"Psychology / Behavior / Psychiatry" Essays

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Field of Positive Psychology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,924 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


According to Csikszentmihalyi (2014), play activities enable an individual to experiment with repetitive behaviors in non-threatening situations and with minimal consequences for errors (p.134). Third, I will embark on character education based on my strengths through involvement in character development programs at school and/or work. These programs will help in development of my personal psychological strengths since they will provide insights regarding specific activities to carry out in everyday life (Park, 2009, p.46). The use of character development programs is because psychological strengths are developed through enhanced awareness and increased attention (Biswas-Diener, Kashdan & Minhas, 2011, p.106).

In conclusion, positive psychology is a new orientation in the field of psychology that provides a distinctive approach towards positive aspects of human life. To recap, this discipline focuses on human strengths because of its core components of positivity or positive emotions. First, a brief overview of the emergence and development of this discipline has been discussed, especially based on Martin Seligman's initiatives. Secondly, the various classifications of personal psychological strengths have been discussed based on literature in positive psychology. Third, I have identified my personal psychological strengths i.e. hope, transcendence, creativity and open-mindedness, and love of learning through scoring on VIA Inventory of Strengths tools and talking to family and friends about my positive attributes and emotions. Fourth, these personal psychological strengths are beneficial in my future with regards to being optimistic and working towards realizing personal goals in academics and future life. Finally, these strengths will be developed through assimilative activities, play activities, and participation in character development programs.


Biswas-Diener, R., Kashdan, T.B. & Minhas, G. (2011, April 6). A Dynamic Approach to Psychological Strength Development and Intervention. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(2), 106-118.

Compton, W. & Hoffman, E. (2013). Positive psychology: the science of happiness and flourishing (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). Flow and the foundations of positive psychology: the collected works of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. New York, NY: Springer Science.

Drucker, P.F., Csikszentmihalyi, M. & Davidson, D.J. (2006). A life worth living: contributions to positive psychology. Madison Avenue, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc.

Fredrickson, B.L. (2009). Positivity. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press.

Kobau et. al. (2011, August). Mental Health Promotion in Public Health: Perspectives and Strategies From Positive Psychology. American Journal of Public Health, 101(8), e1-e9.

Park, N. (2009). Building Strengths of Character: Keys to Positive Youth Development.

Reclaiming Journal, 18(2), 42-47.

Seligman et. al. (2005,…… [read more]

Skinner Organizational Behavior the Role That Organizations Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (480 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2



Organizational Behavior

The role that organizations take in society is paramount. Therefore understanding how people behavior in this setting is an important field of study that has attracted many researchers over the previous decades. This field represents a multi-disciplinary effort that borrows from much of the work in different social sciences including business, psychology, sociology, and more. The effects of globalization have also added to complexities in studying organizational behaviors because organizations are quickly becoming larger, more diverse, and spread over larger geographic areas. This paper will briefly introduce some concepts that are relevant to organizational behavior.


Much of organizational behavior modification is based upon B.F. Skinner's work in psychology. Skinner believed that the needs of an employee can be inferred from their behavior and if there needs are not being satisfied this will manifest throughout their work and their roles within the organization (Duff, N.d.). One of the best ways to improve an employee's performance is through positive reinforcement and there are countless ways to achieve this. Monetary rewards are the most common but there are other types of reinforcement as well.

Organizations are also frequently a source for different types of conflicts. An organization consists of a range of people all of whom have different expectations and interests. Because of different layers of interests by different individuals that do not coincide, this can represent a source of conflict in organizations. Most people view conflict as a…… [read more]

Psychosocial Assessment Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,916 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


His lingering emotional problems with his parents are also negatively affecting the situation.

Jackson has admitted to being verbally violent towards his wife and kids. This is a result of his own upbringing and the celebration of violence within his childhood home. His career as a police officer significantly contributes to these patterns of behavior.

Jackson's job as a police officer creates special agency issues with this situation.

The community pressures for police to be strong and have placed extra emotional burdens and constraints on healing. The western acceptance of violence and abuse, especially in socioeconomic classes such as Jackson's also create constraints that prevent acceptance and healing.

Jackson's wife's gambling losses are putting serious constraints on the family to economically and hence emotionally function. Jackson seems primarily motivated for career purposes. His family success is secondary.

The client is suffering from many childhood and adult traumas. His exposure and conditioning to violence has created an unsatisfactory means of dealing with the everyday stresses of life. His job as a police officer requires extra care and attention as this demographic is even more susceptible to the emotional stresses that are present in these types of situations.

The client is not coping in any productive matter in relation to his problems. He has a skewed view of power, violence and family dynamics. His coping strategies all resort to violent aggression, and he ignores the need to balance his stress with relaxation and a forgiving attitude.

Specific diagnostic impressions

Jackson suffers from many disorders including PTSD and does not have the proper coping skills. The compounding of the client's stressful career as a police officer and his failing marriage have created a perfect storm of dysfunction. The client may suffer from Antisocial Personality Disorder, Narcissistic Personality Disorder.



Babcock, J.C., Green, C.E., & Robie, C. (2004). Does batterers' treatment work? A meta- analytic review of domestic violence treatment. Clinical psychology review, 23(8), 1023- 1053.

Cross, C.L., & Ashley, L. (2004). Police trauma and addiction: Coping with the dangers of the job. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 73(10), 24-32.

Diagnostic and statistical manual-text revision (DSM-IV-TRim, 2000). American Psychiatric Association, 2000.

Gersons, B.P. (1989). Patterns of PTSD among police officers following shooting incidents: A two-dimensional model and treatment implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2(3), 247-257.

Marzuk, P.M., Nock, M.K., Leon, A.C., Portera, L., & Tardiff, K. (2002). Suicide among New York city police officers, 1977 -- 1996. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(12), 2069-…… [read more]

Cultural Therapy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,587 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


As the text states "other mental health workers from outside the First Nation culture must seek and develop a sense of cultural understanding through training and dialogue with both experts in cross-cultural counseling and from First Nation's persons."

Additionally, a 2011 study determined that in considering the culture of the Native American tribes and the relationship(s) between them and the… [read more]

Brain on Crime: Psychopathology and the Amygdalae Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,884 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Beyond considerations of understanding the ramifications of a crime and the capacity for taking personal responsibility, these brain studies consider the development rates of the brains of offenders. A more subtle way of categorizing criminal offenders is indicated: biological maturity and how receptive to change the human brain is based on chronological age. The plasticity of the brain, particularly the frontal lobe, the pre-cortex, and the amygdala, may well garner a level of high importance when it comes to sentencing offenders in the future. The value of incarceration over rehabilitation may be correlated with brain plasticity, based on the capacity of the brain in its state of biological maturity to learn the rules.


Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Wallace, J.F., MacCoon, D.G., Curtin, J.J., and Newman, J.P. (2010, October 1). Clarifying the Factors that Undermine Behavioral Inhibition System Functioning in Psychopathy. Personal Disorders, 1(4), 203 -- 217. doi: 10.1037/a0018950. PMCID: PMC2992384. NIHMSID: NIHMS211679. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2992384/#!po=74.5614

Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Curtin, J.J. And Newman, J.P. (2013, May). Emotion-modulated startle in psychopathy: clarifying familiar effects. Journal of Abnormal Pychology, 122(2), 458-468. 10.1037/a0030958. Epub 2013 Jan 28. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23356218

Blonigen, D.M., Hicks, B.M., Krueger, R.F., Patrick, C.J. & Iacono, W.G. (2005, May). Psychopathic personality traits: heritability and genetic overlap with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Psychological Medicine, 35(5): 637 -- 648. doi: 10.1017/S0033291704004180. PMCID: PMC2242349. NIHMSID: NIHMS38985. Retreived http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2242349/#__ffn_sectitle

Franklin, K. (2010, May 30). Psychopathy guru blocks critical article. Will case affect credibility of PCL-R test in court? In the News: Forensic psychology, criminology, and psychology-law. Retrieved http://forensicpsychologist.blogspot.com/2010/05/psychopath-guru-blocks-critical-article.html

Lykken, D.T. (1995). The antisocial personalities. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Murrie, D.C., Boccaccini, M.T., Johnson, J.T. And Janke, C. (2008, August). Does interrater (dis)agreement on psychopathy checklist scores in sexually violent predator trials suggest partisan allegiance in forensic evaluations? Law and Human Behavior, 32(4), 352-362. Retrieved http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10979-007-9097-5

Newman, J.P. & Brinkley, C.A. (1997). Reconsidering the low-fear explanation for primary psychopathy. Psychological Inquiry, 8(3), 236-260. Retrieved http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/1448894?uid=3739920&uid=2&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21104234512797

Walsh, T., & Walsh, Z. (2006). The evidentiary introduction of Psychopathy Checklist-Revised assessed psychopathy in U.S. courts: Extent and Appropriateness. Law and Human Behavior, 30, 493 -- 507. Retrieved http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10979-007-9097-5… [read more]

Ethical Dilemmas Relating to Forensic Psychology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,482 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


As a psychologist, he will have to contribute part of their professional time for no or little compensation or personal advantage. Doing this will signify his professional fidelity and responsibility as a forensic psychologist (Zapf, Hart, & Roesch, 2013).

In addition, as a forensic psychologist, he will have to face the standard of resolving ethical issues surrounding the practice of… [read more]

Stability of Personality Traits Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (903 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Indeed, from the readings, it seems that even those persons who are high on a scale of individualism or maverickism may choose the degree to which they respond to feedback and alter something in response (McAdams, 1994; Gardiner & Jackson, 2011). A line of research shows that people who are high in maverickism are prone to taking risks and have also shown to be unaffected by feedback about tasks in which they engage (Jones & Meredith, 1996; Gardiner & Jackson, 2011). This personality trait known as maverickism seems to be on the other end of the Conscientiousness scale, and it is characterized by a multifaceted nature (Gardiner & Jackson, 2011. Traits such Extraversion, Openness to experience, and low Agreeableness may all be personality traits associated with maverickism (Gardiner & Jackson, 2011. Both personality and task conditions have been shown to behave as determinants of this construct known as maverickism (Gardiner & Jackson, 2011.


Arnton, A., Jansson, B., & Archer, T. (2008). Influence of affective personality type and gender upon coping behavior, mood, and stress. Individual Differences Research, 6(3), 139-168.Davis, R.D. (1999). Millon: Essentials of his science, theory, classification, assessment, and theory. Journal Of Personality Assessment,72(3), 330-352. doi:10.1207/S15327752JP720302

Bood, S., Archer, T., & Norlander, T. (2004). Affective Personality in Relation to General Personality, Self-Reported Stress, Coping, and Optimism. Individual Differences Research, 2(1), 26-37. Psychology And Aging, 11(1), 57-65

Costa, P.R., Yang, J., & McCrae, R.R. (1998). Aging and personality traits: Generalizations and clinical implications. In I. Nordhus, G.R. VandenBos, S. Berg, P. Fromholt (Eds.), Clinical geropsychology (pp. 33-48). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Gardiner, E. And Jackson, C.J. (2011). Workplace mavericks: How personality and risk-taking propensity predicts maverickism. British Journal of Psychology. DOI:10.1111/j.2044-8295.2011.02090.x

Jones, C., & Meredith, W. (1996). Patterns of personality change across the life span.

Magnavita, J.J. (2005). Components of a Unified Treatment Approach: Psychopathology, Personality Theory, and Psychotherapy. In Personality-guided relational psychotherapy (pp. 51-76). American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10959-003

McAdams, D.P. (1994). Can personality change? Levels of stability and growth in personality across the life span. In T.F. Heatherton, J. Weinberger (Eds.), Can personality change? (pp. 299-313). Washington, DC U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10143-027

Sutin, A.R., Costa, P. r., Wethington, E., & Eaton, W. (2010). Turning points and lessons learned: Stressful life events and personality trait development across middle adulthood. Psychology And Aging, 25(3), 524-533. doi:10.1037/a0018751

van Lieshout, C.M. (2000). Lifespan personality development: Self-organizing goal-oriented agents and developmental outcome. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 24(3), 276-288. doi:10.1080/01650250050118259

Vandewater, E.A., & Stewart, A.J. (2006). Paths to late midlife well-being for women and men: The importance of identity development and social role quality. Journal Of Adult Development, 13(2), 76-83. doi:10.1007/s10804-006-9004-

Whitbourne,…… [read more]

Group Counseling Intervention for Sarah's Case Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,263 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This would involve discussing the goals of the counseling process, discussing limitations of confidentiality, and developing a code of ethics to govern the group. Some of the legal and ethical concerns related to working with a client like her include maintaining confidentiality, promoting the client's well-being and safety, protecting the client's rights during the group experience, informed consent, and potential consequences of not adhering to treatment. The other concerns include cultural and diversity factors during group therapy and developing appropriate diagnosis ("Chapter 10," 2011).

Sarah's Honest Open Communication:

Group counseling environments are usually characterized by the need for honest open communication. Sarah's involvement in her group during the counseling process requires open honest communication in order to achieve the goals of the therapy. Despite avoiding social interactions with her peers, showing lack of interest, and negative responses, Sarah is ready for honest open communication in order to deal with the psychological distress she is experiencing. As her counselor, I feel Sarah is ready for honest open communication because her current responses shows that she wants to share her experiences but only in a safe and secure environment. To assist her in becoming more communicative I will create such an environment by encouraging group members to share their experiences, providing positive feedback, and developing an effective diagnosis. The other measures include promoting self-awareness, identifying and addressing counter-productive behaviors, developing trust for each group member, and modeling positive behaviors.

Group Pressure:

One of the major components in group counseling experiences is group pressure to conform and scapegoating, particularly among teenagers. As a teenager, Sarah is likely to face this pressure in her group therapy experiences and therefore needs to be adequately prepared for such events. The pressure to alter behavior, feeling, and thinking can be dealt with through appropriate measures. Some of these measures include establishing ground rules for the therapeutic process, notifying the client of probable consequences of failure to follow treatment, and dealing with issues that arise in every stage of the group counseling process.

Legal and Ethical Concerns:

While group counseling is the best intervention for Sarah's case, it is associated with some legal and ethical concerns that determine its effectiveness. Some of the major legal and ethical concerns or issues in group counseling include consent, confidentiality, parental disclosure, dual relationships, and professional boundaries. According to Herlihy et. al. (2002), the other legal and ethical concerns in this intervention include accountability and liability, evaluation, and boundaries of the counseling relationship (p.56).

Lessening Potential Risks:

The counseling process will also be faced with potential risks to each member of the group and have significant effects on meeting their expectations. In order to promote the effectiveness of the intervention, these risks will be lessened through establishing ground rules, identifying and dealing with counterproductive behaviors, and providing necessary interventions in every stage of the process. Group members will also be expected to demonstrate responsibility and commitment to the process through abiding by the ground rules, demonstrating positive behaviors, promoting trust among each… [read more]

Biblical Worldview of Schizophrenia Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (2,132 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Biblical Worldview

From a Christian perspective, there are two common opinions on schizophrenia and serious mental illnesses. One is that it is a true mental illness and a natural part of a fallen world, and the other is that there may be demonic activity involved (Pargament & Lomax, 2013). The Bible speaks of mental illness, mostly in the context of demons. For example, the Old Testament states that "an evil spirit from the Lord tormented King Saul" (1 Samuel 16:14, ESV). Whether the mentally ill are struggling with evil spirits or simply battling their own brain chemistry, the Christian worldview cannot deny that mental illness does occur and can become a significant life problem for those who are struggling with it and the people around them (Pargament & Lomax, 2013). The causes of schizophrenia were long thought to relate to demons and evil spirits in the past, but the majority of modern day Christians no longer hold that particular view (Pargament & Lomax, 2013). Instead, they pair their beliefs with science and an understanding of brain chemistry.

Treatment and prevention are also important to discuss from a Christian perspective. The Bible reminds the faithful to "be sober-minded; be watchful. Your adversary the devil prowls around like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour." (1 Peter 5:8, ESV). Being watchful and sober-minded can be seen as a reference to refrain from drugs and other inappropriate substances that could raise a person's chances of developing the disorder (Pargament & Lomax, 2013). However, there are some people who have no family history of schizophrenia and have never experimented with drugs or alcohol. When these people develop the disorder, it can be difficult to justify why that was the case, other than citing God's will (Pargament & Lomax, 2013). At that point, treatment becomes the focus, and many modern Christians understand the need for antipsychotic medications. Those who prefer to stick to the older ways of handling problems may choose prayer or the laying on of hands in order to heal the person of the illness (or demons) (Pargament & Lomax, 2013).


The research into schizophrenia over the years shows that it was not well understood, and that there are still struggles among the scientific and religious communities to clearly understand and address what schizophrenia may look like in a particular individual and how that person may have developed the disorder. What is clear, however, is that further research is needed. Not being able to predict and/or prevent schizophrenia is troubling, and the lack of effective, long-term treatments for the disorder are also a serious concern. Since there are few options, more will have to be created. Future research into schizophrenia must address two key areas: long-term treatment options that remain effective, and better determination of what causes the disorder to manifest in some people and not in others, all other things being equal. Either environmental or genetic causes may be stronger than first believed.


Aziz, N., Bellack, A.S., & Rosenfarb, I.S.… [read more]

Social Phobia Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,508 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It is also the clinician's duty to determine whether the excessive reactions are that of anxiety or as a result of adverse effects of some medications. If the person already has other health issues, for example obesity, the anxiety or fear felt should not be related to the other health condition or should be out of proportion to what is usually experienced (Hirsch and Matthews, 2000).


Chen, Y.P., Ehlers, A., Clark, D.M., & Mansell, W. (2000). Social phobia and attentional avoidance of faces. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Clark, D.M. (2000). Cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety disorders. In M.G. Gelder, J. Lopez-Ibor, & N.N. Andreason (Eds.), New Oxford textbook of psychiatry. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Harvey, A., Clark, D. M., Ehlers, A., & Rapee, R.M. (2000). Social anxiety and self-impression: cognitive preparation enhances the beneficial effects of video feedback following a stressful social task. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 1183 -- 1192.

Hirsch, C.R. & Matthews, A. (2000). Impaired positive inferential bias in social phobia. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Mellings, T.M.B. & Alden, L.E. (2000).…… [read more]

Police Psychology Scenario Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,519 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


The importance of identifying instrumental and expressive demands that are made by the suspect are also important components to the process. Instrumental demands are more specific and serve as part of the S.A.F.E. model for de-escalating crisis situations. This model is represented by four "triggers" that are (McMains & Mullins, 2010):

• Substantive demands: The instrumental wants/demands made by the… [read more]

Psychology Concepts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (787 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


205). It involves taking away something desirable or good from an individual in order to discourage him/her from engaging in a particular behavior. For instance, one of my classmate's phone rang in class despite being told by teachers not to bring our phones to class. Consequently, the teacher took away the phone from my classmate in order to discourage that behavior. The ethical concern that may emerge from using negative punishment is that it does not teach the victim of undesired behavior how to change his/her behavior.

Positive reinforcement involves strengthening or fostering desired behavior through the addition or increase of a pleasant incentive. Positive reinforcement tends to be a more effective means of behavior modification that the two types of punishment. The addition or increase of incentive when using positive reinforcement is geared towards encouraging the occurrence of the behavior in the future. For instance, positive reinforcement is used by an organization's management when they give their employees bonuses for improved performance. The ethical concern from this method is that a person may exhibit unwanted behavior if he/she is not rewarded for a specific behavior that he/she expected some incentives for.

On the contrary, negative reinforcement also strengthens or fosters desired behavior but involves lessening or eliminating an unpleasant outcome or incentive. In essence, a certain behavior is promoted through avoiding, removing, or stopping a negative consequence. For instance, an individual can take medication to prevent himself/herself from contacting a particular disease or illness. This method has some ethical concerns including the likelihood of an individual never to attempt certain things in future if initial attempts to avoid a negative consequence are unsuccessful.

In conclusion, the discipline or psychology has several concepts and approaches that are used in understanding human behavior. These concepts and approaches are used to modify, control, reinforce, or change an individual's behavior. The use of different approaches and methods for behavior change and modification is attributed to the lack of one specific means that is universally applicable to all situations. The method to use to promote behavior modification or change in a specific situation is dependent on the desired outcome of the process.


Stangor, C. (2010). Introduction to psychology. Washington, DC: Flat World Knowledge, L.L.C.… [read more]

Existential Therapy: History and Application Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,938 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Existential Therapy: History And Application

Existential Therapy

Existential theory has deep roots dating back to 19th and early 20th century European philosophers. When psychiatrists began to read the works of these philosophers their approach to treating patients began to take on a more holistic approach that emphasized 'being' within a physical world and attending to the quality of interrelationships. As… [read more]

Drnp Growing Up in Africa Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  5 pages (1,637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Furthermore, I think that empathy is finally becoming a recognized leadership skill in both local and global medical discussions. My earlier mention of fibromyalgia and its growing recognition as a disease reflects a medical community that finally listened to the concerns of its patients and then discussed those concerns with other practitioners. Empathy does not stop with the relationship with patients; it also flows over into an interest in working together with other health practitioners to come up with practical and effective treatments for problems that practitioners are encountering in daily work. I believe that globalization of society, including the globalization of medicine, is only going to increase these helpful relationships and improve, not only the research behind medicine, but also how medical services are delivered to patients on a worldwide scale.

In fact, what I view as my empathetic interest in research outside of my own practice area has helped me develop my clinical project idea. Recent research has shown a very interesting relationship between dyslexia and speech disorders. This research challenges the traditional notion that dyslexia is somehow related to vision and vision-processing. Instead, the research reveals that dyslexia is more likely a speech related issue, in which patients have trouble distinguishing between certain common chunks in words, and that this inability to distinguish between them impacts reading comprehension. These advances have made me think about the communication difficulties that often accompany autism. I have heard many people, both practitioners and parents, suggest that people with autism understand everything that is being said, but may not be able to process the information or communicate their understanding. I would like to try the same therapeutic approach that has shown some success in children with dyslexia and work on chunking elements of speech with patients with autism. I believe that there could be a similar processing issue causing these communication difficulties and would like to investigate that in a clinical setting, to determine whether the approach enhances communicative abilities in members of my target population.… [read more]

Milgram Obedience, Morality Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,734 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


According to Zeigler-Hill et al., "individuals who were the most reluctant to obey the commands of the experimenter to continue with the procedure were those with low levels of neuroticism who reported the highest levels of negative affect during the session. This suggests that our procedure may offer a relatively benign means for examining the mechanisms underlying destructive obedience as well as individual differences in the willingness to obey authority." (Zeigler-Hill et al., p. 161)


This research strategy above shows that Milgram's experiments were indeed groundbreaking and crucial to our understanding of human hierarchies and morality. Though the state of research experimentation was in a state of evolution during Milgram's time, the refinement of research procedures and ethical standards allows us to view Milgram's findings on their own merit. In doing so, we find that they are singularly invaluable.

Works Cited:

Gibson, S. (2011). Milgram's Obedience Experiments: A Rhetorical Analysis. British Journal of Social Psychology, 52(2), 290-309.

Navarick, D.J. (2012). Historical psychology and the Milgram paradigm: Test of an experimentally derived model of defiance using accounts of massacres by Nazi Reserve Police Battalion 101. The Psychological Record, 62, 133-154.

Nicholson, I. (2011). Torture at Yale: Experimental Subjects, Laboratory Torment and the 'rehabilitation' of Milgram's 'Obedience to Authority'. Theory & Psychology, 21(737).

Russell, N.J.C. (2010). Milgram's Obedience to Authority Experiments: Origins and Early Evolution. British Journal of Social Psychology, 50,…… [read more]

Intellectual Functioning Your IQ Wechsler Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,350 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Present use of Stanford -- Binet Intelligence and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

Since the beginning of the Stanford -- Binet, it has been revised a lot more times as mentioned earlier. At the moment, the test is in its fifth edition, which is recognized as the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition, or SB5. As stated by the publisher's website, "The… [read more]

Taxi Driver Case Study

Case Study  |  5 pages (1,538 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Bickle's social isolation fuels his loneliness and his insulation from the world, which helps to fuel his skewed view of the world and his inherent disconnect from people. This disconnect helps his paranoia to grow. Aside from a predilection for insomnia, Bickle also gravitates towards violence; these two symptoms might be direct repercussions from his time in Vietnam. Eventually, Bickle sinks into a deep severity of his symptoms, allowing his homicidal tendencies to manifest openly in the real world. The films demonstrates how Bickle starts as a lonely, troubled man who fought in Vietnam, and exhibits mild symptoms of schizotypal disorder to a gun-wielding maniac who acts violently and on the fringes of society.


Berry, K., Band, R., & Corcorran, R. (2007). Attachment styles, earlier interpersonal relationships and schizotypy in a non-clinical sample. Psychology & Psychotherapy:

Theory, Research & Practice.,80(4), 563-576.

Filmsite.org. (2013). Taxi Driver (1976). Retrieved from Filmsite.org: http://www.filmsite.org/taxi3.html

Hurst, R., Nelson-Gray, R., & Mitchell, J. (2007). The relationship of asperger's characteristics and schizotypal personality traits in a non-clinical adult sample. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 37(9), 1711-1720.

Perry, C.J., & Presniak, M.D. (2013). Defense mechanisms in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders. Psychiatry: Interpersonal & Biological

Processes, 76(1), 32-52.

Sugranyes, G., Kyriakopoulos, M., & Corrigall, R. (2011). Autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia: Meta- analysis of the neural correlates of social cognition. PLoS

ONE,…… [read more]

Learning &amp Teaching Identify Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (2,539 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


This is especially important with habit-forming drugs like painkillers and the like (Kreitner & Luthans, 1984).

Behaviorist - Decrease

A behaviorist approach to DECREASE a behavior would be the inverse of the last paragraph but would obviously manifest differently. The current behavior that is not desirable could be documented and explained and it could then be shown and proven through… [read more]

Attitude Formation How Cognition, Affect Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,384 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Therefore, if people want to alter the way they act, they must begin by altering their attitudes, minds and hearts (Albarracin & Handley, 2011).

Social psychologists conquer that knowing a person's attitudes means predicting the person's behavior. It is evident that the alteration of attitudes results in behavioral changes. Psychologists believe that behavior-attitude relationship is intertwined. Attitudes are reflected as carts and behavior as horses. People are extremely trained and excellent at finding reasons for everything they do. However, they are excellent in doing whatever they do to find reasons (Irimia, 2011). The power of predicting behavior through attitudes has received a blow in recent years. This follows the work of Allan Wicker, a social psychologist, in his endeavor to review dozens of research studies focusing on various attitudes, people, and behavior. He offers a shocking revelation: attitudes expressed by people hardly predict their varying actions. Students' cheating attitudes towards exams had no, or if present, extremely minimal connection to the chances of their actual cheating.

Attitudes towards religious institutions have been moderately connected with attendance at any given Sunday. Self-described racial attitudes served as a little pointer towards behaviors in real settings. An illustration of the disjuncture between behavior and attitude is what Daniel Batson refers to as moral hypocrisy. In his studies, he presents his university with the most appealing task of rewarding participants and another task where there are no rewards. Students were required to assign themselves to one of the tasks. In his study, only one out of the twenty students believed that the positive task was the moral thing to do (Albarracin & Handley, 2011).

In other experiments aimed at following up on moral hypocrisy, samples were awarded coins and directed to flip privately if they desired. Most of them chose the positive task. In another experiment, Batson placed stickers on both sides of a coin whilst indicating the meaning of the possible outcomes. Still, most of the participants assigned themselves the positive task. Greed wins in case it was in a collision sprint with morality. If people do not do what they say, it is no wonder that efforts to alter behavior through altering attitudes are often futile. Warnings about the dangers associated with smoking have minimally affected individuals who are already smokers. Enhancing public awareness about the brutalizing and desensitizing effects of long-term diet of television violence stimulates most people to voice an interest for minimally violent programs (Castelli & Carraro, 2011). However, they continue to concentrate on watching media murder every day. Safe driving appeals have generated less impact on rates of accidents than low speed limits, drunken driving fines, and divided highways.

Batson tries to describe how attitudes are weak in predicting behavior. Personality psychologists have discovered that personality traits are also useful in behavior prediction. In case our desire to discover how helpful a person will be in the future, we will not be required to give them self-esteem, defensives, and anxiety tests. In situations with clear-cut demands, it is… [read more]

Attribution Theory Human Behavior Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (965 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


For example, at work place, it is helpful to decide about the holidays based on the Christmas vacation. One might decide to take his annual leave just before the Christmas holidays so that he can enjoy a long time off work and spend it in another state where there was pleasant weather last year. However, this does not means that a person can always get continuous long vacations because the work environment changes and the new management may not allow a person to take off from work for more than two weeks. In the family setting, people often decide that if a child is having problem in studies, he might be having a bad company because the neighbor's child does not study because of the same reason. However, the reality might be that the child does not like subjects thus he under-performs.

Anchoring Heuristic

The anchoring heuristic is about biasness based on human cognitive experience. Humans anchor themselves and thus strongly believe in the information they came across first. Thus they often tend to make decisions based on that original information (Marsden, Veeraraghavan, and Ye, 2008). The subsequent decisions should however consider the information that is most critical to the situation. It is true that often the initial information is most critical. For example an incident of fire tells that the maintenance officer was not on the duty spot thus the fire flared up. The incident could be avoided if the officer was on the spot thus the decision is that the maintenance officer should be fired. On the other hand, the management may come to know later, before the decision was finally announced, that the fire was a case of accident and it has happened before at other spots even in the presence of the maintenance officer. This tells that the problem lies somewhere else and it should be resolved as soon as possible. It should be therefore kept in mind that while heuristic techniques are helpful, the first piece of information is not always the most critical one. The management cannot risk complex decision making situations rely on heuristics. The small decisions can be made in the light of heuristic techniques for example to work extra hours to avoid delay in supply since it happened last time, but these methods do not work all the times.


Attribution Theory, (n.d.), Retrieved from:


Marsden, A., Veeraraghavan, M. And Ye, M., (2008), "Heuristics of Representativeness,

Anchoring and Adjustment, and Leniency: Impact on Earnings' Forecasts by Australian Analysts," Quarterly Journal of Finance and Accounting, 47(2), 83-102

Neal, N., (n.d.), "Decision Making Heuristics ," Retrieved from:

http://faculty.mercer.edu/spears_a/studentpages/heuristics/webpage.html… [read more]

Anxiety Co-Occuring Disorder Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,716 words)
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In addition to that, a patient suffering from anxiety can also be faced with other co-occurring disorders such as substance addiction and depression. As a result, the patient's condition becomes precarious. In order to cure the patient suffering from anxiety and other co-occurring disorders the therapists must tackle all the issues simultaneously and make an integrated cure plan for the patient.


Casa Palmera. (2009). Anxiety Disorder Symptoms and Co-Occurring Disorders. California: Casa Palmera. p. 1. http://casapalmera.com/anxiety-disorder-symptoms-and-co-occurring-disorders / [Accessed: 11 Sep 2013].

Gil-Rivas, V., Prause, J. And Grella, C. (2009). 'Substance Use following Residential Treatment among Individuals with Co-occurring Disorders: The Role of Anxiety/Depressive Symptoms and Trauma Exposure'. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23 (2), pp. 304-314. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2753528 / [Accessed: 12 September 2013].

Hazelden Foundation (2013). What Are Co-occurring Disorders?. Center City: Hazelden Foundation, pp. 1-2.

Reuschel, L. (2011). GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER IN CHILDREN AND ADOLSCENTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH AND PRACTICE. Bloomington: Illinois State University. pp. 1-2. http://psychology.illinoisstate.edu/cc/Comps/Reuschel%20-%20GAD.pdf [Accessed: 11 Sep 2013].

Stein, D., Hollander, E. And Rothbaum, B. (2010). Textbook of anxiety disorders. Washington [etc.]: American Psychiatric.

National Institute of Mental Health. (n.d.). What is Anxiety Disorder?. Rockville: National Institute of Mental Health. pp. 1-3. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/anxiety-disorders/index.shtml [Accessed: 11 Sep…… [read more]

Self-Concept Maintenance the Level Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (744 words)
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This theory proposes that "we use our self-awareness to assess whether or not we are meeting our goals and, if not, make efforts to improve the self in line with these goals" (Crisp & Turner, 2010, p. 382).

Unlike the other theories, this approach focuses on the awareness of discrepancies between actual and ideal identity as well as people's emotional response to such discrepancies" (cited in Crisp & Turner, 2010, p. 13).

This theory posits that when people seek to improve themselves, they will likely emulate those who demonstrate the desired characteristics through upward comparisons (Fiske, 2010).


The Control Theory of Self-Regulation helps to explain Kathy's reactions to praise as well as criticisms, given her high level of self-esteem and confidence, as well as her recognition that work is just part of life. This theory also explains Jeanette's reactions to the same praise and criticisms give her low level of self-esteem as she reacts in defensive ways that attempt to avoid accepting responsibility for mistakes or mitigating them. Likewise, the Self-Discrepancy Theory makes it clear that Kathy realizes she is human and can make mistakes while Jeanette's reactions underscore her misguided perceptions that everyone else is at fault. Finally, Social Comparison Theory highlights the fact that Kathy's high level of self-esteem makes her eager to learn how to improve her performance by gaining a better understanding of what is expected of her, while Jeanette would prefer that everything and everyone change to suit her preferences.


One of the more interesting insights that emerged during the research was just how divergent responses to the same performance feedback can be based on an individual's level of self-esteem. Based on this insight, it is reasonable to conclusion that people with low self-esteem could benefit from learning how others with high self-esteem respond to performance feedback before appraisal time rolls around.


The virtual office. (2011). Laureate Education, Inc. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Crisp, R.J., & Turner, R.N. (2010). Essential social psychology (2nd ed.). Los Angeles, CA:…… [read more]

Court Forensic Psychology Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (709 words)
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Court Forensic Psychology

Forensic Psychology in Court

The study referenced for this discussion question was relating to how reliable court-appointed forensic psychology evaluations pertaining to the legal sanity (or lack thereof) of a defendant really are. Modern examples would include the Nidal Hassan who allegedly shot up Fort Hood and the admitted Cleveland kidnapper Ariel Castro (Lindgren, 2013)(Rubin, 2013). The study was written by Daniel C. Murrie from the University of Virgina, Marcus T. Boccaccini from Sam Houston State University and W. Neil Gowensmith from the University of Denver (Gowensmith, Murrie & Boccaccini, 2013).

The study notes that a public perception is that the insanity defense is immensely overused as a result of a select few sensationalized cases. The study counters that the actual insanity defense strategy is rarely used. When it is used, it is very rarely "successful" as a means to avoid or reduce legal culpability for acts that the defendant is admitting they committed. The study notes that the best predictors of whether someone was or is actually lucid as it relates to offering a defense in court include psychological diagnosis of the defendant, whether the person was using drugs at the time of the offense, whether they were under the direct influence of drugs at the time of the offense, whether the person has a history of psychiatric hospitalization or other issues separate and before the alleged offense, and the severity of the alleged offense in question (Gowensmith, Murrie & Boccaccini, 2013).

A forensic psychologist could use this information above and further information from that same study in a number of ways. First, a forensic psychologist could learn that it is best to look at not just the current lucidity of the defendant and/or the person's state of mind at the time of the offense but also at other times when it is much less likely that the person is putting on an act for their criminal defense and/or at times where the alleged criminal act was otherwise not in play. Whether there is a history of drug use, psychiatric issues and so forth would speak a lot about whether…… [read more]

Psychology Theories Essay

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Freud corresponded that the behavior of a person is mainly a reflection of what he/she experienced in his/her early life, particularly in the first 6 years of life. An Individual is unconsciously motivated by the early life experiences and the same experiences drive his/her instinctual senses. In simple words, deterministic view supported by Freud depicts that the present behaviors of… [read more]

Psychological Research Supports the Folk Wisdom A-Level Coursework

A-Level Coursework  |  2 pages (767 words)
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¶ … psychological research supports the folk wisdom that 'birds of a feather flock together'? But there is little empirical support for the folk wisdom that 'opposites attract.' According to social psychologists, why do we tend to find people similar to us attractive?

The theory posited by social psychologist is that we as a species are driven by our survival instinct to create suitable conditions for procreation. Among the, the seeking of a mate who is socially and emotionally compatible is critical as a way of forging a lasting union suitable for the creation of offspring. It also helps to facilitate cross-inclusion of both members of a union in their respective familial cultures.

Describe some of the criticisms that have been offered against the evolutionary theory of attraction.

One major criticism against the evolutionary theory of attraction is that it risks the imposition of expectations and sociocultural values on the way that attractions are formed. This can levy undue values and ideals that can stand in the way of positive relationship formulation for seemingly non-compatible but attracted individuals.

How is Caryl Rusbult's (1983, 1991) investment model of relationships similar to and different from traditional social exchange theory models of relationships?

Ultimately, the two theories share in common the understanding that through contribution of positive and functional behavior, one will receive the same in return. Whereas in the latter, this applies to the achievement of civil order, in the former it refers to the achievement of order within a personal relationship.

Keeping in mind Robin Akert's (1998) research on the dissolution of romantic relationships, what strategy should you pursue the next time you are faced with a romantic breakup?

Akert's discussion reveals that the experience in a breakup is largely shaped by one's role in either initiating or being on the receiving end. Therefore, in the event of a romantic breakup, I would consider taking steps to demonstrate our mutual need for dissolution based on our core non-compatiblity.

Do men and women differ in their tendency to help? If so, how?

Men and women differ largely in the manner in which they attempt to help. According to the primary text, whereas men tend to attempt to take over a situation, women will look for ways to offer support.

Some social psychologists, such as Daniel…… [read more]

Psychology Movie Relation a Rose Research Paper

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At this level, Emily was unable to share with other townspeople in a proper manner. Although her relation with other people appears limited, when people force her to interact socially, she appears illogical and unsuitable, yet another symptom evident among schizophrenic patients (APA, 2001). The narrator notes an episode that asserts that when the town received mailboxes, Emily refuted them to install metal numbers on her door and affix mailboxes (William, 2003). Emily refused to listen to them. Other episodes within the entire story indicate Emily complicated psychological state. Early in the short story before the level of her symptoms had become comprehensible to the reader, the narrator relates an instance in which Emily appears before the town bureaucrats, to maintain that she does not owe them any taxes.

She repeats various instances that she has no dues in Jefferson and that the board of Aldermen could talk with Sartosis if they thought otherwise. It is not the fact that Emily asserted this that pinpoints her psychosis. Instead, it is her inherent insistence against factual things that they present and her denial to heed to the board of Aldermen of all that makes her appear as more than just an average stubborn town resident (William, 2003). Two other instances that are equally telling occur when Emily travels to the pharmacy to purchase poison. She appears not to have any emotion and appears paranoid, withholding intelligence from the pharmacist regarding her poison purchase request.

In another instance, the pharmacist, who represents the entire town, finds Emily's request peculiar, but does not refute selling the poison to her. After all, the pharmacist took Emily as a special individual in town. He termed her as the last of a self-important line, and because of that, she was unassailable. Besides the common psychotic incident of sleeping with a dead body, the other pertinent instance involves Emily's acquisition of items for the man that the entire town perceives to be her betrothed, who was presumably dead and lying in Emily's house. When the people of the town break down the bedroom door after several years, the narrator pinpoints a furnished tableau for a bridal. It was full of dust and appeared frozen in time (William, 2003). Succinctly, Emily's clutch on actuality had totally slipped.

If anyone concurs that Emily was a schizophrenic case, then naturally people may wish to comprehend the influences that caused her illness. Various psychologist experts have argued that Emily's delusions, particularly regarding her father's demise, develop a defense mechanism, for the demise of her father represented the demise of the aged order and Emily, as well. Other psychologists assert that Emily feeds off Homer because her father had consumed her figuratively,. Emily had taken into herself the violent deeds in her father, which thwarted her and re-enacted the violence. Various feminist critics perceive that Emily's ailment is different (Staton, 2005). Some contend that Emily persisted on sustaining her existence, which the town residents recurrently declined to allow as they anticipated her… [read more]

Exploring Interventions Improving Workplace Behavior in Adults With ADHD Introduction Chapter

Introduction Chapter  |  5 pages (1,513 words)
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¶ … Interventions That Improve the Workplace Behavior of Adults With ADHD Introductory Chapter

Examination Of Interventions That Improve The Workplace Behavior Of Adults With ADHD

The purpose of the research in this study is to examine interventions that improve the workplace behavior of adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD).

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reported in the… [read more]

ADHD and How it Relates to Psychology Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,275 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


ADHD and How it Relates to Psychology

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD was known as hyper-kinesis or minimal brain dysfunction in the earlier times. It can be described as "a chronic, neurologically-based syndrome characterized by any or all of three types of behavior: hyperactivity, distractibility, and impulsivity" ("attention deficit hyperactivity disorder"). An individual is considered to act in a hyperactive manner when he demonstrates feelings of agitation, uneasiness or improper movement especially when it is expected of him/her to remain calm. On the other hand, distractibility refers to the sharp disruption by inappropriate and extraneous sights and noise. Distractibility is also the lack of care and lack of ability to perform simple tasks to the finishing point. Lastly, impulsivity can be described as the spontaneity to speak in a socially unsuitable manner such as exclaiming something without giving it a thought. Emotional problems cause contrasting parallel behaviors. However, the emotional states of an individual do not fluctuate when a person has ADHD. In children, symptoms related to ADHD are frequently developed when there is a problem of sleep deprivation ("attention deficit hyperactivity disorder").

It is important to mention here that almost every person demonstrates the three typical behaviors discussed above. However, people with ADHD show these behaviors excessively and unnecessarily for a very long period of time. Unfortunately, such behavioral patterns are found as all-encompassing and persistent and create difficulties for the person domestically, academically and/or professionally. In general, ADHD is diagnosed before the person reaches the age of seven. In children, learning disability is one of the major symptoms of ADHD ("attention deficit hyperactivity disorder").

The answer to the question that why is ADHD caused is still not known. In a few cases, a genetic component comes into view as a cause. Excessive sugar intake is now a myth. According to a number of studies done in this regard, there are a few food additives like colorings that may intensify hyperactivity in several vulnerable persons. However, the general population is not affected by such food additives. Children with ADHD have brain areas that are incapable of having normal activity especially the areas by which attention is controlled ("attention deficit hyperactivity disorder"). The recent research, however, in the same area reveals that the disease "may be caused by alterations in the serotonin neurotransmission system combined with a tendency to experience psychosocial distress" ("BioMed Central"). The children who have ADHD are found to experience "interactions between low and high serotonin activity and self-blame in relation to inter-parental conflict" ("BioMed Central").

The children with ADHD suffer disorders of conduct, difficulty in learning, mood swings, communication barriers and anxiety disorders. This is rather different from adults in whom the disorders may range from personality disorder, bipolar disorder, substance misuse and disorder of obsessive compulsive nature. ADHD can therefore not be considered as a categorical diagnosis. It is not common to find all the symptoms in the ADHD facing person. Hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention are not necessarily to be found in the person… [read more]

Psychology - Intro to Forensics Psych Discussion Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (652 words)
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Psychology - Intro to Forensics Psych Discussion Post

Psychology has contributed to the legal system in a plethora of ways. This statement is particularly true when one considers the role that forensic psychology has played in determining certain aspects of the law and of legal procedures. Due to the fact that the very definition of the term forensic psychology explicitly indicates a relationship between the formal scientific field of psychology and the law (Huss, 2001), it is not surprising to note the role that forensic psychology -- and by extension psychology in general -- has played in affecting legal processes in most developed countries today.

Psychology has the potential to play a dominant role in the actual criminal trial of an individual who has been accused of a legal transgression. One of the most better known defenses against any sort of criminal accusation is the insanity plea, in which individuals are given significantly reduced sentences or even lesser charges due to the fact that they were not deemed mentally incompetent at the time that a crime was allegedly committed by them. Psychology, of course, is the principle means by which the legal system can determine whether or not such a plea is appropriate for the accused person.

The branch of psychology that explicitly deals with mental health and mental issues is clinical psychology (Huss, 2001). Thus, in this case, clinical psychology and criminal psychology meet at a sort of nexus when clinical psychologists engage in clinical psychological work to determine the mental state of a defendant. In fact, there are numerous points within the criminal trial process in which psychology is used to determine various aspects about the defendant's fate. Psychologists can be consulted prior to a defendant entering a plea, during the trial to see if the insanity plea applies, and even after the trial has been decided and before the sentence has been disseminated in order to gauge whether or not the defendant is…… [read more]

Forensic Psychology - Intro to Forensics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (587 words)
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Forensic Psychology

Psychology - Intro to Forensics Psych WK 2 Writing Assign

Forensic psychology: Subspecialties and roles

The roles that forensic psychologists play within the justice system are extremely diverse, as diverse as the field itself. One subspecialty is criminal psychology: "criminal psychology is the study of wills, thoughts, intentions, reactions, behaviour patterns and drives of criminals" (Swart, 2010, Criminal psychology). Criminal psychologists' roles are primarily in the field of investigating and prosecuting crimes -- they can profile suspects, for example, or provide advice as expert witnesses. They work either within the field of law enforcement or closely with law enforcement officials themselves as a specific case moves through the different phases of the justice system.

As well as investigating crime, forensic psychologists also have an important role to play in preventing crime and rehabilitating offenders. For example, the "juvenile field of specialty evaluates juveniles accused of criminal acts and in the performance of this duty conducts juvenile pre-sentencing evaluations, juvenile probation and diversion evaluations, juvenile waiver evaluations, assessing the credibility of child witnesses and competency and diminished capacity evaluations" (Swart, 2010, Juvenile psychology). There is a social work dimension to the specialization of juvenile forensic psychology. The psychologist must treat the 'whole' person, providing support and guidance as the system seeks to determine the best ways to create a productive environment for the child and to encourage positive behaviours and coping mechanisms and discourage negative ones. Specialists in the field must understand developmental as well as forensic components of the juvenile's crime.

As can be seen in these examples, forensic psychology is "the application of psychological knowledge to the criminal justice system" (Decaire n.d). Because the justice system ultimately deals with human beings and therefore human psychology, there is a need for…… [read more]

Forensic Psychology Is a 'Practical Discussion and Results Chapter

Discussion and Results Chapter  |  2 pages (558 words)
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¶ … forensic psychology is a 'practical,' not a theoretical discipline, research is required to justify the approaches used to discover information about crime and the prescriptions offered to policymakers about how to deal with crime There are three basic research designs used in forensic psychology: descriptive, correlational, and experimental. Descriptive research is often a preliminary investigation of a particular phenomenon. There is no formal hypothesis: the intention is fact-finding. "Descriptive research often involves collecting information through data review, surveys, interviews, or observation. This type of research best describes the way things are" (Kravitz 2013). For example, a survey might be used to determine the demographic features of juvenile delinquents who commit specific types of offenses. Descriptive research has great use during the beginning phases of research to determine what should be studied. It can narrow down a broad field of inquiry. However, it offers no guidance about why something is occurring and has little prescriptive value. Descriptive research answers questions about 'what' is happening, versus the 'why' something is occurring (Mitchell n.d.). However, the value of descriptive research should not be dismissed. For example, it might be determined that the crime rate in New York City is not going up, despite people's concerns that the city is less safe. The first step in creating change is to understand the realities of the situation.

In contrast, "correlational research attempts to determine how related two or more variables are," for example, if there is a direct relationship between being diagnosed with ADHD and delinquency (Kravitz 2013). Causation is not determined through this form of research, merely a positive or negative association between two variables. Correlations "do tell you whether 2…… [read more]

Dispositional Attributions Attribution Differences Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,216 words)
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¶ … Dispositional Attributions


Differences in Dispositional Attributions Between Participants From Western and Eastern Cultures

The fundamental attribution error describes the tendency for people to make a dispositional attribution when observing the behaviors of others. Previous research has indicated that non-Westerners do not show a strong effect, especially those from more collective cultures such as those from the East… [read more]

Competence Is the Foremost Ethical Term Paper

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" However, a large number bring out the worst in the human being and suck the viewer into doing the same. Shows like Big Brother, The Bachelor, The Bachelorette, Survivor, and the Desperate Housewives, and seemingly endless other shows depict the worst in the human spirit -- meanness, envy, and competitiveness.

When applying ethical principles to television, it is clear that broadcasters are not doing a good job. There is little in the way of positive role modeling that can help a viewer improve his or her life. Privacy and confidentiality are not maintained in "Big Brother" type reality shows. Although there are shows that do try to maintain truth and integrity, even when entertaining, there are others, like Fox News, which manipulate the public and do a disservice to humanity. Honesty, integrity, and avoiding exploitation and manipulation are ethical codes that should apply to television shows but do not because they are produced under the rubric of entertainment or the rights of companies to advertise their wares even when those wares are unhealthy or unethical. A duped American public, however, comes to confuse television with reality.


American Psychological Association (APA, 2010). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Retrieved online: http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx?item=5

Minow, N. (1961). "Vast wasteland" Speech transcribed: http://www.terramedia.co.uk/reference/documents/vast_wasteland.htm… [read more]

Emotional Behaviors Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (644 words)
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¶ … James-Lange Theory, people with pure automatic failure tend to experience weaker than average emotions. Yet, on the other hand, others would experience stronger than average emotions. The details of this theory are clear; essentially the arousal of the autonomic functions of the skeletal and cognitive system occur at the sign of the very first emotion. Once that emotion is felt, the extremity of the muscular response is determined by the body without much knowledge of the individual experiencing the emotion. Subsequently, people who have weaker autonomic skeletal reactions in situations feel less of an emotional reaction. When pure autonomic failure occurs, this lessons the emotional response even more dramatically. As such, those who experience a stronger than average emotional experience would be experiencing a stronger autonomic response within their skeletal system. This stronger communication with less of a lag generates a stronger emotional response after the body physically reacts. Greater activity in different areas of the brain invoke greater emotional responses to specific emotions, as for example people with greater activity in the left hemisphere experience more social feelings and outgoing behaviors.

Question 2

Kalat illustrates how the play of animals often mimics their later survival responses and behaviors that would lead to greater chances of success in their lives. Kalat gives the example of a kitten in play mode. This play can often be analyzed as practice of escape and attack strategies. Examining the play behavior of young human children also illustrates interesting connections between early play modes and the mimicking of adult behaviors that will allow for greater survival later in life. Humans also have attack and escape emotional responses that are practiced and demonstrated during the play at young ages. For example, hide and go seek is an example where children's play mimics the body's natural emotional and physical response to fight or flight. Children express fight or flight responses in situations where particular emotions are experienced,…… [read more]

Anxiety Disorder's Impact on Individuals Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,118 words)
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A good example is an employee with OCD may appear to be queer and the condition may destruct people from the quality of his/her work and the aptness in performance. One the other hand, an individual who suffers from panic disorder may appear to be simply crazy and the boss may not trust the person with delicate workloads thereby reducing their possibility of a promotion (Hyman, & Pedrick, 2012).

How others may treat the employee with the disorder

The peculiar character of a disorder and most psychological diseases is the fact that they do not immediately identify as illness. This means therefore they will not be treated or accorded the level of seriousness it deserves. When treating a colleague who suffers from PTSD most people thinks that the person is simply crazy and may not necessarily, identify the need for psychological treatment. In addition to that, if a person is suffering from a social related anxiety, society labels the person as being anti-social and unlikeable. This hinders the quality of professional relationships the person is able to strike off with fellow employees (Strong, 2003).

Promoting Anxiety Disorders awareness in the workplace

In light of the foregoing, a lot of education on workplace anxiety disorders is required in order to foster the quality of professional relationships. Persons with these disorders are able to have with their employees and simultaneously increase their chances of promotions and recognition of their talents as opposed to a situation where everyone is simply stuck on their eccentricity (Boydston et al., 2012).

Wellness programs

The focus of wellness programs should be one the people suffering from the disorders. This will help raise their quality of life by giving them an understanding of what exactly it is they are going through. In addition to the above, wellness programs can provide the necessary support and assist people with disorders over-come the disorders (Miller, 2011).

Americans with Disabilities Act

In the year 2000, a census done in America showed that there were 58 million Americans living with disabilities. Further 39% of the American living with disabilities was participating in employment both as a part-time or full-time basis and earned 35% less than the average employee. The ADA has been instrumental in securing equal rights such as pay and access to jobs and other opportunities for Americans with disabilities (Craske et al., 2009).

In conclusion

In conclusion, anxiety disorders that are not well understood and identified could lead to more stress for the individual with the disease and those surrounding him. However, with proper advocacy plans and sensitization the society could be more aware of the prevalence of anxiety disorder and be more equipped to handle them. Further, since anxiety, disorders are not a physical as handicaps many people have a problem with identifying anxiety disorders a disability. However, with the ADA anxiety disorders are recognized as a disability and thus the individual this given comprehensive legal protection and an equal access to opportunities.


Torpy, J.M., M.D., & Burke, A.E.,… [read more]

Psychotherapy Psychology Is a Science Term Paper

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It fostered his behavior to keep being in denial of the reality, therefore, dynamic concept, to awaken his awareness of the situation, and consequently engage with his case positively. Dynamic approach is action-oriented, enabling patient be active in activities that guide his recovery.

Carlos way of thinking and the approach that Yalom is using in dealing with him are especially… [read more]

Mediation and Moderation Models Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,311 words)
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Sobel test has developed into becoming less influential than the joint substantial test. Therefore, although it might be useful to apply additional tests, once assessments have been made to the joint significant of b and a, thus, treating ab' test as more definitive of all would not make any sense across the board (Coe, 2000).

I have observed weaker results in the ab' test sample. This is likely to be caused by either the excessiveness of Type-I error or the influential power of the integrated b and a test under some conditions. A bootstrap approach method would be a great recommendation when dealing with sample sizes that are less than 20 (Preacher & Hayes, 2008). I have established this recommendation based on performance comparisons of three single sample approaches and a program of SAS in the application of five methods availed by RTI international. I suggest that Frazier et al. (2004) consult Mackinnon to establish which approach is likely to have the best properties of statistics for his data and engage any of the available programs to fulfill his desires of a resampling method. In conclusion, I recommend Frazier et al. (2004) to ensure caution while using the partial correlation approach. In some circumstances, partial correlation is likely to have desirable statistical properties: it has a distinctively null hypothesis, compared to other intervening variable tests. This means that the test based on partial correlation does not make direct assessments on the significance of the purported indirect and direct influence (Baron & Kenny, 1986).

The coefficients provide descriptive information, which is the center of conceptual issues. Values of coefficients can be applied to make judgments on the rate of data consistency with hypothesized relations. Coefficient values can be engaged to evaluate the practical benefits of the findings or even describe the power of observed relations. The results of significant tests cannot purely convey this information. Although data is inconsistent with mediation due to the power of non-significant tests, assessing the coefficients of b and a' test allows researchers to assess if the relation of a proposed mediator to a treatment is weak than it has been hypothesized. When mediation of data support via significant methods of mediation tests, the level of indirect influence is crucial as the estimated product of b and a' test reflect (Frazier, Tix & Barron, 2004).

Frazier et al. (2004) should have discussed the expected relations before making an analysis. This is done by comparing the expected strength with coefficient values and used as a basis for interpreting results. The article should use the magnitude of an ab ' product to draw conclusions drawing on the data consistencies with complete or partial mediation. For instance, a non-significant but large ab' product might suggest that complete and partial mediation could be plausible (Coe, 2000). On the other hand, a significant but small ab' product might suggest that data and complete mediation are consistent for all practical functions. It would be useful to apply confidence intervals in making judgments,… [read more]

Decision-Making Critical Review Vroom, V.H., &amp Jago Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,517 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Decision-Making Critical Review

Vroom, V.H., & Jago, A.G. (1974). Decision Making As A Social Process: Normative And

Descriptive Models Of Leader Behavior. Decision Sciences, 5(4), 743-769.

Decision making ability is a vital skill of all people regardless of age; this skill is exclusively crucial in the current modern world, which has put emphasis on independence in the entire lifespan. Jago… [read more]

Anti-Social Personality Disorder Antisocial Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,327 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Anti-Social Personality Disorder

Antisocial Personality Disorder

This is a mental condition where an individual has a long-term patter of violating, manipulating, and exploiting the rights of others. Antisocial personality disorder often leads to criminal behavior. The causes of antisocial personality disorder are unknown to the medical and psychological field. It is a belief that persons suffering from the disorder are triggered by environmental and genetic factors. These are like child abuse, alcoholic or antisocial parents. It is indicated that more men than women are affected by antisocial personality condition, with the condition being more common with persons in prison (Burt, 2007). An indication and development of the disorder in children is cruelty and setting fire to animals. The symptoms of the disorder are indicated in a person's behavior to themselves and others. They can act charming and witty, excellent at flattery and manipulation of people's emotions, and repeatedly breaks the law. They also disregard the safety of others and their lives and have problems dealing with substance abuse. Individuals will also steal and lie often, do not show signs of guilt or remorse, and are arrogant and angry often.

The personality disorders are prevalent in the U.S. population since approximately 9% by 2007 had been diagnosed with a personality disorder. According to the National Comorbidity Survey Replication survey, 0.6% has antisocial personality disorder (Burt, 2007). It is difficult to distinguish a person with antisocial personality disorder due to the similarities of symptoms and behavior. Antisocial personality disorder makes a person fail to conform to social norms in terms of lawful behaviors. The person is also impulsive and often fails to plan ahead of taking action. They are often involved in regular physical fights and assaults since they are irritable and aggressive. They are also inconsistent with responsibilities, thereby making it difficult to hold down a job or position of responsibility.

The symptoms of antisocial personality disorder make the individual a social problem. This is because the individual will not conform to the norms of society and will not respect the law. They become anti-social from their repeated performances that drive them to repeat arrests. Since they destroy property, harass people, steal, or are attracted to illegal occupations, they develop anti-social tendencies. Blackburn (2007) asserts that anti-social behavior drives them to disregard and disrespect the wishes, feelings, and rights of others including their families, friends, and close associates. This makes it difficult for anyone to relate to this individual, as they are continually deceitful and manipulative.

The drive to lie, con others, use alias, or malinger drives them to break the law or rejection by society or their community. A pattern of impulsive behavior leads to many failed projects, plans, or dreams. It is frustrating for a parent or guardian raising a child with antisocial personality disorder since their impulsive behavior drives them to make hasty plans, which often fail. They make decisions on the spur of a moment, without making considerations or forethought, leading them to enter into risky and… [read more]

Psycho Path Reflections of Mental Health Concept Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,368 words)
Bibliography Sources: 11


Psycho Path, Reflections of Mental Health Concept

Reflections of mental health concept

Mental health is a field that has evoked diverse feelings and thoughts due to its complexity. Definition of mental health changes with time, culture, professional predisposition, individual difference and political ambiance of that time. The accepted definition of mental health is the state of successful functioning of mind, resulting in the ability to cope with adversity, enjoy fulfilling relationships and engage in productive actions (Widiger 2011). It is a level of emotional well-being. It is not just absence of mental disorder. Mental health gives people capacity to think rationally, communicate effectively, learn, grow emotionally and have self-esteem.

Mental health is hence viewed as a continuum, in which individuals have diverse personal attributes and values. The mental state is determined by level of stress and distress and impaired involvement Kirk, 2005. However, the cut line as to when it the state of mind becomes an illness is not clearly defined. The first side of the continuum features character of negotiating life events without being overcome by stress hence positive emotional health (Widiger 2011). Stress and other discomforts resulting from daily activities in this state of mental health do not impair the daily functions such as solving problems, eating or sleeping. In general, the individual can solve their own stress events without professional help. When there results substantial negative stressful events, which are prolonged and difficult to attend to personally, this change into the second side of the continuum. This is called mental health problem.

Mental health problem is divided into two: mental illness and emotional problems. Emotional problems create discomfort and noticeably impair normal activities such as sleep habits and concentration (Jablensky & Kendell, 2003). In this situation, individual might be diagnosed with situational depression. Mental illness on the other hand, is more serious characterized by prolonged alterations in the mood, thinking and behavior of individual. The mental illnesses include disorders like anxiety and depression and schizophrenia. Some mental illnesses are biologically linked. These are as a result of dysfunctional neurotransmitters, abnormal structure of brain, inheritable genetic factor and other biological grounds. Other mental illnesses are as a result of environmental factors such as experiences that cause shock and trauma, difficulties in a relationship and job loss (Spitzer & Wakefield, 1999). Cultural factors such as racism and discrimination on the base of ethnicity, violence and poverty also may result in cases of mental illness.

All human behavior is explained psychologically from the aspect of the continuum in two main dimensions. These are: continuum from adaptive to maladaptive and continuum from constructive to destructive (Widiger 2011). In adaptive, behavior is assessed on the basis of the degree to which it may contribute to psychological stability, while in maladaptive leads to generation of more problems in behavior of individual. Adaptive behavior solves the problems, enhancing life of individual.

Behavior in a constructive-distractive continuum, affects both individual and others. Destructive behavior leads to failure to deal with the problem and may result… [read more]

MS Forensics Psychology Specialization in Mental Health Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (460 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


M.S. Forensics Psychology - Specialization in Mental Health

Personal/Professional Goals

My professional goal is to become a lead forensics psychologist. Therefore, I am interested in attending graduate school because I plan to pursue a PhD in clinical psychology. My ultimate goal is to become a profiler, so that I can play an integral role in the carrying out of criminal investigations by being the foremost subject matter expert on the cases I work on.

Academic Experience

I earned my bachelor's degree [YOU MAY WANT to STATE in WHICH AREA of STUDY] from Ashford University, and completed my coursework from June 2009 to June of 2012 with a 3.70 grade point average. My graduate school GPA thus far is 3.50. One of the reasons I decided to enroll in this program to become a lead forensics psychologist is due to my military background. I worked as a psychiatric technician in the United States Navy while completing my postsecondary education.

Research Experience

Other than working as a psychiatric technician in the Navy, I have no prior research experience related to this field.

Work/Other Experience

My work experience is all related to my service in the armed forces. From 2000 to 2005 I worked as a dental technician in the Navy; I was employed as a hospital corpsman from 2005 until 2008. I began working as a psychiatric technician in 2008, and still…… [read more]

19 20th Century Surgical Technological Fix Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,071 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1



th Century Surgical "Technological Fix"

th Century Surgical "Technological Fix"

This paper intends to explore the concept of the accepted reality of the anatomical body and they way that this concept is linked to the "technological fix" and to the foundations of scientific and rational thought linked to these concepts. More precisely, the questions that will be examined are; was the surgical 'technological fix' grounded in a model of the 'anatomical body' and to what extent does this also apply to Freeman's 'technological fix' of mental illness through frontal lobotomy?

A number of critics in the past and today have questioned the anatomical view of the body as applied to neurological procedures such as lobotomy. This also refers to Freeman's explanation and defense of his technique. In order to understand this debate in a wider context one firstly has to briefly discuss the foundations of the anatomical view of the body and human medicine.

In the first instance the anatomical view of the body developed as a result of the rational and scientific view of reality and human existence that was prevalent during the nineteenth and early twentieth century's. The body was seen to conform to the same physical laws and rational order that governed the physical world. In essence the body was a perceived as a "machine" that could be rationalized in the same way as a mechanical device. This view has a long history and begins with the rise of secular humanism in the West and movement away the religious foundations of society in favor a growing scientific order.

These antecedents led to the concept of the anatomical body, seen from the point-of-view of reason, logic and science -- which was to form the basis of modern surgery. The technological fix refers to the use of engineering or technology to solve problems or to enhance human life. This term was widely used, in a derogatory sense, in the 1960s with regard to growing concerns about the role that technology played in various disciples -- especially in medicine. However, by the 1970s the technological fix was seen as either partial or infective and open to abuse and opposed to a more inclusive and holistic approach to reality. (Rosner 2004)

The issue of the anatomical body as a reflection of a scientific and rational process, especially with regard to its impact on modern medicine and surgery, is exemplified in the issue and problematic of psychosurgery, and in the work of Freeman and others. As Pressman (1998) notes in Psychosurgery and the Limits of Medicine, the view of this form of surgery have changed and the "technological fix" of lobotomy as the answer to many psychological and psychiatric ills is no longer accepted. In other words this suggests that the purely scientific and rational perception of reality has been questioned and the view has been put forward that there are many other factors and variables that influence the choice or acceptance of this type of surgery. Pressman notes that "What… [read more]

Perception Cognitive Psychology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (957 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


This discovery helps explain human searching behavior, which can assist us in finding keys on a cluttered desk or recognizing a child's face on a playground" (The truth behind 'Where's Waldo,' 2009, ScienceDaily). However, beyond the perceptual abilities of these eye movements, working memory is also necessary to find Waldo in a complex picture so the viewer can remember where Waldo 'is not.'

Q3. Explain how we use the different types of perception to determine cognitive functioning? Is it possible for a person to function cognitively solely on one type of perception? Why or why not?

"Perception has three levels of complexity: (1) detection, (2) recognition, and (3) discrimination. Detection refers to whether people can sense that they are being stimulated by some form of energy. For example, a light may be so dim they can barely detect its presence. Recognition means being able to identify as well as detect a particular pattern of stimulation. Discrimination means being able to perceive one pattern of stimulation as different from another. For example, a person may hear slight differences between two similar musical tone" (Perception, 2012, A2Z Psychology).

All levels of complexity are required for people to function in an optimal manner. They must be able to detect that something is occurring with their senses. They must be able to recognize and identify what that 'something' is: uncertainty leads to misperception (mistaking a baby's cry for a cat yowling, for example). And without discrimination, relevant data becomes lost, given that the senses are constantly being bombarded by a variety of stimuli. Failures of specific levels perception even when other aspects of the cognitive structure of the individual are operational (such as someone who has poor depth perception or is color blind, or who can hear someone's speech but is distracted by background noise) create a distorted and incomplete vision of reality.


Attention lecture. (n.d.) PSY 394. Retrieved:


Brain filter found for irrelevant data. (2007). Times of India. Retrieved:


Cowan, Nelson & . Morey, Candice C. (2006). Visual working memory depends on attentional

Filtering. Trends Cognitive Science. 10 (4): 139-141.

Nasr S, Moeeny A, Esteky H (2008). Neural correlate of filtering of irrelevant information from visual working memory. PLoS ONE 3(9): e3282. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003282

Perception. (2012). A2Z Psychology. Retrieved:


Psychology class notes: Sensation and perception. (2012). Class notes: Retrieved:


The truth behind 'Where's Waldo?' (2009). ScienceDaily. Retrieved:

http://www.sciencedaily.com / releases/2009/03/090303161313.htm… [read more]

Social Psychology Concept Matrix Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Applications include the fact that helping individuals gain self-esteem may be preventative to criminal history

Self-esteem can help an individual achieve success in his or her life. Sometimes people have to work against huge odds to achieve their dreams and to become successful. Take KJ Rowlign, for instance (author of Harry Potter). Saddled with so many challenged including poverty and single motherhood, she was rejected time and again until an agent accepted her manuscript. It was her self-esteem in her writing and herself that encouraged her to persist.


People avoid efforts due to the fear that they will be hurt / rejected and their self-esteem will suffer.

Edward E. Jones and Steven Berglas theorized that people place obstacles in their path (both consciously and unconsciously) in order to fail

Some people see the holy cows in India as a self-handicapping concept for the country. The people are starving; yet meaty cows walk untouched in the streets. Sri Lanka's rule, in fact, is that anyone who slaughters such a cow is killed.

One of the "myths" about psychopaths is the notion that they self-handicap in that they make foolish mistakes despite their intelligence.

This notion was used to explain instance such as when a president or powerful leader of a corporation engages in and rationalizes acts that undercut his career (such s Clinton with Monica). The opinion (now disputed) is that psychopaths may rise in power with illness undetected until they err.

Any achievement oriented context that emphasizes intelligence may have the person practice self-handicapping In order to subconsciously fail and then later to blame it on the substance. A student, for instance, wishing to pass and be cleaver may drink before a test or not study the night before, or wake up late.

Hindsight Bias

This is as also known as the knew-it-all-along effect or creeping determinism. It refers to the situation where the individual is inclined to see events that occurred as events that were predictable all along. This may result in memory distortion where a person's memory of the past is slanted by after-effects

Hindsight bias can interfere with the judicial system in that judges and jurors presented with the case a given often judge defendants as being capable of preventing the bad outcome (Starr & McCormick, 2001). This may be erroneous since many times defendant may not have known the outcome. This also extends tot the plaintiff, where, sometimes, jurors may determine that, based on the outcome, the plaintiff should have been more aware of the… [read more]

Psychology: Identification With a Group Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (776 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


When people are too close to one another - either physically or emotionally - they lack personal space and this makes them distinctly uncomfortable because people are "wired" to have space that belongs only to them (Tajfel & Turner, 1979). However, if one allows those people to expand their personal space beyond what the majority of people need to survive and be comfortable, those people then begin to develop a territory. If that territory is later challenged - through physical or mental ways - the person may fight back and attempt to hold that territory, even though it is much more than the person actually needs (Tajfel & Turner, 1986).

People understand the need to develop a territory in some instances (like sales, for example) and they also understand when to allow others to be in their territory because many things have to be shared. This is somewhat different from the way the animal kingdom handles territory, because the majority of animals develop a territory and then insist it is theirs. They will vigorously defend it to the point of death if necessary, and that is especially true for males of most species (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). While human men may seem territorial, they are not likely to actually run every other male out of a particular area. They understand they have to live and work around these people, and that the idea of having a territory into which others are not allowed to venture is not an acceptable way to handle normal human interaction (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). Since non-human species do not have this particular issue, they are much more vigorous about ensuring they are the only one of their species and gender in a territory that they will continue to defend no matter what may come against them.


Tajfel, H., & Turner, J.C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behaviour. In S. Worchel & W.G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 7 -- 24). Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall.

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J.C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W.G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology…… [read more]

Motivation to Change and Reduction Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  3 pages (1,294 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


This is examined utilizing a Pearson product-movement correlation. The results are analyzed utilizing multiple linear regression analysis which looked at the correlation between the initial motivation to change and clinical improvement, with the inclusion of multiple factors including other potential confounding variables, including depression symptoms as assessed with the Beck Depression Index. It was determined for there to be confirmation of any statistically significant relationship between the motivation level and the clinical outcome there would need to be a p-value lower than 0.05.

The research indicated that there was no significant difference clinical outcome between patients who receiving the pharmacological treatment, and those who were not. There was found to be a direct positive correlation between the initially assessed motivation to change and the clinical outcome, with a p value resulted with statistical analysis of p = 0.007. A significant correlation was found in the decrease in the number of binges and vomits per week that took place. Other factors were also examined, including the duration of the disorder, and body mass index, but no statistically they should was found between a decrease in symptoms and these potential influences.

The research appears to support the hypothesis, that motivation at initial assessment is a predictor of the patients behavioral response to treatment, and that higher levels of motivation present in the patient at the initial assessment are likely to result in decreased bulimia symptoms following participation in the standardized treatment.

The research approach appears to be extremely well-designed, with a sample of similar patients entering the same program, which helps to reduce the potential for extraneous or confounding influences remain unidentified. However, this does not mean there is the total elimination of external factors. One aspect of the research design which may require some consideration is the choice of the sample. The sample was predominantly female, with only one male participant. While it is generally recognized that bulimia nervosa is more prevalent in females, the inclusion of only a single male may indicate a skewing biasing of the results, or invalidate the results for males. Therefore, a study on a greater scale, with the inclusion of a larger number of male participants may be very useful, especially in assessing the condition with reference to gender.

The utilization of the generally accepted tools helps to increase the perceived credibility of the report, and helps to reduce uncertainty as these tools had already been tried and tested. The research tools had been utilized for both adults and adolescents in the past, and provide an in-depth insight into the symptoms and psychology of the patient. In the future further research may be enhanced with the use of qualitative rather than quantitative research, with researchers looking not only at the linkage between motivation and a reduction of symptoms, but examining how and why this relationship occurs. As the research is seeking to identify factors that are relevant to recovery, factors such as potential causes and influence of motivation, and why it has such a significant… [read more]

Diagnosis of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Article Review

Article Review  |  4 pages (1,070 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Diagnosis of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Children

In a recent article, "The child behavior checklist PTSD scale: screening for PTSD in young children with high exposure to trauma," published in the Journal of Traumatic Stress, Loeb et. al. examined the validity of new methods designed to identify Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in children. The team examined the validity of the Child Behavior Checklist PTSD subscale to screen for PTSD in children attending an inner-city early childhood mental health center. Using various measures, the team assessed 51 preschool-age children with high exposure to trauma receiving outpatient child -- parent psychotherapy for PTSD.

The team compared 15 items on the CBCL, a proposed subscale indicative of PTSD, to the UCLA-PTSD Index and to clinical diagnosis based on the American Psychiatric Association's DSM-IV classifications as well as the Diagnostic Classi-cation of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC). Using the DC criteria, 24% of the children were diagnosed with PTSD, but only 4% using the DSM-IV. The team concluded that the new CBCL-PTSD subscale did not reach signi-can't sensitivity or speci-city to be a valuable screening tool for PTSD in this population.


I selected the article because the effects of PTSD among children, which often goes undiagnosed, can lead to a number of other behavioral health and juvenile delinquency issues for the afflicted child. The prevalence of PTSD among children is just starting to be recognized among the general public, with the scientific community barely a decade ahead of the general public.

It is important to settle on an effective diagnostic tool for PTSD in children and adolescents. Because children and adults respond to stressful situations quite differently, it is not useful to apply the same standard PTSD diagnostic tools to children, as children may not exhibit the behaviours that counsellors and psychiatrists are used to looking for in diagnosing PTSD.

Post-traumatic stress disorder is a type of anxiety disorder. It can occur after you've seen or experienced a traumatic event that involved the threat of injury or death.

Common causes of PTSD are natural disasters, Assault, Domestic Abuse, Imprisonment, Rape, Terrorism, or War, but can include any event which triggers strong feelings of fear in the subject.

Symptoms of PTSD fall into three main categories which correspond to the Fight-Flight-Submission model of human responses: Reliving, Avoidance, and Arousal. The subject may unintentionally "relive" the event in her mind through flashback episodes, memories, or nightmares of the event. The subject may also cope through avoidance of the experience, accomplished through the numbing of emotions and/or withdrawal from people, places, or activities that remind them of the event. The trauma of the event might also cause unprovoked arousal, where the subject has difficulty concentrating and sleeping and constantly feels nervous or on edge, which causes him to startle or get angry easily.

Although PTSD can occur at any age, the symptoms which indicate PTSD may vary depending on the age of the subject. For teenagers, avoidance and arousal… [read more]

Knowledge Concerning Ethical Issues Involved in Counseling Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (4,963 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … knowledge concerning ethical issues involved in counseling teenagers with alcoholism, including informed consent contents in psychotherapeutic settings, dual relationships and psychological testing considerations in personnel selection in organizational settings. In addition, the paper examines the rules governing sexual intimacy with clients and former clients as well as the value of personal psychotherapy as a requirement of a graduate… [read more]

Psychology Statement of Purpose Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  2 pages (618 words)
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I regard myself dependable and inquisitive. I am also an active listener. These are strengths that will come in handy as I seek to identify and effectively address complex problems in practical situations. This is more so the case given that as a counselor in private practice, I will be responsible for the diagnosis of the nature of my client's problems so as to determine treatments that are not only valid but also effective. It is also important to note that in addition to being disciplined and able to perform well under pressure, I also happen to be an effective time manager. I regard these as strengths that will come in handy in my quest to complete both my M.A in general psychology and Ph.D. In Counseling Psychology on schedule.

I am under no illusion whatsoever regarding what is expected of me as a graduate student in your institution. I am fully aware that the program is in itself demanding. However, the fact that I find the subject interesting and intriguing will see me wither all the challenges associated with the program. I must admit that prior to settling on your institution as my graduate school of choice, I had taken into consideration several other graduate schools offering the program. After undertaking my own independent research and talking to a number of professionals, I finally settled on your institution based on its excellent (and able) faculty as well as insistence on applied practice. Undertaking the program at your institution will allow me to not only evolve as a professional psychologist but to also reach my full potential. If given an opportunity to pursue the program at your institution, I commit to invest my all towards the successful completion of the same.… [read more]

Attitude Object Evaluations Current Influences Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,338 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


These temporal standards can coexist with social standards during an appraisal process and often do. Imaginary standards are also commonly used and can be based on fantasy or reality. The expectation that a college football team 'should have' won last Saturday's game because the opposing team had a worse record, may be more fantasy than reality since the opposing team has had a much tougher season schedule.

Factors Influencing Reflective Attitudes

Strack and Deutsch (2004, p. 229) make an assumption in their reflective-impulsive model of appraisal that the behavior schemata activated by an attitude object evaluation is always encoded in the impulsive system, whether the attitude is primarily a product of a reflective or impulsive appraisal. Behavioral schemata in turn represent sensory-motor clusters that frequently co-occur (habits) and can be thought of as long-term behavioral memories. If parts of a behavioral schema are activated by an attitude object, the likelihood that the behavior will be activated increases. Once a threshold level of activation is achieved, the behavior ensues. If multiple schemata are activated, the one that reaches the threshold first is acted out. For example, a dieter may choose to avoid having dessert with their meal if they have the cognitive capacity to control their behavior, but if he or she is still hungry, the urge to splurge may be irresistible. This example represents a conflict between reflective and impulsive appraisals.

Should a person engage in a reflective evaluation of an attitude object, then activation of a behavioral schemata occurs after reflecting on the feasibility of the action and the possibility of a positive outcome (Strack and Deutsch, 2004, p. 230). Strack and Deutsch (2004) discuss at length how a seemingly reasoned action is in fact often corrupted by many irrational factors.

One of the primary corrupting factors is the impulsive appraisal, since an impulsive evaluation is almost always triggered by an attitude object (Strack and Deutsch, 2004, p. 223). The impulsive system is also the default evaluation system when cognitive capacity and/or arousal levels are low, since reflection requires moderate levels of both. However, high levels of arousal seem to promote stereotypical behaviors in response to attitude objects and therefore undermine reflective evaluations. The empirical evidence for the influential role of cognitive capacity and arousal is substantial, and therefore is included in most dualistic models.

Other factors that can favor an impulsive evaluation over a reflective one include a strong deprivation of need and motivational orientation (Strack and Deutsch, 2004, p. 229-230), which were discussed in the previous section. Accessibility to associations and behavioral options will also influence an evaluation. For example, a young athletic person may not notice that a woman walking with a cane across an intersection may run out of time before the light turns green, because the concept of limited physical ability is one infrequently encountered. In contrast, a nurse working in the field of geriatrics would quickly assess the situation and step in to block traffic until the disabled woman has finished crossing the… [read more]

Clinical Psychology Module Five Questions Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (638 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


When I think about it, trying to visualize it, it doesn't do this: It seems to stabilize on one of the possible (imaginary) cubes.

5. Describe your semantic network to the phrase "factor analysis."

A semantic network is a cognitive association that draws items together because they have common attributes (also uncommon ones). My semantic network for factor analysis includes the concepts of variability, combination, statistical, error, and latency.

6. Give an example of a particular constellation of default assumptions that exists in your mind.

A specific constellation of default assumptions of mine is one about climate change includes:

It is becoming increasingly difficult to change the course of the climate

All countries must band together to address the problem

Companies will continue to try for the highest possible profits regardless of consequence

Social and political conservatives often devalue science

Such devaluation and lack of funding are a central part of the problem.

7. How much do people remember of what they experience?

People remember a differential amount of what they experience depending on a number of factors, including the type of experience but also depending on factors such as environmental combinations (extremes in heat or cold, for example, tend to degrade memories), physical health (dementia degrades memories, as do other diseases), transitory conditions such as hunger and thirst, how long ago the event occurred, and how important the experience is to the individual. However, overall, people remember far less than they think that they do and much of what they remember is inaccurate.

8. Do you favor an abstraction or instance theories of conceptual knowledge? Why?

Instance theories track how a skill shifts from conscious to automatic while abstraction tracks the shift from specific to more general. I believe that conceptual knowledge is better modeled by theories of abstraction since the gaining and retention of conceptual knowledge is…… [read more]

Ethical Issues and Therapy Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,113 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


In order to examine the potential danger that romantic feelings toward patients might hold in the therapeutic setting, one might usefully examine the general characteristics of those therapists who most easily fall into the trap of sexual advance. Eichenberg, Fischer-Becker and Fischer (2010, p. 1019), for example, include several general traits. Most therapists who are at risk, for example, are experiencing difficult life situations, have narcissistic deficits, and may themselves have been victims of trauma. More general risk factors include male gender, being respected as therapists, and being professionally experienced and active in private praxis.

There are significant dangers inherent in engaging in sexual relationships between clients and therapists, for both parties involved. Clients are vulnerable and may be further traumatized by the contact, whereas therapists are at risk of losing their position, reputation, and potentially their freedom. Similarly, there are also significant dangers inherent in engaging in sexual or romantic relationships with students or employees. A study conducted by MacMahon, for example, notes that this is the reason why there are specific ethical guidelines for such relationships. Students and professors who engage in sexual relationships are often subject to coercion, hindrance in the professional relationship, and ethically inappropriate conduct (MacMahon, 2010, p. 15-17). In addition, professionals may be in danger of legal action by clients who are involved in such relationships (Pope, Tabachnick, and Keith-Spiege, 2006).

A related question has been whether the ethical ban on sexual relationships within the therapeutic setting could be lifted after a certain period of time has elapsed. And indeed, some professions have provided for the existence of such relationship. Sarkar (2009), however, advises against this, precisely because of the historical therapist-client relationship. She notes that there will be inevitable repercussions relating to the perception of power in such a relationship, which will be very difficult to circumvent, regardless of time lapse. According to the author, transference in such a relationship is not to be ignored as a potential pitfall.

In conclusion, most critics appear to be negatively inclined towards touching, hugging, and post-therapeutic relationships, even though these may appear innocent and consensual. Such actions create the danger of a "slippery slope" situation, where sexual feelings might more easily develop than if such situations are avoided.


Bonitz, V. (2008). Use of Physical Touch in the "Talking Cure": A Journey to the Outskirts of Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy Theory, Research, Practice, Training, Vol. 45, No. 3. Retrieved from: http://www.laboratoriosilesia.com/upfiles/sibi/p_006_use_of_physical.pdf

Eichenberg, C., Fischer-Becker, M. And Fischer, G. (2010). Sexual assaults in therapeutic relationships: prevalence, risk factors and consequences. Health. Vol. 2, No. 9.

MacMahon, B.D. (2010). What's the Harm? Looking at the Effects of Psychology Doctoral Student-Educator Sexual Relationships (Master's thesis, Pacific University). Retrieved from: http://commons.pacificu.edu/spp/118

Pope, K.S., Tabachnick, B.G. And Keith-Spiege, P. (2006). Sexual Attraction to Clients: The Human Therapist and the (Sometimes) Inhuman Training System. American Psychologist, Vol. 41, No. 2. Retrieved from: http://kspope.com/sexiss/research5.php#copy

Sarkar, S.P. (2009). Life after therapy: post-termination boundary violations in psychiatry and psychotherapy. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. Retrieved from: http://apt.rcpsych.org/content/15/2/82.full

Sarkar,… [read more]

Personal Analysis of the Professional Aspirations Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (924 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


¶ … personal analysis of the professional aspirations of a student of psychology. The reasons given for wanting to enter the field include an intellectual interest in understanding the unconscious mind. Professional goals consist mainly of establishing a clinical counseling practice focusing on personal development and family and interpersonal relationship health. Empathy is cited among the student's greatest strengths as a future clinician. Maintaining self-awareness is presented as a key component of avoiding counter-transference and vocational burnout.

What are your reasons for becoming a psychologist?

I have always been fascinated by the idea of understanding the human mind. I am particularly intrigued by Freudian psychodynamic theory as it pertains to the influence of the subconscious mind and to the process by which thoughts and feelings become suppressed from conscious awareness (McWilliams, 2004). From a practical perspective, I consider the practice of clinical psychology to be among the most important disciplines because it provides such valuable help to individuals and enables them to increase the quality of their lives. By extension, helping every patient also helps some of the people within that person's immediate family and within that person's sphere of social influence.

What are your professional goals?

My professional goals include establishing myself as a practicing professional in the field of clinical psychology. More specifically, I hope to be able to see patients and to help them identify any psychological issues troubling them in order to help them address and resolve those issues. More specifically, I hope that my future practice will focus on areas such as interpersonal and family relationship counseling in the private one-on-one setting.

What type of clients do you wish to work with? Why?

Ideally, I would most want to work with patients encountering ordinary challenges in life that could be effectively addressed by applying concepts of self-reflection, psychodynamic analysis with respect to unconscious influences on behavior, interpersonal conflict resolution, and intra-family harmony. All of these areas are crucial to the long-term happiness of patients and to their ability to make the most out of their lives. In some ways, individuals in need of psychological counseling in connection with "ordinary" life circumstances and challenges may be an under-served patient community because of the overwhelming popularity of acute psychological disorders among psychological professional interest.

What type of clients do you prefer not to work with? Why?

By implication, to the extent I would prefer to work with patients seeking assistance with the ordinary challenges of life, I suppose I would prefer not to work with patients suffering from acute psychiatric disorders. Perhaps, my apprehension is also related to the fact that patients with acute psychiatric disorders present such serious clinical issues that they typically preclude focusing on the types of "ordinary" life issues that interest me the most.

What…… [read more]

Dreams -- Are They Psychologically Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,388 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Generally, he postulated that human beings have a protective psychological mechanism designed to shield the psyche from various thoughts and perceptions and from actual memories whose conscious perception could be so traumatic that they would be damaging to the individual to perceive consciously (McWilliams, 2004; Mitchell & Black, 1995). According to Freud, those types of thoughts remain in the subconscious but invariably become the source and the root cause of numerous different types of psychological pathologies in waking life when they are left hidden from the conscious mind and unresolved (McWilliams, 2004; Mitchell & Black, 1995).

More specifically, Freud argued that the actual imagery of dreams represented psychologically significant ideas and that identifying the meaning of those images could provide the basis for linking the unconscious mind to the conscious mind, using the content of dreams as a bridge to connect those two distinct entities (McWilliams, 2004). Therefore, Freud devoted considerable attention to the specific content of dreams in his psychodynamic process of identifying unconscious thoughts and fears as a means of helping his patients resolve major psychological conflicts and thereby reduce their uncontrolled expression in harmful ways to the individual by using dream analysis to identify repressed thoughts so that those thoughts could be reconciled with conscious desires during wakefulness (McWilliams, 2004).

Contradictory Evidence

In principle, there may be considerable merit to the notion that dream images relate to some aspect of human psychology. In dreams, the individual may engage in certain behaviors that are uncharacteristic of that individual's typical behavior during wakefulness; the individual may experience imagery in dreams that has obvious symbolic significance, even without the benefit of any formal psychological training or analysis. In some instances, the content of dreams may indeed represent beliefs or concerns or fears to which the individual is resistant on a conscious level. In that respect, it also may be significant that dreams occur during REM sleep.

However, the mere fact that REM sleep in general and dreaming in particular appear not to be unique to human beings suggests that they are more likely spontaneous physiological phenomenon rather than intimately linked to psychological factors. In that regard, animals also sleep in cycles featuring REMs and, perhaps more importantly, animals (including pet dogs, for one ubiquitous example), frequently exhibit all of the apparent signs that they are, in fact, dreaming in visual images that they perceive to be enjoyable sometimes and frightening at other times.


It is understandable why dreaming during sleep would have captured the interest of ancient medicine men and contemporary psychologists alike. In some respects, the content and visual imagery of dreams may be linked to areas of wakeful life. However, in other respects, dreams may be no more than a spontaneous experiential phenomenon that happens to coincide with the most crucial portion of sleep as a physiological function. The fact that non-human animals seem to dream would seem to strongly suggest that there is little or no psychological significance to the content and imagery of dreams, particularly… [read more]

Freud and Psychoanalysis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,769 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10



The original and revolutionary theories that Sigmund Freud developed in his professional life are both extraordinary and controversial. In this paper the fact that Freud was Jewish is explored in terms of the anti-Semitism biases that he had to deal with; his childhood and his education are also reviewed; as well as pioneering discoveries that led… [read more]

Mediator &amp Moderator Effects Applied Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (811 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


We also claim that there are conceptual implications of the failure to appreciate the moderator-mediator distinction. Among the issues we will discuss in this regard are missed opportunities to probe more deeply into the nature of causal mechanisms and integrate seemingly irreconcilable theoretical positions. For example, it is possible that in some problem areas disagreements about mediators can be resolved by treating certain variable as moderators. (Baron & Kenny, The Moderator-Mediator Distinction, 1986)

There task for such distinction is still incomplete as the Frazier piece is written eighteen years later and the distinction still has not been made -- and they introduce considering these terms on three levels: conceptual, strategic, and statistical. (2004) Considering mediators and moderators in the ways proposed by Frazier et al. (2004) on the levels proposed by Baron and Kenny (1986) marks the intersection among mediators, moderators, and applications in management. This is yet another way the article by Frazier et al. demonstrates value to readers and researchers.

It is possible for an effect size to be fairly small in order for us to find it interesting. Frazier et al. remind the readers more than once that research into the distinctions between and the subsequent implications for those differences has not been researched a great deal. They mention in their conclusion how their study provides only a model and further implementation is necessary before commenting on a larger body of data. That larger body of data relevant specifically to mediator and moderator effects has not been made, as evidenced for example, by the eighteen year gap in two of the articles, yet their intention is nearly the exact same. Therefore, it is the opinion of the author that effect size need not be the primary issue, though effect sizes should be taken into consideration. The attention and tracking of mediators and moderators during the study is more relevant than the effect size because there is no great body of work to compare against. When there are more studies with many different effect sizes, then that question will be more significant and there is a greater possibility of a relevant, insightful answer. Both moderators and mediators contribute to effect size as they in essence represent the "when" & "for whom" and the "why" & "how" respectively. (Frazier et al., 2004) When a mediation occurs and why a moderation occurs both…… [read more]

Bipolar Disorder Case Story Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,328 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Owing to the fact that periods of isolation may result from this order, support groups encourages victims that some other people go through the same situation.


These interventions are particularly meant to educate those suffering from bipolar disorder regarding the symptoms of the disorder. As noted by Belmaker (2004) when a person understand the cyclic manner of bipolar disorders, a person can have a better understanding of when mood swings occurs, and the way of dealing with them. When a person suffers a moment of mania, the person can show wild or violent behaviors varying from sexual promiscuity to dangerous escapades. Though each person will show different set of symptoms, understanding and identifying symptoms of remission can assist in preventing hospitalization. People are as well educated on the benefits of their medication in reducing and managing their disorder.

Individual psychotherapy

Psychosocial interventions where psychotherapy are formulated to a tackle the specific thought processes contributing to the bipolar disorder symptoms. Belmaker (2004) explains that therapist can apply many of the different psychotherapy approaches. Some of the psychotherapy approaches include cognitive behavioral, interpersonal therapy, dialectical therapy are just a few of the examples. Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) deal particularly with thought behaviors and how they affect a person's emotions and perceptions. The objective being to replace the negative thought processes with positive thoughts. On the other hand, interpersonal therapies centers on an individual's relationships and the way the individual contributes to interactions and outcomes. Belmaker (2004) points out that dialectical behavior therapy apply positive and negative support models, as a way of treatment. This approach is combined together with cognitive therapy where an individual's perceptions concerning extremes are analyzed.


Though bipolar disorder seems to be a life-long and recurrent condition, there are several measures that a person can do to assist her/himself. Apart from treatment and therapies, the person can use self-help approaches to alleviate symptoms and assist the person live a normal life? Certainly, the person has to change his/her lifestyle and stop cycles of acts or behavior that can aggravate the condition. In addition, the person should accept assistance from the loved ones. For example in our case story, Sarah should accept the assistance and care from her mother. There are other steps that should be taken:

Stop drinking and abusing drugs: as noted by Parikh, et al. (1997) one of the greatest issues with bipolar disorder is the negative outcomes associated with risk taking behavior as well as drugs or alcohol misuse. It is necessary to seek professional assistance if the person is unable to stop this behavior.

Quit unhealthy relations: those suffering from bipolar disorder should look for people who can positively influence them. Those who will help them avoid unhealthy behaviors.

Do regular exercises: regular and moderate exercise assists in stabilizing the victim's mood. At the same time physical exercises allows the brain to release endorphins that makes the person to feel good and can easily sleep. However, the person should get advice from his/her… [read more]

Anxiety Disorders - Panic Research Paper

Research Paper  |  5 pages (1,371 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Thus, as far as research and current intervention programs on panic disorder are concerned, combined interventions are recommended to be more successful in treating panic disorder than the application of a specific intervention only.

Panic disorder in the United States has been identified extensively through demographic studies on health. In one of the studies on mental health and vulnerable or at-risk groups to it, research proponent Young (2001) identified individuals afflicted with panic disorder are profile to be between the ages 30-50 years old, mostly white Americans, and are common among individuals who just attended a few years in college or have only attained high school level of education or less (58). This demographic profile provides an insight into the nature of panic disorder itself, implying that interventions must be responsive to the nature and sensibilities of individuals who fit this profile and are suffering from panic disorder. More understanding of the demographic background of panic disorder patients would aid the counselor or psychologist with insights as to how the individual is likely to behave during panic attacks, and what are the intervention programs best suited for them.

The social environment of the individual has been strongly linked to the occurrence of panic attacks and perpetuation of panic disorder. In a meta-analysis study conducted by Hettema (2001), his group of researchers found out that panic disorder is significantly linked with "a familial component in liability to panic disorder" (1569). Going further into his study's findings, there were indications that the etiology of panic disorder could actually be linked with genetic factors or inheritance, determining that "genes affect panic disorder similarly in men and women" (1570). The influence of both the individual's immediate social environment, coupled with the finding that panic disorder could be inherited or genetically transmitted within the family, provides insights about the disorder itself, particularly in determining the history of the disorder for the patient. However, the meta-analysis only provides indications that these are the possible factors that could contribute to the etiology of the disorder, but it does not definitely claim that panic disorder is caused by genetic inheritance and/or by the individual's social environment. More intensive studies such as Hettema's must be conducted to prove the consistency or reliability of the results reported.

Looking into the history of panic as an anxiety disorder, I realize that panic disorder itself has been susceptible to the schools of thought that have prevailed and passed through the years. In fact, I realize that the field of abnormal psychology itself are subjected to numerous changes as new perspectives, theories and models are introduced that would inevitably change the way people in general and psychologists specifically will look at the disorder and develop programs to treat or alleviate the patient's condition. Panic disorder was thought initially as mainly confined within the mind of the individual, with panic attacks serving as physical manifestations of those "catastrophic thoughts." It eventually evolved as a disorder that begins with the mind, and ends with a… [read more]

Theories Human Development Factors Influence Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,719 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Moreover, previously learned concepts are probable to become even stronger if the individual is able to conquer this stage. However, if the person does not succeed in completing this stage, he or she experiences identity diffusion, as he or she is no longer to have a solid understanding of his or her personal identity. Some might even go as far as to employ self-destructive behavior as a result of being unable to discover their personal-identity, as these people guide themselves in accordance with the principle that any identity is better than having no identity. If an individual finds that he or she is unable to perform honorable activities, he or she comes to do whatever he or she has access to, even if the respective practice is socially unacceptable (Sugarman 91).

All things considered, through studying cognitive development one can be enabled to understand the steps that he or she needs to experience through his or her life and the respective individual is probable to be successful in overcoming issues that might arise at certain moments.


Coon, Dennis and mitterer, John, "Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior," (Cengage Learning, 2008)

Coon, Dennis and Mitterer, John, "Psychology: Modules for Active Learning (with Concept Modules with Note-Taking…… [read more]

Foundational Scientific Literature Regarding Memory Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (1,115 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


(Fields, 2011, 185-6). The type of associative learning induced by imagery is also believed to be responsible for the functioning of mirror neurons. (Heyes, 2010, 581). The associated image leaves an additional prompt for that information within the brain, highly useful when the original prompt for that information, one's memory of receiving that information is no longer available.

When the image used is enriched by additional properties, such as its location in a familiar spatial layout, the result is cognitive mapping. Cognitive mapping also uses the process of association to enhance long-term memory, but the associations are richer and more numerous in a cognitive map. (Yeap, 2011, 4). Thus, cognitive mapping makes use of indirect associations in addition to direct associations.

Visualization and mental mapping are able to enhance long-term memory because our brain hardwires information that we perceive in the external word into these special mirror neurons. (Shapiro, 2009, p. 442). These neurons are special because they are the same neurons that are activated when we recall that information. (Shapiro, 2009, p. 440). Thus, mirror neurons help explain why imagery and cognitive mapping are so much more conducive to long-term memory than auditory means, such as repeating information: because the process of visualization serves to encode the information in the same neurons that are activated when one attempts to recollect that information.

Mirror neurons are not only activated by images perceived in the external world, they are also activated by an individual's internal mental imagery. Mirror neurons allow certain associations of pieces of information to be consolidated by perceiving mental imagery. For example, one does not need to physically visit and view the location in order to for mirror neurons to be activated, it is enough to visualize the spatial layout in one's mind.

Rizzolati discovered that information perceived in the external world, in his study the performance of a specific behavior, is reflected in a specific "mirror neuron." (Rizzolati, 1996, p. 593). The same neuron which is activated again when we want to use that information. In the same way, information perceived in our internal world, through mental imagery, is stored in these same neurons, which are also activated when we want to use that information, such as for the recollection of facts. Imagery and cognitive mapping employ activate mirror neurons during the visualization of certain pieces of information.


The concept of mirror neurons is groundbreaking in the study of the brain. It adds a completely new dimension to our understanding of the brain's more advanced functions, which we hitherto believed were fairly linear and controlled.


Dagan, R. (2011). Cognitive mapping: Definitions, examples, resources. Intraspec.ca: An online journal. Available at http://intraspec.ca/cogmap.php.

Gallese, V., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., & Rizzolatti, G. (January 01, 1996). Action recognition in the premotor cortex. Brain: a Journal of Neurology, 119, 593-609.

Gallese, V., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., & Rizzolatti, G. (2006). Mirrors in the Mind. The Scientific American, November 2006, 55-61.

Goldstein, B.E. (2008). Cognitive psychology: Connecting mind, research, and everyday… [read more]

Psychology's Rodney Dangerfield Problem Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (618 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Rodney Dangerfield

Psychology's Issue of Credibility

Over the course of more than a century, the field of psychology has gained a great deal of prominence and validity in the mainstream practice of health provision. Many healthcare providers perceive mental health as having equal importance to physiological health. However, even with its permeation of mainstream society, psychology continues to suffer from a problem of impression. Such is to say that, as iconic comedian Rodney Dangerfield so famously proclaimed of himself, psychology is a field which gets no respect. This, as our discussion below will show, is simultaneously a result of perception and practice.

With respect to both, psychology's status as a social science makes it inherently subject to a wide variance of schools of thought, perspectives and ideological points of origin. As point of fact, during the early development of psychology, it was perceived as less a science than a philosophical endeavor to understand the human mind. The prevailing influence of Sigmund Freud is demonstrative of this. Freud is renowned for his creativity, his insight and his boldness but is equally decried for the frequent absence of empiricism or scientific process in his experimental work. His work would simultaneously advance psychology in popular culture and damage its future reputation in the scientific community.

Today, psychology is often derided for a similar lack of empiricism, though ironically this criticism now comes more typically from within the field. So is this demonstrated in the article by Nicolosi (2005), which reports on an APA conference in which association members worried over the lack of empiricism in current psychological research. According to Nicolosi, prominent psychology community leaders have expressed concern that more often than not political imperatives drive research outcomes rather than the research itself. In other words, far too many experimenters begin their experiments with the preconceived intent to yield a particular set…… [read more]

Classical Conditioning by Pavlov Research Paper

Research Paper  |  11 pages (5,439 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


It is basically a glutmate antagonist, which acts by creating obstruction of voltage-dependent sodium and calcium channels. Conditioned emotional response (CER) model was used in rates by Mirza and some others. Under this model, houselights (CR) were used with electric foot shocks. This was done to check whether this CS would result in compact lever pressing for getting the food.… [read more]

Freud Versus Rogers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,698 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Freud vs. Rogers

The world of psychology is filled with various theories and ideas for treating a host of conditions. Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers are two critical thinkers who set the foundation for other schools of thought. To fully understand their contributions requires examining: the main ideas of each theory, analyzing the strengths / weaknesses and which one is… [read more]

Efficacy of Personality Disorder Treatments Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,745 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


They occur in every culture. The affects of personality disorders are long lasting and are diffuse. People affected by personality disorders are not just the victims, but also the families, and the general communities of those who suffer from personality disorders. Just as with any medical condition, prevention is the best cure, as well as early diagnosis.


Clarkin, PhD, J.F., Foelsch, PhD, P.A, Levy, PhD, K.N., Hull, PhD., J.W., Delaney, J.C., & Kornberg, MD, O.F. (2001) The Development of a Psychodynamic Treatment for Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary Study of Behavioral Change. Journal of Personality Disorders, 15(6), 487 -- 495.

Giesen-Bloo, J., van Duck, MD, PhD, R., Spinhoven, PhD, P., van Tilburg, MD, PhD, W., Dirksen, PhD, C., van Asselt, T., Kremers, PhD, I., Nadort, M., & Rants, PhD, A. (2006) Outpatient Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 63, 649 -- 658.

Lieb, K., Zanarini, M.C., Schmaltz, C., Linehan, M.M., & Bohus, M. (2004) Borderline personality disorder. Lancet, 364, 453 -- 461.

Svrakic, D.M., Dramatic, S., Hill, K., Bayon, C., Przybeck, T.R., & Cloning, C.R. (2002) Act Psychiatry Scandinavia, 106, 189 -- 195.

van den Bosch, L.M.C., & Overhaul, R. (2007) Patients with addiction and personality disorder: treatment outcomes and clinical implications. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 20, 67 -- 71.

1. Are there any effective treatments out there for those with personality disorders? If so, those…… [read more]

Grief Schiz Precautions and Procedures Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,059 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


As depression itself has become better understood, so have its effects -- such as the potential for suicidal thoughts and actions -- and its mechanisms, and thus more effective ways of handling depression at all ages and for a variety of causes have also been developed (Beck & Alford, 2009; Bhatia & Bhatia, 2007). As many schizophrenics are diagnosed in adolescence, a focus on research in handling depression and suicidal tendencies in the adolescent age group was employed, along with specific information regarding depression in schizophrenics (Beck & Alford, 2009; Bhatia & Bhatia, 2007; Wittman & Keshava, 2007). In this way, a comprehensive safety plan was established.

First and foremost, cognitive behavioral therapy is recommended for the treatment of depression in children and adolescents prior to any pharmaceutical treatment (Bhatia & Bhatia, 2007). Especially as a recently diagnosed schizophrenic might be prescribed various medications including psychotropic pharmaceuticals, eliminating anti-depressants from a first-line response to depression in these cases is ideal (Wittman & Keshava, 2007; Bhatia & Bhatia, 2007). Anti-depressants can actually increase suicidal thoughts in some users, especially in adolescents, so these should be avoided as much as possible (Beck & Alford, 2009; Bhatia & Bhatia, 2007).

Cognitive behavioral therapy has other advantages in dealing with schizophrenics, as well, as it can help address not only the depression but in fact must tackle the underlying causes of that depression -- i.e. schizophrenia, in the context at hand -- in order to properly treat the patient (Beck & Alford, 2009; Bhatia & Bhatia, 2007). Though the depression in patients recently diagnosed with schizophrenia is more directly related to the diagnosis than the disorder, an important distinction, the grieving process is related to the lost sense of self associated with the prospect of a life with schizophrenia (Wittman & Keshava, 2007). Cognitive behavioral therapy can alleviate or help move through the depression of the grieving process by helping the patient build tools and understandings for how to live a life with schizophrenia that still has a high quality of life and a large degree of personal fulfillment. The safety plan should thus include extensive cognitive behavioral therapy, possibly in daily sessions for the period immediately following diagnosis, as well as therapeutic and informational sessions with family members to equip them in providing the necessary support for the patient. In this way, adequate care, oversight, and internal tools can be given to the patient to ensure their safety and more, to improve their quality of life and help heal their depression.


Ensuring the safety of patients is any practitioners primary goal. Ensuring the quality of life of patients needs to come in a very close second, however. Saftey plans that contribute to enhanced quality of life are more than possible, and in this case they are one and the same.


Beck, A. & Alford, B. (2009). Depression: Causes and Treatments. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Bhatia, S. & Bhatia, S.…… [read more]

Alfred Adler Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,241 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


96). The primary goal for most people was to overcome feelings of childhood inferiority, weakness and dependence as he had done and attain a sense of superiority or mastery, which would give "unity and coherence to the personality" (Engler, p. 96).

By superiority, Adler meant a 'will to power' (to use Nietzsche's misunderstood term) which had nothing to do with achieving wealth, status or control over others but a sense of self-mastery, self-realization and being made whole again. Achieving maturity was a process of moving from childhood feelings of inferiority and powerlessness to an adult sense of competence, fulfillment and superiority over the former self. Yet individual success was not the uppermost goal for Adler in determining overall psychological health, since humanity required a social interest as well without which civilization could not survive. Only unhealthy personalities sought superiority and success for purposes of political and economic power and personal gain rather than considering the common good and society as a whole (Burger, 2007, p. 103).

Adler was a major influence for the ego psychology and humanistic psychoanalysis of Karen Horny, Erik Erikson and others who rejected Freud's central concept that the personality was shaped by biology and genetics rather than society culture and interpersonal relationships. After his death, the Alderians never became a major school of psychology that could rival behaviorism or psychoanalysis, but their North American Society of Adlerian Psychology (NASAP) still exists, as do the Journal of Individual Psychology and the Adler School of Professional Psychology in Chicago. Even though he is largely forgotten today, his ideas have been incorporated into many branches of psychology, including cognitive therapy, family therapy, social psychology and system's theory (Mosac and Maniacci, p. x). Certainly his views about overcoming childhood feelings of inferiority and developing self-esteem, competency and adult responsibilities have become commonplace in contemporary psychology. So has the use of therapy pioneered by Adler with the purpose of assisting children and adolescents to overcome life's obstacles, get better grades and excel at academics, sports, music and the arts (Burger, p. 102).

His theories have always been notoriously difficult to verify empirically or experimentally, given that they were based on his own observations of patients and personal reflections. On the subject of birth order, he was correct that first-borns were most likely to achieve their goals, excel in careers and professions and complete more years of higher education, but wrong in his belief that younger siblings were more competitive, exhibitionist and prone to risk-taking. He was also incorrect that "only children are more selfish and have difficulty adjusting to the real world" (Schultz and Schultz, p. 333). Empirical research has also verified his concepts of overprotective and pampering parents who develop feelings of inferiority, dependence and incompetence in their children, and "as a result, the child grows up unable to deal with many of life's problems" (Burger, p. 103). At the same time, Adler was also correct that neglected children became suspicious, distrustful and had difficulty with intimacy or expressing emotions… [read more]

Treatments of Bulimia Nervosa Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,671 words)
Bibliography Sources: 13


Results showed on significant benefit from the combined treatment on depression symptoms. A significant advantage was computed for impairment in the short-term of 12 weeks only. The combination, therefore, was found to produce limited advantage due to the varied sampling and methodology. Future research should focus on predictors of response and clinical components (Dubicka et al.). This is level-1 evidence,… [read more]

Carl Rogers Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,843 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


His humanistic psychology reached its apex in the 1960s and 1970s as traditional Freudianism went into eclipse, and indeed it seemed to blend with the counterculture, civil rights movements, feminism and the radical and libertarian thought of the time. It has fared less well in the conservative period of the last thirty years, with the renewed emphasis on traditional religion and morality, law and order, and a general revival of authoritarian thought. Indeed, biological, genetic and Social Darwinian explanations for human behavior, deviance and social problems have also revived, as they generally do in conservative periods. His ideas were easily parodied as "Politically Correct" and multiculturalist, and as generally undermining authority in favor of some vague concept of giving individuals permission to do as they pleased. Rogers was reacting against the totalitarian and authoritarian systems that had come into power during the 20th Century, which had started wars of aggression and committed horrendous atrocities. He did believe that persons with narrow, rigid self-concepts were given to hysteria, paranoia and violence against those who were different. Indeed, any differences in culture or values were a grave threat to personalities like these, which were also highly alienated from themselves and their environment, so for Rogers the crucial goal was to help free them from these restraints and incongruities and become whole, fully-functioning personalities. Rather than living lives of fear, neurosis and inflexibility, they would open themselves up to joy, creativity and new experiences. No teacher or therapist could 'cure' them, but only help them understand themselves and their potential for growth and change.


Cornelius-White, J.H.D. (2007). "Learner-centered Teacher-Student Relationships are Effective: A Meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 77 (1), pp. 113-143.

Demanchick, S., & Kirschenbaum, H. (2008). "Carl Rogers and the CIA." Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 48(1), 6-31.

Kramer, R. (1995) "The Birth of Client-Centered Therapy: Carl Rogers, Otto Rank, and 'The Beyond." Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 35.4, pp. 54-110.

Rogers, C. (1951). Client-centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications and Theory. London: Constable.

Rogers, C. (1961). On Becoming a…… [read more]

Pastoral Counseling Issues Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (973 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Using scripture can be a springboard of discussion about the client's specific issue.

Balancing proper sensitivity to diverse populations and a theological perspective

Christian counseling is not incompatible with sensitivity to diversity. Christian counselors can learn from diverse spiritual traditions. Even if Christian teachings are used as the ultimate guide, a counselor can still acknowledge that "spirituality has much to do with the healing of the world's suffering and that incorporation of the sacred traditions of wisdom, equanimity, compassion and loving kindness are the threats that need to be repaired in our community web" of all religions (Nedumaruthumchalil 2009).

Differentiated core values from peripheral values in ethical decision making

The counselor must understand which values have priority. 'Pick your battles.' Rather than fighting for spiritual minutiae, such as different interpretations of particular Biblical passages or life events, the counselor must have a focus on a wider, broader perspective, to enable the client to find 'his or her way,' spiritually. The pastor retains a focus on core values, rather than becomes obsessed with dogma.

A balanced counseling practice

According to The Minister as Diagnostician, Paul Pruyser states that there are seven principles that inform spiritual counseling: 1. An awareness of the holy; 2. providence or "how does trust or hope function in this person's life;" 3. faith, "to what faith is the person committed;" 4. grace or gratefulness: "for what is the client grateful;" 5. repentance or "how does this person manage transgression and guilt;" 6. Communion or "where is this person's sense of community?" And 7. "vocation, i.e., what purpose is found in this person's life and work" (McLean 2009: 79).

Through searching in the client's history, the counselor is able to found his or her advice upon universal spiritual values, while still targeting individual needs. Counselors can acknowledge bad behaviors without denying the client's essential goodness as a person, and by focusing on the client's faith and sense of hope, gratefulness, and the desire for absolution, enable the client to move forward in a more positive fashion. Counseling does not mean denying or shying away from hard truths, but confronting obstacles should affirm the possibility of change, not simply act as moral judgment.


Code of Ethics. (2012). American Association of Pastoral Counselors (AAPC). Retrieved:


Code of Ethics. American Association of Christian Counselors (AACC). Retrieved:


McLean, Haydn J. (2009). One more hat in the ring: A comparative synopsis and new tool for patient spiritual assessment. Journal of Pastoral Counseling, 44. Retrieved:


Nedumaruthumchalil, George. (2009). The role of religion and spirituality in marriage and family therapy. Journal of Pastoral Counseling, 44. Retrieved:


Pastoral counseling: Definition. (1997). The Harvard Mental Health Letter. Retrieved:

http://www.pastoral-counseling.org/Definition1.htm… [read more]

Health Psychology Response Past Article Review

Article Review  |  2 pages (606 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The contents of the interviews were then analyzed for coinciding terms, themes, and experiences to find some correlating factor. Although the research method here was thorough and researchers made a concentrated effort to eliminate bias by using transcripts, removing the text from the tone and emotion of the interview subject invariably alters the analysis of the presented data.

Part 4:

The three main themes of the research document include male under-usage of medical facilities, the need of the researchers to find suitable research subjects, and the analysis of the data which linked male under-utilization with the male psychological need to be dominant rather than weak or enfeebled. The purpose of the experiment was to investigate potential reasons why males went to the doctor far less often than they should. This is a subjective question and dependant on individual experience and perception. It seems that the researcher's interest in the question was more to confirm their former opinions than in investigating a question free from bias. This is suspected because of the way that they acquired participants and the limited number of people who participated in the study. It would be foolish to postulate a potential reason for action based upon the survey of only ten participants. In their analysis, the researchers put a lot of emphasis on the male psychology as the reason for under-using healthcare facilities. To be ill is to be weak and to seek aid for the weakened body is weaker still. As a truly masculine and male individual, the man must avoid seeking help for as long as possible. This is an intriguing concept, but is not given enough evidence by the researchers.

Works Cited:

Hale, Susan and Sarah Grogan. (2010). "Male GPs' Views on Men Seeking Medical Help: a Qualitative Study." British Journal of Health Psychology.…… [read more]

Tina's Story Case Study

Case Study  |  9 pages (2,559 words)
Bibliography Sources: 9


In Tina's case we see that she thinks of suicide but she does not feel that she is at a point where she must decide for suicide. Yet, as she is hopeless because of her broken relationship with her husband Joe and she does think that she will not find a good relationship so there is a possibility of her… [read more]

Anxiety Disorders Diagnosis Research Paper

Research Paper  |  9 pages (2,430 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Gelernter et al. (1991) compared the use of alprazolam in the treatment of social anxiety disorders and reported a positive outcome.


Just anecdotal evidence is in support of the efficacy of TCAs in the treatment of the social anxiety disorder (Van Vliet, Den Boer and Westenberg,1994)

Posttraumatic stress disorder

The use of Benzodiazepines

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is noted… [read more]

Schizophrenia and Society Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,131 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Schizophrenia and Society

Houston born, Andrea Yates was born to a German immigrant, Jutta Karin Koehler. She had five siblings and she was the youngest of all being raised in a catholic household. Andrea graduated in 1982 from Milby High School. From the high school records, it is seen that she was a brilliant student, captain of the school swim team, and she served as an officer in National Honor Society. Pre-nursing program was completed by her from the University of Houston and graduated in nursing from School of Nursing in University of Texas in 1986. From 1986 until 1994, she worked as a nurse in the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in University of Texas. She got married in 1993 and one of the main promises that the couple made was to have as many babies as the nature can allow them (Sarason, & Sarason, 2005, p. 90).

History of Mental Illness, Treatments and Behaviors

Andrea gave birth to her fourth son, Luke and this marked the beginning of depression in Andrea. The reports have shown that at this point, Andrea was attending some extremist sermons from Michael Peter Woroniecki, who also sold the couple their bus. At this point one of the main concerns that the family of Andrea had was that if Andrea was becoming more captivated by the sermons of the minister. In 1999, the first incidence occurred when rusty, Andrea's husband, found her chewing her own fingers and the next day she tried to commit suicide by overdosing on pills and she was immediately hospitalized. Hospitalization did not seem to have any effect on her. The next day she was begging her husband to let her kill herself and get over with her life while she was holding a knife against her neck. At this point, her psychiatrist was Dr. Eileen Starbranch. She prescribed Andrea a mixture of antidepressant drugs that included Haldol. Haldol was working well and Andrea's condition was improving when she was released from the hospital (O'Malley, 2004, p. 65). In July 1999, she succumbed to have a nervous breakdown that lead to additional suicide attempts. She was in and out of the hospital frequently diagnosed with postpartum psychosis. Her psychiatrist advised the couple not to have more children but Andrea continued conceiving until her fifth child in 2000, a daughter. Her psychiatrist testified that Andrea would most probably go into psychotic depression if she conceives more children. The psychotic depression of Andrea seemed to have accelerated after the death of her father. In 2001, after Andrea stopped taking Haldol, the symptoms of depression that were than seen in Andrea included feverish recitation of the Bible; she stopped feeding her daughter and stopped taking antidepressants. After immediate hospitalization, her psychiatrist was Dr. Mohammed Saeed. In April 2001, Andrea was nearly catatonic and she confessed to the police that she planned to drown three of her children. On 20 June 2001, Rusty left Andrea alone with her children against specific instructions of Dr. Mohammed… [read more]

Behaviorism Concept Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,503 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Common Phobias and Common Characteristics in Trauma

As I have proceeded in my education on the subject of human psychology, I have become increasingly fascinated with the way that certain experiences and dispositions can influence significant behavioral differentials from one individual to the next. Indeed, it is fascinating that cognitive dissonances such as anxiety disorders and phobias which can… [read more]

Diagnostics on Hoarding Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,647 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Diagnostics on Hoarding

The Diagnostics of Hoarding

Hoarding is a problem that the DSM has generally classified under OCD. However, it is very likely that the next edition of the DSM will show hoarding as a separate disorder when the manual is released in 2012. This is something for which clinicians and others have hoped for some time, because hoarding… [read more]

Humans Behavior: Discriminative Control Article Review

Article Review  |  3 pages (1,057 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


(Shannon, 1961) Thus experiences especially the sensory and perceptual experiences are dependant on the stimulus and the activation of the sensory receptors. While the learned reactions as with Pavalov's dogs are explainable as stimulus, the reactions of human subjects is not dependent on mere stimulus but on complicated variables like predisposition, attitudes, associative cognizance and personality. It also depends on individual motivation and the truth is that as of now psychologists are still debating the issue of the nature of perception. (Brown, 1961)

One aspect of this system is contingency management where the therapist uses models to control behaviors, or create new ones by altering existing stimuli and reinforcing the sanctions or rewards. It is assumed that all persons have the desired behaviors existing in the psyche but the need is strengthening their expressions. The operant reinforcement research further goes into seeking the environment that is a stumbling block in the continuous maintenance of the desirable behaviors and the often cause of the continuance of undesirable responses. Thus the environment also had to be changed with the insistence on removing the environments that often caused stimuli for regressing into undesirable behavior.

Using the environment or the in competition there is thus a rearrangement of existing contingencies and thus where young man with a learning disability was also an absconder from care, Sheldon (1995) suggests interesting car rides that the subject enjoyed without escort because the escort triggered the running away. The researcher also suggests rewards like "If there are three clear days without a single incident of fighting, William and Marion will be taken to the sports centre for one hour" and the case where there could be an insufficiency of certain behavior, the system ought to try a low-level adaptive response. (Sheldon, 1995) However in the cases where the cause and effect cannot be understood, as in extreme autism and in retardation selective punishment and infliction of some evil to correct the behavior could trigger responses that are normalized.


The presence of correlation between punishment and the suppression of stereotypy may have said to have been proved the fact that discriminative control by an antecedent stimulus grows with punishment. However by itself it cannot be universal. There is a need to consider the behavior and introducing new stimuli that gives rise to a new system of behavior as opposed to punishments. Since the researches are still new, the effects of punishments will take more time to understand.


Biderman, Albert D; Zimmer, Herbert. (1961) "The Manipulation of Human Behavior." John

Wiley & Sons: New York.

Brown, Judson Seise. (1961) "The Motivation of Behavior."

McGraw-Hill: New York.

Buss, Arnold H. (1988) "Personality: Evolutionary Heritage and Human Distinctiveness."

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale, NJ.

Doughty, Shannon S. et al. (2007) "Discriminative control of punished stereotyped behavior in humans." Journal of the experimental analysis of behavior, vol. 87, no. 2, pp: 36-41.

Sheldon, Brian. (1995) "Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy: Research, Practice, and Philosophy." Routledge:…… [read more]

Freud and Rogers Theory Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,022 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Freud vs. Rogers

Sigmund Freud vs. Carl Rogers:

A Discussion on Theories of Personality and Psychotherapy

Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers were two of the most influential psychological theorists of the previous century. These two men came up with psychoanalysis and the humanistic approach, both of which revolutionized the field. It is, thus, important not only to understand their individual approaches, but also to compare the two men in their theories of personality and psychotherapy, in order to see how these theories functioned, how the men explained the various approaches, and how the main principles and components evidence strengths and weaknesses.

Freud's Theory

In the Freudian point-of-view, a person was like an "energy system" and all mental processes were "energy flows." These "flows" were considered to either flow freely or be backed up by some other energy. Freud also argued that the "goal of all behavior is the reduction of tension through the release of energy, which produces pleasure," and added that "people function in accordance with hedonistic principles, seeking unbridled gratification of all desires."

Freud also states, according to Prevos (2005) that there is a pursuit of pleasure in all humans no matter what personality and what kind of person one is, and so this endless pursuit is in constant conflict with all civilization. This uncontrolled satisfaction of pleasure is certainly never wholly fulfilled. Freud also states, with regards to analyzing people's personalities, and even in psychotherapy his constant stress is upon this; namely the fact that humans are and will always be primarily driven by sexuality and aggression.

Freud adds:

"Sexual and aggressive energy prevent[s] from expression in a more direct way [and] are converted to cultural activities such as art and science. Energy used for cultural purposes is, however, no longer available to sexual purposes and […] the price of civilization is misery, the forfeit of happiness and a sense of guilt."

Freud also states that, with regards, to personality, "much of human behavior is determined by forces outside awareness."

Thus, the relation between a person and his peers (society) is essentially controlled by primitive urges, which are buried within us and form the basis of a "hidden self." In this way, according to Prevos (2005), Freud constructs the basis for dreams, neurosis, psychosis, etc. through an unmanifested world, which he divides into three levels of awareness (the id, ego and superego). These are thus Freud's theories on psychotherapy and with it, on personality.

Rogers' Theory

Carl Rogers, who came after Freud, build upon the previously existing theories in the field. Rogers was a humanist psychologist, and was quite dissatisfied with Freud's psychoanalysis.

He thought it completely dehumanized, and instead proposed that

"…people have drives that lead them to engage in activities resulting in personal satisfaction and a contribution to society: the actualizing tendency [which] is present is all organisms and can be defined as the motivation present in every life form to develop its potentials to the fullest extent."

In this view, this kind of psychology… [read more]

History and Current Applications of Behaviorism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (829 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Behaviorism: History, Development, And Current Applications

There are many different schools and branches of psychological theory and thought, and even though this area of science is barely a century old these branches have all developed and evolved tremendously. Behaviorism is certainly no exception; in some ways one of the oldest and most fundamental schools of psychology, there have been drastic changes and splits to behavioral psychology and amongst behavioral theorists. The following pages will briefly outline the foundation of behaviorism by detailing the contributions made to the theory by three of its most prominent researchers and theorists. Changes that were brought to the theory during the course of its development will also be discussed, as will current applications and trends in behaviorism. Though brief, an examination of these areas of the theoretical and practical implications of historical and modern behaviorism will provide a comprehensive overview of the theory and its potential effectiveness.

One of the major themes of John Watson's writings on behaviorism was the strain now known as methodological behaviorism, which is essentially a commentary on the science of psychology itself. Believing things like mood and mental states to be individual and thus ultimately unknowable and non-empirical, methodological behaviorists are quite strict in observing only external and thus objectively measurable data in drawing their conclusions (Graham 2010). Psychological behaviorism is not at all mutually exclusive of methodological behaviorism, and Watson as well as the more well-known Ivan Pavlov could both said to be of this school of though, which focuses on learning histories and conditioning as primary influences of psychology and behavior (Graham 2010).

Pavlov had his famous experiment (or coincidental discovery) with dogs in which the subjects became used to a bell ringing when their meal was being served, and would salivate at the ringing of the bell even without the presence of food (Mills 1998). Watson and others took this form of operant conditioning to its height with behavior modification techniques and therapies during the first half of the twentieth century (Mills 1998) B.F. Skinner, who came on the scene later (his life spanned most of the twentieth century, from 1904 to 1990) took psychological behaviorism to its logical conclusion, seeing mental activity and mental states as behavior and claiming it was circular reasoning to explain behavior with behavior; the most prevalent non-behavioral influence on behavior Skinner could identify was environment, and thus he became intimately concerned with the details of environment and its effect on learning and behavior (Graham 2010;…… [read more]