most of the advertisements in the early years were either the oral advertising or the verbal proclamation of the benefits of commodities by merchants… [read more]

Free Will and Determinism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (441 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Free will asserts that humans control their own destiny; Determinism, that events are determined by causal factors. A belief in one or the others of these concepts effects psychology drastically. It is the problem of nature vs. nurture. To determinism, the ability to learn is determined at birth it is a matter of brain chemistry. Free will on the other hand, holds that work and environment can improve one's ability to learn. Brain chemicals, according to Determinism, affect social behaviors. While free will, contrarily, holds that it is not governed but able to be controlled by the individual; environment and family influence teach a person how to interact.

Free will and determinism is the argument of nature vs. nurture. Looking a psychotic behavior, a free-will person would turn to environmental factors, family life and past trauma. Therapy would be their likely solution; again the power to change is in the individual. The Determinism view would see it as a matter of brain chemistry and try to alter the undesired behavior through chemicals. A free-will person would explain Split-personality disorder as being caused by traumatic issues in a person's past. Believing that the person created the personality as a way of hiding from the trauma, they would try to hypnotize the person to help reconstruct a single personality. A Determinism person…… [read more]

Plan a Treatment for a Case for Dual Diagnosis Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,369 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Treatment Plan

Treatment of Hypothetical Patient Vera P

Vera is an individual in crisis. Though it is likely that she was predisposed to both addiction and depression through genetic inheritance, as both are present in her immediate family, there are a number of environmental stimuli which have exacerbated her underlying conditions. There are a number of critical life events which… [read more]

Hermeneutical Analysis of Psychotherapy as a Cultural Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,945 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Hermeneutical Analysis of Psychotherapy as a Cultural Artifact:

A Metabletical Approach

The world and the events that are contained therein are not static; everyone would acknowledge this as fact. A simple reading of history would say that this is so. Also, due to evolutionary variability, living things (animals and plants) have changed over the course of world history.… [read more]

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