"Psychology / Behavior / Psychiatry" Essays

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Cardsmax Abramson, R. ) Annotated Bibliography

6 pages (1,753 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… Secondly, he reminds us that 'mourning processes in psychotics' are not always 'psychotic mourning processes', that is to say, that they do not necessarily occur within, or give rise to, a psychotic clinical picture. These ideas are illustrated by a number of sessions and vignettes concerning two psychotic patients in psychotherapeutic and psychoanalytic treatment. In theoretical terms, it seems vitally important in this context to combine a relationship-based approach within a framework of special psychoanalytic psychopathology with an updated view of processes of mourning and affective loss.

Witkiewitz, K., & Marlatt, G. (2010). Behavioral Therapy Across the Spectrum. Alcohol Research & Health, 33(4), 313. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

This article discusses that there are numerous effective behavioral therapies have been developed that can bring the treatment to the patient rather than bringing the patient to treatment. These behavioral therapy techniques, which can provide effective treatment across the spectrum of severity of alcohol abuse disorders, include facilitated self-change, individual therapies, couples and family approaches, and contingency management. New methods of delivery and successful adjuncts to existing behavioral treatments also have been introduced, including computerized cognitive -- behavioral treatments, Web-based guided self-change, and mindfulness-based approaches. Although a wide variety of behavioral approaches have been shown to have good efficacy, choosing the treatment most appropriate for a given patient remains a challenge for most therapists.… [read more]

Theory Application Substance Abuse Research Paper

8 pages (2,668 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

… Theory Application Substance Abuse

Over the last several years, the issue of substance abuse has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because there have been tremendous amounts of people that are being impacted by a wide variety of drugs. This is despite that fact that billions of dollars have been spent on educating… [read more]

Typology to Correlative Assessment Research Paper

2 pages (556 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… For example, areas of stratification could include the comparison (ideally in a highly quantifiable method, which may be hard to determine with a high degree of accuracy simply due to the subject matter and the subjectivity through which such information can be gained from patients) of such fundamental principles of cognitive therapy including over-generalization, minimizing and maximizing the importance of certain events which induce a state of depression, as well as dichotomous thinking, which occurs when depressed subjects believe something is either extremely positive or extremely negative, with no degree of overlap between these two thoughts (Beck, 1963). By codifying patients who suffer from such occurrences, and quantifying both the amount and the degree of sufferance endured due to such specific causes, it would be possible to identify patterns or themes existing in such data for those who were treated with cognitive therapy and for those who were treated with conventional methods of mitigating symptoms of depression.

The obtaining of such trends which occurred within the respective data sets, of course, could be used in an actuarial sense to then indicate which of the aforementioned methods is most efficacious for mitigating the circumstances of depression. The probability and rate of incidence of improvement or dearth of improvement of each form of depression as evidenced by the respective treatments could be easily quantified and applied to patients in manner which could be beneficial to them.


Beck, A. (1963). Thinking And Depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 14, 324-33.

Spradley, J.P. (1980).…… [read more]

Gordon Willard Allport Research Paper

9 pages (2,834 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… The fact that everyone has these feelings supports the idea that one trait may be dominant in one situation and another in another situation (Allport, 1937a).

In order to connect the traits and dispositions in order to make them work together, Allport developed the concept of the proprium. The proprium is the integrating aspect of personality that other psychologists have… [read more]

Organizational Behavior What Is the Boss Up Discussion and Results Chapter

2 pages (606 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Organizational Behavior

What is the Boss up against in relation to Bartleby? What does Bartleby represent? Who are the major players in the story? What do we know about them? Are they likable? Sympathetic? Realistic?

Bartleby's employer is dealing with the hopes that this person can help to represent a change in the atmosphere of his office. As the other two scriveners are moody and often bring added amounts of drama to the business. Bartleby represents the sense of hope and disappointment of the narrator for this character. The major players of the story include: the narrator, Nippers, Turkey and Bartleby. We know that Nippers suffers from chronic indigestion, Turkey is alcoholic and Bartleby is an underachiever. The only character that is likable is the narrator. There is no sympathy for them. This is because they all have various hang ups that effects their quality of life. The story is not realistic, due to the fact that the narrator moves his business when Bartleby refuses to stop living there. No one should allow this to happen. (Melville, 2006)

What is the function of the story's minor characters?

They are helping to support the underlying plot of the story and the complex relationships between the main characters. (Melville, 2006)

How does the Boss react when Bartleby repeatedly refuses to perform his duties? What is the Boss's dilemma?

He is surprised at first. Then, he begins to have a sense of sympathy. The Boss's dilemma is that he is letting his sympathy for Bartleby affect his business (which is creating added expenses and frustrations). (Melville, 2006)

Why does the Boss have sympathy for Bartleby? What do you recommend the Boss do?

The reason why the Boss has sympathy for Bartleby is because, he believes that he has been through a number of bad situations that…… [read more]

Human Psychology Compare and Contrast the Parental Essay

4 pages (1,437 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… ¶ … Human Psychology

Compare and contrast the parental and child behaviours commonly attributed to each attachment style in relation to the three attachment styles and the "Strange Situation" scenario.

A large volume of research was conducted during the second half of the 20th century on the different styles of psychological attachment between parents and children. The principal findings of… [read more]

Cultural Psychology Two Cultural Groups Term Paper

10 pages (2,646 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

… 2: Apparatus

The data for the experimental research analysis was collected by using the tool of focus groups. As the two samples are located in the two entirely different parts of the world so in order to accumulate timely and fast result it was advisable to opt for the data collection method that can be easily analyzed. The focus group… [read more]

Procrastination: A Coping Mechanism Research Paper

4 pages (1,376 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… It is this latter reality that creates such a negative perspective on the cause of procrastination. Generally speaking the most probable cause is agreed upon as a coping mechanism for stress and anxiety. However, no one really elaborates on the reality that this stress/anxiety could arise for a number of reasons. In some cases, the procrastinator could be stressed or anxious about starting or completing a task but in other cases the procrastinator could be stressed or anxious about not having enough time (and thus can't seem to start) or be a perfectionist who works much better under deep pressure at the last minute, thus, he/she is too stressed to start too early Coping mechanisms are often really healthy implementations in life as stress management tools. A procrastinator may be simply coping with a very busy schedule and procrastination, thus, serves as a way to prioritize his/her schedule and goals. The problem is that not everyone will take the same perspective about priorities, especially if he/she is affected in the procrastination.

For example, a procrastinator may put off his/her role in a group project till the last minute because he/she has two children to care for and needs to pick up extra shifts at work to pay the bills. Perhaps, a procrastinator may put off his/her family responsibility (i.e. grocery shopping for a disabled relative or taking a relative to dinner) because he/she has a role in a group project that needs to be complete. Chances are that the procrastinator has weighed the options and prioritize what he/she needs to do in light of the evidence and, yet, the person(s) being put off probably think negatively of the procrastinator. However, it was a coping mechanism to deal with the stress of having multiple things to do and choosing the best way to prioritize.

Often the pressure of choosing how to prioritize makes a person procrastinate everything and just stay home to do entirely nonessential things like clean house, watch a build-up of shows on DVR, or bake, or some other task that is less important than the tasks or goals or decisions needing to be started/completed, achieved, or made, respectively, but soothing to the procrastinator in a time of stress. Chun Chu and Jin Nam (2011) are seeking to provide the different perspective on the root of procrastination as a behavior, believing that not all procrastination is debilitating or dysfunctional. They suggest (instead) that procrastination has some positive potential and does not always lead to negative consequences, but may in fact have some positive consequences in some cases (Chun Chu and Jin Nam 2011). In making their case, the authors differentiate between what they call passive procrastinators and active procrastinators, identifying the two in terms of using procrastination, respectively, as a pathological mechanism that emerges from a debilitating fear/anxiety about starting/completing tasks that leads to equally debilitating consequences or a more intentional method of engaging the pressure and subsequent adrenaline that comes with working at the last minute under pressure… [read more]

Procrastination Introduction- for Psychologist Research Paper

3 pages (1,041 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… Then, if failure results, the individual can say, "It was not my fault, they made me do it this way" (Ferrari, Johnson and McCown).

Temporal Motivation Theory (TMT) -- This theory represents the most recent thinking in the psychological community regarding procrastination. It represents the act of procrastination as a sliding scale of motivation, or Motivation = Expectancy X Value/Impulsiveness X Delay. This theory is called utility in other subjects -- the higher the utility, the greater the preference. In the contemporary world, we are constantly needing to make decisions based on various condequences of behavior and action. We therefore put off unpleasant tasks until the last moment, choosing instead to fulfill our primary, social needs. Modern individuals also want immediate and direct feedback; by procrastinating tasks that are unpleasant, we also delay any unpleasantness or potential for unpleasantness into the future where, ostensibly, we will be more equipped to deal with whatever issue we are avoiding (Pychyl).

Conclusions -- Of course, different people procrastinate for different reasons. Many people are relaxed about their responsibilities, and negatively avoid them by placing emphasis on other tasks. Students may prefer social time rather than homework; many see tasks as too huge to tackle. This typc of procrastinator continuously avoids situations that would cause any displeasure (Tuker-Ladd). Alternatively, the tense and afraid personaly constantly feels overwhelmed with pressure, is unrealistic about time, and have a sense of malaise, and "why bother," and constant doubt. This group feels such self-animosity that they believe they cannot even start a project because they are incapable. They will say they have grand plans, but continue to "relax" until it is impossible to even start a mediocre plan, let alone a plan that might actually be great (Steel).

Thus, as part of the human condition, procrastination is part of our unique ability to choose, to rank, and to organize a working hierarchy. This hierarchy is of a sliding schedule and is not really abnormal behavior until or unless it becomes chronic or has regular, detrimental, consequences. The irony, too, is that many procrasinators have trouble seeking help or treatment because they are task-averse to even trying to get help -- they procrastinate the very task that would allow them to overcome the disability (Ferrari, Still Procrastinating?).

Works Cited

Ariely, D. And K. Wertenbroch. "Procrastination, Deadlines and Performance." Psychological Sciences 13.3 (2002): 219-24.

Burka, Y. Procrastination: WHy You Do It. New York: DaCapo Press, 2008.

Ferrari, J. Still Procrastinating? New York: Wiley, 2010.

Ferrari, J., K. Johnson and W. McCown. Procrastination and Task Avoidance: Theory, Research and Treatment. New York: Plenum Press, 1995.

Pychyl, T. "Temporal Motivation Theory." 27 March 2008. Pyschology Today. March 2011 .

Rosner, S. And P. Hermes. The Self-Sabotage Cycle. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2006.

Schraw, G., T. Wadkins and L. Olafson. "Doing the Things We Do: A Grounded Theory of Academic Procrastination." Jounral of Educational Psychology 99.1 (2007): 12-25.

Steel, P. "The nature of Procrastination: A Meta-Analytic Approach and Theroretical review." Pyschological Bulletin 133.1 (2007):… [read more]

Hermeneutical Analysis of Psychotherapy as a Cultural Research Paper

9 pages (2,945 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… ¶ … Hermeneutical Analysis of Psychotherapy as a Cultural Artifact:

A Metabletical Approach

The world and the events that are contained therein are not static; everyone would acknowledge this as fact. A simple reading of history would say that this is so. Also, due to evolutionary variability, living things (animals and plants) have changed over the course of world history.… [read more]

Panic Disorder Term Paper

16 pages (4,240 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 15

… Panic Disorder


Panic disorder is a comparatively heterogeneous disorder, with its center characteristic, the knowledge of frequent unanticipated panic attacks, surrounding a diversity of somatic, physiological, and cognitive indications that can vary from patient to patient. There are three basic kinds of panic attacks portrayed in the DSM-IV: situationally bound, unexpected and situationally predisposed. Panic disorder with or without… [read more]

Psychology Identify Essay

2 pages (948 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Psychology

Identify and describe the four main theories of motivation. Explain arguments against three of the theories.

Motivation pushes human beings to achieve goals and fulfill tasks. Four of the more important theories are: the theory of the hierarchy of needs, the two factors theory, the incentive theory and the self-determination theory.

The theory of hierarchy of needs is when individuals are motivated to perform various actions in a particular order. This based upon their survival being the most important. To accomplish this, they have to fulfill the needs in the lower categories to include: biological, safety, affection / love, esteem and self-actualization. (Cherry, 2011)

The two factors theory holds that two constant elements (hygiene and motivators), will have an impact upon individual behavior. If hygiene factors are absent, dissatisfaction will occur. This is because various elements such as: conditions and interpersonal relationships will be affected. Motivators provide an incentive to improve the environment, by giving an individual a number of reasons to engage in positive actions that will benefit the organization / themselves. (Murphy, 1996) This is important, because the two principals are outlining some of the basics everyone will require to be successful. An argument against this theory is that, these factors are addressing some of the underlying needs. Yet, they are not specifically saying how you can continually challenge people.

Under the incentive theory, a reward should be given after a positive trait or behavior occurs. The idea is to create favorable views about particular actions, by giving someone positive re-enforcement. At which point, they will associate the anticipation of a reward with certain actions and behaviors. An argument against this theory is that the above techniques can be difficult to execute. ("Incentive Theory," n.d.)

The self-determination theory is when you are looking at a person's growth and various psychological needs based upon external influences. The idea is that by examining these different elements, you can be able to fully understand how the environment could have an impact upon behavior. According to Deci and Ryan, "The primary factors that encourage motivation and development are autonomy, competence feedback along with relatedness." (Deci & Ryan, 1985) an argument against this theory is that it is not looking at: specific genetic factors and the role that it could play on someone's personality.

Identify and describe the five stages of Freud's theory of personality development. Describe the psychological problems that may arise during the first three stages.

The five stages of Freud's theory of personality development are: oral / dependency, anal, phallic, latency and genital. Oral / dependency, takes place from birth to the age of two years old. During this stage, an infant explores the environment using their mouth. If their needs remain unsatisfied, the individual will exhibit them later on life (such as: overeating, smoking or drinking).The anal stage is when the child…… [read more]

Personality Theory of Elvis Presley Term Paper

5 pages (1,746 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Personality Theory of Elvis Presley

Elvis is well-known around the world for his music, eccentric clothes and a presentation approach like no other. Yet, something he is possibly less known for was his kindness towards others. He often gave gifts ranging from cars to diamond covered watches. His gifts were given as a symbol of his love to those around… [read more]

Motivation and Emotion Development Term Paper

2 pages (508 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… ¶ … Psychology

Peer Rejection

The issue of peer rejection and the effects it can have on individuals and the communities of which they are part are touched on briefly on page 413, chapter 12 of the textbook, but they are not really explored in depth. The website education.com discusses these issues in greater depth in an article found at the URL http://www.education.com / reference/article/consequences-peer-rejection/, and cites studies that have found that rejected students are seven times more likely to fail a grade than are popular students, and furthermore that they are four times more likely to drop out of school before the tenth grade (education.com 2010). There is a much more in depth discussion of the problems that rejected children face than is provided in the textbook, yet at the same time there is still a relative lack of an explanation for how social rejection leads to the decreased academic performance and other issues that have been correlated with peer rejection on a sustained scale.

This suggests that the causal mechanisms of the phenomenon are not really understood; there is a great deal of correlations that has been found between early behavioral problems and later peer rejection, and between peer rejection and feelings of loneliness, depression, and at times ultimately aggression, but research has apparently been unable to establish direct causal links between these observations (education.com 2010). It would be interesting to conduct research into this area to examine and describe exactly how the psychological effects of peer rejection lead to the academic…… [read more]

Respondent Behavior and Operant Term Paper

2 pages (580 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Therefore, Skinner believes that positive reinforcement will cause individuals to think about how their actions worked together to produce the desired outcome, how they can increase the frequency of the outcome, and how they can increase the amplitude of the outcome. For example, negative reinforcement and punishment teach the individuals that A+B=C where A is the individual's action, B is the context of the situation, and C. is the negative outcome. With positive reinforcement, the individual will not only realize that A+B=C but he or she think about the constituents that make up A and B. Therefore, the individual can take into account what parts of the equation he or she can control and how he or she can affect the various parts to increase the eventual sum.

3) How are Skinner's Learning Theory and Bandura's Social-Cognitive Theory the same? How are they different? Some have said that Bandura's theory is more useful than Skinner's when looking at human behavior across the lifespan. Do you agree? Why or why not?

Both Skinner and Bandura believe that individuals' behaviors can be caused by external cues. In other words, individuals' reactions are strongly affected by their environment. Skinner differed from Bandura in that Skinner believed that the effect of the environment was outside the control of the individual and that in many ways individuals were unable to determine their responses. Bandura, however, believes that individuals respond to their environment based on their internal cues such as intrinsic motivations and psychological processes. Therefore, the person not only responds to their environment but can control their response to it and… [read more]

Jane Psychological (Psychoanalytic) Perspective According to Huffman Case Study

2 pages (558 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… ¶ … Jane

Psychological (psychoanalytic) perspective

According to Huffman (2009), the purposes of psychology can be defined according to a four-step process. The first basic goal of the discipline is descriptive in nature. The first goal of a psychologist is to describe the behaviors that are occurring, the second goal is to explain them, the third is to predict the likelihood of what behaviors will occur in the future, and the final goal is to change the behaviors to prevent unwanted outcomes and encourage more desirable goals.

In the case of Jane, from a purely descriptive point-of-view from a psychoanalytic perspective, the therapist is confronted with a young woman whose life has almost been entirely defined by negative relationships with men. Her father was alternately abusive and overly compliant, depending on how Jane was able to use her feminine 'wiles' with him. Freud would see Jane's behaviors as the result of an unresolved Electra complex, where a young woman, after being frustrated that she cannot 'possess' her mother because she lacks a penis, views her father as a kind of surrogate, masculine-derived source of phallic power.

This relationship with the father is then transferred to the young woman's relationships with other men (the cause of Jane's pregnancy and unfulfilling marriage). Jane is likely to be the victim of abuse again, unless she can understand the causes of her behavior and find a relationship that does not replicate her relationship with her father. A psychoanalyst would likely use free associative techniques to help Jane get to the real, root cause of her negative relationships with men.


The behaviorist BF Skinner focused on external, rather than internal causes of human…… [read more]

Media Negatively Affects the Body Research Paper

4 pages (1,518 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

… References

Anschutz, D.J., Van Strien, T., & Engels, R.C. (2008). Exposure to Slim Images in Mass Media: Television Commercials as Reminders of Restriction in Restrained Eaters. Health Psychology. 27(4); 401-408.

Cheng, H.L. & Mallinckrodt (2009). Parental Bonds, Anxious Attachment, Media Internalization, and Body Image Dissatisfaction: Exploring a Mediation Model. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 56(5); 365-375.

Clark, L., & Tiggemann, M. (2008). Sociocultural and Individual Psychological Predictors of Body Image in Young Girls: A Prospective Study. Developmental Psychology. 44(4); 1124-1134.

Dohnt, H. & Tiggemann, M. (2006). The Contribution of Peer and Media Influences to the Development of Body Satisfaction and Self-Esteem in Young Girls: A Prospective Study. Developmental Psychology. 42(5); 929-936.

Grabe, S., Ward, M., & Hyde, J.S. (2008). The Role of the Media in Body Image Concerns Among Women: A Meta-Analysis of Experimental and Correlational Studies. Psychological Bulletin. 134(3); 460-476.

Trampe, D., Siero, F.W., & Stapel, D.A. (2007). On Models and Vases: Body Dissatisfaction and Proness to Social Comparison Effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 92(1); 106-118.

Paxton, S.J., & Schutz, H.K. (1999). Friendship Clique and Peer Influences on Body Image Concerns, Dietary Restraint, Extreme Weight-Loss Behaviors, and Binge Eating in Adolescent Girls. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 108(2); 255-266.

Stice, E., Schupak-Neuberg, E.,…… [read more]

Health Care Law Relating to Psychiatry Article Review

3 pages (953 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Health Care Law Relating to Psychiatry

Informed Consent & Ethical issues in Paediatric Psychopharmacology

Savita Malhotra and Subodh B.N.

Indian Journal of Medical Research; Jan2009, Vol. 129 Issue 1,

Concerns involving informed consent and ethics in paediatric psychopharmacology often lessen the research that is done in children. Children differ in their stages of cognitive growth, and incidence of psychiatric illness may additionally harm their capability to provide informed consent. For people who are impaired to make decisions there are a number of methods that can be used to obtain consent. These include advance directives and substitute decision-makers. India is rising as a fresh area for clinical trials in modern years. In addition, in India the socio-cultural norms are dissimilar from those in the western world requiring it essential for researchers to be careful in carrying out drug trials there. In this article, the authors look at concerns concerning informed consent in children with psychiatric illnesses. Conversation and debate by experts, families, and the public and legal professionals is being used to generate consciousness and to assist in the advancement of strategies that are suitable and appropriate to the Indian culture.

Drugs have to be examined in children in order to establish their security and effectiveness. Drug examinations in adults might not sufficiently forecast the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic or toxicity of drugs in children as they grow. Maturation can modify the kinetics, stop organ reaction and change the toxicities of drugs in a child as compared to an adult. Things that are good for adults may not always be useful or well accepted by children. Despite considerable and growing utilization of the psychotropic medication in children, there are just a small number of these drugs that have been examined for effectiveness and safety. When new drugs are initiated following clinical trials in adults, physicians are often confronted with the predicament to either deny children of the new drugs or put them in danger of an unproven drug that may or may not be effective as it is in adults.

The main point of undergoing paediatric study is the lack of the essential capability in children that is required for informed consent. In the past, ethical rules to guard humans throughout scientific examination were put into place in acknowledgment of past mistreatment of human s and the recognized need to guard people's human rights. Federal rules prevailing over the guard of humans were put into place in 1974 in America.

The behavior of investigation in children carries with it the identical ethical responsibilities as studies in adults do. Yet, children make up a particularly susceptible population against infringement of their personal rights and contact with unwarranted dangers. This circumstance inflicts extraordinary contemplations when inviting participation in studies, looking at benefits and risks in clinical studies. The concern is additionally convoluted when study is to be carried out on the…… [read more]

Issues and Ethics Assessment

4 pages (1,439 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Person-centered therapy brings a highly non-directive approach to the therapeutic relationship. In an outcomes-based approach, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, the therapist sets goals with the patient for the various sessions, often gives the patient behavioral 'homework' to do between the sessions, and sets a defined goal for the therapeutic process itself. The person-centered or Rogerian therapist instead offers unconditional… [read more]

Positive Psychology Progress the Dynamics of Daily Events and Well-Being Essay

2 pages (640 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Psychology

Positive psychology has grown tremendously over the last five years. In the article Positive Psychology Progress (2005), the researchers reviewed new advances in the area, including manuscripts, conferences, classes, and meetings. They also discussed the recently fashioned categorization of character powers and qualities, an optimistic balance to the variety of versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and presented some cross-cultural conclusions that propose an amazing presence of forces and virtues. The researchers also centered on psychological involvements that amplify individual contentment. In a six group randomly assigned, placebo restricted Internet study; the authors examined five alleged happiness interferences and one reasonable control application.

They authors established that three of the interferences enduringly augmented happiness and reduced depressive indicators. Positive interferences were found to supplement traditional interventions that relieved anguish. It was also found that there are specific interventions that make people lastingly happier. The authors think that this study embraces inferences, small and large, for the outlook of optimistic interferences and maybe for clinical interferences. They operationalized and looked at five contentment interferences to a placebo control in a considerable randomly assigned test, and established that two interferences, writing about three positive items that took place each day and why they occurred, and utilizing signature forces of character in a new method that made people happier and less depressed up to six months afterwards. Another intervention, the appreciation visit, fashioned big optimistic alterations but only for about a month. Six months is thought to be far from happily ever after, but the results put forward that lasting amplified happiness might be likely even outside of fairy tales. Effect sizes were modest or bigger, which is at odds with the extensive conviction that the chase of contentment is useless because of predictable variation.

In the article The Dynamics of Daily Events and Well-Being Across Cultures: When Less Is More (2007), the researchers looked at cultural and…… [read more]

Freud and Beyond a History of Modern Psychoanalytic Thought Term Paper

6 pages (2,064 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… ¶ … Sigmund Freud to the science and art of modern psychology. His frame is based on expanding humankind's knowledge of itself, and the systematic forces that influence day-to-day behaviors. In his study of the inner mental human behavior, Freud demonstrated that the hysterical system could consistently be traced to highly emotional experience which had been repressed and excluded from… [read more]

Exposure in Vivo Therapy for Agoraphobia Term Paper

4 pages (1,319 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… Exposure Therapy for Agoraphobia



Agoraphobia is an anxiety or panic disorder of intense fear of places where escape is perceived as difficult or help unavailable (Medline Plus, 2010; Sanderson, 2010). These places include crowds, bridges, stores, restaurants, movie theaters, areas of travel or simply being alone in the outside world. A person with this disorder avoids these places and situations out of fear of a panic attack. A panic attack is an episode of intense fear or discomfort with specific symptoms, followed by a period of about a month of anxiety about going through the same experience. A change in behavior may also develop. Among common symptoms are rapid heartbeat, sweating, chest pain or discomfort, trembling or shaking, shortness of breath, a feeling of choking, nausea, dizziness, numbing, chills and fear of losing control or dying. Agoraphobia often accompanies a panic disorder or attack. Current annual figures estimate that 1-3.5% of the population will experience a panic disorder (Medline Plus, Sanderson).

Agoraphobia often occurs when a person with a previous panic attack begins to fear situations, which can lead to another panic attack (Medline Plus, 2010). It can develop at any age but is most common at age 25 and more often among women than men. Symptoms of agoraphobia include being housebound for long periods, dependence on others, fear of being alone, feeling of helplessness and perception of the body or the environment is unreal. The person feels that he is seriously ill or dying. He may also go to the emergency room in the belief that he is about to have a heart attack. Diagnosis includes a physical examination and psychological evaluation. Problems involving the heart, hormones, breathing, the nervous system and substance abuse must first be ruled out. Treatment depends on the severity. Current standard therapy is cognitive-behavioral therapy or CBT combined with anti-depressant medication (Sanderson, 2010). It entails up to 20 visits with a mental health professional for a regimen for a change of thought patterns, which cause agoraphobia. Treatment must, however, be started early and effective to achieve satisfactory results. Complications include the risks of self-medication, loss of functioning at work or social situations, and feelings of isolation, loneliness, depression and suicidal thoughts. Exposure is the final component of CBT, which brings the person to confront the object of anxiety, whether external situations or internal sensations. Through repeated exposures, the person develops appropriate coping mechanics in responding to similar situations without anxiety or panic. The therapist exposes the patient to a list of feared situations in a progressive and systematic manner. She guides him in the use of coping skills before the situations (Sanderson).

A meta-analytic review of 42 psychological treatments of panic disorder proved their efficacy in cases of agoraphobia and related conditions (Sanchez-Meca, 2009). The most effective was the combination of exposure -- interoceptive and in vivo -- therapy, relaxation training or breathing retraining techniques (Sanchez-Meca). A randomized controlled comparison was also conducted on the effects of the three… [read more]

Depth Psychology and Contemporary Culture Essay

4 pages (1,119 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Carl Jung's theory of the structure of personality is rooted in the notion of a universal and inherited collective unconscious. The archetypes that are generated from this collective unconscious can essentially be explained as predispositions to behave a certain way. In this case, the patient archetype is the magical/innocent child archetype, based on his need for escapism beginning in middle childhood (he began using drugs at age 8), and his transient and non-committal behaviors throughout his life. However, as Bennett (2010) text points out, "In the real world, there is nothing romantic or magical about psychotic disorders" (p. 76).

Jung (1968) was intrigued by the dichotomy of the child archetype as one in which the psyche would appear to reside in the past, but is actually focusing toward the future. In Jung's own words, "Since the child is essentially a potential being, the child motif in the psychology of the individual signifies generally the anticipation of future, even though the motif appears to operate in a retrospective manner" (p. 164). Essentially then, the child is a prospective configuration, or an image of the archetype of the potential future. Simply put, the "potential future" is the archetype, and the "child" is an apposite image of that archetype. From a Jungian perspective, the fantasies of the patient, including his dreams, are symbolic representations of the patient's own potential future. It is ultimately this sense of futurity that integrates the diversity of selves and sets forth the foundation for psychological maturity. As such, "the child motif is explained as a symbol that unites the opposites in one's personality, in that it anticipates the figure that comes from a synthesis of conscious and unconscious elements" (Jung, 1968, p. 164).

The patient's lifelong drug use, in addition to his lack of familial ties and failed marriages, is illustrative of his disassociation with intimacy and maturity. These qualities are likely rooted in a fear of abandonment, which is a common childhood fear, in conjunction with his apprehension toward achieving psychic independence. According to Schmidt (1986) the Jungian model which elevates the prepersonal to the transpersonal asserts that "development is seen as moving from a transpersonal, 'heavenly' source to its culmination in an alienated state of sinful personhood" (p. 45). Accordingly, the patient's disassociation with mainstream society is, from a Jungian perspective, parallel to the "alienated state of sinful personhood" which opts for escapism over reality. The patient's lifestyle choices are therefore a manifestation of suppression (as opposed to repression), thus allowing him to "mobilize [his] resources to deal with the stressor on [his] own terms" (Bennett, 2010, p. 68).

It is inadvisable, however, to automatically attach this diagnosis to the patient based on his archetype alone. Jung considered the collective unconscious to be comprised of archetypes composed of an assortment of motifs that have evolved in humans in sync with the human evolutionary process. Because these archetypes have evolved with humanity, they have become ubiquitous. However that does not mean that each individual does not have… [read more]

Applied Behavior Analysis Methodology Functions Assessment

6 pages (1,812 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Applied Behavior Analysis methodology functions to understand certain behaviors and modify undesirable psychological characteristics not only at the individual level, but also at the collective level. (for society-at-large) When pertaining to the individual, ABA is most oft used in the treatment of autism related disorders, but also informs experts about how to modify behaviors related to AIDS, natural resource conservation,… [read more]

Addictive Behavior Research Paper

3 pages (1,114 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… Treatment Planning

Addictive Behaviors

Treatment Planning and Depression

Treatment Planning

Suicide rates among current and former military personnel are astounding in comparison to non-military populations. In fact, suicides of military personnel make up 20% of all suicides in the United States (Wells et al., 2010). The deployment of a soldier places unique stress on the individual and their family. This can be particularly complicated in an individual who is at risk for mental health issues such as depression or anxiety (Wells et al., 2010). Male soldiers who have experienced combat are at an increased risk of developing major depressive disorders (Wells et al., 2010) In order to effectively prevent suicide in these individuals, several steps will need to be taken including screening, assessment, treatment planning, and treatment engagement.

The screening and assessment process will need to clarify diagnoses, ruling out Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) which is present in many military personnel who have been exposed to combat areas. In order to clarify diagnosis, the clinician must complete a thorough history as well as a clinical interview to determine if there are underlying mental health issues that place the individual at greater risk for the development of PTSD, depression, or suicidal tendencies during deployment. Screening tools such as the Post-Deployment Health Assessment, Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD as well as depression scales such as the Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale can be useful in ratings of depression and overall mental health and are easy to score and interpret. A thorough suicide risk assessment will also be administered as this individual has endorsed suicidal ideation.

An initial crisis intervention plan should be implemented in order to ensure that the individual has the resources necessary to intervene and prevent suicide behaviors. At the heart of this plan is the individual's ability to identify high risk thoughts or situations that may trigger depressive episodes or suicidal behaviors. Interventions included in this plan should identify friends and/or family that can lend support when crises occur. It will also include community resources such as information regarding the toll free suicide prevention hotline [HIDDEN] TALK) which was established by veteran affairs to provide trained counselors 24/7 to veterans experiencing emotional crisis. The individual will also be provided with information regarding local emergency mental health providers in case of severe situations.

During the assessment process the clinician should consider issues such as chronic illness, decreased activities of daily living, significant loss, and underlying mental health issues (Owens et al., 2009). Military personnel also experience unique risk factors for depression such as the ending of active duty, older age, enlistment status, length of deployment and exposure to combat. The Major goal of the assessment process is to determine which if any depressive disorders are present as well as to differentiate between PTSD and depression in this individual due to the high comorbidity rates (American Psychiatric Association [DSM-IV-TR], 2000).

In the treatment planning process, one must identify which courses of treatment make the most sense given the… [read more]

James Hillman Archetypal Psychology Reaction Paper

6 pages (1,565 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… ¶ … James Hillman's Re-Visioning Psychology is so expansive and far-reaching that it is difficult to know where to begin a response to this work. Essentially trying to develop a brand new system of psychology, Hillman puts forth his argument that the varying brands of psychology developed over the course of the twentieth century fail to capture the truth of… [read more]

Young Man, Steven. We Analyze His Behavior Case Study

7 pages (2,015 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… ¶ … young man, Steven. We analyze his behavior and habits and draw possible conclusions on what are the key factors that led him to suffer from depression as well as decision making problems. His peers are also evaluated in order to come up with a definitive conclusion on the actual issues that might be affecting his behavior. We present… [read more]

Stability of Personality Traits in Individuals With Borderline Personality Disorder Article Critique

3 pages (927 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… ¶ … Stability of Personality Traits in Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder

Hopwood, C.J. (et al. 2009, November). The stability of personality traits in individuals with borderline personality disorder. Abnormal Psychology, 118(4):806-15.

'Personality disorders' have a problematic diagnostic history in the literature of psychiatry. The idea of defining someone's 'character' has plagued philosophers as well as research psychologists throughout the ages. Behind the characteristics defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) as Axis II 'personality disorders' (PDs) there is an assumption of a certain level of character stability in individuals classified as having schizoid personality disorder or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. One of the most controversial disorders defined by the DSM is that of borderline personality disorder (BPD), commonly characterized by an abnormal instability of personality traits and behaviors, rather than a state of abnormal stability.

Often individuals with a diagnosis of BPD seem to defy characterization: occasionally they seem to embody the textbook criterion for the illness and at other times wildly deviate from it. They may show the characteristic idealization followed by reviling of individuals in their lives whom they attach to, followed by manifesting socially avoidant behavior, after getting hurt and seeing their impossible expectations for others unmet. This is profoundly different from socially avoidant personality types, or histrionic personality types who always seek out individuals to dramatize their real and imaginary complaints.

To re-evaluate the diagnostic criteria for borderline personality disorder and its impact upon "several domains" of functioning "including interpersonal behavior, affect, and identity" seemed essential, according to C.J. Hopwood (et al. 2009) to clarify the nature of this disorder. Hopwood embarked upon a study chronicled in the journal Abnormal Psychology entitled "The stability of personality traits in individuals with borderline personality disorder." The central hypothesis of the study was that apparent inconsistencies in personality traits of BPD patients is not an indication of a problematic or inaccurate definition of the personality disorder but rather is part of the illness (Hopwood 2009, p.806).

To test the major thesis of the study, the authors classified five types of personality trait stability using four types of assessments. 130 BPD patients took the assessments over a course of six years, and were compared with a control group of 302 patients with other types of personality disorders. The findings of the article indicated that basic, structural personality stability did not differ between the two groupings over the six years of the study. However, "differential" stability tended to be lower BPD patients, most notably in the five-factor model (FFM) in characteristics such as neuroticism and conscientiousness (with less deviation in extraversion, openness, and agreeableness). The BPD experimental grouping was also less stable in self-reported [ipsative] profiles than other personality-disordered individuals (Hopwood, 2009, p.806).

The results of the study suggest that…… [read more]

Housing for the Mentally Ill Research Paper

20 pages (5,997 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 20

… Housing for the Mentally Ill: Psychological Effect and Sociological Factors That Determine How Mentally Ill People Are Incorporated Into Society

A primarily problem for many individuals who are mentally ill is coping with every day problems that are not directly related to their mental illness and one of these is the securing and maintenance of a residence. Facilities that are… [read more]

Psychological Theories as Applied to Gerontology Research Paper

10 pages (3,341 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Marketing Mix

Gerontology and psychology: Approaches to mitigating the negative aspects of aging

Youth is a temporary state: most human beings will eventually become old. Yet psychology has traditionally devoted relatively little analysis to the inevitable challenges of aging, and instead chosen to focus on childhood and adolescent development. This has changed in recent years, given the widespread aging of… [read more]

Clinical and Forensic Psychology Term Paper

2 pages (784 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Clinical and Forensic Psychology

Clinical vs. forensic psychology: An overview

Clinical psychology and forensic psychology are two of the most common subtypes of the field that individuals are likely to encounter: one, on a personal level as a client and the second through movies and television shows such as CSI and Law and Order. Although basic concepts derived from the history of psychology are applied in both forms of practice, the focus of each specialty is quite different: one seeks to heal the individual; the other seeks to enable the justice system to function. Forensic psychology thus serves the law first, the individual second.

Clinical psychology focuses on healing the individual and bringing the individual to a state of mental wellness and well-being (Clinical psychology, 2010). Clinical psychology's earliest origins may be traced back to Freudian psychoanalysis, where Freud's concept of the subconscious mind gave rise to a technique of probing, analytical free associations designed to free long-buried conflicts from the repressed memory of the patient. Later, even after Freudian conceptions of the ego, superego, and id were challenged by other clinical practitioners such as Carl Rogers and cognitive behavioral therapists, the focus of clinical psychology tended to remain the same: upon the individual or nuclear family unit (Clinical psychology, 2010). The therapist uses his or her skills on a personal level to help a client, married couple, or family become more functional in society.

In contrast, forensic psychology focuses upon improving the functioning of the criminal justice system. A criminal profiler might attempt to understand the typical criminal 'profile' of an individual likely to have committed a particular crime. He or she might provide assistance to law enforcement to better enable the police to apprehend a criminal. Later, a forensic psychologist might interview a defendant to determine if the defendant is competent to stand trial, and can assist in his or her own defense.

Clinical and forensic psychologists share a common language. Both diagnose individuals using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental Disorders. A clinical psychologist and a forensic psychologist, for example, might both diagnose an individual as having a sociopathic or borderline personality disorder. But the goal of the clinical psychologist is to help the individual, through psychotropic medication and/or therapy to abandon negative behavioral patterns with others. A forensic psychologist might instead state that a sociopathic defendant is…… [read more]

Free Will &amp Determinism Essay

2 pages (932 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Free Will & Determinism

Define free will and determinism. Identify how free will and determinism are relevant to the concepts in social psychology. Discuss two specific social psychology concepts that demonstrate free will and/or determinism.

On a philosophical level, having free will means having the ability to make conscious moral decisions: for example, Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, according to Catholic theology, had 'free will' and thus they deserved to be punished for yielding to the temptation to eat of the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. Determinism, on the other hand, suggests that social, environmental and biological factors determine the individual's ability to make choices to such a degree that the perception that we choose our fates is an illusion. Philosophical determinists point to the fact that the atoms that make up our bodies are controlled by natural, physical forces utterly beyond our control. Social psychologists tend not to take as radical a view of free will and determinism as philosophers, but do tend to fall into one of the two camps when tracing the causes of human social behavior.

For example, in favor of determinism, 'groupthink,' or the tendency to conform one's perceptions to the opinions of others in the group, underlines human's status as social animals. Humans have evolved to rely upon one another to sustain the human race. Other hand, in favor of free will, it has also been noted that human beings tend to perform as they are expected to perform -- for example, one study indicated that children who were treated as gifted improved their scholastic performance, even though they were selected at random. From the point-of-view of policy-creation, the tendency to emphasize determinism or freedom of choice is important, given that if we are biologically and socially determined organisms, there is little that can be altered through education or rehabilitation.

Q2: Define free will and determinism. Identify how the issue of free will and determinism are relevant to abnormal behavior and psychological disorders. Discuss two specific disorders that are relevant to understanding the concept of free will and determinism.

Free will is the ability to make conscious decisions that alter one's fate. Determinism is the idea that biological and social controls shape the individual's future. Schizophrenia is shown to have a strong genetic component: it is not entirely chosen, and people may commit crimes when they are delusional. Because they do not know right from wrong, they are viewed as legally insane, and also they are seen as lacking the ability to exercise choice or free will in their behavior. However, not all psychological disorders are seen as completely eradicating the subject's free will: depression, although it may result in cognitive impairments, is not seen as a delusional disorder. Although it has a genetic component, depressed…… [read more]

Plan a Treatment for a Case for Dual Diagnosis Term Paper

10 pages (3,369 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Treatment Plan

Treatment of Hypothetical Patient Vera P

Vera is an individual in crisis. Though it is likely that she was predisposed to both addiction and depression through genetic inheritance, as both are present in her immediate family, there are a number of environmental stimuli which have exacerbated her underlying conditions. There are a number of critical life events which… [read more]

Free Will and Determinism Term Paper

2 pages (441 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Free will asserts that humans control their own destiny; Determinism, that events are determined by causal factors. A belief in one or the others of these concepts effects psychology drastically. It is the problem of nature vs. nurture. To determinism, the ability to learn is determined at birth it is a matter of brain chemistry. Free will on the other hand, holds that work and environment can improve one's ability to learn. Brain chemicals, according to Determinism, affect social behaviors. While free will, contrarily, holds that it is not governed but able to be controlled by the individual; environment and family influence teach a person how to interact.

Free will and determinism is the argument of nature vs. nurture. Looking a psychotic behavior, a free-will person would turn to environmental factors, family life and past trauma. Therapy would be their likely solution; again the power to change is in the individual. The Determinism view would see it as a matter of brain chemistry and try to alter the undesired behavior through chemicals. A free-will person would explain Split-personality disorder as being caused by traumatic issues in a person's past. Believing that the person created the personality as a way of hiding from the trauma, they would try to hypnotize the person to help reconstruct a single personality. A Determinism person…… [read more]

Falsifiability in Psychology Essay

4 pages (1,416 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Falsifiability in Psychological Science

For a theory to be scientifically valid, it must be testable. The criteria for 'testability' includes a theory's capability of being proven wrong as well as correct by means of an experiment structured upon the principles of the scientific method. This idea of 'testability' is at the core of the idea of "falsifiability." The need for… [read more]

Psychology of Advertising: Since Early Times Research Paper

5 pages (1,425 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 5

… Psychology of Advertising:

Since early times, advertising has been a form of exalting or gaining publicity for goods and merchandise. Actually, since the beginning of civilizations, advertising has been in existence as an informal concept. However, most of the advertisements in the early years were either the oral advertising or the verbal proclamation of the benefits of commodities by merchants… [read more]

Foreword to a Portfolio Essay

2 pages (547 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Psychology Portfolio -- Forward Statement

My completion of the Psychology program has been the clearest imaginable confirmation that I chose the right academic field to pursue. Initially, psychology interested me as far back as I can remember and predated my first opportunity to study it formally. Whereas I met the requirements of most other academic subjects because they were formally assigned, psychology interested me genuinely and would have on some level regardless of whether or not I pursued it academically. In my opinion, human psychology is the most fundamentally important science because it allows us to understand ourselves, our relationships, and our society.

My only specific goals as a new Psychology major were to increase my awareness and understanding and also identify a general area of focus for concentrated study possibly leading to a career. My portfolio should show a gradual narrowing of potential areas of concentrated study and the eventual focus on the psychology of family and parent-child relationships. While I recognize that my completion of the program represents only the start of my eventual career, my academic portfolio does document the achievement of my initial goals.

Some of the most valuable approaches to psychology that I have studied include the appreciation that many different psychological principles and perspectives are typically simultaneously relevant to every situation. Phenomena described simultaneously by several different schools of thought clearly intersect to produce internal states of mind and external human behavior. Understanding individual schools of psychological thought or even multiple schools is only the starting point to a comprehensive understanding of human psychology. Freudian concepts cannot describe physiological aspects of human psychology; psychobiology cannot explain the…… [read more]

Clinical Psychology Essay

2 pages (657 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Clinical psychology and counseling psychology are the two most popular and leading fields in psychology. The professionals in these fields deal with the roots, avoidance, diagnosis and treatment of people with psychological problems. The degree of the severity causes the considerable difference of the problems (Bloom, 2000). This means that the clinical and counseling psychologists vary depending on the patients they treat. Clinical psychologists take care of patients with severe disorders, which include bipolar disorders, irrational fear and schizophrenia. Counseling psychologists treat individuals who suffer from everyday stresses such as marriage and family difficulties, academic performance and career planning.

Clinical psychology began because of a psychologist's work with a student who was a constant bad speller in 1986. In its initial stages, clinical psychology had not yet been associated with harsh disorder and emotional problems. Lightner Witmer was the psychologist working with the student and later developed a clinic where children with learning and other difficulties could be reviewed and treated. The clinic was also educational as teachers and parents would be given advice on dealing with their children's conditions. Sigmund Freud and other psychologists began instituting their own hypothesis on the treatment of psychological disturbances.

Throughout the years, many psychologists have developed their own theories impacted by their own family background, countries which they lived in and their exposure to other people during their professional career development. To date, many new theories are being developed. Clinical counseling psychology continues to evolve due to psychologists who choose different theoretical orientation guides or the specific disorder that this psychologist is a professional in treating. This in turn leads to the growth of the various subfields in both clinical and counseling psychology.

Research plays an important role in clinical counseling psychology. The professionals in this field are always doing research in order to experiment the effectiveness of psychoanalysis and to answer many other psychological questions. When answers to these questions are found, the research will aid in the growth of…… [read more]

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Mbti) Term Paper

11 pages (2,873 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… A. (2007). Construct validity of the social coping questionnaire.

Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 30(4): 427-449.

Fleenor, J.W. (1998). Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Form M. The Fourteenth Mental

Measurements Yearbook.

Freeman, M.S., Hayes, B.G., Kuch, T.H., & Taub, G. (2007). Personality: a predictor of theoretical orientation of students enrolled in a counselling theories course. Counsellor Education & Supervision, 46:… [read more]

Abnormal Behavior: Three Case Studies Research Proposal

6 pages (1,598 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Abnormal Behavior: Three Case Studies


In the case of this young man, the feelings and behaviors he is exhibiting are far from 'abnormal.' In fact, it could be argued that it would be far more abnormal to have no appreciable reaction after witnessing such a traumatic event as a robbery and a murder. The fact that he was unable… [read more]

Cognitive and Behaviorist Approach Comparative Explanations Essay

2 pages (448 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… ¶ … Cognitive and Behaviorist Approach

Comparative Explanations, Theoretical Frameworks, and Research Methods


The behavioral approach to psychology explains human behavior exclusively on the basis of externally observable actions. It does not consider biological or internal mental processes involved in behavior but relies strictly on an objective comparison of externally observable actions and responses to stimuli.

In principle, the theoretical framework underlying behaviorism is that human psychology is understandable by virtue of external behavior and that any factors relating to internal processes are irrelevant to that understanding except to the extent they manifest themselves in externally observable behavior.

Typical experimental research methods used in behavioral psychology consist of monitoring and recording subjects' responses to various external stimuli and postulating theories of behavior based on hypotheses of the patterns revealed by those observations.

Cognitive Psychology

The cognitive psychology approach explains human behavior as a function of internal processes and states of mind. It considers external behavior to be substantially determined by cognitive processes such as hormonal activity, neural patterns of perception and responses to external stimuli, as well as by genetic differences between individuals and patterns of unconscious responses attributable to prior experiences and conditioning.

The cognitive behavioral theoretical framework considers external behavior to be little more than the observable manifestation of internal states of mind and patterns of responses dictated by mental processes.…… [read more]

Psychology Bill Clinton Term Paper

4 pages (1,160 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… William Jefferson Clinton, the 42nd President of the United States, was born in 1946 and grew up in the Hope, Arkansas area. His original name was William Blythe III but his father was killed in an automobile accident shortly before his birth, and his mother remarried a man named Roger Clinton. Bill excelled in school and music, and was even fortunate enough to meet President John F. Kennedy at one time. This encounter was the catalyst for his desire to serve the public in the government sector. Mr. Clinton was a Rhodes scholar at Oxford University and later received a law degree from Yale University. He married his wife, Hillary in 1975, shortly after he entered the public service realm in Arkansas. He was elected State Attorney General in 1976 and then Governor in 1978, where he served off an on until he was elected President of the United States in 1992. Clinton served two terms as President, and is accredited with a wide variety of accomplishments during this time. He is also seen as one of the more scandalous Presidents in U.S. history, after admitting in 1998 that he had an extra-marital affair with Monica Lewinski, a White House intern. Clinton was later impeached by the House of Representatives for perjury relating to this case (William J.Clinton, 2009). He was the first President to be impeached since Andrew Johnson in 1868.

Maslow and His Core Tendencies

Abraham Maslow was an American psychologist born in Brooklyn in 1908. He studied law at the City College of New York and later moved to Wisconsin to study psychology at the University of Wisconsin. He taught at Brooklyn College and was a frequent lecturer all over the world on topics relating to his Hierarchy on Needs Theory and other psychology-related issues (Maslow, 1999). Maslow's Core of Personality Theory outlines the psychological needs in human beings, according to a specific hierarchy. The core tendencies, which hare also outlined in this theory, dictate that a person is first concerned with survival, but after these basic survival needs are met, they become concerned with self-actualization and other related personal struggles (Maslow, 1999). It can be seen that President William Clinton's actions and accomplishments in the White House could be more easily understood and explained based on Maslow's outlining of core tendencies.

Maslow's first and most important core tendency is a human being's push for physical and psychological survival. This arises from the discomfort and pain due to biological deprivation, and humans are always looking at reducing the tension and stress associated with this pain (Maslow, 1999). In order for a person to become interested in self-actualization, the most basic of core tendencies, the need for survival, must be satisfied (Maslow, 1999). Maslow characterizes this as deprivation motivation. President Clinton's basic need for survival was met well before he entered the Presidency, but the question of whether or not his wife, Hillary Clinton, was a satisfactory biological mate, and was satisfying Mr. Clinton's basic need for sexual… [read more]

Personal Counseling Philosophy Essay

16 pages (5,372 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 12

… ¶ … Therapy and Personhood

It is impossible to develop a theory of therapy without first developing a theory of personhood. For therapy is a practice designed (so I believe) to help clients come as close as possible to a fully realized life. But this can become simply tautological if we see therapy as the return to full functionality and… [read more]

Antisocial Personality Disorder Preoccupied Scientists Term Paper

4 pages (1,273 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

… nature is still going on, as in the field of many mental disorders. Studies and researches have not reached the stage where it can be established without a doubt that the Antisocial Personality Disorder has genetic origins, nor have they reached a stage of certainty for conclusions indicating the nurture as the main cause for the onset of the disorder.

The treatment is considered today problematic and the main cause are the fact that persons suffering from the disorder are less likely to seek medical or psychological advice and they usually come to get medical care or therapeutic treatment only if compelled. When they become patients, those suffering from the disorder are unreliable since they are used to manipulate, have no sense of right or wrong, are impulsive and completely untrustworthy. A relationship doctor-patient destined to provide therapeutic treatment is almost never successful (McCallum, 2001).

There are also more optimistic views with regard to the treatment of the disorder, especially in the filed of psychotherapy. The Mayo Clinic Stuff, for example, considers that the most effective results have proven to come from psychotherapeutic treatment. Others, who share more pessimistic views like those described above, consider that most of the patients diagnosed with Antisocial Personality Disorder are ending up only using what they have learned during their psychotherapy sessions in order to go around the rules and manipulate their therapists and members of the self-help groups for what they perceive to be their own interests. Since they present strong narcissistic tendencies, they are inclined to act in their self-interest continuing to disregard the rights of the others, including the specialists treating them.

The case studies presented in the literature dedicated to this disorder focus on the cases that came into the attention of the media and triggered the alarm because of their highly aggravated consequences. Cases such as that of the Australian Martin Bryant who casually opened fire at random and killed thirty five people and injured a dozen are unfortunately no longer single cases that happen once in a hundred years. News about people who suddenly open fire and kill in public places started to shatter the ground in Europe, the U.S. And other parts of the globe. These are extreme acts of violence against society and these people end up in jail for the rest of their lives, but scientists are sill puzzled with questions regarding their motivations and the kind of antisocial behavior that led to such violent acts. "Antisocial personality disorder is the element which figures most frequently in the description of these kinds of offenders" (McCallum, 2001, p. 2). Under the circumstances of contemporary medicine and psychology, it is of course too late for these criminals to find a cure for their disorders and the best way for society to be protected against them is to keep them locked and thus not give them the possibility to repeat these criminal acts again. But, the main concern of psychology today is how to prevent the outcome of… [read more]

Psychological Disorders Essay

5 pages (1,559 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Psycho Disorder

Psychological Disorders Represented in Cinema: Norman Bates in Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho

Psycho is without a doubt one of Alfred Hitchcock's most well-known and well-loved (for lack of a better term) films. It tells the story of Norman Bates, the proprietor of the Bates Motel, and of the unfortunate female guests -- one in particular -- that have the… [read more]

Psychology the Text Discusses Several Methods Essay

8 pages (2,699 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Psychology

The text discusses several methods of studying human behavior. These include the case study, naturalistic observation, correlational research, survey research, and the experimental method. If you were going to design a study investigating the relationship between alcohol and violence, which of these methods would you choose and why? What would be the relative strengths and weaknesses of this study?… [read more]

Influence of Culture on Developmental Psychopathology Research Proposal

4 pages (1,059 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… ¶ … Culture on Developmental Psychopathology

The objective of this work is to examine how conceptualization, assessment, diagnosis and treatment of childhood mental health disorders may vary by culture. Specific questions addressed in this research are the following: (1) How do psychologists define culture? How does our definition of culture guide us in our understanding of mental health problems? (2) What are critical components of our cultural experience that are important in how we assess and diagnose behavioral disorders? Finally this work will suggest ways that psychologists might better incorporate culture into their study and treatment of childhood behavioral disorders.

Impact of Culture: Assessment of Developmental Psychopathology of Children

Culture impacts the view of developmental psychopathology a great deal and that impact is differentiated by various cultural beliefs and customs and this includes religious beliefs and superstitions whether founded or unfounded according to factual evidence or science. The work of Hoagwood and Jensen (1997) states that it is hard to imagine a term that is "more slippery...than culture. One need not venture far into theories of culture to see the way sin which the use of this term has been vast, imprecise, and inconsistent." (Hoagwood and Jensen, 1997) p.108

In fact, it is stated that the complications resulting from the "uses of the term culture have constituted a serious impediment to generating empirical knowledge and aligning cultural psychology with the study of developmental psychopathology." (Hoagwood and Jensen, 1997)

These difficulties are stated to include:

(1) Ideological uses;

(2) Extreme relativism;

(3) Circularity; and (5) Overinclusiveness. (Hoagwood and Jensen, 1997)

B. Cultural Diversity and the Nuances of Behavioral Variation

Socio-linguistic studies examine socialization and its effect on development of identity. Study on language learning is stated to reveal a great deal about the "discursive practices that constitute the meaning of normal or abnormal behavior within defined communities." (Hoagwood and Jensen, 1997) Research has approached and interpreted cultural diversity "as mere ethnic cookie-cutting, newer ways of thinking about culture suggest that those categories do not reflect the range of particularities that cultural studies most wanted to address: the meaningful variations in human social grouping that explain the nuances of behavioral variation." (Hoagwood and Jensen, 1997)

The work of Parron (1997) states that cultural pluralism 'has become a worldwide reality with the population of the United States and most Western nations now including large numbers of person, many of whom are recent immigrants, who trace their origins to non-Western societies." (Parron, 1997) the entire world's cultures have made an attempt to provide an explanation for illness and behavioral or developmental anomalies." (Parron, 1997) Stated as the view that underlies the DSM-IV assessment system is that "psychiatric disorders are universal and antheoretical and hence 'culture free' categories." (Parron, 1997)

III. Latino-Specific Study Reported

The work of Weiss, Goebel, Page, Wilson and Warda (1998) reports a study that "...examined the impact of financial, cultural, and family variables on the incidence of behavioral and emotional problems in a group of two- and three-year-old Latino children. Findings… [read more]

Psychology Insights From Academia to My Career Term Paper

2 pages (591 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Psychology

Insights from Academia to My Career and Personal Life:

Final Reflections on the Course

Of all the ideas that I was exposed to and engaged with during this course, those regarding the malleability and adaptability of the brain were both the most intriguing and, I believe, will be the most influential in my future career and in my life. Some of the things I have learned have truly reshaped my conceptions not only of psychology and how thought and the brain work, but also about the world in general and the possibilities that exist in a wider sense. Understanding the organ that helps us to understand the world is key to developing a comprehensive -- inasmuch as such knowledge will ever truly be possible -- and the new discoveries being made in this avenue of research is truly exciting and eye opening. I find the different ways in which the brain can adapt fascinating, and am eager to learn more on the subject.

The video of Dr. Vilayanur Ramachandran and the various work he did and discoveries he made concerning the human brain were the first things to really pique my interest in this area. His work with phantom imb patients was truly astounding, not just to him and the medical community but to me as a layperson/student as well. It was not only the solution he proffered but the problem he identified -- the fact that the brain was "clenching" a phantom fist precisely because there was no limb there -- that amazed me. Even on an entirely subconscious level, at what is practically an electrobiological level, human beings are fully able of fooling themselves despite their better interests. This fact both alarms and excites me, and I think the realization that our…… [read more]

Psychology Practicing Existential Therapy: Personal and Professional Thesis

5 pages (1,544 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Psychology

Practicing existential therapy: Personal and professional benefits

One of the challenges that every psychologist and practicing psychological therapist -- as well as many researchers -- must eventually face is that of which psychological theory and perspective resonates best with them, and with their personal beliefs and styles. There are, of course, many different approaches to the professional practice of… [read more]

Theoretical Analysis and Application Project Thesis

10 pages (2,760 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 10

… Affliction Personality

Personality Profile: Wade Whitehouse from Affliction

One of psychology's most basic and essential pursuits is the establishment of an accurate and comprehensive understanding of human personalities. There are several prominent theories regarding the formation and development of personality, but as of yet none has proven itself equally capable of explaining all aspects of personality, or every personality. Different… [read more]

Abnormal Psychology -- Disorders People Essay

3 pages (1,071 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Abnormal Psychology -- Disorders

People are often distrustful of those that are different. People who exhibit abnormal human behavior are labeled "weird" or "eccentric." They are feared, discriminated and often misunderstood simply because it is easier to judge and to not deal with them than to take the time to understand where such behavior stems from. However, before delving into the discussion, it is important to define what constitutes or what is considered abnormal behavior. As cited in Kring, Davison, Neale, Johnson, 2007: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), defines mental disorder as "[a] clinically significant behavior or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present distress… or disability… or with a significantly increased risk of suffering, death, pain, disability or and important loss of freedom."

Disability or "the impairment of some important area of life (e.g., work or personal relationships)" is also characteristic of a person with abnormal behavior (Kring et al., 2007, 5). Abnormal behavior is also said to violate social norms or what is considered acceptable by a certain society. It is defined as harmful dysfunction or when an internal mechanism is unable to function properly or normally (Kring et al., 2007). Thus, with a clearer idea of abnormal behavior or mental disorder this paper shall now describe eating and substance abuse and personality and gender disorders.

Eating Disorders. Eating disorders usually begin in childhood or adolescence often after a dieting episode or a stressful life experience (Kring et al., 2007). Eating disorders are also more frequent in women than in men (Kring et al., 2007). Eating disorders are classified into the following: anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia meaning "loss of appetite" and nervosa or loss due to emotional reasons (Kring et al., 2007, 271) is misleading in the sense that anorexics do not really lose their appetite while they starve themselves (Kring et al., 2007). On the contrary, they become obsessed with food, like perpetually reading cookbooks and preparing meals for their family and friends (Kring et al., 2007). However, with their distorted body image one can bet that they wouldn't dare touch the meal they prepared. The DSM-IV-TR has distinguished two types of anorexia nervosa: the restricting type wherein losing weight is achieved via severe restriction of food intake and the binge-eating-purging type wherein weight is maintained through eating massive amounts of food then purging it out after (Kring et al., 2007, 271). Eating disorders can be associated with the excessive need for control, in this case, control over body weight.

Substance Abuse. Substances like alcohol, cigarettes, drugs, or even coffee or soft drinks are used in everyday life. People depend on these substances to make it through the day and to make life a little easier. However, these substances can be abused and used for all the wrong reasons. The DSM-IV-TR associates substance dependence with tolerance and withdrawal (as cited in Kring et al., 2007, 297). Those with substance… [read more]

Shelley Frankenstein's Monster Term Paper

9 pages (3,059 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 11

… Frankenstein

Understanding the Frankenstein Monster

The Frankenstein monster created by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley stands as one of the undisputed classics of all times. The psychology behind both the author and the monster that she created has been the topic of psychologists for many years. It has been argued that the Frankenstein monster gives the reader a glimpse into the psyche… [read more]

Conformity and Obedience the Thrust Research Proposal

6 pages (2,028 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… ¶ … Conformity and Obedience

The thrust of this paper -- evaluating the influence of group dynamics on the individual -- is designed to bring together classical and contemporary analysis in a cohesive, succinct presentation that adds value to the discussion. Within the discussion as to how individuals are affected by group dynamics, the concepts of conformity and obedience will… [read more]

Stalking Is a Behavior Thesis

3 pages (958 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Stalking is a behavior which has the potential for escalating to a level of violence and harm. This behavior has been addressed at the criminal justice level by creating laws intended to protect society and to punish stalkers. Russell E. Palarea, Michael A. Zona, John C. Lane, and Jennifer Langinrichsen-Rohlings collaborated in a study of stalking, which was published as a journal article in the journal of Behavioral Science and Law (1999). Palarea, et al., report that it was the stalking of a young actress, Rebecca Schaefer, in 1989, which cast the national spotlight on stalking, which served as the impetus for laws to address stalking (p. 270). While celebrities are often the target of stalkers, because of their high public profiles, non-celebrity individuals are victims of this behavioral disorder as well (p. 270). Today, all 50 states have adopted some form of stalking laws (p. 270). Los Angeles, home to a large community of celebrities, has created a special Threat Management Unit, operating to specifically address the problem of stalking in LA (p. 270).

The creation of laws and other offices along the legal chain to deal with the crime of stalking brought about a legal definition of stalking (p. 270). Under Section 646.9 of the California Penal Code, stalking is defined as the "willful, malicious, and repeated following or harassing another person, which includes a credible threat with the intent to place that person in reasonable fear for his or her safety or the safety of his or her immediate family (p. 270). California's law served as the basis for other states to define and to create laws addressing stalking; also, the federal Model Penal Code (p. 270).

Zona, et al., cites other studies, which when taken as a whole, reveal a picture of the stalker-victim relationship that should serve to inform the public, and raise the level of awareness as a problem warranting psychiatric treatment of stalkers. In their 1999 study, Zona, et al., report that 47% of 74 cases examined through the LA Threat Management Unit revealed what might be categorized as obsession stalking (p. 271). Obsessional stalking involves a prior victim-suspect relationship (p. 271). They also found that the obsessional stalker had a greater propensity for violence towards the victim or the victim's property than did other stalking categories (p. 271). Zona, et al., cite the 1995 study conducted by Meloy and Gothard, which identified that 55% of their study victim-suspect relationships comprised 15% former spouses, and 40% former intimates (p. 271). Zona, et al., however found that the Meloy and Gothard study fell short in that it did not analyze the variable by the victim-suspect relationship when they concluded that 25% of the obsessional stalkers assaulted their victims (p. 271). This lack of analytical range resulted in some ambiguity in understanding whether or not the violence was related to a prior relationship, or…… [read more]

Thinking and Intelligence Developmental Psychology Essay

2 pages (976 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Psychology

Thinking & Intelligence

How do we retrieve content into our awareness from long-term memory?

Information is retrieved from long-term memory by tracing through the network of interconnections to the place where it is stored. The more frequently a path is followed, the stronger that path becomes and the more readily available the information located along that path is available. After thinking our way back into the appropriate context and finding the general location in our memory, the interconnections become more readily available (Memory: How Do We Remember What We Know?, 1999).

In what ways was Lewis Termans intelligence test both similar and different from Afred Binets test for intelligence?

Benet's goal was to identify less able school children in order to aid them with the needed care that was required while Terman proposed using IQ tests to classify children and put them on the appropriate job-track. He believed IQ was inherited and was one of the strongest predictors of one's ultimate success in life. Alfred Binet felt that intelligence could not be defined as a single score, and to define a person's intellectual capacity as definitive on a single score was a big mistake. The test makers both managed to agree that Intelligence can in fact, be measured (Pratt, 2009).

3. What are some of the possible benefits and limitations for a person to know their IQ score?

In the case of adults there are some that believe that with an IQ trainer one can improve their IQ scores, so knowing them would be beneficial in order to improve them (Phyto, n.d.). In the case of children it is thought that identifying low IQ at an early age helps to get these children the help that they need as soon as possible. The limitations of knowing ones IQ would be that if the score is low it is possible that a person could get labeled and thus not reach their potential because of the way that the score affected them and the way the world perceives them.

4. Why cannot the issue of nature vs. nurture ever be resolved?

There are some scientists who believe that people behave as they do according to genetic predispositions or animal instincts. This is referred to as the nature theory of human behavior. Other scientists believe that people think and behave they way they do because they are taught to act in a certain ways. This is called the nurture theory of human behavior (Powell, 2009). Although there has been much research done on both sides of this debate there has never been a definite conclusion found that explains one theory over the other. As long as people are involved and each has their own opinion and interpretations this debate will never be settled.

5. Explain Atkinson and Shiffrins (1971) model of memory. Be sure that your discussion includes a clear explanation of all 4 categories of memory.

The Atkinson-Shiffrin model…… [read more]

Attraction Is Something Felt Essay

2 pages (596 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Attraction is something felt by almost all of the creatures on earth, with both humans and insects choosing their partners depending on several factors ranging from behavior to appearance. The phenomenon of attraction generally influences certain people in searching for others in order for them to have their lives changed. People are normally attracted by those that make them feel comfortable and by those that they consider to have a personality similar to theirs.

Attraction has been a curiosity for humankind ever since its early years, and, even the ancient philosophers have written on the subject, attempting to make it easier for people to understand it. Consequent to feeling that they are attracted to each other, people engage in an intentional relationship. There are some people that consider that attraction comes after a series of episodes in which two persons are being influenced in liking each other.

A number of researchers believe that there is no connection between attraction and the surrounding environment in which the two people that feel attracted to each other live. Apparently, attraction strictly depends on the personal choices of two persons. However, there are also sources claiming that the surrounding environment can have a strong effect on relationships. There is a large possibility for people to be influenced by a certain state of affairs in liking others.

One does not necessarily need to be attracted to another in order for attraction to take place, as he or she can also be attracted to virtually everything that exists. Attraction can be intended or unintended, and, it may be shared or not.

Attraction can be mainly determined by the liking-disliking factor, by the facts that one knows about another person, and by the way that the other person behaves. People cannot live in solitude, as…… [read more]

How Hardwired Is Human Behavior Research Proposal

3 pages (1,056 words)  |  MLA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 8




The work of Nigel Nicholson entitled: "How Hardwired is Human Behavior" relates that management in organizations have attempted to rid their organization of politics, hierarchies and rivalry within the organization but that these efforts have failed. Nicholson relates that according to evolutionary psychologists the failure is due to management working against human nature or human emotional and behavioral hardwiring that has been inherited from human ancestors. According to Nicholson evolutionary psychology is a discipline that is still emerging in nature however it is the strong connection of evolutionary psychology and the theory of natural selection that has been the source of great debate. Evolution psychology holds that human ancestors needed these human instincts in order to survive in what were highly unpredictable circumstances and that as time progressed humans became predisposed to gossip and that this was integrated into the mental programming of the human mind.

The work of Tancredi (2005) states that the fact that "morality in humans evolved from other primates and depends on the brain for universality and stability does not negate the importance of social forces in its creation, or the role of 'free will' in its execution." (p.8) According to Tancredi "recent neuroscience discoveries are adding twists to this equation." (p.9) Tancredi writes that in time brain biology as it is related to specific moral precepts will be "in time...seen as originating to some degree, in biology." (Tancredi, 2005, p.9) This is precisely what Nicholson states in his work and specifically that the understanding of evolutionary psychology assists management through making provision of a "new and provocative way to think about human nature..." And further in offering "a framework for understanding why people tend to act as they do in organizational settings." (p.3) Or stated otherwise evolutionary psychology, "in identifying the aspects of human behavior that are inborn and universal can explain some familiar patterns." (Nicholson, p. 3) This helps to describe how great parents have children that despite the proper upbringing exhibit problematic behavior and even criminal behavior. Nicholson states that the central tenet of evolutionary psychology is that humans to this day retain "the mentality of their Stone Age forebears" and that this "gathers its strength from six convergent sources of scientific research" which are those of: (1) anthropology; (2) behavioral genetics; (3) comparative ethnology; (4) Neuropsychology; (5) Paleontology; and (6) social psychology. The work of Benderly (2000) in a review of the work of Clark and Grunstein states that humans are not hardwired and states that biologists Clark and Grunstein demonstrate in their review of what biology understands concerning the relationship between genetics and biological systems involved in behavior that "the things that people do hardly ever arise directly from the promptings of their DNA." (p.1)


In the work of Terry Ryan which is a review of Nicholson's work it is stated that particularly interesting is the description of Nicholson of "the evidence… [read more]

Concept of the Self Term Paper

5 pages (1,985 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… ¶ … Self

what is the self?

The concept or idea of the self is one of the most controversial and debated subjects across many disciplines. From a sociological and socio-psychological point-of-view the dominant trend in the contemporary literature is that the self is primarily a social construct. This means that the self is something that has no actual existence… [read more]

Psychology of Conformity and Obedience Thesis

4 pages (1,138 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… ¶ … Psychology of Conformity and Obedience

Conformity and Obedience:

All human societies maintain social and behavioral norms, expectations, and mores, although the specific value or connotations of various behaviors varies tremendously among different societies. The ordinary process of human socialization invariably generates large-scale social conformity to predominant social values and behaviors despite considerable flexibility (in many societies) for individuality and self-expression. To a great degree, socialization occurs completely without our awareness, particularly during infancy and childhood when we absorb fundamental social concepts.

Obedience is a more explicit or conscious phenomenon that implies a purposeful choice to submit to the authority of another or to conform one's behavior to the directions or wishes of a superior individual (or a larger entity). To a large degree, obedience is also a natural phenomenon that shapes our social behavior, because it plays an important role in our family-of-origin (and other formational) social relationships and experiences.

While that is generally true of all human (and many nonhuman) societies, particular human cultures may also regard obedience to authority as a specific moral or social value with an inherent significance. Throughout human history, dictatorships and other fanatical governmental authorities have exploited both the socialization process and the power of obedience to authority among the masses. More recently, several landmark psychological experiments and national events have illustrated the negative potential of social conformity and obedience.

Classical Study of Group Influence on the Individual:

In the early 1950s, psychologist Solomon Asch (1907-1996) demonstrated the power of group influence and the susceptibility of the individual to blind conformity. Asch's experiments involved subjects within groups of confederates all of whom agreed unanimously on an obviously wrong answer, such as the comparative lengths of two lines depicted in a drawing. Those experiments revealed that many subjects will change their answer and support the group's consensus instead of maintaining their original position without being influenced by the group (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).

It is thought that various factors determine whether or not (or to what degree) different people are susceptible to group influence. Generally, the size of the group, its degree of unanimity, its relative social status, and variation in aspects of individual psychology in the realm of self-esteem and confidence all contribute to the power of the group to influence the individual in specific cases (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).

In 1970, psychologist Phillip Zimbardo conducted the (now) famous Stanford Prison Experiment in which psychology study volunteers were randomly assigned to be prisoners or prison guards in a simulated prison facility created for the experiment. Without any direction from Zimbardo, the guard group followed the lead of the most dominant individuals and the individual guards became so abusive to their fellow classmates playing the roles of prisoners that Zimbardo had to stop the experiment barely halfway through its scheduled two-week run. Subsequently, individuals from both groups of guards and prisoners required psychological counselling about their experiences. Some of the guards in particular suffered from the behavior that they expressed during the experiment… [read more]

Physiological Psychology Essay

3 pages (1,026 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Psychology -- Laughter & Humor

How Humor Makes You Friendlier, Sexier

The article chosen for this assignment was written by Steve Ayan and published in the Scientific American on March 25, 2009. Entitled "How Humor Makes You Friendlier, Sexier" Ayan's article takes the position that not only is humor "psychologically beneficial" but it actually can cure diseases. The author uses several interesting and even compelling anecdotal examples to bring the reader an entertaining as well as informative experience. Ayan clearly knows how to get a reader enthused to dig into a psychological article. And by using the word "Sexier" in the title of his article Ayan is assured of attracting attention no matter the age or gender of the potential reader.

There are many reasons why Ayan believes his assertion is true, and he opens by invoking the name of iconic journalist, editor Norman Cousins as an example of how humor can aid a person with serious health problems. Cousins had suffered from "inflammatory arthritis" and found no cure for that malady until he began using old Marx Brothers clips, Ayan writes. Cousins then found that "10 minutes of uproarious laughing at the hilarious team" of Marx Brothers brought him "two hours of pain-free sleep."

As to the statement that humor can actually "cure disease" Ayan carefully notes a few paragraphs later that there is "…only a smattering of scientific evidence" that supports such a seemingly audacious assertion. But, the author continues, using a generalization that lets him off the hook, "…laughter and humor do seem to have significant effects on the psyche, even influencing our perception of pain."

Beyond the actual act of laughter, cheerfulness is "linked to emotional resilience" Ayan explains, and is also associated with the ability to "keep a level head" during stressful moments and laughter is part of maintaining "close relationships," according to Ayan.

For a man who has no current relationship with a female, but desires to have one, if readers are to believe Ayan then there is a secret to that fellow finding that female companionship: "Women are attracted to men who have" a good sense of humor.

No writer who is publishing in a scientific journal can resist tapping into an ancient Greek philosopher's ideas, and Ayan doesn't disappoint in this regard. He writes that Aristotle viewed laughter as "a bodily exercise precious to health," but beyond that non-empirical passage from Aristotle Ayan goes on to point out that psychologically there are changes in the human body that result from laughter. To wit, laughter: one, boosts heart rate; two, boosts respiratory rate and depth; three, boosts the consumption of oxygen.

Delving deeper into his piece, the reader learns about the empirical and non-empirical studies that allowed Ayan to generalize about the benefits of humor at the outset of his article. For example, "studies" (Ayan doesn't say which ones) have demonstrated that laughing at a funny movie "can cause a drop in the blood's concentration of the stress hormone cortisol." Why would this… [read more]

Domestic Violence and Hispanic Women Research Paper

30 pages (8,700 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 20

… Evidence-Based Practice Protocol: Domestic Violence and Hispanic Women

Evidence-based Practice

Domestic violence (DV) accounts for about 30% of all acute injuries to women treated in emergency departments, as it currently constitutes a critical public health concern, not only in the United States (U.S.), but worldwide. Some studies indicate that Hispanic women are more likely to be injured during intimate partner… [read more]

Freudian Perspective of Human Psychology Sigmund Thesis

4 pages (1,089 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Freudian Perspective of Human Psychology

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was the original psychodynamic psychology theorist who first proposed that the unconscious mind is substantially responsible for human psychological behavior (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2008). He developed his theoretical perspective through his work with clinic patients afflicted with mental disorders, the fundamental tenet of which is that repressed feelings and conflicts determine much of our psychological identity and the manner in which we relate to others throughout our lives (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).

The Freudian psychodynamic therapeutic model involves a long-term counselor-patient relationship in which the therapist provokes independent recognition of underlying psychological themes through questions relating to specific areas of psychological development based on narrative information from the patient (McWilliams,

2004). Freudian psychology suggests that the traumatic experiences and ordinary frustrations of infancy and childhood, as well as those arising as a function of sexual urges are become repressed into the subconscious mind. Subsequently, those unresolved conflicts and traumas direct our external behavior.

The Freudian Model of Human Psychology:

According to Freud, the human mind consists of three main components. The Id represents the most primitive human wants and desires and corresponds most closely to the childhood phase of psychological development where the individual relates to the outside world primarily in terms of wants. Freud developed the concept of the Id-based

"pleasure principle" to explain the dominance of sexual pleasure among all other human social needs (Mitchell & Black, 1995). The Id is opposed by what Freud called the Super Ego which is the main control mechanism or the "conscience" that limits the influence of the Id on our behavior (Pinker 2002). More specifically, the Super Ego allows human beings to absorb social rules and values of society.

Freud proposed that the Super Ego is the source of human guilt which represents the interrelationship with the types of behavior the individual knows are desired by others and the need of the individual not to violate those expectations of the ideal values in society (Pinker, 2002). According to Freud, in between the Id and the Super Ego, the Ego is a moderating influence that allows both the Id and the Super Ego to contribute to psychological behavior without either overwhelming the other (Gerrig & Zimbardo,

2008; McWilliams, 2004). In common terms, the Ego is the "voice of reason" in the adult human being that allows for rational behavior instead of either uncontrolled pursuit of wants and needs of the Id or the complete inhibition of self-interested behavior by the Super Ego (Pinker, 2002).

The Role of Sex and Developmental Stages in Freudian Psychology:

One of the most unique and controversial aspects of Freudian psychodynamic

psychology is the emphasis of sexuality as the primary psychological motivation in general, and the direct relationship between parental bonding frustrations in infancy and early childhood and dominant themes in the adult individual, in particular (McWilliams,

2004). Specifically, Freud proposed that the subtle (or not so subtle) rejections of the parents and any parental neglect in infancy establish psychological… [read more]

Hosper's View of Human Behavior Essay

1 pages (477 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Hospers' view of human behavior

What is the cause of human behavior according to Hospers? Evaluate his view.

Paul Hospers takes a fundamentally deterministic view of human nature. According to Hospers, we are born with a certain character, due to influences such as genetics and our original environment. These influences are beyond our immediate control, and as the causes of our actions are rooted in our characters, our behaviors are predetermined. Hospers writes that every character "has been molded by influences which in large measure at least determine his present behavior; he is literally the product of these influences, stemming from periods prior to his 'years of discretion,' giving him a host of character traits that he cannot change. . . . What if even the degree of will power available to him in shaping his habits . . . is a factor over which he has no control? What are we to say of this kind of 'freedom?' Is it not rather like the freedom of the machine to stamp labels on cans when it has been devised for just that purpose?" (Fay 2009) Characters are set in stone, mechanized to create a certain good or bad products or 'stamp labels,' according to this analogy. They cannot become better; only make a defective 'imprint.'

Rationalizing backwards, of course it is easy to show a lack of responsibility for almost every action. For example, an individual with a…… [read more]

Clinical, Psychodynamic, Cognitive-Behavioral, Humanistic, &amp Family Psychology Research Proposal

2 pages (702 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… ¶ … Clinical Psychology, Psychodynamic, Cognitive-Behavioral, Humanistic, and Family

The effectiveness of clinical psychology:

Psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, humanistic, and family therapies

It is a common joke regarding clinical therapeutic practice: the individual who has been in costly psychoanalysis for so long, yet never seems to be getting any better. However, given the fact that few individuals have the time, money, or inclination for the deep probing of childhood trauma and free-association that is the heart of traditional Freudian or psychodynamic therapy, shorter, evidenced-based approaches such as cognitive-behavioral therapy have become more popular. Because cognitive-behavioral therapy is focused on effects, theoretically its efficacy can be more easily measured. It has proven particularly helpful in treating conditions like social anxiety disorder, panic disorders, and personality disorders once thought intractable. "Two ancillary assumptions underpin the approach of the cognitive therapist: 1) the client is capable of becoming aware of his or her own thoughts and of changing them, and 2) sometimes the thoughts elicited by stimuli distort or otherwise fail to reflect reality accurately"(Mulhauser 2009).

Rather than probing the irrational unconscious and deep childhood trauma, cognitive-behavioral therapists focus on changing the behavior of clients, stressing that changing behavior often changes thought processes, and vice versa. If a depressed client articulates: 'everything I do is stupid,' the therapist tries to parse the comment and help the client see the irrationality of this sweeping statement. While cognitive-behavioral therapy tends to be favored today, especially for personality disorders, the research is by no means conclusive that it is more effective than psychodynamic therapy. A survey of a comparison of psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral studies of personality disorder treatments found: "no statistically significant differences between the short-term dynamic psychotherapy group and cognitive therapy group were found on any measure for any time period. In one group: "two years after treatment, 54% of the short-term dynamic psychotherapy patients and 42% of the cognitive therapy patients had recovered symptomatically," and other comparative studies yielded no difference between the two therapies (Park, 2006, p.5).

While both psychodynamic approaches to therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapies tend to be highly directive, and require a probing and…… [read more]

Helping Client to Tell His Her Story Research Proposal

6 pages (1,821 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 6

… Skilled Helping Interview

Clarifying the Client's Experience With Skilled Helpers

The immediate and long-term health of the patient undergoing treatment and recovery are impacted by the emotional state of the patient, the patient's access to support and an ability to retrieve the information, counsel and representation which are necessary during convalescence. This is verified in the motives of the fictitiously… [read more]

Why I Chose Organizational / Industrial Psychology Research Proposal

2 pages (689 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Psychology

Industrial Psychology chose the Industrial/Organisational Psychology program because I am interested in moving to the private sector rather than governmental employment and I have always had a keen interest in psychology as it applies to the organization. I believe this is an under-explored area of psychology, especially in my area of the world, and I would like to make it more visible and relevant to companies in my country. I believe I have the skills and experiences necessary to segue into a psychology career, and I believe my experience in government has given me a keen awareness of people and their distinct personalities, something I would like to explore much more fully in my new career.

It is extremely important to me to study this discipline at the Chicago School of Psychology because the school as an excellent reputation that it emphasizes cultural awareness, competence, and understanding of diversity. This is incredibly important to me because, as a foreign student, I might not find such a welcoming attitude at other institutions, and I fear I might face some kind of prejudice or misunderstanding as a result. In addition, cultural awareness is part of psychology to me, because a psychologist must be open to everyone, and without prejudice or malice toward anyone to be impartial and effective, and I feel that your school's atmosphere of understanding and awareness will help develop this feeling of open acceptance and appreciation. In addition, while I have travelled the world, I have only attended school in Russia, and I would be very happy and excited to study in the United States, to learn more about the country and her people.

My professional career goals relate to this specialization in a number of ways. I have worked in various government capacities for many years, and this entails working with a wide variety of people and personalities. I am tired of working in the government sector, and would like to put what I have learned about people to better use in the organisational psychology field. I believe that I understand…… [read more]

School-Based Mental Health Program on Emotional Intelligence Research Proposal

25 pages (8,166 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 60

… ¶ … school-based mental health program on emotional intelligence, social behaviors, psychopathology and academic performance of inner- city [at -risk / African-American] adolescents

The need for school-based mental health programs in inner-city schools.

The issue of the need for school-based mental health programs in schools, and particularly in inner-city schools, is an issue that has raised a wide range of… [read more]

William Wundt and Experimental Psychology Thesis

3 pages (755 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… William Wundt and Experimental Psychology

William Wundt (1832-1920) is known as the "Father of Experimental Psychology" for his various contributions on the field - most especially, for establishing the first laboratory dedicated to psychology at the University of Leipzig in 1879.

Wundt adhered to the idea of psychophysical parallelism, that "every physical event has a mental counterpart, and every mental event has a physical counterpart" (Reiber & Robinson, 2001). He also believed that psychological events can be scrutinized under experimental methodology if the stimuli and reactions are measurable. Wundt believed that problems that can be brought under tight experimental control are appropriate for laboratory study. And the attributes of immediate conscious experience are no exception as subject of investigation inside the laboratory.

One of Wundt's methods is introspection. Though, distorted views of this method abound especially in introductory psychology textbooks. Wundt considered a distinction between self-observation (Selbstbeobachtung) and internal perception (innere Wahrnehmung). But later on, distinction between self-observation and internal perception was confused, and these two have generally been translated as "introspection."

Wundt defines self-observation as the "traditional and commonsense meaning for introspection - a detailed reflection on one's experiences in life, an activity known to philosophers for ages." On the other hand, Wundt takes internal perception to mean "a more precise process of responding immediately to some specific event" (Davis, 2003).

Wundt prefers the method of internal perception over self-observation since the latter is too susceptible to bias. Thus, he allowed only internal perception in his laboratory. Wundt trained several observers whose task is to react in highly-standardized laboratory experiments. In these experiments, the observers give simple verbal reports limited to diagnostic such as size, intensity, and duration of physical stimulus (Danziger, 1980 as cited in Davis, 2003). Note that these responses are same ones found in psychophysics and reaction time experiments.

In some texts, claims have been made that Wundt's student, E.B Titchener, has championed the idea of introspection. Truly, Titchener and Wundt shared generally similar views. But as to introspection, Wundt "used introspection to describe experimental stimuli," whereas Titchener "used introspection to describe the nature of conscious experience" (Zehr, 2000).

Titchener's idea of introspection, which was later known as "systematic experiment introspection," involved an observer undergoing an experimental task and afterwards giving a detailed…… [read more]

Positive and Negative Reinforcement Essay

3 pages (805 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Psychology - Reinforcement


Positive and Negative Reinforcement:

Psychologists have long known of the value of reinforcement as an external influence capable of shaping behavior through operant conditioning. Reinforcement can be either positive - such as where desired behavior is reinforced by a reward stimulus - or negative - such as where a desired behavior is reinforced by the removal or reduction of stimuli perceived by the subject negatively. In either case, the reward directly influences the subject to repeat desired behaviors by associating them with stimuli experienced by the subject as desirable.

Specific Application of Positive Reinforcement:

In Dorothy's situations, she could use positive reinforcement in several ways to encourage her mother to regain her self-sufficiency and independence. For example, if Dorothy hoped to encourage her mother to spend more time downstairs in the living room during the day instead of upstairs in her bedroom, Dorothy could try calling the downstairs telephone number during the day. Anytime her mother answered the phone, Dorothy could supply a positive reward when she gets home.

The specific nature of the reward is less important than the connection, in her mother's mind, between performing the behavior desired by Dorothy, (in this case, simply spending time outside of her bedroom), and receiving a reward for it. If Dorothy's mother happens to appreciate any particular food or delicacy, Dorothy could bring it home or prepare it herself and tell her mother that she wanted to show her appreciation for her effort.

If Dorothy's mother happens to appreciate a specific activity shared with Dorothy, (such as watching a movie together), Dorothy could make time to spend that time with her mother as a reward for her mother's efforts at spending less time in her bedroom while letting her know that Dorothy made time for it and went out of her way to pick up one of her mother's favorite movies to reciprocate for complying with Dorothy's request.

In principle, both of those rewards would also work without any explicit explanation connecting Dorothy's mother's desired behavior and the reward, just as positive rewards work with animals who cannot understand complex concepts like gratitude and reciprocity. However, one benefit of human communication is that fewer instances of reward are required to achieve the same result if the subject is consciously aware of the relationship between the behavior and the reward, provided only that the subject appreciates…… [read more]

Barnum Effect Essay

3 pages (998 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+

… Barnum Effect is named after a circus showman, P.T. Barnum, who believed that to "have a little something for everybody" is an indispensable ingredient to success (Snyder & Shenkel, 1975, as cited in faxed material). As a term used in Psychology, Barnum effect refers to one's tendency to accept very vague or general statements to be accurate characterizations of oneself. It is the underlying principle in astrology, horoscope, palm reading, tarot reading, crystal ball gazing, graphology (handwriting analysis), and some psychometric tests.

Many psychologists are alarmed, knowing that people are susceptible to Barnum Effect and that stimuli are ubiquitous. If people regard graphology and other forms of "general" assessments as non-insightful but entertaining, then concern would be limited. Yet many people even seek out such as "guidance" -- believing the claims, influencing their actions, and thus affecting the way they live.

Also, psychometric tests loaded with "general" assessments are problematic since they are inaccurate, but growing in number, and still believed to be legitimate by others. Psychologists are supposed to assist their clients in gaining personal insight. But if the tool they use is inaccurate, then no substantial information can be expected. To what good use is a tool if it does not serve its purpose? Yet, these tools are mushrooming. In spite of their low validity and reliability, more and more are produced each year -- not gaining favor of the experts; nonetheless, have not lost its appeal among many. Take, for example, pop psychology. This is a non-standardized tool, which means no established norms can be used to logically compare individual scores with. Validity and reliability is highly questionable; yet, pop psychology thrives and finds its way to several magazines.

Results could be graver if assessments laden with Barnum Effect were intended to be the basis of other serious matters, such as hiring. Graphology, which relies on Barnum effect, was once utilized by companies in assessing the applicants' personality, and thus as basis of hiring. The fates of the applicants rested not on their competency alone, but also on the unscientific analysis of their handwriting which claims to unravel who they truly are.

Still, the primary reason why psychologists are alarmed of Barnum Effect is that it can affect the way people perceive themselves. Instead of gaining better understanding, people could get a false and/or a skewed opinion of themselves.

There are several ways on how to stay away from Barnum effect: (1) beware of all-purpose descriptions that could apply to anyone; (2) beware of selective perceptions; and (3) resist flattery.

Beware of all-purpose descriptions that could apply to anyone. When presented with a description of the self, listen or read it carefully. Mull it over. Be skeptical, but not cynical. Think of the extent to which and among whom could it apply. If possible, check the rationality of the method which was used to arrive at the description. Pausing will hamper the momentum that built up from learning the description to actually believing it, giving chance…… [read more]

Management and Organizational Behaviour Why Is Turner Case Study

12 pages (3,529 words)  |  Harvard Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 4

… ¶ … Management and Organizational Behaviour

Why is Turner being ostracized by the group? Use Concepts derived from your study of group Behaviour to Support your answer. Explain Ralph Turner was the most recent employee of the Thomas Motor Company, initiated by John Thomas and inherited by his son Martin Thomas. Basically Thomas Senior had been working for his father… [read more]

Scientific Theory Research Proposal

3 pages (936 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Scientific Theory in Psychology

The core of science is the combination of reason and the search for the truth. Scientific truths are postulated, theorized, then proven or disproven with the purpose of achieving a greater understanding of the world in which we live. Relying exclusively on observable, measurable and quantifiable evidence, scientific theory is the building and testing of hypotheses. Thus, when we define science, we are defining the process by which we discover measurable the truths of our world, our lives, and our existence. Of course, nothing is as simple and complex in science as the process by which the truth of a thing is discovered. Scientific theories are either provable or disprovable predictions of how natural phenomena will occur given a particular set of variables and constants. Theory, then, is used to test for the existence of a constant and predictable occurrence - such as the theory that, all hindrances removed, an object that weighs more than air will fall to the ground when dropped. Often, theory can only be based upon conjecture or speculation - such as with much of psychological theory. Theories lead researchers to find evidence that either proves or disproves a theory. This evidence, then, is used in conjunction with an evaluation of the structure and foundation of the theory necessary to evaluation of the theory. Finally, as theory is applied to the field of psychology, it must be asserted that the science of psychology is the study of measurable behaviors as they are acted upon and influenced by cognitive, socio-cultural, genetic and biological forces.

Theories, both scientific and non-, have permeated every aspect of our existences. From theological theories about unmeasurable religious principles to theories predicting the behavior of rocks, the theory is an often misunderstood concept used by the layman to simply explain a level of individualistic thought about a particular topic. Scientific theory, however, has a very clear and concise structure and defining characteristics that make it so. A scientific theory is either right or wrong, true or false. Thus, the characteristics that make up a scientific theory are the structures and rules applied to the construction. First, there is the "point" - what is the theory trying to assert about the world? This point must be measurable and testable. A theory that cannot be tested is an inadequate theory. Second, there is the inherent understanding that theory not disproved today could quite possibly disproved tomorrow. Third, the theory must make predictions and be able to be proven false.

As theory requires evidence, the relationship between the two is exceptionally strong. Without evidence, theory is just a concept. Evidence, then, is what proves or disproves the theory. As such, theory then pre-supposes evidence that can be measured. A theory that cannot be measured by evidence is a pointless one.…… [read more]

Eckensberger 2001 Thesis

3 pages (897 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 0

… Eckensberger 2001- Discussion Questions

Does the author present a view of society?

Yes, the author presents a view of society, largely based on action theory. However, because action theory looks at the entire range of human action, not all theorists use the same terminology or even agree on how to define actions within society. Therefore, the author discusses the various viewpoints espoused by different theorists, as well as the different terminology they use. More importantly, while action psychology provides insight into society, its focus is not on society, therefore it would be erroneous to label action theory a sociological theory or even a psycho-social theory, though it can be used to help explain both sociological and psycho-social behaviors and norms.

However, because action theory is based upon the notion that human beings have free will, it does invite reflections upon society and the social nature of man. For example, the issue of free will leads to the question of whether Homo Sapiens occupy a unique position in nature because it is the only species that can decide not to follow natural laws. In addition, through direct action, human beings can actually impact the world in a way that changes the natural world, which impacts other humans, helping form a society.

2. How does the author discuss the relationship between individual and society?

The author primarily focuses on psychology, which does not necessarily reflect the same emphasis on society as authors focused on sociology. However, the author discusses human actions within the framework of broad psychology, and seems to suggest that most human behaviors can be explained within an action framework. Action psychology can be the basis of analysis for motivation, problem-solving, ontogenic development, social psychology, and cultural psychology. In this way, action psychology can be used to help explain all applied domains, including clinical psychology, educational psychology, organizational psychology, and sport psychology. In fact, when viewed from the perspective of action theory, the boundaries between the different psychology domains becomes unclear, since human actions form a unifying link for all of these domains. This reflects the relationship between individuals and society because it presumes that individual actors have free will, rather than assuming that people's actions are predestined due to factors like class or race. Therefore, action psychologists seem to suggest that individuals have the ability to greatly impact society, rather than merely being the products of society.

However, the degree of impact that human beings can have on society is naturally limited, by the presupposition that human beings have free will. This means that one person cannot cause something in another person. Instead, because both people have free will, one can only understand and interpret another's intentions.…… [read more]

Psychology First of All, a Good Scientist Essay

9 pages (2,432 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Psychology

First of all, a good scientist will be characterized by precision, both in terms of their research methodology, as well as the way they decide to match that with their existing theory hunches and the final conclusions. Everything starts off with a personal opinion or a hunch, but this is usually based on an existing theory or, at least,… [read more]

Psychology - Abnormal Psychology Biological and Behavioral Essay

2 pages (640 words)  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Psychology - Abnormal Psychology


Compare and contrast biological and behavioral approaches to explain cravings for substances.

Throughout much of the 20th century, psychologists, criminologists, and social theorists debated the relative influence of biology (i.e. nature) and early formational experiences (i.e. nurture) in shaping adult human behavior. At the two most extreme positions, human personality development and behavior are either predetermined by virtue of genetic inheritance, or they are solely determined by the sum total of all relevant experiences that fill in the blank-slate human mind with which we are born.

The last decade before the turn of the 21st century witnessed an explosion in the practical applications of medical technology, computing power, and especially, the knowledge attributable to the Human Genome Project. Consequently, the contemporary study of human behavior, including the nature of substance abuse, no longer views the "nature/nurture" question as answerable by either approach to the exclusion of the other.

Rather, modern advances in neuroscience and brain imaging have enabled researchers to demonstrate the interrelationships between observable differences in the brains of addicted individuals and environmental influences that determine their ultimate effect on behavior (Gerrig and Zimbardo 2005).

Sophisticated genetic tests now allow the tracing of certain behavioral traits to specific genetic markers, augmenting the long-standing behavioral analyses of identical twins. Because identical twins share virtually the exact same genetic traits and inherent tendencies, situations where they are reared apart from birth have provided extremely valuable insight into the relative influence of biology and experience on individual behavior, including addictive tendencies. The evidence from twin studies suggests that genetic influence is profoundly important, but numerous studies also illustrate the degree to which specific genetic tendencies are still susceptible to external experiences that contribute to their degree of behavioral expression (Coleman, Butcher and Carson 1994).

Strict application of behaviorism to cravings associated with addiction to substances ignores the irrefutable evidence of significant…… [read more]

Creativity Gardner and Csikszentmihalyi's Perspectives Essay

8 pages (2,386 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 8

… Creativity

Gardner and Csikszentmihalyi's perspectives on ongoing creativity are valid, but unnecessarily restrictive for several reasons. First, their view discounts the contributions of creative individuals like musicians and artists who create one superb masterpiece. A "one hit wonder" produces a song every bit as inspiring if not more so than a band spewing out mediocre accomplishments over the course of… [read more]

Psychiatry Armitage, C. Fitzgerald, C. &amp Cheong Term Paper

1 pages (413 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 1

… Psychiatry

Armitage, C. Fitzgerald, C. & Cheong, P. (March 12, 2003)

Prison in-reach mental health nursing. (psychiatry). Nursing Standard.: 40(3). 17-26 Health Reference Center Academic. Gale. Quincy College. 27 May 2008 http://find.galegroup.com/itx/infomark.do?&contentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T002&prodId=HRCA&docId=A100173734&source=gale&userGroupName=mlin_s_quincoll&version=1.0.

Armitage, Fitzgerald & Cheong have developed a comprehensive look at the manner in which the UK Health care system is responding to the increased awareness of under-recognized and under-treated occurrence of mental illness among incarcerated individuals. The emphasis of the article is to explain and detail a new service that was employed in the UK prison system in 2002. The system called in-reach which is a psychiatric nursing program that allows emploed psych nurses from NHS to enter into the prison system and provide services to previously underserved mental health patients, who have and have not been diagnosed with a mental illness. The program assists the prison staff and prisoners manage problem behavior and treat that which is associated with mental illness and that which is not but requires reasonable intervention from the staff. The work is foundational in that it describes a significant and universal problem, the lack of mental health treatment for prisoners incarcerated and details a very practical approach to the development and implementation of a plan to answer this needed…… [read more]

Adlerian Therapy Term Paper

4 pages (1,003 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

… Adlerian Therapy

As with other psychological therapies, the Adlerian model is also focused on bringing about a positive change. However, Adlerian therapy is not limited to changing the internal process as it envisions change in a much broader social context. Adlerian approach was revolutionary in those days as he strived towards societal or community level changes. Human behavior in the Adlerian theory is considered in the context of the environment. This social context of behavior is in fact central to the Adlerian philosophy. One of the main goals of the adlerian therapy is to establish a cooperative relationship with the patient and to bring out the impressions from his/her past and to analyze how they affect his social perception. Thus every individual's problem is essentially treated as a social problem. Since understanding the family order and the interactions between the members is such an essential part of the adlerian approach, the adlerian therapist gives much importance to the family history of the subject. The therapy focuses on a lifestyle assessment where the subject is encouraged to remember and reflect upon their childhood experiences and their own behavioral logic. In doing so, the counselor helps the subject understand the mistakes associated with coping methods, which is essentially the first step towards a positive behavioral change. [Richard S. Sharf]

The video shown was a nice demonstration of how a therapist should interact with his client. Of particular interest is how the therapist initiates conversation with the client and how he opens up the client in a natural manner. This leads to the client feel at ease and explain herself and her problems better without any inhibitions. Also the use of scaling is a very efficient method of gauging the client's present mood and gives a general sense of her well being at this point of time in her life. The video also illustrates the familiar alderian approach of counseling wherein the counselor delves into the family order and the background of the client in order to obtain an overall picture of the client, which would provide better clues to his/her behavioral adaptations. Another important nicety to be discerned from the video is how the therapist follows the client and goes with the flow. For example, the client in this video describes life in a metaphoric sense as a 'roller coaster' and a 'merry go round' and we observe that the therapist continues in a similar vein and asks her "where are you right now on the roller coaster." Establishing effective communication is a key component in any psychological evaluation and this video is a nice demonstration of the process.

The video served a nice purpose of how a therapist should initiate conversation with his client but there was not much about the actual problem of the client. Well this could be well thought of as a first session between a client and a therapist and a more detailed session wherein the therapist actually assesses the client, his goals, perceived shortcomings, behavioral abnormalities… [read more]

Psychology - Personality Comparing Myers=briggs, Rorschach Term Paper

6 pages (1,518 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

… Psychology - Personality


Human personality assessment is a field that encompasses peer-reviewed concepts and techniques as well as pseudo-scientific theories that are untested, and of dubious value. The classic bases of established psychoanalytic tradition and other clinically validated theories sometimes provide a helpful framework for understanding human behavior in general as well as for… [read more]

B.F. Skinner: Shaper or Destroyer? Term Paper

6 pages (1,651 words)  |  APA Style  |  Bibliography Sources: 7

… B.F. Skinner: Shaper or Destroyer?

This paper promotes two points from James' statement, "there is no worse lie than a truth misunderstood by those who hear it," and "reasonable arguments...are folly when... dealing with human crocodiles and boa-constrictors." (Columbia, 1996) One, despite this and other challenges to misinterpretations and/or lies, an individual will basically believe what he/she chooses to believe.… [read more]