Study "Psychology / Behavior / Psychiatry" Essays 166-220

X Filters 

James Hillman's Archetypal Psychology Term Paper

… Archetypal Psychology

James Hillman's Archetypal Psychology

Hillman's "poetic basis of mind" is comprised of all aspects of work -- theorizing, analyzing culture, and practicing therapy (Moore 1989). Hillman's archetypal psychology and his "poetic basis of mind" takes root in aesthetics… [read more]

Development of Abnormal Disorder Term Paper

… Psychoanalysis

From a psychoanalytic perspective, Lamanda is suffering from ego identity confusion (Erikson, 1968) that is manifesting itself in symptoms of depression, marked by a lack of interest, anxiety and social isolation. Her ego identity confusion is primary rooted in her biracial status (half African-American and half Caucasian) and also slightly by her experimentation with bisexuality and her transition from being unattractive to attractive.

In its clinical sense, ego psychology is most often associated with Sigmund Freud, who developed the theory of the id, the ego and the superego. Repression also plays a major role in psychoanalytic theory (Goldstein, 1995). Lamanda may be repressing the anger she has about being teased in school for being biracial, about a much older authority figure making sexual advances toward her, and resentment towards her parents for subjecting her to the difficulties of being an interracial child. Repressed anger can manifest itself in the types of symptoms of depression that Lamanda is exhibiting.


In the vein of behavioral theories, Lamanda's depression is part of a stimulus-response process that can be redirected by altering her reactions to stimuli (Taylor, 2005). For example, by altering her behavior and applying for jobs that she is worthy of and will enjoy, Lamanda will be taking steps towards eliminating the anxiety associated with her waitress job. From a behavioral perspective, there is no need to analyze why Lamanda has chosen destructive behaviors; she simply needs to change those behaviors in order for her life and well-being to improve (Taylor, 2005).

Additionally, through classical conditioning, a concept developed by Ivan Pavlov, Lamanda's behaviors can be changed by providing a stimulus that is associated with positive behaviors. For example, if she rewards herself with a day off of her waitress job for every five "better" jobs she applies for, she will be more likely to apply for more jobs and eventually obtain one.


Cognitive theories make a distinction between practical problems and emotional problems (Kohlberg, 1971). From a cognitive perspective, it is the thought process and the decision-making process that explain Lamanda's behaviors. For example, Lamanda has come to associate social interaction with anxiety. Therefore it is her thought process (i.e. The formation of this association) that shapes her behaviors (i.e. her lack of social interaction). By altering her thought process, Lamanda will, from a cognitive standpoint, then be able to then alter her behaviors.

Cognitive and behavioral theories are often combined into cognitive-behavioral theories, which form a basis for developmental theories such as Jean Piaget's (1963). From this perspective, as Lamanda's thought processes begin to mature and progress through the various stages of development, her ability to process and apply information in a helpful manner will improve. She will learn, for example, that choosing romantic relationships with males who are unable to commit has become a pattern in her life. Once she has reached this cognitive level of awareness,…… [read more]

Examine the Field of Organizational Psychology Research Paper

… Organizational Psychology

Definition of Organizational Psychology

Organizational psychology is the study of human group and individual behavior in the vocational environment (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008). It consists of numerous subtopics such as the manner in which business and other organizations develop defining cultures, the nature of vocational motivation, the relationship between reward, performance, and performance, the elements of leadership, as well as various aspects of employee recruitment, selection, training, and retention (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).

Evolution of the Discipline

The first major use of organizational psychology was the application of its principles to the recruitment, task-assignment, and training of soldiers in the United States in connection with its entry into World War I in 1918 (George & Jones, 2008; Robbins & Judge, 2009). In between the First and Second World Wars, the same principles, first introduced by the industrial psychologists and so-called "efficiency experts" such as American Frederick Taylor and Frenchman Henry Fayol were more widely applied to industrial work in peacetime (George & Jones, 2008).

More specifically, the scientific management principles devised by Taylor dictated operational changes designed to increase productivity (George & Jones, 2008). His approach involved making the necessary changes to the way that workers performed their essential functions (including changes to the tools they used) to increase organizational productivity by improving individual output. Meanwhile, the concepts developed by Fayol (and others) concerned the manner in which personnel management styles and variables relating to reward, compensation, and vocational motivation affected the same general dependent variables (George & Jones, 2008).

By the time the U.S. became directly involved in World War II in 1941, American industry had adopted principles of organizational psychology on a much more comprehensive scale and those principles were also applied to the recruitment, selection, assignment, training, and supervision of personnel throughout the American Armed Forces being assembled, trained, and deployed in connection with the country's involvement in World War II. In very large part, the tremendous industrial efficiency and production capacity of the U.S. that ultimately won the war was attributable to the contributions of organizational psychology in conjunction with other operational innovations such as the assembly-line production methods first introduced by Henry Ford shortly after the turn of the 20th century.

To a great degree, it was the manner in which American civilian industrial capacity was rapidly converted to the wartime…… [read more]

Future of Psychology Term Paper

… Future of Psychology

Psychology is a science that has a history in many other areas of inquiry but finally grew into its own discipline. Throughout its relatively short history, a number of different areas of concentration have attempted to dominate the field, but none has ever taken over entirely and thus it is difficult to predict that any single domain of inquiry will dominate the future of psychology. The future of psychology will undoubtedly continue to grow in many different diverse areas, but a few areas will be of particular interest over the next couple of decades, including neuroscience and evolutionary theory. Psychology will also continue to capture the minds and imaginations of the general populace, leading to a plethora of popular psychology publications that run alongside the more scientific journals. Although these two areas of publication provide very separate forms of disseminating psychological research to two different audiences, they do still play off of one another.

After World War II cognitivism grew rapidly as an area of psychological research and has made huge advances in our understanding of human thought and behavior (Goodwin, 1999). The introduction of the computer and computer science research has also impacted the way psychological research is done and the ways psychologists understand the functioning of the human mind. The computer became a model of the human brain, allowing researchers to test theories about how the brain is working. In addition, the computer has advanced the types of studies that can be conducted and also advanced the sophistication of statistical analyses that can be conducted, helping to establish psychology as a true science (Neisser, 2009). In many respects, cognitive psychology helped psychology to truly 'arrive' as a science. The next domain beyond cognitive psychology is neuroscience.

One of the most fascinating aspects of human life is the human brain itself. It is more powerful than any computer built, capable of instantaneous processing and multitasking, with unknown capacities for learning, healing and storing. The advancements in brain imaging technology have allowed psychologists and neuroscientists to learn a great deal about specific brain localization issues and how the brain functions under varying circumstances (Hayflix, 2000). Despite these advances, there is still a great deal of unknown information still to be uncovered concerning the functioning of the human brain. The next few decades will surely continue to uncover more and more of the mysteries that lie within the human mind, explaining why we do the things that we do, our unique thought patterns, and our not so unique thought patterns.

As psychologists and neuroscientists continue to investigate the human brain they will not only learn about how it works, but they will also learn about how it fails to work. With this knowledge there will hopefully be great advances in the treatment of mental illnesses and the prevention of mental deterioration. As a woman in my 40s, it is this area of Psychology's future that will most likely have the biggest impact on my life, as I grow… [read more]

History of Psychology Research Paper

… History Of Psychology

Psychology is a science that grew out of other pursuits, including philosophy and physiology. Throughout its history, there have been a number of philosophers and scientists who have made significant contributions to the development of psychological thought and research and who have shaped the fundamental debates that inform the field. From the very beginnings, the argument of nature vs. nurture can be found in the differing perspectives of Rene Descartes and John Locke (Goodwin, 1999). It is difficult to select a single era of psychology's history that could be considered the most influential with respect to modern psychology, especially considering that modern psychology itself is made up of many different areas of research and investigation. However, if one area were to be selected as having the biggest influence on modern day psychology it would likely be the rise of cognitivism.

Although modern cognitive psychology is considered relatively young, with the majority of its roots developing in the years following World War II, it does in fact have roots that go much further back. An interest in the physical underpinnings of cognition can be traced back to 1700s and 1800s when Helmholtz investigated various issues of human perception. In addition, scientists were interested at this time in learning about the localization of brain functioning. In some cases the desire to understand the physical causes of human cognition were less than accurate, such as in the case of the phrenologists who believed they could discover the elements of human behavior and cognition through the condition of the human skull (Goodwin, 1999). Brain localization studies continued with the investigation of brain injuries, such as that of the famous Phineas Gage who, in 1848, survived an accident in which a pole was run through his head. The experience of the injury and his later personality change as a result taught early psychologists a great deal about the links between specific parts of the brain and human behavior and personality.

Cognitive psychology took on its more modern form beginning in the years following the Second World War. Despite the growth in popularity of behaviorism after the First World War, some researchers did continue to investigate the happenings "behind the curtain" of cognition and perception. One of the most famous psychological studies, and indeed likely the most replicated study, was conducted in 1935 by J. Ridley Stroop in which he documented what is now known as the Stroop Effect (MacLeod, 1992). The Stroop Effect demonstrates how one automatic process can be interrupted or disrupted by another automatic process (Goodwin, 1999). Another one of psychology's big names also appeared during the early 1900s -- when Jean Piaget introduced his theory of cognitive development in children and adolescents, and Ebbinghaus made large strides with his studies of memory.

Finally, Cognitive Psychology really took off with the introduction of computer science and the development of the computer. While computer science may in many ways appear to be the furthest thing away from…… [read more]

Criticisms of Psychology Essay

… ¶ … discipline of psychology is often challenged in its entirety through a variety of concepts. The very concepts that it preaches are the very concepts that marks some of its weakest links. This paper extensively evaluates by way of extant literature the various criticisms and misunderstandings that are related to psychology. In order to fully cover these redundancies on the discipline of psychology. We evaluate the criticism of artificiality with a particular attention to abnormal psychology, social psychology and organizational psychology. In addition to above, we compare and contrast the various breakthrough models in the field of scientific research together with the principles of connectivity in the process of explaining the various events and their possible outcomes. Finally we evaluate the concept of single-cause explanation together with the principle of multiple causation in an effort to explain the events and their corresponding outcomes.

Scholars explain that concept of single-cause explanation together with the principle of multiple causation suffer weaknesses as being circular. The second is that they are centered around issues of anthrocentricism.

One misunderstanding that arises from "breakthrough


Criticisms of artificiality

The psychological principle of artificiality has been criticised through its various sub-domains such as abnormal psychology, social psychology and organizational psychology.

The abnormal psychology model has been criticized for being incapable of bringing out a fully true understanding of certain other disciplines such as psychopathology (Carpenter, 1987; Engel, 1980). The use of abnormal psychology in the field of biology is highly criticised for the fact that biology cannot fully give an account of various psychological disorders. In order for the medical models of abnormal psychology to bring out meanings, it necessary to base it on various other sources and levels of information. These levels include various psychological processes that integrate both cognitive and social levels of psychology.

Social psychology is defined as 'the scientific investigation of how the thoughts, feelings and behaviours of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of others' Gordon Allport (1935) .The social psychology has also been criticised through extant literature from works of various scholars. Human beings in general are very compliant and have a tendency of easily being transformed by various social pressures and conditions. A person's self-esteem is often fragile and one's attitude is often out of touch with reality. As pointed out by Sears (1986) "To caricature the point, contemporary social psychology ... presents the human race as composed of lone, bland, compliant wimps who specialize in paper-and-pencil tests,." He further pointed out that an individual's passions and his or her…… [read more]

Forensic Psychology Review, V Fulero, S Term Paper

… Forensic Psychology Review, v

Fulero, S. And L. Wrightsman. (2008). Forensic Psychology. Cenage. Chapters 9-16.

Child Custody and Related Decisions -- Child custody issues are among the most difficult and challenging for the Forensic Psychologist. A child's mind is not fully developed, and it is often difficult to get at the heart of the matter; to understand what happened with events based on a child's memory. It is also necessary to be extra careful to ensure that the professional does not lead the child toward a conclusion. Thus, by the very nature, a Forensic Psychologist must play different, and sometimes difficult, roles with child custody hearings (mediator, expert, therapist, researcher).

The Court, however, is looking for a neutral professional to deal fairly with cogent explanations on family dynamics and childhood issues. It is necessary to avoid "isms" -- broad statements about lifestyle, predispositions, etc., and to remain unbiased when looking out for the welfare of the child and focusing on individual situations. It is also important to avoid the dual relationship paradigm: one cannot be a therapist and an objective analyst for the Court -- choose one and remain true to that course.

Chapter 10 -- Improving Eyewitness Identification Procedures -- Eyewitness procedures are often problematical because they rely on memory -- and memory is faulty. The Forensic Psychologist must use their expertise to reduce these eyewitness errors, to probe memory testimony and find any systematic variables to help ascertain the truth.

The Forensic Psychologist must be careful when acting as an information generator -- and must use interview content wisely to review, review, and review again, in order to limit bias and increase the accuracy of testimony. Spend extra time if a child is a witness; help that child separate fantasy, reality, and remove influence from the child's association of the event. However, it is also important not to assume prior jury or Court knowledge, and to encourage testimony and expertise to clear up any misunderstandings and/or refute anticipated jury bias.

Chapter 11- Interrogations and Confessions -- Depending on where and when the interrogation/confession took place, the Forensic Psychologist will often be called in to verify the statements and facts surrounding the case, and to interview the subject to ensure the confession was not coerced in any way. There are times, too, that a Forensic Psychologist will be used to help in a difficult interrogation, probing the suspect using psychological techniques. However, the role of evaluation in both confessions and interrogations is quite important -- the goals is to remain objective, bring in facts, not suppositions. Indeed, the Forensic Psychologist must remain aloof and unbiased.

False confessions and coerced or loaded interrogations are, unfortunately, a fact of most any legal system. Care must be taken to avoid hooks from sociopathic personalities. The Forensic Psychologist must refuse to be manipulated, especially when the subject claims to know something personally about you, or tried to manipulate you.

Without becoming adversarial, review police procedures and conduct during interrogation. Use the role of… [read more]

Foundations of Psychology Essay

… ¶ … psychology: A brief history of the discipline

Psychology is technically classified as a social science. However, the scope of the discipline of psychology encompasses the work of Freud, whose emphasis on myth and the unconscious has lead him to be more often studied in literature classes -- and neuroscience, which encompasses the knowledge gleaned from the natural sciences (Nyman 2010). Psychology is thus broad in its sweep, even though the degree to which biology, sociology, or individual personality differences is emphasized varies from school to school.


All histories of the modern study of the human mind begin with Freud: Freud first conceptualized the notion of the unconscious mind, or the idea that the mind had 'secrets' the individual was not necessarily aware of, until prompted by the techniques of free association. Freud's elaborate conception of the self as structured according to the primal, desiring id; the ego which strove to actualize the id's desires, and the superego, which socially regulates human impulses; has often been criticized as scientifically unsubstantiated.

Major school 2: Behaviorism

Behaviorists like B.F. Skinner focused on observable, learned behaviors. Conditioning through stimuli, either negative or positive, was the focus of the behaviorist school of psychology. Environmental shaping, rather than cognitive structuring, was the focus of behaviorism. Behavior is 'learned' and behavior that cannot be observed and tested is irrelevant, in the behaviorist's view.

Major school 3: Humanism

In striking contrast to Skinner, humanistic psychologists such as Karl Rogers stressed the need for self-actualization in the therapeutic process. Rather than direct…… [read more]

Psychology Emerging Issues in Multicultural Essay

… Psychology

Emerging Issues in Multicultural Psychology

It is apparent that the old rules in psychology have moved away from a monocultural to a multicultural basis and that these new rules recognize both an appreciation of differences as well as an understanding of the inherent ambiguity and complexity in psychological practice. One issue is the sensitivity to the impact of cultural, disability and diversity factors on the competence of a psychologist. Psychologists should not have to provide services when they lack needed knowledge and when scientific or professional knowledge has established that a certain understanding of age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, language, or socioeconomic status is essential in order for effective services to be delivered. It is evident that the necessary sensitivity required to provide psychological services to diverse populations is grounded in ethical thinking that takes into account multiple world views and identities and requires ongoing education, formal training, and supervised experience (Manesse, Saito and Rodolfa, n.d.)

It is thought that multiculturally competent practice involves the application of psychological skills that integrate a focus on the client based on their cultural background, using culturally appropriate assessment tools that have a broad range of interventions. Multicultural competence involves the dimensions of awareness of one's own attitudes and beliefs, knowledge about cultural differences and skills in working with diverse groups. Multicultural knowledge involves learning and seeking information about the cultures, world-views and experiences of different groups of people. Psychologists must have knowledge about the heritage, history, family structure, values, and beliefs of diverse groups. Psychologists must also have accurate information about institutional barriers, sociopolitical contexts, oppression and discrimination (Manesse, Saito and Rodolfa, n.d.)

In order to develop multicultural counseling skills, psychologists must use their self-awareness as well as their knowledge of specific cultures to develop culturally sensitive and appropriate interpersonal behaviors and interventions. Psychologists must expand and model a wide-ranging repertoire of behaviors and skills that are flexible and appropriate for clients from diverse groups. Psychologists must also model flexibility in utilizing both traditional and nontraditional assessment and intervention techniques. The development of these skills in working with diverse clients involves enhancing ones ability to recognize cultural issues, increasing their abilities to deal with clients in ways that are flexible and sensitive, and increasing their abilities to deal with their own reactions to clients. The bridge to the development of these skills is cultural self-exploration and awareness (Manesse, Saito and Rodolfa, n.d.)

Another issue that has arisen in multicultural psychology is the fact that the residents of the United States are racially and ethnically diverse, and that research participants, students, clients and the labor force are increasingly likely to come from these diverse cultures. Additionally, instructors of psychologists, psychological researchers, educators, and those providing psychological service who are implementing organizational change are encouraged to gain skills to work effectively with individuals and groups of varying cultural backgrounds. This premise is based on psychologists' ethical values to be capable to work with a variety of… [read more]

Diversity of Psychology as a Discipline Essay

… Diversity of Psychology

The Diverse Nature of Psychology

"Psychology is not about "getting rid" of symptoms. Unlike politics, and even unlike medicine, psychology is not about waging war or getting control of anything. Instead, it's about making peace with -- by listening to and understanding -- your symptoms. And, curiously enough, once you listen to, rather than fear, your symptoms you might be enlightened by a profound wisdom that will become a great blessing to your life."

(Guide to Psychology)

Psychology is the use of scientific methods to understand, explain, and predict human behavior (Cherry 2010). Within this broad definition, Psychologists adopt very different approaches to their task. Three of the most popular sub-disciplines are: psychoanalysis, cognitive therapy, and behavioral therapy.

Psychoanalysis first became popular in the early 1900s, following Freud's approach to understanding the mind and human behavior. Practitioners of psychoanalysis today may still hold to some of the early precepts associated with it, including a set of very specific pieces to the format of treatment sessions. These sessions must occur daily, and in a traditional format, with the client lying flat on a couch while the therapist sits behind the couch, out of sight. During these interactions, the therapist says very little, encouraging the client to "free associate"; from these narratives, the therapist can construct an interpretation and analysis of the client's unconscious mind. Often, sessions revolve around childhood experiences and relationships with family. Psychoanalysts believe that these primary relationships can tell them a lot about how the person currently functions in the world.

Cognitive approaches to therapy ask clients to more actively choose and make decisions in their lives. The focus is therefore much less on the unconscious, as in psychoanalysis, and more on the ability of people to make conscious changes in their lives by focusing on motivation, problem solving, and attention patterns (Cherry 2010). For example, some therapists who adopt this approach may work on helping troubled clients learn to control their own thought patterns. These changes may be taught through conditioning exercises or learned through reinforcement. What matters the most to therapists who follow this approach is that the behavior is effectively changed; how that change comes to pass is a question of strategy. Examples of cognitive techniques include the use of hypnosis and relaxation techniques. In both of these examples, clients are essentially re-programmed to stop behaviors that are counter-productive and instead adopt healthier modes of response.

Behavioral therapy has a lot in common with cognitive therapy, and indeed some…… [read more]

Forensic Psychology Essay

… Forensic Psychology

Fulero, S. And L. Wrightsman. (2008). Forensic Psychology, 3rd edition. Wadsworth.

This is the third edition of a primary text in the subject of forensic psychology. The authors are experts in the field, and the book is organized in relevant, real-world situations by presenting information on the ways a psychologist would serve the legal system by being an expert witness, assessing juries, advocacy in child custody hearings, and criminal profilers. The authors focus on the multi-dimensionality of the field, as well as the danger of becoming an advocate for one view or another, instead of using objective scientific texts and data to understand what occurred. The authors also address the ethical and moral issues of practicing psychologists, and expand upon the role the forensic specialist might need to take in order to fit in under the umbrella of multiple horizontal priorities that is so common in contemporary law enforcement. Unlike many student texts, this book provides an accurate and realistic picture of the field, as well as the career paths available to someone with the interest and drive. Too, much of what the author's say about deviant behavior is just as poignant as it would be in a fictional story. It is, though, the tasks of the authors to correctly and truthfully portray the career as it is, not necessarily how we want it.

Overview- Forensic psychology is a sub-discipline of psychology that uses a multi-disciplinary approach by adding tools and techniques of criminology, sociology, and law to form a means of appropriate interaction with the criminal justice system. Forensic psychology often focuses on not only helping understand the mind of a criminal, but also to bring the language of psychology into the and understandability of the jury, as well as translating legalism into the appropriate format for rule of law as focused on the mindset of the offender. One of the key responsibilities of the forensic psychologist is to understand and be comfortable working within the adversarial legal/judicial system. Since psychology is not an exact science in the sense of every event or situation having the exact same effect upon every individual, but a series of major trends that tend to occur over time with a statistically robust part of the population.

For forensic psychology to be an effective tool within the rubric of the modern criminal justice system, the forensic psychologist must be conversant in a number of disciplines, an understanding of criminal pathology as well as deviant behavior, a multidisciplinary approach and background that spans numerous fields -- which makes the discipline itself one of the most rigorous and intellectually challenging components of psychology.

The Many Hats of the Forensic Psychologist -- as we have noted, forensic psychology is a multidimensional and multidisciplinary approach to a variety of fields that ultimately blends into the criminology field. The clientele of the forensic psychologist is wide as well -- stakeholders include members of the law profession at a variety of levels, the public, and even the accused.… [read more]

Clinical Psychology Approaches Term Paper

… Clinical Psychology Approaches

Of the four major clinical approaches, the psychodynamic model remains the most closely associated with the terminology and technical concerns of Freudian praxis (Bateman et al., 2000, p. 2). As its name implies, this approach looks to unexamined tensions between dynamic forces (or "drives") as the underlying cause of anxiety, psychic pain, and destructive behavior. With the therapist's assistance, the patient may arrive at a conscious understanding of these forces and so, in understanding them, resolve any conflicts that exist.

As in classical psychoanalysis, the dynamic therapeutic relationship is largely a matter of sustained conversation in pursuit of emotional resolution. However, while Freudian therapy is theoretically "interminable," dynamic therapists generally play a more active, problem-oriented role in order to bring the process to a productive conclusion within 10 to 25 weekly sessions; more intensive approaches strive to generate breakthroughs over even shorter time frames (Aveline, 2000, p. 373).

Cognitive-behavioral therapy acknowledges the importance of recognizing the causes of behavior, but is much more concerned with training the patient to avoid harmful activities and acquire new coping habits. Instead of focusing on discursive exploration of emotional content, the cognitive-behavioral therapist stresses skills training, repetition, and immediate feedback. While discussion is often part of the session, it is often considered a channel for the transmission of information and as a tool for monitoring the patient's overall condition (Carroll, 1998, p. 25).

Because of its explicitly problem-oriented nature, cognitive-behavioral therapy is often brought into play when explicitly pathological behaviors exist and need to be corrected: drug addiction, anxiety disorders, and so on, ideally within 12 to 16 weekly sessions (Carrol, 1998, p. 4). While incidental insight into motivation may result from such therapy, it is not the primary objective; progress toward objective performance goals is the only real measurement of success.

Humanistic approaches vary, but share an abiding theoretical interest in human beings as conscious actors and a corresponding distrust for models of the self that portray life as merely the sum of various emotional or instinctual drives. (Bugental, 1964, pp. 19-25) Practical treatment strategies are…… [read more]

Abnormal Psychology Psychopathology Term Paper

… Abnormal Psychology


Discuss the criteria for abnormality and the meanings of psychological disorders, psychological dysfunction and "culturally expected" behaviors.

Abnormal psychology is the area devoted to the study of causes of mental dysfunction such as mental illness, psychopathology, maladjustment,… [read more]

Psychology History Essay

… Paul -- I made sure that there were at LEAST 300 words per answer, but did not double space since I know how you will be utilizing the data. Glad we connected again -- thank you!

Introspection was a method introduced by Wundt and then used by early psychologists such as Titchener. Wundt's method of introspection was often classified as structuralism, the breaking down of consciousness into its basic elements. We no longer believe that Wundt should be classified as a structuralist. Describe his research agenda and the methods of his research that he introduced to psychology, explaining the degree to which they did and did not involve the breakdown of consciousness into elements.

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) was a German physician, philosopher, and psychologist and, in many academic circles, known as the father of experimental psychology (Butler-Bowdon, 2006). Wundt, in fact, insisted that psychology should be a separate discipline at a time when it was seen as only a subcategory of some aspects of medicine, and believed it was more empirical than philosophy and more focused on the cognitive mind than physiology.

It was, in fact, Wundt's student, Tichener, who descriped Wundt as a structuralist, expcially the methodology used in his Prinicples of Physiological Psychology. One of the core issues of Wundt, though, when explaining his scholarly methodology, is an understanding that it evolved over a lengthy, 65-year career. This, at times, makes it difficult to pin Wundt into a single modality.

For example, Wundt shows tendencies as a foundationalist who focused on understanding the intricacies of knowledge from a more atomistic, coherent, understanding of the Universe (Boring, 1970). As he aged, though, Wundt understandably allowed the robustness of the emerging scholarship in psychology to influence his thoughts and writings.

His approach, though, to scientific inquiry was called Ganzheit Pscyhologie, or Holistic Psychology. This approach was often misunderstood in the United States because of a lack of appropriate translations, and even some misinterpretations by Wundt's students. The basic idea of Holistic Psychology, though, uses introspection to first investigate psychological phenomenon. It is the science of studying experiences that allows the mind to be uncovered -- albeit without spending an inordinate amount of philosophizing on the relationship between the soul and the body. According to Wundt, no one could observe an experience better than the person having the experience, and the method of introspection was therefore key in the study of psychology (Schultz, 2007).

Introspection does not merely involve self-reflection but for Wundt was a rigorous process that involved extracting the most simple of sensations and feelings from the conscious experience. The goal was to describe an experience without interpreting what was happening. What had to be described was the intensity, the duration, the mode (what sense was involved e.g. hearing), and quality (e.g. A shape) of the sensation. Along with reporting the dimensions of the sensations, the feelings that accompanied the sensations were also to be analyzed. Thus, for Wundt, the core method of uncovering psychological truth was in describing… [read more]

Motivation Theories and Organization Behavior Essay

… ¶ … Motivation Theories and Organization Behavior

Motivation is an internal state or condition that influences an individual's external behavior. Ways of influencing motivation can be crude, as in the case of classical or operant conditioning. These techniques use external stimuli to create an association between the desired behavior and a reward and/or an association between a punishment and a negative behavior. Other motivational techniques are not nearly as crude: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs suggests that individuals are motivated by fulfilling intrinsic needs. However, basic physiological demands, such as shelter and security, must be fulfilled before a person can think of higher-level needs, such as self-actualization (Huitt 2001).

The Consistency Theory of Motivation suggests that individuals seek the comfort of aligning their inner and outer states. This is one reason why there is often such little motivation to change standard operating procedures, given the temporary discomfort it causes for the individual. Control theory suggests individuals seek a sense of control over the world, much like Attribution Theory suggests that individuals are apt to…… [read more]

Cognitive and Affective Psychology Essay

… Cognitive and Affective Psychology

According to Eysenck and Keane (2005, p. 1), cognitive psychology focuses upon how the human faculties make sense of th einvrionment, as well as the processes involved in making decisions regarding appropriate responses to the environment.… [read more]

Aggressive Behavior in 10-Year-Olds Term Paper

… Aggressive Behavior in Ten-Year-Olds: A Comparison of Cognitive and Socio-Cultural Perspectives

Persistent and/or escalating aggressive behavior in pre-adolescent children can be especially troubling for parents, educators, counselors, and physicians, and not simply because of the ethical questions involved in the treatment of the problem through the use of pharmaceuticals. The underlying cause of these ethical concerns -- the lack of an explanation for such behavior in many cases -- is also a troubling issue, and one that certainly warrants examination. The problem is, the various perspectives that have been brought to bear on the question are not in complete agreement as to the ultimate cause of aggressive behavior in re-adolescent children, or in the means of correcting such behaviors.

Some of the most famous experiments in this realm were those conducted by Albert Bandura, in which he showed children a video exhibiting aggressive behavior. In a subsequent portion of the experiment, these children engaged in more aggressive behavior, signaling a cognitive relationship to the behavior (Dakota 2009). Even the famous Pavlovian reaction to repeated stimuli has been theorized to have a cognitive basis of expectation at work, moving further away form a behaviorist perspective and into a more cognitive understanding of impulses and reactions (Dakota 2009). From this perspective, aggressive behavior would most often be the cause of learned patterns, however such behaviors can occur in infancy and without any noticeable model for instruction or observation (Anderson & Huesmann 2003). While there does seem to be a cognitive aspect to aggressive behavior, then, it does not appear to be simply an issue of learned behaviors.

Another perspective sees aggression not as something that is cognitively learned, but rather that is shaped, even as early late childhood, by a combination of social pressures and negotiations that establish…… [read more]

Organizational Psychology Definition of Organizational Psychology Industrial Essay

… Organizational Psychology

Definition of Organizational Psychology

Industrial and Organizational Psychology, also sometimes referred as industrial-organizational psychology, or I-O psychology, is defined as "the scientific study of the relationship between man and the world of work.... In the process of making a living" (Guion, 1965, p. 817). Another more pertinent definition is, "…the application or extension of psychological facts and principles to the problems concerning human beings operating within the context of business and industry" (Blum and Naylor, 1968, p 4).

Taking both these definitions into account, we can say that in essence organizational psychology is the utilization of scientifically verified psychological principles and research methods in order to understand behavior in various organizations. An important aspect of this discipline is that it is the application of psychological principles to all working environments, which vary in terms of type of situation and problems encountered. Secondly, the intention or aim of the understanding that is obtained from psychological research is to improve work standards and performance through the improvement of aspect such a job satisfaction in the organizational structure.

Central to this field is the fact that it is concerned mainly with group settings and focuses on issues that occur in the workplace. In this regard the organizational psychologist "… takes theories, research, and intervention and communication strategies and applies them to groups in both work and non-work settings" (What is Organizational Psychology? 2) Basically, this form of psychology is concerned with assisting people in work and other organizations to understand mutual interaction in a way that can provide better communication and understanding and improve work output and productivity.

2. The role of research and statistics in organizational psychology

In order to attain to the above-mentioned goals of organizational psychology, research is necessary in order to understand the way that the organization functions and to uncover any problem areas that impede performance and production. The aspect of human relationships is often a complex area, especially in large organizations, and therefore scientific and comprehensive methods of research and inquiry are necessary. Psychological research that is scientifically-based can be extremely useful in eradicating problem areas and conflicts and in improving workflow and production.

Because of the complexity of large organizations, statistics and quantifiable research methods are often implemented by industrial and organizational psychologists to ascertain trends and perceptions in the organization. However, qualitative research methodologies are also used in interviews and other more intimate research projects to improve working relationships and identify problem areas.

3. The Use of Organizational Psychology in Organizations

Something of the importance of the discipline of organizational psychology can be gleaned from the following quotation.

….today's world of team-based…… [read more]

Environmental Psychology Term Paper

… In other words, how the 'acts of knowing' alter man's course. We continually perceive, remember, problem solve, reason, and understand for example. The approach often studies younger people because infants, children, and adolescents tend to go through more changes in a shorter period of time than older adults. That is not saying adults do not change just that children go though more dramatic shifts. The structural approach is different in the sense that it focuses on the person and how they related to their external world through relationships with other people. The structural approach concurs with a Freudian like basic understanding of the self as always existing in and being defined in terms of relationships. The structural approach uses the ideals of remembering, desiring, or creating to define life experiences. The approach also focuses heavily on change during youth and the affects of relationships in that adolescent span because the nature of the relationships shape and change the self as we perceive ourselves.

This science of environmental psychology is vitally important. It allows us to understand the various aspects of interaction between human and with their world view of their surroundings. Environmental psychology has helped to define man's environment more broadly and allowed for us to understand the affects of change from our natural environment, social settings, and learning environments. The concept of our solving problems through human and environmental interactions can help shape and predict how we human will react in certain situations and help us define what logical responses to certain stimuli truly are or should be. The environmental psychology approach can also help us create models to help us design, manage, protect and restore our environment because we are better able to diagnose problem situations and see them for what they are.

In conclusion, the objective of this paper was to examine the discipline of environmental psychology with an added objective of defining the science and comparing and contrasting some underlying theoretical approaches.


Das, Jagannath P., and Naglieri, Jack A. (1997). The Cognitive Assessment System. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.

Koltko-Rivera, Mark E. (2004). The Psychology of Worldviews. Review of General Psychology. 2004, Vol. 8, No. 1, 3 -- 58.

Woolf, Linda M. (2009). Theoretical Perspectives Relevant to Developmental Psychology. Retrieved on December 5, 2009, from Webster…… [read more]

Psychology - Counseling Intro to Guidance/Counseling Core Thesis

… Psychology - Counseling

Intro to Guidance/Counseling Core Assessment

Introduction to guidance and counseling core assessment

Review of key concepts and theories pertaining to counseling.

Empathic understanding: Empathic understanding involves seeing the world from the client's perspective, although not necessarily validating… [read more]

Behavior Researching the Other Side: Counselor Thesis

… ¶ … Behavior Research

Researching the Other Side: Counselor Behavior Study

The bulk of most behavioral research rests in exploring and measuring the behaviors of the client, or patient, and not that of the therapist involved in the context of therapeutic behavioral counseling itself. Yet, this is the prime focus of a 2000 research study conducted by Sharpley et al., entitled "The Use of Counselor Verbal Response Modes and Client-Perceived Rapport." This study focused its research on examining and assessing the behaviors of therapists mid session in order to help determine which behaviors are most effective for building client rapport.

The article and research method in question focuses on exploring the counselor-client interaction variables, and how successful those variables have proven to be in terms of building a strong client-counselor rapport within the various sessions experienced. The study was commissioned in order to help explore underlying elements of building client-counselor rapport. Understanding such variables can help clarify important steps needed to be taken within the context of client sessions. Such an understanding can then help counselors build a stronger rapport with their clients. A method of determining a time period for such rapport building could then also be constructed and manipulated by the counselor. There has been a great body of research regarding various styles of counseling strategies, but there has been little empirical research conducted on the effectiveness and time sensitivity of these strategies used mid-session in a way to provide comparable analysis for objective determination of success or failures. Within this study, the primary understanding of the client-counselor relationship is presented through the Working Alliance model. This model is broken down into three parts bonds, which refer "to the degree of trust and emotional closeness experienced by the clients and counselors set them as a result of undergoing the counseling process," (3). The bonding process of this interaction is of the greatest importance, for it helps establish the relationship and provide for future interaction. The goals are then the "changes in behavior" initiated by the counselor which aims to help guide the patient through the counseling process. Last, tasks are how counselors achieve their goals.

What was the method used?

The method of this study used a trained specialist to sit in lieu of a real client, who rated the behavior in terms of its ability to build or decrease rapport. The study "developed a methodology for examining behaviors which counselor behaviors are associated with the success as defined by the degree of rapport experienced by the client," (2). It featured fifty-nine counselors in training, all of whom were between the ages of 21 and 60. These counselors were a mix of both genders, both male and female. Thus a wide survey of therapists was examined within their individual sessions. This presented a plethora of different types and styles of therapy. All therapists in training conducted a single interview of fifty minutes each. Now, the therapists were not interviewing real clients, but rather highly trained individuals who then… [read more]

Identifying Three Social Psychological Principles That Appear to Be Operating in the Movie Shrek 2001 Thesis

… Social Psychology Principles in Shrek

Social-Psychological Principles in Shrek (2001)

For most people, movies are made for entertainment. However, there are also movies that go beyond merely entertaining its audience. There are films that have been created making use of… [read more]

Social Psychology Thesis

… Social Psychology

"The social sciences are dedicated to understanding the human conditions, ideally to the extent that the singular and collective behaviors of human beings can be understood and even predicted," social psychology tries to understand the human psyche based… [read more]

Abnormal Psychology Within Any Society Throughout History Thesis

… Abnormal Psychology

Within any society throughout history, there have been an accepted set of rules and behaviors. Also within every society are those individuals who break those rules and present abnormal behaviors based on deep rooted psychological issues. The history of the scientific discipline of abnormal psychology began with mysticism and religious treatments of such behaviors. However, this was eventually morphed into a scientific discipline through recognizing and studying the various patterns within general categories of abnormal behaviors. Since the onset of the Twentieth century, the scientific study and treatment of abnormal behaviors has been honed down to a variety of separate and individual disciplines that aim to diagnose, study, and treat disorders of abnormal psychology as a way to better the lives of the individuals who suffer from such psychological disorders.

The era of Greek and Romans was a rich one for knowledge in general. It was during this time period that abnormal psychology began to unfold its roots within general human psychology. Greeks and Romans had identified and treated various psychological disorders including mania, dementia, delusions, and hallucinations (Comer 2006). These disorders still prevail within the field of abnormal psychology today. However the wave of knowledge ended as Europe returned into the Dark Ages. When this occurred, treatment for abnormal behaviors once again returned to mystic and religious practices such as exorcism, where "the idea was to coax the evil spirits to leave or to make the person's body an uncomfortable place in which to live," (Comer 2006:9). As the Western world slowly pulled itself out of the Dark Ages, real scientific inquiry once again surfaced as a way to treat an confront abnormal behaviors.

During the Renaissance, scientists began to open up asylums to study and treat individuals exhibiting abnormal behavior. This slowly morphed into more and more diversified treatments for various types…… [read more]

Abnormal Psychology: Theories, Issues, Diagnosis Thesis

… Abnormal Psychology: Theories, Issues, Diagnosis

Abnormal psychology: Definitions of abnormality

What is abnormal psychology? The concept of abnormal psychology implies a controversial question: what is normalcy? On the face of it, abnormality can be defined in a fairly narrow fashion,… [read more]

Psychology Mental Health Recovery Program Research Paper

… Psychology

Mental Health Recovery Program

Why does evaluation matter so much counseling programs? When one evaluates a program, they can be more certain that what is being done is making a difference. Practitioners have a professional responsibility to show that… [read more]

History of Abnormal Psychology Essay

… ¶ … Human behavior has long been studied in order to understand how people generally interact with one another. Ideas about what is considered "normal" versus "abnormal" have changed since ancient times, and a quick summary of the origins of abnormal psychology, its evolution into a scientific discipline, and the basic theoretical models will provide a better insight into this topic.

Abnormal psychology is the study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning (Hansell & Damour, 2005). Since ancient times, many societies have attempted to treat and understand mental disorders. Some early societies believed that the mentally ill (or the abnormal group) were dangerous people with insufficient self-control to be normal (Comer, 2003). As far as historians can ascertain, Paleolithic people saw no distinction between medicine, magic, and religion. Thus, mentally ill patients were dealt with harshly, inhumanely, and with extreme methods of releasing the demons or spirits that were believed to live in the minds of the "abnormal." Examples of this mindset are shown in archaeological digs dating back as far as 8,000 B.C where skulls are found with holes drilled into them (Long, 2009). Furthermore, many early societies believed that demons caused abnormal behavior and those who were suspected to be affected by evil spirits were sent to prison or asylums.

Since the treatment of abnormal behaviors was wholly based on the cultural perception of the abnormal, ancient societies viewed torture as an option. As previously mentioned, the drilling of a hole into a person's skull, or trepanation, was thought to allow the demon or spirits to escape the individual, thus correcting the abnormal behavior, according to Comer (2003). During the inquisition, individuals displaying deviant or abnormal behavior were subject to being burned, pressed, hung and murdered. In the early part of the 20th century, asylums still existed, however the work of Sigmund Freud

and others led to the development of psychotherapy to help treat those with 'abnormal' behaviors. Modern science and physicians began to understand that 'abnormal' behaviors were based on cultural relativism and were not always significant of a mental illness or a disease (Long, 2009). During the 1700's and 1800's, people started investigating the idea that abnormal behavior could be caused by serious personal problems and even physical conditions. Comer introduces the German psychiatrist, Emil Kraepelin, and then Sigmund Freud, the famous Austrian doctor, as the developers of theoretical models for abnormal behavior. Their work and the research of others led to the development of psychotherapy to help treat those with 'abnormal' behavior.

Becoming a Scientific…… [read more]

Evolution of Cognitive Psychology Essay

… Evolution of Cognitive Psychology

Cognition is a term that means "the process of thought." It has been at the very basis for science, philosophy, and cultural debate since societies came together to form groups that differentiated individuals and allowed some… [read more]

How Cognitive Psychology With Cognitive Restructuring Impacts Rape Victims Research Paper

… ¶ … rape victims deal with the consequences of their experience, they may need assistance in areas such as communication, decision making and problem solving. The purpose of this paper will be to discuss and describe successful cognitive restructuring methods, cognitive coping styles and other effective types of therapy which help victims cope with post rape fear and anxiety symptoms, including ways to overcome the underlying fear that rape victims might continue to have after standard therapy and counseling. Since it has been found that victims who perceive within themselves a strong sense of control over present, as well as future circumstances, experience less depression and exhibit less social withdrawal than survivors with little experience of control over their environment or their future, the goal of determining the victim's long-term reaction to rape appears to be one of cognitive flexibility and openness vs. inflexibility. I believe reaching this goal is affected by a combination of the victim's resilience and the type of therapy used. Types of cognitive restructuring therapies which foster a sense of self-efficacy in patients will be examined. However, as victims of rape who have undergone cognitive therapy exhibit symptoms "associated with reductions in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and problematic . . . thoughts as well as increases in the number of…… [read more]

Conceptual Foundations of Social Psychology Essay

… Social psychology is the study of how groups and people interact with one another. Psychologists study this, and sociologists study it, as well (Livingston & Judge, 2008). There are different goals that these two groups have, though, and they look at the issue differently and for different reasons (Livingston & Judge, 2008). The interactions of people are fascinating to a lot of scholars, but whether groups are studied or whether individuals are studied more closely has a lot to do with whether one is looking at a sociologist or a psychologist. Regardless of who is being studied, however, what is studied is very similar. Situationism is one area that is very important to explore, because it flies in the face of most of the previous theories (Molden & Dweck, 2006).

Situationism basically says that how a person reacts to his or her circumstances and situation has much more to do with that individual's personality than genetic traits (Livingston & Judge, 2008). If people are really influenced more by their situations than they are by their motivations and other internal factors, that will seriously upset many of the ideas that are seen in the field of psychology today. Social psychology, therefore, is a concept that not everyone can agree on (Livingston & Judge, 2008). One area where these kinds of theories and beliefs can be more easily tested is work and employment, because it is much different in many cases from home life.

First impressions in the workplace are usually fairly accurate, and someone can generally tell after a few minutes whether they are going to like someone else, or whether the differences between the two of them are too great to overlook. These situational issues are at the heart of situationism and play a large role in social psychology. People who can respect others' differences are important to the dynamics of any group, and will greatly contribute to decision-making (Livingston & Judge, 2008). Likewise, some differences are important in all kinds of work environments, because they contribute to group dynamics and therefore help with decision making, but differences that are too large can sometimes cause people to spend too much time worrying about or arguing about differences instead…… [read more]

Social Psychology Any Attempt to Find Essay

… Social Psychology

Any attempt to find a single definition of social psychology will locate several versions, which, from extreme to extreme, seem to actually conflict with each other. This definition has varied considerably over time, since a century ago when this field was studied within the realm of sociology and not psychology. Psychologists of the late 19th century had no interest.

But, to make a long story short, we will use a definition of social psychology from Applied Social Psychology, (Schneider, Gruman, & Coutts, SAGE, 2005) which was adapted from several other books, (e.g. Feldman, 1998; Myers, 2002), thus we feel safe that this is a somewhat generally accepted definition: "social psychology may be defined as the science that seeks to understand how people think about, feel about, relate to, and influence one another."

The basic assumption of this science is that the way individuals think and how they behave are always influenced by their circumstances at the time -- their situation.

Today, social psychology has a practical ring to it. The science and the research accompanying it are used to examine phenomena such as the influence of advertising of all kinds on human behavior, and many of the consumer behaviors, like why people purchase the things they do.

Social psychology in today's world is also focused on group behavior, and both individual and group opinions about every kind of social issue such as the general quality of life, quality of work life, and violence. This leads to explanations for how people deal with stress and the consequences of their behaviors in attempting to handle the various stresses they are under such as anti-social behavior.

Social Psychology vs. Clinical Psychology

Clinical psychologists treat individuals and people in groups, but they generally are focused on treating individual emotional disorders along with mental and behavioral problems. They…… [read more]

Social Behavior Essay

… Altruism

Social Behavior

Empathy: Selfless identification or selfless aid?

The experimental psychologist Daniel Batson (1981) defined empathy as the degree to which another human being is able to selflessly identify with another individual's plight. In one experiment, he subjected an individual known as 'Elaine' to mild electric shocks. Elaine was, in fact, a confederate of the experimenters, not a fellow test subject as the actual subject was lead to believe. The real test subject was asked, after Elaine was subjected to two shocks, if he or she would change places with Elaine. Different variables were introduced into the experiment to increase the likelihood of empathy with the subject. The experiment also involved two scenarios -- one in which the test subject was given an easy 'escape' (he or she was given the option of leaving, after witnessing two shocks) or a difficult 'escape' (he or she would have to witness ten shocks).

For example, Elaine was described as someone with similar values to the test subject, as well as someone who had previously experienced a traumatic incident when she was electrically shocked by accident. An 'easy' escape and a low rate of empathic sameness tended to result in people refusing to switch. An easy escape and a high rate of perceived similarity increased the likelihood that the subject would switch places, and mimicked more closely the scenario when the test subject was put into a situation where it was difficult to politely extricate him or herself from switching places. Another experiment confirming Batson's belief in the existence of empathy can be found in the case of his 'Janet' experiment, whereby a confederate 'Janet' read a sad story -- after being induced into a high or low empathic state, subjects were asked how much time they would like to spend with Janet. High empathy test subjects reported a desire to spend longer period of time with Janet than those in lower empathic states.

However, according to Cialdini (1987), purely empathetic identification does not originate with a forgetting of the self and identification with another human being, but is designed to alter a personal feeling of discomfort. Cialdini's experiments suggested "an observer of a suffering other is likely to react in one of two primary ways to the victim's plight: by reducing the other's need through helping or by escaping the situation. The egoistically motivated observer would be expected to choose the option entailing the smallest personal cost…. An altruistically motivated observer, however, should be principally concerned with reducing the other's suffering" (Cialdini et al. 1987, p.750). The focus is always on the self, in other words and the intensity of the need to relieve one's personal pain, not the pain of the subject. 'True' empathy, after all, would mean that subjects were always willing to change places with Elaine even if they had the option of leaving and did not have to witness more shocks.

Cialdini suggests that…… [read more]

Cognitive Psychology Research Paper

… Cognitive psychology is stated to be "concerned with the advances in the study of memory, language processing, perception, problem solving and thinking" according to editor of the Journal of Cognitive Psychology, G.D. Logan. (2009) Logan states that areas of research in cognitive psychology include the areas relating to: (1) artificial intelligence; (2) developmental psychology; (3) linguistics; (4) neurophysiology; and (5) social psychology. (Logan, 2009) This work will identify four key milestones in the development of cognitive psychology as a discipline and will discuss the importance of behavioral observation in cognitive psychology.


Introspection was first stated by Wilhelm Wundt in a 1907 paper that criticized the Wurzburg psychologists' thought experiments. Wundt stated four rules for the introspective practice as follows: (1) the introspective observer must be able to decide for himself at what point to begin observing the mental process under investigation; (2) the observer must be in a state of heightened attention; (3) each observation must be repeated again and again under the same conditions; and (4) circumstances under which the phenomenon occurs must be investigated by varying the accompanying experimental situations. Wundt's rules and practices for scientific introspection are related to contemporary debates in cognitive science over the nature and proper use of introspection.

II. Behaviorism

The Behaviorist school of thought arose in a response to Wundt's introspection. This view is one described by John B. Watson as a view that is a "...purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness. The behaviorist, in his efforts to get a unitary scheme of animal response, recognizes no dividing line between man and brute. The behavior of man, with all of its refinement and complexity, forms only a part of the behaviorist's total scheme of investigation." (1878-1958)

III. Structuralism

Also a key milestone in the development of cognitive psychology was the school of thought referred to as Structuralism. Structuralism has as its focus the division of mental processes into the basic components. Difficulties noted with Structuralism included the fact that observers were highly trained however, there was no consistency in self-reporting across individuals and furthermore, the contents of reports were not observable and this led to difficulty in scientific study. John B. Watson states of Structuralism that while he did not wish to "... unduly...criticize psychology" that he believed that it had failed "to make its place in the world as an undisputed natural science. Psychology, as it is generally thought of, has something…… [read more]

Biological Psychology Essay

… Psychology - Biological Psychology


The Origin and Development of Biological Theories of Psychology:

The earliest known origin of biological theories of human psychology go back to antiquity, as much as a millennium before the Common Era. More recently, classical philosophers of the Middle Ages, and later, of the post-Enlightenment era considered the relationship of biology and human psychology in relation to concepts of free will, biological determinism, and moral responsibility (Pinker, 2002). In the 17th century, Rene Descartes postulated that all human behavior could be explained by a sufficiently detailed understanding of biological processes and systemic reactions (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2005).

In the 19th century, Paul Broca investigated the role of brain injury and abnormalities in relation to human speech. Broca was eventually able to establish through empirical evidence that a specific region of the brain was responsible for human speech; in connection with that discovery, the region was later named Broca's area in recognition of the importance of his foundational work in the field of biopsychology (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2005). At approximately the same time, the both the medical world and the emerging field of neuropsychology were advanced substantially by the accident that occurred to railway worker Phineas Gage in 1848.

Gage had been the victim of an explosion accident that caused a 3-foot, 7-inch steel rod to pierce his skull and lodge itself through his brain, its ends protruding from below his left eye socket and from the top of his skull in the area of the frontal cortex.

The fact that Gage survived in the pre-antibiotic era of medicine and before Lister's Germ Theory of disease was unexpected. The fact that he did provided some of the earliest evidence of the extent to which specific areas of the brain are responsible for specific aspects of human personality (Dennet, 1991). Gage survived the accident but with significant personality changes that were attributable directly to the destruction of a portion of his frontal cortex.

Major Underlying Assumption of Biological Theory of Psychology:

The major underlying assumptions of biological theories of psychology are that psychological behavior is merely the external expression of variations in biological structure, processes, and responses to stimuli. According to the bio-psychological or neurophysiological theory of human behavior, hard-wired elements of brain structure and other individual characteristics of biological structure determine the way that organisms respond to the external environment. This…… [read more]

Psychology - Freud the Freudian Perspective Essay

… Psychology - Freud


Explain Freud's views on the structure of personality and the functions of each of the structures he proposed.

Freud described the human mind as comprising three specific major components, each with distinct - and in some cases, conflicting - characteristics and functions (Gerrig and Zimbardo 2005). The "Id" corresponds to unexamined and unchecked human desires; consequently, it also represents the childhood phase of human personality development in which the individual relates to the external world exclusively in terms of wants. Freud emphasized the connection between the Id and the "pleasure principle" and suggested that it is the primary basis for the dominance of sexual pleasure, particular, in the hierarchy of human energy (Gerrig and Zimbardo 2005).

The "Super Ego" represents the polar opposite of the Id by virtue of its function to limit the degree to which the adult behavior is controlled by the Id (Pinker 2002). It equates with human moral conscience because it is responsible for maintaining learned social rules and the principles valued by parents and society. Freud conceived of the Super Ego as consisting of (1) the Ideal, representing behaviors known by the individual to be desired by parents and other authority figures, and (2) the conscience, representing the individual's innate need to comply with the Ideal. Therefore, the Super Ego is also the source of human guilt (Pinker 2002).

The "Ego" is a modulating force that, according to Freud, mediates between the unexamined wants of the Id and the limitations of the Super Ego. The Ego is synonymous with rationality and adulthood; more specifically, the Ego provides the proverbial "voice of reason" that keeps the individual from gravitating to close to either of the two polar extremes represented by the Id and the Super Ego (Gerrig…… [read more]

Psychology Master's Degree: Methodology Degree Concentration Term Paper

… Psychology Master's Degree: Methodology

Degree Concentration:
Master of Sciences in Interdisciplinary Studies with a concentration in

Degree Rationale:
By establishing a base education in Psychology that is centered in
interdisciplinary contexts, I anticipate creating a wide array of
opportunities… [read more]

Child Psychology Term Paper

… Child Psychology


The nature vs. nurture theory has been around since time immemorial. Academicians and great thinkers alike had been baffled by the mysteries of the human mind and the human being himself. So great is the mystery… [read more]

Organizational Behavior Has Emerged as a Prominent Term Paper

… Organizational behavior has emerged as a prominent field of study because of the desire of managers and leaders to better understand the intrinsic and extrinsic variables that shape the development and success of operations. While investigations into organizational behavior have… [read more]

Discovery of Psychology Term Paper

… Discovery of Psychology

At the end of the 19th century the basis of psychology as a science were laid by Wundt, William James, and Ribot. In general lines, across decades the points of interest seem to have remained the same while the perspective changed, focusing more and more upon the experimental approach.

In an article published in 1917, Pillsbury stated that at first, with some important exceptions, experiment has been confined to sensation, to Weber's Law, space perception and to reaction times. Ebbinghaus had worked on memory, while only preliminary experiments had been made upon association and the ideational processes. There were few studies on the physiological correlates of mental processes and most of the results obtained were found later to be incorrect. In the early period of psychology there was an interest to the central problems of science but the applications in various fields were completely neglected. For instance, even the educational problems were not considered in relation to this field.

After the developments in each field have been traced, it would be interesting to note the progress made for each domain (for instance, animal psychology, cognitive psychology etc.). The main areas of interest have been, from the beginning intelligence testing, personality, perception, emotion, how does the brain work etc. In time, this main areas of interest formed separate branches of psychology. For instance, neuropsychology, personality psychology, social psychology, statistics and methodology, developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, animal psychology, experimental psychology etc.

If we should refer to the major concerns in 19th century psychology, it is important to mention free will and consciousness. In the 20th century, the major moves in psychology made the greatest accomplishments. For instance, Freud and psychoanalysis recognized the importance of the unconscious, Skinner and behaviorism shifted the focus to what is observable and measurable: the human behavior and promoted important behavioral techniques to change behavior; Gestalt psychology was established by Wertheimer, focusing on the Gestalt or the unified or meaningful whole; according to this theory people are built to experience the structured whole as well as the…… [read more]

Psychology of Women Term Paper

… ¶ … Psychology in women [...] depression in women as a result of emotional, physical, and mental abuse. Psychologically, women are more likely to suffer from depression than men (Editors). Women suffer from depression for a variety of reasons, from… [read more]

Integrative Approaches to Psychology and Christianity Term Paper

… ¶ … integrative approach to psychology and Christianity

Entwistle, David N. An Integrative Approach to Psychology and Christianity. Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2004.

Faith and science, in contemporary culture, have been constructed as polarized hermeneutical frameworks. Psychology, an analytic discipline… [read more]

Depression Disorder Term Paper

… Depression Disorder


This paper is about depression. It will cover the DSM diagnostic criteria, and discuss the development of depression from two viewpoints, CBT (cognitive-behavioral therapy) and the biochemical and environmental components which are linked causative factors. This paper… [read more]

Psychology (Personality) Hypo-Egoic Self-Regulation: Exercising Self-Control Term Paper

… Psychology (Personality)

Hypo-egoic self-regulation: Exercising self-control by diminishing the influence of the self" by M. Leary, C. Adams and E. Tate

In this article by Leary et. al., the concept of hypo-egoic self-regulation was developed through an integration of different… [read more]

Education Psychology Theory Term Paper

… Psychology and Education

Psychological Counseling and Education

The 10th grade student looked at in this report, called Tom, was a quiet boy who played football because of his size. He was extremely intelligent, made good grades and seemed popular with the girls, though he appeared to be quiet and moody. Tom was known to have a temper that, along with his large size, made him mistrusted as a team-mate and feared as an opponent. He occasionally threw tantrums.

One day on the football field he grabbed a smaller boy from behind, wrapped his arms around him and clenching his hands together, lifted him high in the air and squeezed. A cracking noise was heard and the boy fell to the ground with internal injuries and a rib broken. Tom declared he had only been horsing around, but some of the other boys claimed he was angry at the boy for teasing him. It was not the first time Tom had been known to do something physical in retaliation for teasing.

The principal met with the School Board, court officials, a doctor and the school mental health counselor. Tom was removed from the football team, suspended from school and ordered to see a behavioral therapist for counseling.

Upon counseling, the mental health counselor reported that Tom, was an only child and his widowed mother was extremely controlling. She was an emotionally needy person and called him an unloving son because he was "cold and had no emotions." He ignored her most of the time, but she managed to control everything in his life. His constant reading annoyed her. She wanted him to be sports-minded like other boys. But he knew he was not like other boys and, since he was suspended, wanted to drop out of school.

His mother had been glad when he joined the football team and had bought him expensive clothing to wear to school. He liked name brand clothing. For punishment she had taken his good clothes and the phone away. She was so angry at him for being dropped from the team that she would not talk to him. In the past, she had gone for three days at a time without talking to him or doing anything for him, in order to punish him, even when he was small. He had had to find his own food, dress himself and go to bed by himself. This was the way she had controlled him from early on. Her silences had once made him down on his knees and beg her, weeping, to talk to him, but she would not until she felt he was sufficiently punished. When he was small she had tied him to the toilet until he voided every morning. Now that he was older, she controlled him and his temper by withdrawing love, clothes and contact with the outside world.

Erickson's psychosocial stage theory might explain Tom's behavior as it deals with the development of ego identity. Tom was not allowed to develop… [read more]

Anti-Psychology Theme Term Paper

… Anti-Psychology

Wherefore art thou, psychology? -- would psychology by any other name be as helpful?

Psychology is too pessimistic. Psychology is forgetting its great origins in the sweeping theories of Freud and has become too narrow in its focus. Psychology fails to deal with the reality of evil. Psychology is pseudoscience. Psychologists are incompetent. Psychology provides incompetent patients and criminal defendants with excuses for poor behavior, and a refuge from real life problems in New Age babble. Psychology is for the wealthy. Psychology is a symptom of a culture of mass consumption All of these allegations, some of which contradict one another, are reasons that psychology is in a crisis, says Carl Goldberg. As a solution to psychology's image problem, Goldberg provides the answer of a humanistic psychology that treats the individual to bring that individual into harmony with the community, and enables the patient to help others.

However, one issue that Goldberg touches upon, but does not explicitly tease out, is that his multiple critiques demonstrate that what is called psychology is not one, solidified discipline, although it may seem so in the popular imagination. The media has distorted the definition of psychology, and even therapists and patients use the term loosely. Some people who say they hate psychology only despise the popular, highly personalized, and often reductive 'Oprah' version of psychology, of the 'I love bad men because I was abused as a child,' school. Others critique increasingly neurological and pharmacological model that seems to people merely as constellations of neurotransmitters and symptoms. Goldberg instead envisions a world where people value their own "compassion and worthy" and are thus equipped to create a more just society for all human beings (Goldberg, 2000:681).

Ideally, psychology uses both tools of rehabilitation to treat the human mind and body. For example, increasingly, neither pills nor therapy alone seems to provide a full solution for many mental problems. Take manic depression, which was once thought to demand a fairly straightforward prescription for lithium, or a new variation of the drug. Now, therapists find "drugs are not effective enough...psychotherapy can help patients learn new coping styles and interpersonal habits," to contain their symptoms in combination with drug treatment (Marano, 2002). This relates Goldberg's rather sweeping claim to a specific instance. The treatment of both the human mind and brain chemistry of someone suffering from mania is required for effective alleviation of suffering and to make the person a productive member of society once again.

There is an imprecision to the correct balance of therapy, medication, and other treatments that will likely lack the cleanness of some of the other scientific disciplines, although it…… [read more]

Generally Speaking, Psychology Concerns Term Paper

… Generally speaking, psychology concerns the study of human behavior
and the processes and functions of the mind, especially related to the
social and physical environments in which humans live and work. There are
many branches of psychology, some being behavioral psychology, clinical
psychology, humanistic psychology and even animal psychology. Psychology is
also a profession that involves studying how and why human beings act as
they do in specific social situations as either individuals or groups.
Personally, psychology is one of the most fascinating of all the
social sciences, due to three important reasons. First, it reveals the
inner workings of the human mind which once understood can help a person in
many ways, such as interacting with other human beings in a social setting
or coming to understand why people behave as they do. Second, psychology
can be used in almost any human situation to help solve particular problems
related to the social environment. Third, psychology…… [read more]

Differentiate Between Normal Psychology and Abnormal Term Paper

… Psychology

Abnormal Psychology

Normal psychology (or psychoanalysis) is what most people think of when they think of the term psychology. It treats people with mild stresses or troubles, such as dissatisfaction with their work or home life, or some other aspects of their life or personality, and they seek professional help from a psychologist to help them understand themselves and their feelings with more depth. Psychology has five main perspectives: biological, learning, cognitive, sociocultural, and psychodynamic, and for the most part, psychologists study all of these areas and blend at least one or two into their own specialization. However, psychologists do more than treat patients. Psychology covers teaching, research, psychoanalysis, and much more, and there are many specialties inside psychology for psychologists to choose from, such as abnormal psychology.

Abnormal psychology, however, is the study of behaviors that deviate from the "norm," and so they are abnormal. Very simply, abnormal can be defined as "personal stress," but many people are stressed and that does not make them psychologically abnormal. What does make…… [read more]

Humanistic Psychology Today, People See Term Paper

… Humanistic Psychology

Today, people see a wide variety of psychologists and psychiatrists for their mental healthcare needs. Although all of these professionals have the same goal of providing the psychological care the clients/patients require, they use different approaches.

The value… [read more]

Abnormal Psychology Amnestic Syndrome Term Paper

… Abnormal Psychology

Amnestic syndrome is an abnormal mental state where all cognitive functions are intact except memory and learning. Amnestic disorders can be either transient or persistent and can be caused by accidents, trauma, seizures, alcohol, tumors, encephalitis, carbon monoxide… [read more]

Behavior Modification Techniques Applied to Overeating Term Paper

… ¶ … behavior modification techniques that can be applied to overeating. The writer explores overeating and produces a workable list of behavior modification techniques that might apply to a patient who has difficulty controlling food consumption. There were three sources used to complete this paper.

Almost nightly news reports across America tell society that it is overweight. Commercials for diet plans, exercise equipment and pills "guaranteed" to take off pounds feed a multibillion dollar industry designed to help people become thin. Yet, the nation as a whole continues to grow. The basic premise to maintaining a healthy weight is not to take in more calories than one expends with physical energy. On the surface it sounds like a simple concept however, when factors such as emotional problems, cravings, and sedentary lifestyles are added to the mix it is not difficult to understand why America is growing. "One-third of the U.S. population is currently considered obese, with a body mass index of 30 kg/[m.sup.2] or greater, and more than two-thirds are overweight, with BMIs at or above 25(Tucker, 2005)."As these statistics continue to rise the medical community continues to discover the long-term health issues that being overweight can cause. Within five years of losing large amounts of weight 90% of Americans gain it back. The key to permanent weight loss is not in a new drug, or piece of exercise equipment of a fad diet. The key to permanent weight loss and weight management is behavior modification.


Behavior modification is a tool that is widely used in the mental health field to help patients break the overeating habits they have developed.

Overeating is often caused by underlying psychological concerns or issues that can include:

Self-worth and satisfaction.

A sense of wealth or ease.

Safety and distance.


Sense of identity (Mulcahy, 2003)."

Understanding these benefits that overweight people gain from overeating is important as it can help set the stage to reduce overeating through behavior modifications.

Using behavior modification to prevent overeating involves the use of techniques to include self-monitoring, cognitive restructuring, social support, stress management and stimulus control. When these techniques are used effectively the incidence of overeating will be reduced and the chances of becoming overweight will be reduced.

For one to understand how behavior modification can work to reduce overeating one needs to have an understanding of behavior modification and how it works in general. Behavior modification is a technique used in the mental health field and classrooms around the world to change one's undesirable behaviors.

It promotes the belief that if one changes behaviors then desired results will soon follow which will in turn enforce the benefits of behavior modifications thereby strengthening the resolve to continue those behaviors (FOREYT, 2000).

There are many ways that behavior modification can be incorporated into the problem of overeating.

Overeating is often a difficult problem to address because the behavior modifications cannot include things that will help a person stop the activity completely. Unlike drug use, smoking cigarettes or… [read more]

Psychology and Critical Thinking Term Paper

… Psychology and Critical Thinking

Critical Thinking and Psychology

Critical thinking is the examination and test of propositions of any kind which are offered for acceptance, in order to find out whether they correspond to reality or not.... It is our only guarantee against delusion, deception, superstition, and misapprehension of ourselves and our earthly circumstances." William Graham Sumner spoke these words early in the 19th century and since then his influence in the field of critical thinking has grown. Educators today use critical thinking as a basic method of teaching and therapists using various cognitive-behaviorial techniques, use it to teach their clients to analyze their own thoughts and actions as a result of Sumner's guidance. (Sumner, 1963, 95) therapist, realizing that much of our thinking, left to itself, is biased, distorted, partial, uninformed or down-right prejudiced, and therefore may try to get his or her patient to think critically; that is, to stop manipulating ideas to make them fit interests, realizing that the quality of life, all the goals the patient produces, the relationships the patient makes, and the environments the patient builds around them depends precisely on the quality…… [read more]

Reality Therapy a New Approach to Psychiatry Term Paper

… ¶ … Reality Therapy; a New Approach to Psychiatry by Dr. William Glasser. The writer explores the book and its contents and holds it against other theories in the field of mental health to more fully explain Glasser's viewpoint. There… [read more]

Cognitive-Behavior and Reality Therapies Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Term Paper

… Cognitive-Behavior and Reality Therapies

Cognitive-Behavior Therapy

Behavior Therapy began with Dr. Joseph Wolpe in the United States and his parallel in England, Hans Eysenck. Later, combined with Cognitive Therapy, it was termed Cognitive- Behavior Therapy by Ellis (1962), Beck (1975)… [read more]

Classical Conditioning and Phobia Treatment Fear Term Paper

… Classical Conditioning and Phobia Treatment

Fear is a natural, human emotion. Psychologists have long believed that fear of the unknown protected our ancestors from engaging in reckless and life-threatening behavior. Ancient humans who had a healthy sense of fear in… [read more]

Is Psychology a Science? Term Paper

… Psychology

The Science of Psychology

Various subjects have been studied scientifically since the 17th century. As science developed, it came to be considered as the only valid way to understand the world and its workings. However, trying to understand the… [read more]

NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.