Study "Psychology / Behavior / Psychiatry" Essays 276-330

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Emotional Behaviors Term Paper

… ¶ … James-Lange Theory, people with pure automatic failure tend to experience weaker than average emotions. Yet, on the other hand, others would experience stronger than average emotions. The details of this theory are clear; essentially the arousal of the autonomic functions of the skeletal and cognitive system occur at the sign of the very first emotion. Once that emotion is felt, the extremity of the muscular response is determined by the body without much knowledge of the individual experiencing the emotion. Subsequently, people who have weaker autonomic skeletal reactions in situations feel less of an emotional reaction. When pure autonomic failure occurs, this lessons the emotional response even more dramatically. As such, those who experience a stronger than average emotional experience would be experiencing a stronger autonomic response within their skeletal system. This stronger communication with less of a lag generates a stronger emotional response after the body physically reacts. Greater activity in different areas of the brain invoke greater emotional responses to specific emotions, as for example people with greater activity in the left hemisphere experience more social feelings and outgoing behaviors.

Question 2

Kalat illustrates how the play of animals often mimics their later survival responses and behaviors that would lead to greater chances of success in their lives. Kalat gives the example of a kitten in play mode. This play can often be analyzed as practice of escape and attack strategies. Examining the play behavior of young human children also illustrates interesting connections between early play modes and the mimicking of adult behaviors that will allow for greater survival later in life. Humans also have attack and escape emotional responses that are practiced and demonstrated during the play at young ages. For example, hide and go seek is an example where children's play mimics the body's natural emotional and physical response to fight or flight. Children express fight or flight responses in situations where particular emotions are experienced,…… [read more]


Anxiety Disorder's Impact on Individuals Term Paper

… A good example is an employee with OCD may appear to be queer and the condition may destruct people from the quality of his/her work and the aptness in performance. One the other hand, an individual who suffers from panic disorder may appear to be simply crazy and the boss may not trust the person with delicate workloads thereby reducing their possibility of a promotion (Hyman, & Pedrick, 2012).

How others may treat the employee with the disorder

The peculiar character of a disorder and most psychological diseases is the fact that they do not immediately identify as illness. This means therefore they will not be treated or accorded the level of seriousness it deserves. When treating a colleague who suffers from PTSD most people thinks that the person is simply crazy and may not necessarily, identify the need for psychological treatment. In addition to that, if a person is suffering from a social related anxiety, society labels the person as being anti-social and unlikeable. This hinders the quality of professional relationships the person is able to strike off with fellow employees (Strong, 2003).

Promoting Anxiety Disorders awareness in the workplace

In light of the foregoing, a lot of education on workplace anxiety disorders is required in order to foster the quality of professional relationships. Persons with these disorders are able to have with their employees and simultaneously increase their chances of promotions and recognition of their talents as opposed to a situation where everyone is simply stuck on their eccentricity (Boydston et al., 2012).

Wellness programs

The focus of wellness programs should be one the people suffering from the disorders. This will help raise their quality of life by giving them an understanding of what exactly it is they are going through. In addition to the above, wellness programs can provide the necessary support and assist people with disorders over-come the disorders (Miller, 2011).

Americans with Disabilities Act

In the year 2000, a census done in America showed that there were 58 million Americans living with disabilities. Further 39% of the American living with disabilities was participating in employment both as a part-time or full-time basis and earned 35% less than the average employee. The ADA has been instrumental in securing equal rights such as pay and access to jobs and other opportunities for Americans with disabilities (Craske et al., 2009).

In conclusion

In conclusion, anxiety disorders that are not well understood and identified could lead to more stress for the individual with the disease and those surrounding him. However, with proper advocacy plans and sensitization the society could be more aware of the prevalence of anxiety disorder and be more equipped to handle them. Further, since anxiety, disorders are not a physical as handicaps many people have a problem with identifying anxiety disorders a disability. However, with the ADA anxiety disorders are recognized as a disability and thus the individual this given comprehensive legal protection and an equal access to opportunities.

References

Torpy, J.M., M.D., & Burke, A.E.,… [read more]


Psychotherapy Psychology Is a Science Term Paper

… It fostered his behavior to keep being in denial of the reality, therefore, dynamic concept, to awaken his awareness of the situation, and consequently engage with his case positively. Dynamic approach is action-oriented, enabling patient be active in activities that… [read more]


Mediation and Moderation Models Case Study

… Sobel test has developed into becoming less influential than the joint substantial test. Therefore, although it might be useful to apply additional tests, once assessments have been made to the joint significant of b and a, thus, treating ab' test as more definitive of all would not make any sense across the board (Coe, 2000).

I have observed weaker results in the ab' test sample. This is likely to be caused by either the excessiveness of Type-I error or the influential power of the integrated b and a test under some conditions. A bootstrap approach method would be a great recommendation when dealing with sample sizes that are less than 20 (Preacher & Hayes, 2008). I have established this recommendation based on performance comparisons of three single sample approaches and a program of SAS in the application of five methods availed by RTI international. I suggest that Frazier et al. (2004) consult Mackinnon to establish which approach is likely to have the best properties of statistics for his data and engage any of the available programs to fulfill his desires of a resampling method. In conclusion, I recommend Frazier et al. (2004) to ensure caution while using the partial correlation approach. In some circumstances, partial correlation is likely to have desirable statistical properties: it has a distinctively null hypothesis, compared to other intervening variable tests. This means that the test based on partial correlation does not make direct assessments on the significance of the purported indirect and direct influence (Baron & Kenny, 1986).

The coefficients provide descriptive information, which is the center of conceptual issues. Values of coefficients can be applied to make judgments on the rate of data consistency with hypothesized relations. Coefficient values can be engaged to evaluate the practical benefits of the findings or even describe the power of observed relations. The results of significant tests cannot purely convey this information. Although data is inconsistent with mediation due to the power of non-significant tests, assessing the coefficients of b and a' test allows researchers to assess if the relation of a proposed mediator to a treatment is weak than it has been hypothesized. When mediation of data support via significant methods of mediation tests, the level of indirect influence is crucial as the estimated product of b and a' test reflect (Frazier, Tix & Barron, 2004).

Frazier et al. (2004) should have discussed the expected relations before making an analysis. This is done by comparing the expected strength with coefficient values and used as a basis for interpreting results. The article should use the magnitude of an ab ' product to draw conclusions drawing on the data consistencies with complete or partial mediation. For instance, a non-significant but large ab' product might suggest that complete and partial mediation could be plausible (Coe, 2000). On the other hand, a significant but small ab' product might suggest that data and complete mediation are consistent for all practical functions. It would be useful to apply confidence intervals in making judgments,… [read more]


Decision-Making Critical Review Vroom, V.H., and Jago Research Paper

… Decision-Making Critical Review

Vroom, V.H., & Jago, A.G. (1974). Decision Making As A Social Process: Normative And

Descriptive Models Of Leader Behavior. Decision Sciences, 5(4), 743-769.

Decision making ability is a vital skill of all people regardless of age; this… [read more]


Anti-Social Personality Disorder Antisocial Research Paper

… Anti-Social Personality Disorder

Antisocial Personality Disorder

This is a mental condition where an individual has a long-term patter of violating, manipulating, and exploiting the rights of others. Antisocial personality disorder often leads to criminal behavior. The causes of antisocial personality disorder are unknown to the medical and psychological field. It is a belief that persons suffering from the disorder are triggered by environmental and genetic factors. These are like child abuse, alcoholic or antisocial parents. It is indicated that more men than women are affected by antisocial personality condition, with the condition being more common with persons in prison (Burt, 2007). An indication and development of the disorder in children is cruelty and setting fire to animals. The symptoms of the disorder are indicated in a person's behavior to themselves and others. They can act charming and witty, excellent at flattery and manipulation of people's emotions, and repeatedly breaks the law. They also disregard the safety of others and their lives and have problems dealing with substance abuse. Individuals will also steal and lie often, do not show signs of guilt or remorse, and are arrogant and angry often.

The personality disorders are prevalent in the U.S. population since approximately 9% by 2007 had been diagnosed with a personality disorder. According to the National Comorbidity Survey Replication survey, 0.6% has antisocial personality disorder (Burt, 2007). It is difficult to distinguish a person with antisocial personality disorder due to the similarities of symptoms and behavior. Antisocial personality disorder makes a person fail to conform to social norms in terms of lawful behaviors. The person is also impulsive and often fails to plan ahead of taking action. They are often involved in regular physical fights and assaults since they are irritable and aggressive. They are also inconsistent with responsibilities, thereby making it difficult to hold down a job or position of responsibility.

The symptoms of antisocial personality disorder make the individual a social problem. This is because the individual will not conform to the norms of society and will not respect the law. They become anti-social from their repeated performances that drive them to repeat arrests. Since they destroy property, harass people, steal, or are attracted to illegal occupations, they develop anti-social tendencies. Blackburn (2007) asserts that anti-social behavior drives them to disregard and disrespect the wishes, feelings, and rights of others including their families, friends, and close associates. This makes it difficult for anyone to relate to this individual, as they are continually deceitful and manipulative.

The drive to lie, con others, use alias, or malinger drives them to break the law or rejection by society or their community. A pattern of impulsive behavior leads to many failed projects, plans, or dreams. It is frustrating for a parent or guardian raising a child with antisocial personality disorder since their impulsive behavior drives them to make hasty plans, which often fail. They make decisions on the spur of a moment, without making considerations or forethought, leading them to enter into risky and… [read more]


Psycho Path Reflections of Mental Health Concept Essay

… Psycho Path, Reflections of Mental Health Concept

Reflections of mental health concept

Mental health is a field that has evoked diverse feelings and thoughts due to its complexity. Definition of mental health changes with time, culture, professional predisposition, individual difference and political ambiance of that time. The accepted definition of mental health is the state of successful functioning of mind, resulting in the ability to cope with adversity, enjoy fulfilling relationships and engage in productive actions (Widiger 2011). It is a level of emotional well-being. It is not just absence of mental disorder. Mental health gives people capacity to think rationally, communicate effectively, learn, grow emotionally and have self-esteem.

Mental health is hence viewed as a continuum, in which individuals have diverse personal attributes and values. The mental state is determined by level of stress and distress and impaired involvement Kirk, 2005. However, the cut line as to when it the state of mind becomes an illness is not clearly defined. The first side of the continuum features character of negotiating life events without being overcome by stress hence positive emotional health (Widiger 2011). Stress and other discomforts resulting from daily activities in this state of mental health do not impair the daily functions such as solving problems, eating or sleeping. In general, the individual can solve their own stress events without professional help. When there results substantial negative stressful events, which are prolonged and difficult to attend to personally, this change into the second side of the continuum. This is called mental health problem.

Mental health problem is divided into two: mental illness and emotional problems. Emotional problems create discomfort and noticeably impair normal activities such as sleep habits and concentration (Jablensky & Kendell, 2003). In this situation, individual might be diagnosed with situational depression. Mental illness on the other hand, is more serious characterized by prolonged alterations in the mood, thinking and behavior of individual. The mental illnesses include disorders like anxiety and depression and schizophrenia. Some mental illnesses are biologically linked. These are as a result of dysfunctional neurotransmitters, abnormal structure of brain, inheritable genetic factor and other biological grounds. Other mental illnesses are as a result of environmental factors such as experiences that cause shock and trauma, difficulties in a relationship and job loss (Spitzer & Wakefield, 1999). Cultural factors such as racism and discrimination on the base of ethnicity, violence and poverty also may result in cases of mental illness.

All human behavior is explained psychologically from the aspect of the continuum in two main dimensions. These are: continuum from adaptive to maladaptive and continuum from constructive to destructive (Widiger 2011). In adaptive, behavior is assessed on the basis of the degree to which it may contribute to psychological stability, while in maladaptive leads to generation of more problems in behavior of individual. Adaptive behavior solves the problems, enhancing life of individual.

Behavior in a constructive-distractive continuum, affects both individual and others. Destructive behavior leads to failure to deal with the problem and may result… [read more]


MS Forensics Psychology Specialization in Mental Health Essay

… M.S. Forensics Psychology - Specialization in Mental Health

Personal/Professional Goals

My professional goal is to become a lead forensics psychologist. Therefore, I am interested in attending graduate school because I plan to pursue a PhD in clinical psychology. My ultimate goal is to become a profiler, so that I can play an integral role in the carrying out of criminal investigations by being the foremost subject matter expert on the cases I work on.

Academic Experience

I earned my bachelor's degree [YOU MAY WANT to STATE in WHICH AREA of STUDY] from Ashford University, and completed my coursework from June 2009 to June of 2012 with a 3.70 grade point average. My graduate school GPA thus far is 3.50. One of the reasons I decided to enroll in this program to become a lead forensics psychologist is due to my military background. I worked as a psychiatric technician in the United States Navy while completing my postsecondary education.

Research Experience

Other than working as a psychiatric technician in the Navy, I have no prior research experience related to this field.

Work/Other Experience

My work experience is all related to my service in the armed forces. From 2000 to 2005 I worked as a dental technician in the Navy; I was employed as a hospital corpsman from 2005 until 2008. I began working as a psychiatric technician in 2008, and still…… [read more]


19 20th Century Surgical Technological Fix Term Paper

… Technological

th Century Surgical "Technological Fix"

th Century Surgical "Technological Fix"

This paper intends to explore the concept of the accepted reality of the anatomical body and they way that this concept is linked to the "technological fix" and to the foundations of scientific and rational thought linked to these concepts. More precisely, the questions that will be examined are; was the surgical 'technological fix' grounded in a model of the 'anatomical body' and to what extent does this also apply to Freeman's 'technological fix' of mental illness through frontal lobotomy?

A number of critics in the past and today have questioned the anatomical view of the body as applied to neurological procedures such as lobotomy. This also refers to Freeman's explanation and defense of his technique. In order to understand this debate in a wider context one firstly has to briefly discuss the foundations of the anatomical view of the body and human medicine.

In the first instance the anatomical view of the body developed as a result of the rational and scientific view of reality and human existence that was prevalent during the nineteenth and early twentieth century's. The body was seen to conform to the same physical laws and rational order that governed the physical world. In essence the body was a perceived as a "machine" that could be rationalized in the same way as a mechanical device. This view has a long history and begins with the rise of secular humanism in the West and movement away the religious foundations of society in favor a growing scientific order.

These antecedents led to the concept of the anatomical body, seen from the point-of-view of reason, logic and science -- which was to form the basis of modern surgery. The technological fix refers to the use of engineering or technology to solve problems or to enhance human life. This term was widely used, in a derogatory sense, in the 1960s with regard to growing concerns about the role that technology played in various disciples -- especially in medicine. However, by the 1970s the technological fix was seen as either partial or infective and open to abuse and opposed to a more inclusive and holistic approach to reality. (Rosner 2004)

The issue of the anatomical body as a reflection of a scientific and rational process, especially with regard to its impact on modern medicine and surgery, is exemplified in the issue and problematic of psychosurgery, and in the work of Freeman and others. As Pressman (1998) notes in Psychosurgery and the Limits of Medicine, the view of this form of surgery have changed and the "technological fix" of lobotomy as the answer to many psychological and psychiatric ills is no longer accepted. In other words this suggests that the purely scientific and rational perception of reality has been questioned and the view has been put forward that there are many other factors and variables that influence the choice or acceptance of this type of surgery. Pressman notes that "What… [read more]


Perception Cognitive Psychology Term Paper

… This discovery helps explain human searching behavior, which can assist us in finding keys on a cluttered desk or recognizing a child's face on a playground" (The truth behind 'Where's Waldo,' 2009, ScienceDaily). However, beyond the perceptual abilities of these eye movements, working memory is also necessary to find Waldo in a complex picture so the viewer can remember where Waldo 'is not.'

Q3. Explain how we use the different types of perception to determine cognitive functioning? Is it possible for a person to function cognitively solely on one type of perception? Why or why not?

"Perception has three levels of complexity: (1) detection, (2) recognition, and (3) discrimination. Detection refers to whether people can sense that they are being stimulated by some form of energy. For example, a light may be so dim they can barely detect its presence. Recognition means being able to identify as well as detect a particular pattern of stimulation. Discrimination means being able to perceive one pattern of stimulation as different from another. For example, a person may hear slight differences between two similar musical tone" (Perception, 2012, A2Z Psychology).

All levels of complexity are required for people to function in an optimal manner. They must be able to detect that something is occurring with their senses. They must be able to recognize and identify what that 'something' is: uncertainty leads to misperception (mistaking a baby's cry for a cat yowling, for example). And without discrimination, relevant data becomes lost, given that the senses are constantly being bombarded by a variety of stimuli. Failures of specific levels perception even when other aspects of the cognitive structure of the individual are operational (such as someone who has poor depth perception or is color blind, or who can hear someone's speech but is distracted by background noise) create a distorted and incomplete vision of reality.

References

Attention lecture. (n.d.) PSY 394. Retrieved:

http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/class/psy394U/hayhoe/cognitive%20science%202011/readings/geisler/AttentionLecture.pdf

Brain filter found for irrelevant data. (2007). Times of India. Retrieved:

http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2007-12-12/science/27968222_1_functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-working-memory-filter

Cowan, Nelson & . Morey, Candice C. (2006). Visual working memory depends on attentional

Filtering. Trends Cognitive Science. 10 (4): 139-141.

Nasr S, Moeeny A, Esteky H (2008). Neural correlate of filtering of irrelevant information from visual working memory. PLoS ONE 3(9): e3282. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003282

Perception. (2012). A2Z Psychology. Retrieved:

http://www.a2zpsychology.com/psychology_guide/perception.php

Psychology class notes: Sensation and perception. (2012). Class notes: Retrieved:

http://www.alleydog.com/101notes/s&p.html#ixzz2Cr8XHBu8

The truth behind 'Where's Waldo?' (2009). ScienceDaily. Retrieved:

http://www.sciencedaily.com / releases/2009/03/090303161313.htm… [read more]


Social Psychology Concept Matrix Term Paper

… Applications include the fact that helping individuals gain self-esteem may be preventative to criminal history

Self-esteem can help an individual achieve success in his or her life. Sometimes people have to work against huge odds to achieve their dreams and to become successful. Take KJ Rowlign, for instance (author of Harry Potter). Saddled with so many challenged including poverty and single motherhood, she was rejected time and again until an agent accepted her manuscript. It was her self-esteem in her writing and herself that encouraged her to persist.

Self-Handicapping

People avoid efforts due to the fear that they will be hurt / rejected and their self-esteem will suffer.

Edward E. Jones and Steven Berglas theorized that people place obstacles in their path (both consciously and unconsciously) in order to fail

Some people see the holy cows in India as a self-handicapping concept for the country. The people are starving; yet meaty cows walk untouched in the streets. Sri Lanka's rule, in fact, is that anyone who slaughters such a cow is killed.

One of the "myths" about psychopaths is the notion that they self-handicap in that they make foolish mistakes despite their intelligence.

This notion was used to explain instance such as when a president or powerful leader of a corporation engages in and rationalizes acts that undercut his career (such s Clinton with Monica). The opinion (now disputed) is that psychopaths may rise in power with illness undetected until they err.

Any achievement oriented context that emphasizes intelligence may have the person practice self-handicapping In order to subconsciously fail and then later to blame it on the substance. A student, for instance, wishing to pass and be cleaver may drink before a test or not study the night before, or wake up late.

Hindsight Bias

This is as also known as the knew-it-all-along effect or creeping determinism. It refers to the situation where the individual is inclined to see events that occurred as events that were predictable all along. This may result in memory distortion where a person's memory of the past is slanted by after-effects

Hindsight bias can interfere with the judicial system in that judges and jurors presented with the case a given often judge defendants as being capable of preventing the bad outcome (Starr & McCormick, 2001). This may be erroneous since many times defendant may not have known the outcome. This also extends tot the plaintiff, where, sometimes, jurors may determine that, based on the outcome, the plaintiff should have been more aware of the… [read more]


Psychology: Identification With a Group Term Paper

… When people are too close to one another - either physically or emotionally - they lack personal space and this makes them distinctly uncomfortable because people are "wired" to have space that belongs only to them (Tajfel & Turner, 1979). However, if one allows those people to expand their personal space beyond what the majority of people need to survive and be comfortable, those people then begin to develop a territory. If that territory is later challenged - through physical or mental ways - the person may fight back and attempt to hold that territory, even though it is much more than the person actually needs (Tajfel & Turner, 1986).

People understand the need to develop a territory in some instances (like sales, for example) and they also understand when to allow others to be in their territory because many things have to be shared. This is somewhat different from the way the animal kingdom handles territory, because the majority of animals develop a territory and then insist it is theirs. They will vigorously defend it to the point of death if necessary, and that is especially true for males of most species (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). While human men may seem territorial, they are not likely to actually run every other male out of a particular area. They understand they have to live and work around these people, and that the idea of having a territory into which others are not allowed to venture is not an acceptable way to handle normal human interaction (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). Since non-human species do not have this particular issue, they are much more vigorous about ensuring they are the only one of their species and gender in a territory that they will continue to defend no matter what may come against them.

References

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J.C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behaviour. In S. Worchel & W.G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 7 -- 24). Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall.

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J.C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W.G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology…… [read more]


Motivation to Change and Reduction Peer Reviewed Journal

… This is examined utilizing a Pearson product-movement correlation. The results are analyzed utilizing multiple linear regression analysis which looked at the correlation between the initial motivation to change and clinical improvement, with the inclusion of multiple factors including other potential confounding variables, including depression symptoms as assessed with the Beck Depression Index. It was determined for there to be confirmation of any statistically significant relationship between the motivation level and the clinical outcome there would need to be a p-value lower than 0.05.

The research indicated that there was no significant difference clinical outcome between patients who receiving the pharmacological treatment, and those who were not. There was found to be a direct positive correlation between the initially assessed motivation to change and the clinical outcome, with a p value resulted with statistical analysis of p = 0.007. A significant correlation was found in the decrease in the number of binges and vomits per week that took place. Other factors were also examined, including the duration of the disorder, and body mass index, but no statistically they should was found between a decrease in symptoms and these potential influences.

The research appears to support the hypothesis, that motivation at initial assessment is a predictor of the patients behavioral response to treatment, and that higher levels of motivation present in the patient at the initial assessment are likely to result in decreased bulimia symptoms following participation in the standardized treatment.

The research approach appears to be extremely well-designed, with a sample of similar patients entering the same program, which helps to reduce the potential for extraneous or confounding influences remain unidentified. However, this does not mean there is the total elimination of external factors. One aspect of the research design which may require some consideration is the choice of the sample. The sample was predominantly female, with only one male participant. While it is generally recognized that bulimia nervosa is more prevalent in females, the inclusion of only a single male may indicate a skewing biasing of the results, or invalidate the results for males. Therefore, a study on a greater scale, with the inclusion of a larger number of male participants may be very useful, especially in assessing the condition with reference to gender.

The utilization of the generally accepted tools helps to increase the perceived credibility of the report, and helps to reduce uncertainty as these tools had already been tried and tested. The research tools had been utilized for both adults and adolescents in the past, and provide an in-depth insight into the symptoms and psychology of the patient. In the future further research may be enhanced with the use of qualitative rather than quantitative research, with researchers looking not only at the linkage between motivation and a reduction of symptoms, but examining how and why this relationship occurs. As the research is seeking to identify factors that are relevant to recovery, factors such as potential causes and influence of motivation, and why it has such a significant… [read more]


Diagnosis of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Article Review

… Diagnosis of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Children

In a recent article, "The child behavior checklist PTSD scale: screening for PTSD in young children with high exposure to trauma," published in the Journal of Traumatic Stress, Loeb et. al. examined the validity of new methods designed to identify Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in children. The team examined the validity of the Child Behavior Checklist PTSD subscale to screen for PTSD in children attending an inner-city early childhood mental health center. Using various measures, the team assessed 51 preschool-age children with high exposure to trauma receiving outpatient child -- parent psychotherapy for PTSD.

The team compared 15 items on the CBCL, a proposed subscale indicative of PTSD, to the UCLA-PTSD Index and to clinical diagnosis based on the American Psychiatric Association's DSM-IV classifications as well as the Diagnostic Classi-cation of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC). Using the DC criteria, 24% of the children were diagnosed with PTSD, but only 4% using the DSM-IV. The team concluded that the new CBCL-PTSD subscale did not reach signi-can't sensitivity or speci-city to be a valuable screening tool for PTSD in this population.

Rationale

I selected the article because the effects of PTSD among children, which often goes undiagnosed, can lead to a number of other behavioral health and juvenile delinquency issues for the afflicted child. The prevalence of PTSD among children is just starting to be recognized among the general public, with the scientific community barely a decade ahead of the general public.

It is important to settle on an effective diagnostic tool for PTSD in children and adolescents. Because children and adults respond to stressful situations quite differently, it is not useful to apply the same standard PTSD diagnostic tools to children, as children may not exhibit the behaviours that counsellors and psychiatrists are used to looking for in diagnosing PTSD.

Post-traumatic stress disorder is a type of anxiety disorder. It can occur after you've seen or experienced a traumatic event that involved the threat of injury or death.

Common causes of PTSD are natural disasters, Assault, Domestic Abuse, Imprisonment, Rape, Terrorism, or War, but can include any event which triggers strong feelings of fear in the subject.

Symptoms of PTSD fall into three main categories which correspond to the Fight-Flight-Submission model of human responses: Reliving, Avoidance, and Arousal. The subject may unintentionally "relive" the event in her mind through flashback episodes, memories, or nightmares of the event. The subject may also cope through avoidance of the experience, accomplished through the numbing of emotions and/or withdrawal from people, places, or activities that remind them of the event. The trauma of the event might also cause unprovoked arousal, where the subject has difficulty concentrating and sleeping and constantly feels nervous or on edge, which causes him to startle or get angry easily.

Although PTSD can occur at any age, the symptoms which indicate PTSD may vary depending on the age of the subject. For teenagers, avoidance and arousal… [read more]


Knowledge Concerning Ethical Issues Involved in Counseling Research Paper

… ¶ … knowledge concerning ethical issues involved in counseling teenagers with alcoholism, including informed consent contents in psychotherapeutic settings, dual relationships and psychological testing considerations in personnel selection in organizational settings. In addition, the paper examines the rules governing sexual… [read more]


Psychology Statement of Purpose Admission Essay

… I regard myself dependable and inquisitive. I am also an active listener. These are strengths that will come in handy as I seek to identify and effectively address complex problems in practical situations. This is more so the case given that as a counselor in private practice, I will be responsible for the diagnosis of the nature of my client's problems so as to determine treatments that are not only valid but also effective. It is also important to note that in addition to being disciplined and able to perform well under pressure, I also happen to be an effective time manager. I regard these as strengths that will come in handy in my quest to complete both my M.A in general psychology and Ph.D. In Counseling Psychology on schedule.

I am under no illusion whatsoever regarding what is expected of me as a graduate student in your institution. I am fully aware that the program is in itself demanding. However, the fact that I find the subject interesting and intriguing will see me wither all the challenges associated with the program. I must admit that prior to settling on your institution as my graduate school of choice, I had taken into consideration several other graduate schools offering the program. After undertaking my own independent research and talking to a number of professionals, I finally settled on your institution based on its excellent (and able) faculty as well as insistence on applied practice. Undertaking the program at your institution will allow me to not only evolve as a professional psychologist but to also reach my full potential. If given an opportunity to pursue the program at your institution, I commit to invest my all towards the successful completion of the same.… [read more]


Attitude Object Evaluations Current Influences Essay

… These temporal standards can coexist with social standards during an appraisal process and often do. Imaginary standards are also commonly used and can be based on fantasy or reality. The expectation that a college football team 'should have' won last Saturday's game because the opposing team had a worse record, may be more fantasy than reality since the opposing team has had a much tougher season schedule.

Factors Influencing Reflective Attitudes

Strack and Deutsch (2004, p. 229) make an assumption in their reflective-impulsive model of appraisal that the behavior schemata activated by an attitude object evaluation is always encoded in the impulsive system, whether the attitude is primarily a product of a reflective or impulsive appraisal. Behavioral schemata in turn represent sensory-motor clusters that frequently co-occur (habits) and can be thought of as long-term behavioral memories. If parts of a behavioral schema are activated by an attitude object, the likelihood that the behavior will be activated increases. Once a threshold level of activation is achieved, the behavior ensues. If multiple schemata are activated, the one that reaches the threshold first is acted out. For example, a dieter may choose to avoid having dessert with their meal if they have the cognitive capacity to control their behavior, but if he or she is still hungry, the urge to splurge may be irresistible. This example represents a conflict between reflective and impulsive appraisals.

Should a person engage in a reflective evaluation of an attitude object, then activation of a behavioral schemata occurs after reflecting on the feasibility of the action and the possibility of a positive outcome (Strack and Deutsch, 2004, p. 230). Strack and Deutsch (2004) discuss at length how a seemingly reasoned action is in fact often corrupted by many irrational factors.

One of the primary corrupting factors is the impulsive appraisal, since an impulsive evaluation is almost always triggered by an attitude object (Strack and Deutsch, 2004, p. 223). The impulsive system is also the default evaluation system when cognitive capacity and/or arousal levels are low, since reflection requires moderate levels of both. However, high levels of arousal seem to promote stereotypical behaviors in response to attitude objects and therefore undermine reflective evaluations. The empirical evidence for the influential role of cognitive capacity and arousal is substantial, and therefore is included in most dualistic models.

Other factors that can favor an impulsive evaluation over a reflective one include a strong deprivation of need and motivational orientation (Strack and Deutsch, 2004, p. 229-230), which were discussed in the previous section. Accessibility to associations and behavioral options will also influence an evaluation. For example, a young athletic person may not notice that a woman walking with a cane across an intersection may run out of time before the light turns green, because the concept of limited physical ability is one infrequently encountered. In contrast, a nurse working in the field of geriatrics would quickly assess the situation and step in to block traffic until the disabled woman has finished crossing the… [read more]


Clinical Psychology Module Five Questions Essay

… When I think about it, trying to visualize it, it doesn't do this: It seems to stabilize on one of the possible (imaginary) cubes.

5. Describe your semantic network to the phrase "factor analysis."

A semantic network is a cognitive association that draws items together because they have common attributes (also uncommon ones). My semantic network for factor analysis includes the concepts of variability, combination, statistical, error, and latency.

6. Give an example of a particular constellation of default assumptions that exists in your mind.

A specific constellation of default assumptions of mine is one about climate change includes:

It is becoming increasingly difficult to change the course of the climate

All countries must band together to address the problem

Companies will continue to try for the highest possible profits regardless of consequence

Social and political conservatives often devalue science

Such devaluation and lack of funding are a central part of the problem.

7. How much do people remember of what they experience?

People remember a differential amount of what they experience depending on a number of factors, including the type of experience but also depending on factors such as environmental combinations (extremes in heat or cold, for example, tend to degrade memories), physical health (dementia degrades memories, as do other diseases), transitory conditions such as hunger and thirst, how long ago the event occurred, and how important the experience is to the individual. However, overall, people remember far less than they think that they do and much of what they remember is inaccurate.

8. Do you favor an abstraction or instance theories of conceptual knowledge? Why?

Instance theories track how a skill shifts from conscious to automatic while abstraction tracks the shift from specific to more general. I believe that conceptual knowledge is better modeled by theories of abstraction since the gaining and retention of conceptual knowledge is…… [read more]


Ethical Issues and Therapy Case Study

… In order to examine the potential danger that romantic feelings toward patients might hold in the therapeutic setting, one might usefully examine the general characteristics of those therapists who most easily fall into the trap of sexual advance. Eichenberg, Fischer-Becker and Fischer (2010, p. 1019), for example, include several general traits. Most therapists who are at risk, for example, are experiencing difficult life situations, have narcissistic deficits, and may themselves have been victims of trauma. More general risk factors include male gender, being respected as therapists, and being professionally experienced and active in private praxis.

There are significant dangers inherent in engaging in sexual relationships between clients and therapists, for both parties involved. Clients are vulnerable and may be further traumatized by the contact, whereas therapists are at risk of losing their position, reputation, and potentially their freedom. Similarly, there are also significant dangers inherent in engaging in sexual or romantic relationships with students or employees. A study conducted by MacMahon, for example, notes that this is the reason why there are specific ethical guidelines for such relationships. Students and professors who engage in sexual relationships are often subject to coercion, hindrance in the professional relationship, and ethically inappropriate conduct (MacMahon, 2010, p. 15-17). In addition, professionals may be in danger of legal action by clients who are involved in such relationships (Pope, Tabachnick, and Keith-Spiege, 2006).

A related question has been whether the ethical ban on sexual relationships within the therapeutic setting could be lifted after a certain period of time has elapsed. And indeed, some professions have provided for the existence of such relationship. Sarkar (2009), however, advises against this, precisely because of the historical therapist-client relationship. She notes that there will be inevitable repercussions relating to the perception of power in such a relationship, which will be very difficult to circumvent, regardless of time lapse. According to the author, transference in such a relationship is not to be ignored as a potential pitfall.

In conclusion, most critics appear to be negatively inclined towards touching, hugging, and post-therapeutic relationships, even though these may appear innocent and consensual. Such actions create the danger of a "slippery slope" situation, where sexual feelings might more easily develop than if such situations are avoided.

References

Bonitz, V. (2008). Use of Physical Touch in the "Talking Cure": A Journey to the Outskirts of Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy Theory, Research, Practice, Training, Vol. 45, No. 3. Retrieved from: http://www.laboratoriosilesia.com/upfiles/sibi/p_006_use_of_physical.pdf

Eichenberg, C., Fischer-Becker, M. And Fischer, G. (2010). Sexual assaults in therapeutic relationships: prevalence, risk factors and consequences. Health. Vol. 2, No. 9.

MacMahon, B.D. (2010). What's the Harm? Looking at the Effects of Psychology Doctoral Student-Educator Sexual Relationships (Master's thesis, Pacific University). Retrieved from: http://commons.pacificu.edu/spp/118

Pope, K.S., Tabachnick, B.G. And Keith-Spiege, P. (2006). Sexual Attraction to Clients: The Human Therapist and the (Sometimes) Inhuman Training System. American Psychologist, Vol. 41, No. 2. Retrieved from: http://kspope.com/sexiss/research5.php#copy

Sarkar, S.P. (2009). Life after therapy: post-termination boundary violations in psychiatry and psychotherapy. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. Retrieved from: http://apt.rcpsych.org/content/15/2/82.full

Sarkar,… [read more]


Personal Analysis of the Professional Aspirations Research Paper

… ¶ … personal analysis of the professional aspirations of a student of psychology. The reasons given for wanting to enter the field include an intellectual interest in understanding the unconscious mind. Professional goals consist mainly of establishing a clinical counseling practice focusing on personal development and family and interpersonal relationship health. Empathy is cited among the student's greatest strengths as a future clinician. Maintaining self-awareness is presented as a key component of avoiding counter-transference and vocational burnout.

What are your reasons for becoming a psychologist?

I have always been fascinated by the idea of understanding the human mind. I am particularly intrigued by Freudian psychodynamic theory as it pertains to the influence of the subconscious mind and to the process by which thoughts and feelings become suppressed from conscious awareness (McWilliams, 2004). From a practical perspective, I consider the practice of clinical psychology to be among the most important disciplines because it provides such valuable help to individuals and enables them to increase the quality of their lives. By extension, helping every patient also helps some of the people within that person's immediate family and within that person's sphere of social influence.

What are your professional goals?

My professional goals include establishing myself as a practicing professional in the field of clinical psychology. More specifically, I hope to be able to see patients and to help them identify any psychological issues troubling them in order to help them address and resolve those issues. More specifically, I hope that my future practice will focus on areas such as interpersonal and family relationship counseling in the private one-on-one setting.

What type of clients do you wish to work with? Why?

Ideally, I would most want to work with patients encountering ordinary challenges in life that could be effectively addressed by applying concepts of self-reflection, psychodynamic analysis with respect to unconscious influences on behavior, interpersonal conflict resolution, and intra-family harmony. All of these areas are crucial to the long-term happiness of patients and to their ability to make the most out of their lives. In some ways, individuals in need of psychological counseling in connection with "ordinary" life circumstances and challenges may be an under-served patient community because of the overwhelming popularity of acute psychological disorders among psychological professional interest.

What type of clients do you prefer not to work with? Why?

By implication, to the extent I would prefer to work with patients seeking assistance with the ordinary challenges of life, I suppose I would prefer not to work with patients suffering from acute psychiatric disorders. Perhaps, my apprehension is also related to the fact that patients with acute psychiatric disorders present such serious clinical issues that they typically preclude focusing on the types of "ordinary" life issues that interest me the most.

What…… [read more]


Dreams -- Are They Psychologically Term Paper

… Generally, he postulated that human beings have a protective psychological mechanism designed to shield the psyche from various thoughts and perceptions and from actual memories whose conscious perception could be so traumatic that they would be damaging to the individual to perceive consciously (McWilliams, 2004; Mitchell & Black, 1995). According to Freud, those types of thoughts remain in the subconscious but invariably become the source and the root cause of numerous different types of psychological pathologies in waking life when they are left hidden from the conscious mind and unresolved (McWilliams, 2004; Mitchell & Black, 1995).

More specifically, Freud argued that the actual imagery of dreams represented psychologically significant ideas and that identifying the meaning of those images could provide the basis for linking the unconscious mind to the conscious mind, using the content of dreams as a bridge to connect those two distinct entities (McWilliams, 2004). Therefore, Freud devoted considerable attention to the specific content of dreams in his psychodynamic process of identifying unconscious thoughts and fears as a means of helping his patients resolve major psychological conflicts and thereby reduce their uncontrolled expression in harmful ways to the individual by using dream analysis to identify repressed thoughts so that those thoughts could be reconciled with conscious desires during wakefulness (McWilliams, 2004).

Contradictory Evidence

In principle, there may be considerable merit to the notion that dream images relate to some aspect of human psychology. In dreams, the individual may engage in certain behaviors that are uncharacteristic of that individual's typical behavior during wakefulness; the individual may experience imagery in dreams that has obvious symbolic significance, even without the benefit of any formal psychological training or analysis. In some instances, the content of dreams may indeed represent beliefs or concerns or fears to which the individual is resistant on a conscious level. In that respect, it also may be significant that dreams occur during REM sleep.

However, the mere fact that REM sleep in general and dreaming in particular appear not to be unique to human beings suggests that they are more likely spontaneous physiological phenomenon rather than intimately linked to psychological factors. In that regard, animals also sleep in cycles featuring REMs and, perhaps more importantly, animals (including pet dogs, for one ubiquitous example), frequently exhibit all of the apparent signs that they are, in fact, dreaming in visual images that they perceive to be enjoyable sometimes and frightening at other times.

Conclusion

It is understandable why dreaming during sleep would have captured the interest of ancient medicine men and contemporary psychologists alike. In some respects, the content and visual imagery of dreams may be linked to areas of wakeful life. However, in other respects, dreams may be no more than a spontaneous experiential phenomenon that happens to coincide with the most crucial portion of sleep as a physiological function. The fact that non-human animals seem to dream would seem to strongly suggest that there is little or no psychological significance to the content and imagery of dreams, particularly… [read more]


Freud and Psychoanalysis Research Paper

… SIGMUND FREUD & PSYCHOANALYSIS

The original and revolutionary theories that Sigmund Freud developed in his professional life are both extraordinary and controversial. In this paper the fact that Freud was Jewish is explored in terms of the anti-Semitism biases that… [read more]


Mediator and Moderator Effects Applied Article Review

… We also claim that there are conceptual implications of the failure to appreciate the moderator-mediator distinction. Among the issues we will discuss in this regard are missed opportunities to probe more deeply into the nature of causal mechanisms and integrate seemingly irreconcilable theoretical positions. For example, it is possible that in some problem areas disagreements about mediators can be resolved by treating certain variable as moderators. (Baron & Kenny, The Moderator-Mediator Distinction, 1986)

There task for such distinction is still incomplete as the Frazier piece is written eighteen years later and the distinction still has not been made -- and they introduce considering these terms on three levels: conceptual, strategic, and statistical. (2004) Considering mediators and moderators in the ways proposed by Frazier et al. (2004) on the levels proposed by Baron and Kenny (1986) marks the intersection among mediators, moderators, and applications in management. This is yet another way the article by Frazier et al. demonstrates value to readers and researchers.

It is possible for an effect size to be fairly small in order for us to find it interesting. Frazier et al. remind the readers more than once that research into the distinctions between and the subsequent implications for those differences has not been researched a great deal. They mention in their conclusion how their study provides only a model and further implementation is necessary before commenting on a larger body of data. That larger body of data relevant specifically to mediator and moderator effects has not been made, as evidenced for example, by the eighteen year gap in two of the articles, yet their intention is nearly the exact same. Therefore, it is the opinion of the author that effect size need not be the primary issue, though effect sizes should be taken into consideration. The attention and tracking of mediators and moderators during the study is more relevant than the effect size because there is no great body of work to compare against. When there are more studies with many different effect sizes, then that question will be more significant and there is a greater possibility of a relevant, insightful answer. Both moderators and mediators contribute to effect size as they in essence represent the "when" & "for whom" and the "why" & "how" respectively. (Frazier et al., 2004) When a mediation occurs and why a moderation occurs both…… [read more]


Bipolar Disorder Case Story Term Paper

… Owing to the fact that periods of isolation may result from this order, support groups encourages victims that some other people go through the same situation.

Pyschoeducation

These interventions are particularly meant to educate those suffering from bipolar disorder regarding the symptoms of the disorder. As noted by Belmaker (2004) when a person understand the cyclic manner of bipolar disorders, a person can have a better understanding of when mood swings occurs, and the way of dealing with them. When a person suffers a moment of mania, the person can show wild or violent behaviors varying from sexual promiscuity to dangerous escapades. Though each person will show different set of symptoms, understanding and identifying symptoms of remission can assist in preventing hospitalization. People are as well educated on the benefits of their medication in reducing and managing their disorder.

Individual psychotherapy

Psychosocial interventions where psychotherapy are formulated to a tackle the specific thought processes contributing to the bipolar disorder symptoms. Belmaker (2004) explains that therapist can apply many of the different psychotherapy approaches. Some of the psychotherapy approaches include cognitive behavioral, interpersonal therapy, dialectical therapy are just a few of the examples. Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) deal particularly with thought behaviors and how they affect a person's emotions and perceptions. The objective being to replace the negative thought processes with positive thoughts. On the other hand, interpersonal therapies centers on an individual's relationships and the way the individual contributes to interactions and outcomes. Belmaker (2004) points out that dialectical behavior therapy apply positive and negative support models, as a way of treatment. This approach is combined together with cognitive therapy where an individual's perceptions concerning extremes are analyzed.

Recommendations

Though bipolar disorder seems to be a life-long and recurrent condition, there are several measures that a person can do to assist her/himself. Apart from treatment and therapies, the person can use self-help approaches to alleviate symptoms and assist the person live a normal life? Certainly, the person has to change his/her lifestyle and stop cycles of acts or behavior that can aggravate the condition. In addition, the person should accept assistance from the loved ones. For example in our case story, Sarah should accept the assistance and care from her mother. There are other steps that should be taken:

Stop drinking and abusing drugs: as noted by Parikh, et al. (1997) one of the greatest issues with bipolar disorder is the negative outcomes associated with risk taking behavior as well as drugs or alcohol misuse. It is necessary to seek professional assistance if the person is unable to stop this behavior.

Quit unhealthy relations: those suffering from bipolar disorder should look for people who can positively influence them. Those who will help them avoid unhealthy behaviors.

Do regular exercises: regular and moderate exercise assists in stabilizing the victim's mood. At the same time physical exercises allows the brain to release endorphins that makes the person to feel good and can easily sleep. However, the person should get advice from his/her… [read more]


Anxiety Disorders - Panic Research Paper

… Thus, as far as research and current intervention programs on panic disorder are concerned, combined interventions are recommended to be more successful in treating panic disorder than the application of a specific intervention only.

Panic disorder in the United States has been identified extensively through demographic studies on health. In one of the studies on mental health and vulnerable or at-risk groups to it, research proponent Young (2001) identified individuals afflicted with panic disorder are profile to be between the ages 30-50 years old, mostly white Americans, and are common among individuals who just attended a few years in college or have only attained high school level of education or less (58). This demographic profile provides an insight into the nature of panic disorder itself, implying that interventions must be responsive to the nature and sensibilities of individuals who fit this profile and are suffering from panic disorder. More understanding of the demographic background of panic disorder patients would aid the counselor or psychologist with insights as to how the individual is likely to behave during panic attacks, and what are the intervention programs best suited for them.

The social environment of the individual has been strongly linked to the occurrence of panic attacks and perpetuation of panic disorder. In a meta-analysis study conducted by Hettema (2001), his group of researchers found out that panic disorder is significantly linked with "a familial component in liability to panic disorder" (1569). Going further into his study's findings, there were indications that the etiology of panic disorder could actually be linked with genetic factors or inheritance, determining that "genes affect panic disorder similarly in men and women" (1570). The influence of both the individual's immediate social environment, coupled with the finding that panic disorder could be inherited or genetically transmitted within the family, provides insights about the disorder itself, particularly in determining the history of the disorder for the patient. However, the meta-analysis only provides indications that these are the possible factors that could contribute to the etiology of the disorder, but it does not definitely claim that panic disorder is caused by genetic inheritance and/or by the individual's social environment. More intensive studies such as Hettema's must be conducted to prove the consistency or reliability of the results reported.

Looking into the history of panic as an anxiety disorder, I realize that panic disorder itself has been susceptible to the schools of thought that have prevailed and passed through the years. In fact, I realize that the field of abnormal psychology itself are subjected to numerous changes as new perspectives, theories and models are introduced that would inevitably change the way people in general and psychologists specifically will look at the disorder and develop programs to treat or alleviate the patient's condition. Panic disorder was thought initially as mainly confined within the mind of the individual, with panic attacks serving as physical manifestations of those "catastrophic thoughts." It eventually evolved as a disorder that begins with the mind, and ends with a… [read more]


Theories Human Development Factors Influence Essay

… Moreover, previously learned concepts are probable to become even stronger if the individual is able to conquer this stage. However, if the person does not succeed in completing this stage, he or she experiences identity diffusion, as he or she is no longer to have a solid understanding of his or her personal identity. Some might even go as far as to employ self-destructive behavior as a result of being unable to discover their personal-identity, as these people guide themselves in accordance with the principle that any identity is better than having no identity. If an individual finds that he or she is unable to perform honorable activities, he or she comes to do whatever he or she has access to, even if the respective practice is socially unacceptable (Sugarman 91).

All things considered, through studying cognitive development one can be enabled to understand the steps that he or she needs to experience through his or her life and the respective individual is probable to be successful in overcoming issues that might arise at certain moments.

Bibliography:

Coon, Dennis and mitterer, John, "Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior," (Cengage Learning, 2008)

Coon, Dennis and Mitterer, John, "Psychology: Modules for Active Learning (with Concept Modules with Note-Taking…… [read more]


Foundational Scientific Literature Regarding Memory Article Review

… (Fields, 2011, 185-6). The type of associative learning induced by imagery is also believed to be responsible for the functioning of mirror neurons. (Heyes, 2010, 581). The associated image leaves an additional prompt for that information within the brain, highly useful when the original prompt for that information, one's memory of receiving that information is no longer available.

When the image used is enriched by additional properties, such as its location in a familiar spatial layout, the result is cognitive mapping. Cognitive mapping also uses the process of association to enhance long-term memory, but the associations are richer and more numerous in a cognitive map. (Yeap, 2011, 4). Thus, cognitive mapping makes use of indirect associations in addition to direct associations.

Visualization and mental mapping are able to enhance long-term memory because our brain hardwires information that we perceive in the external word into these special mirror neurons. (Shapiro, 2009, p. 442). These neurons are special because they are the same neurons that are activated when we recall that information. (Shapiro, 2009, p. 440). Thus, mirror neurons help explain why imagery and cognitive mapping are so much more conducive to long-term memory than auditory means, such as repeating information: because the process of visualization serves to encode the information in the same neurons that are activated when one attempts to recollect that information.

Mirror neurons are not only activated by images perceived in the external world, they are also activated by an individual's internal mental imagery. Mirror neurons allow certain associations of pieces of information to be consolidated by perceiving mental imagery. For example, one does not need to physically visit and view the location in order to for mirror neurons to be activated, it is enough to visualize the spatial layout in one's mind.

Rizzolati discovered that information perceived in the external world, in his study the performance of a specific behavior, is reflected in a specific "mirror neuron." (Rizzolati, 1996, p. 593). The same neuron which is activated again when we want to use that information. In the same way, information perceived in our internal world, through mental imagery, is stored in these same neurons, which are also activated when we want to use that information, such as for the recollection of facts. Imagery and cognitive mapping employ activate mirror neurons during the visualization of certain pieces of information.

Conclusion

The concept of mirror neurons is groundbreaking in the study of the brain. It adds a completely new dimension to our understanding of the brain's more advanced functions, which we hitherto believed were fairly linear and controlled.

Bibliography

Dagan, R. (2011). Cognitive mapping: Definitions, examples, resources. Intraspec.ca: An online journal. Available at http://intraspec.ca/cogmap.php.

Gallese, V., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., & Rizzolatti, G. (January 01, 1996). Action recognition in the premotor cortex. Brain: a Journal of Neurology, 119, 593-609.

Gallese, V., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., & Rizzolatti, G. (2006). Mirrors in the Mind. The Scientific American, November 2006, 55-61.

Goldstein, B.E. (2008). Cognitive psychology: Connecting mind, research, and everyday… [read more]


Psychology's Rodney Dangerfield Problem Essay

… Rodney Dangerfield

Psychology's Issue of Credibility

Over the course of more than a century, the field of psychology has gained a great deal of prominence and validity in the mainstream practice of health provision. Many healthcare providers perceive mental health as having equal importance to physiological health. However, even with its permeation of mainstream society, psychology continues to suffer from a problem of impression. Such is to say that, as iconic comedian Rodney Dangerfield so famously proclaimed of himself, psychology is a field which gets no respect. This, as our discussion below will show, is simultaneously a result of perception and practice.

With respect to both, psychology's status as a social science makes it inherently subject to a wide variance of schools of thought, perspectives and ideological points of origin. As point of fact, during the early development of psychology, it was perceived as less a science than a philosophical endeavor to understand the human mind. The prevailing influence of Sigmund Freud is demonstrative of this. Freud is renowned for his creativity, his insight and his boldness but is equally decried for the frequent absence of empiricism or scientific process in his experimental work. His work would simultaneously advance psychology in popular culture and damage its future reputation in the scientific community.

Today, psychology is often derided for a similar lack of empiricism, though ironically this criticism now comes more typically from within the field. So is this demonstrated in the article by Nicolosi (2005), which reports on an APA conference in which association members worried over the lack of empiricism in current psychological research. According to Nicolosi, prominent psychology community leaders have expressed concern that more often than not political imperatives drive research outcomes rather than the research itself. In other words, far too many experimenters begin their experiments with the preconceived intent to yield a particular set…… [read more]


Classical Conditioning by Pavlov Research Paper

… It is basically a glutmate antagonist, which acts by creating obstruction of voltage-dependent sodium and calcium channels. Conditioned emotional response (CER) model was used in rates by Mirza and some others. Under this model, houselights (CR) were used with electric… [read more]


Freud Versus Rogers Term Paper

… Freud vs. Rogers

The world of psychology is filled with various theories and ideas for treating a host of conditions. Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers are two critical thinkers who set the foundation for other schools of thought. To fully… [read more]


Efficacy of Personality Disorder Treatments Research Paper

… They occur in every culture. The affects of personality disorders are long lasting and are diffuse. People affected by personality disorders are not just the victims, but also the families, and the general communities of those who suffer from personality disorders. Just as with any medical condition, prevention is the best cure, as well as early diagnosis.

References:

Clarkin, PhD, J.F., Foelsch, PhD, P.A, Levy, PhD, K.N., Hull, PhD., J.W., Delaney, J.C., & Kornberg, MD, O.F. (2001) The Development of a Psychodynamic Treatment for Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary Study of Behavioral Change. Journal of Personality Disorders, 15(6), 487 -- 495.

Giesen-Bloo, J., van Duck, MD, PhD, R., Spinhoven, PhD, P., van Tilburg, MD, PhD, W., Dirksen, PhD, C., van Asselt, T., Kremers, PhD, I., Nadort, M., & Rants, PhD, A. (2006) Outpatient Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 63, 649 -- 658.

Lieb, K., Zanarini, M.C., Schmaltz, C., Linehan, M.M., & Bohus, M. (2004) Borderline personality disorder. Lancet, 364, 453 -- 461.

Svrakic, D.M., Dramatic, S., Hill, K., Bayon, C., Przybeck, T.R., & Cloning, C.R. (2002) Act Psychiatry Scandinavia, 106, 189 -- 195.

van den Bosch, L.M.C., & Overhaul, R. (2007) Patients with addiction and personality disorder: treatment outcomes and clinical implications. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 20, 67 -- 71.

1. Are there any effective treatments out there for those with personality disorders? If so, those…… [read more]


Grief Schiz Precautions and Procedures Essay

… As depression itself has become better understood, so have its effects -- such as the potential for suicidal thoughts and actions -- and its mechanisms, and thus more effective ways of handling depression at all ages and for a variety of causes have also been developed (Beck & Alford, 2009; Bhatia & Bhatia, 2007). As many schizophrenics are diagnosed in adolescence, a focus on research in handling depression and suicidal tendencies in the adolescent age group was employed, along with specific information regarding depression in schizophrenics (Beck & Alford, 2009; Bhatia & Bhatia, 2007; Wittman & Keshava, 2007). In this way, a comprehensive safety plan was established.

First and foremost, cognitive behavioral therapy is recommended for the treatment of depression in children and adolescents prior to any pharmaceutical treatment (Bhatia & Bhatia, 2007). Especially as a recently diagnosed schizophrenic might be prescribed various medications including psychotropic pharmaceuticals, eliminating anti-depressants from a first-line response to depression in these cases is ideal (Wittman & Keshava, 2007; Bhatia & Bhatia, 2007). Anti-depressants can actually increase suicidal thoughts in some users, especially in adolescents, so these should be avoided as much as possible (Beck & Alford, 2009; Bhatia & Bhatia, 2007).

Cognitive behavioral therapy has other advantages in dealing with schizophrenics, as well, as it can help address not only the depression but in fact must tackle the underlying causes of that depression -- i.e. schizophrenia, in the context at hand -- in order to properly treat the patient (Beck & Alford, 2009; Bhatia & Bhatia, 2007). Though the depression in patients recently diagnosed with schizophrenia is more directly related to the diagnosis than the disorder, an important distinction, the grieving process is related to the lost sense of self associated with the prospect of a life with schizophrenia (Wittman & Keshava, 2007). Cognitive behavioral therapy can alleviate or help move through the depression of the grieving process by helping the patient build tools and understandings for how to live a life with schizophrenia that still has a high quality of life and a large degree of personal fulfillment. The safety plan should thus include extensive cognitive behavioral therapy, possibly in daily sessions for the period immediately following diagnosis, as well as therapeutic and informational sessions with family members to equip them in providing the necessary support for the patient. In this way, adequate care, oversight, and internal tools can be given to the patient to ensure their safety and more, to improve their quality of life and help heal their depression.

Conclusion

Ensuring the safety of patients is any practitioners primary goal. Ensuring the quality of life of patients needs to come in a very close second, however. Saftey plans that contribute to enhanced quality of life are more than possible, and in this case they are one and the same.

References

Beck, A. & Alford, B. (2009). Depression: Causes and Treatments. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Bhatia, S. & Bhatia, S.…… [read more]


Alfred Adler Term Paper

… 96). The primary goal for most people was to overcome feelings of childhood inferiority, weakness and dependence as he had done and attain a sense of superiority or mastery, which would give "unity and coherence to the personality" (Engler, p. 96).

By superiority, Adler meant a 'will to power' (to use Nietzsche's misunderstood term) which had nothing to do with achieving wealth, status or control over others but a sense of self-mastery, self-realization and being made whole again. Achieving maturity was a process of moving from childhood feelings of inferiority and powerlessness to an adult sense of competence, fulfillment and superiority over the former self. Yet individual success was not the uppermost goal for Adler in determining overall psychological health, since humanity required a social interest as well without which civilization could not survive. Only unhealthy personalities sought superiority and success for purposes of political and economic power and personal gain rather than considering the common good and society as a whole (Burger, 2007, p. 103).

Adler was a major influence for the ego psychology and humanistic psychoanalysis of Karen Horny, Erik Erikson and others who rejected Freud's central concept that the personality was shaped by biology and genetics rather than society culture and interpersonal relationships. After his death, the Alderians never became a major school of psychology that could rival behaviorism or psychoanalysis, but their North American Society of Adlerian Psychology (NASAP) still exists, as do the Journal of Individual Psychology and the Adler School of Professional Psychology in Chicago. Even though he is largely forgotten today, his ideas have been incorporated into many branches of psychology, including cognitive therapy, family therapy, social psychology and system's theory (Mosac and Maniacci, p. x). Certainly his views about overcoming childhood feelings of inferiority and developing self-esteem, competency and adult responsibilities have become commonplace in contemporary psychology. So has the use of therapy pioneered by Adler with the purpose of assisting children and adolescents to overcome life's obstacles, get better grades and excel at academics, sports, music and the arts (Burger, p. 102).

His theories have always been notoriously difficult to verify empirically or experimentally, given that they were based on his own observations of patients and personal reflections. On the subject of birth order, he was correct that first-borns were most likely to achieve their goals, excel in careers and professions and complete more years of higher education, but wrong in his belief that younger siblings were more competitive, exhibitionist and prone to risk-taking. He was also incorrect that "only children are more selfish and have difficulty adjusting to the real world" (Schultz and Schultz, p. 333). Empirical research has also verified his concepts of overprotective and pampering parents who develop feelings of inferiority, dependence and incompetence in their children, and "as a result, the child grows up unable to deal with many of life's problems" (Burger, p. 103). At the same time, Adler was also correct that neglected children became suspicious, distrustful and had difficulty with intimacy or expressing emotions… [read more]


Treatments of Bulimia Nervosa Research Paper

… Results showed on significant benefit from the combined treatment on depression symptoms. A significant advantage was computed for impairment in the short-term of 12 weeks only. The combination, therefore, was found to produce limited advantage due to the varied sampling… [read more]


Carl Rogers Research Paper

… His humanistic psychology reached its apex in the 1960s and 1970s as traditional Freudianism went into eclipse, and indeed it seemed to blend with the counterculture, civil rights movements, feminism and the radical and libertarian thought of the time. It has fared less well in the conservative period of the last thirty years, with the renewed emphasis on traditional religion and morality, law and order, and a general revival of authoritarian thought. Indeed, biological, genetic and Social Darwinian explanations for human behavior, deviance and social problems have also revived, as they generally do in conservative periods. His ideas were easily parodied as "Politically Correct" and multiculturalist, and as generally undermining authority in favor of some vague concept of giving individuals permission to do as they pleased. Rogers was reacting against the totalitarian and authoritarian systems that had come into power during the 20th Century, which had started wars of aggression and committed horrendous atrocities. He did believe that persons with narrow, rigid self-concepts were given to hysteria, paranoia and violence against those who were different. Indeed, any differences in culture or values were a grave threat to personalities like these, which were also highly alienated from themselves and their environment, so for Rogers the crucial goal was to help free them from these restraints and incongruities and become whole, fully-functioning personalities. Rather than living lives of fear, neurosis and inflexibility, they would open themselves up to joy, creativity and new experiences. No teacher or therapist could 'cure' them, but only help them understand themselves and their potential for growth and change.

REFERENCES

Cornelius-White, J.H.D. (2007). "Learner-centered Teacher-Student Relationships are Effective: A Meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 77 (1), pp. 113-143.

Demanchick, S., & Kirschenbaum, H. (2008). "Carl Rogers and the CIA." Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 48(1), 6-31.

Kramer, R. (1995) "The Birth of Client-Centered Therapy: Carl Rogers, Otto Rank, and 'The Beyond." Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 35.4, pp. 54-110.

Rogers, C. (1951). Client-centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications and Theory. London: Constable.

Rogers, C. (1961). On Becoming a…… [read more]


Pastoral Counseling Issues Research Paper

… Using scripture can be a springboard of discussion about the client's specific issue.

Balancing proper sensitivity to diverse populations and a theological perspective

Christian counseling is not incompatible with sensitivity to diversity. Christian counselors can learn from diverse spiritual traditions. Even if Christian teachings are used as the ultimate guide, a counselor can still acknowledge that "spirituality has much to do with the healing of the world's suffering and that incorporation of the sacred traditions of wisdom, equanimity, compassion and loving kindness are the threats that need to be repaired in our community web" of all religions (Nedumaruthumchalil 2009).

Differentiated core values from peripheral values in ethical decision making

The counselor must understand which values have priority. 'Pick your battles.' Rather than fighting for spiritual minutiae, such as different interpretations of particular Biblical passages or life events, the counselor must have a focus on a wider, broader perspective, to enable the client to find 'his or her way,' spiritually. The pastor retains a focus on core values, rather than becomes obsessed with dogma.

A balanced counseling practice

According to The Minister as Diagnostician, Paul Pruyser states that there are seven principles that inform spiritual counseling: 1. An awareness of the holy; 2. providence or "how does trust or hope function in this person's life;" 3. faith, "to what faith is the person committed;" 4. grace or gratefulness: "for what is the client grateful;" 5. repentance or "how does this person manage transgression and guilt;" 6. Communion or "where is this person's sense of community?" And 7. "vocation, i.e., what purpose is found in this person's life and work" (McLean 2009: 79).

Through searching in the client's history, the counselor is able to found his or her advice upon universal spiritual values, while still targeting individual needs. Counselors can acknowledge bad behaviors without denying the client's essential goodness as a person, and by focusing on the client's faith and sense of hope, gratefulness, and the desire for absolution, enable the client to move forward in a more positive fashion. Counseling does not mean denying or shying away from hard truths, but confronting obstacles should affirm the possibility of change, not simply act as moral judgment.

References

Code of Ethics. (2012). American Association of Pastoral Counselors (AAPC). Retrieved:

http://aapc.org/content/code-ethics-1

Code of Ethics. American Association of Christian Counselors (AACC). Retrieved:

http://www.aacc.net/about-us/code-of-ethics/

McLean, Haydn J. (2009). One more hat in the ring: A comparative synopsis and new tool for patient spiritual assessment. Journal of Pastoral Counseling, 44. Retrieved:

http://www.iona.edu/academic/artsscience/orgs/pastoral/issues/2009_v44/McLean2.pdf

Nedumaruthumchalil, George. (2009). The role of religion and spirituality in marriage and family therapy. Journal of Pastoral Counseling, 44. Retrieved:

http://www.iona.edu/academic/artsscience/orgs/pastoral/issues/2009_v44/Nedumaruthumchalil.pdf

Pastoral counseling: Definition. (1997). The Harvard Mental Health Letter. Retrieved:

http://www.pastoral-counseling.org/Definition1.htm… [read more]


Health Psychology Response Past Article Review

… The contents of the interviews were then analyzed for coinciding terms, themes, and experiences to find some correlating factor. Although the research method here was thorough and researchers made a concentrated effort to eliminate bias by using transcripts, removing the text from the tone and emotion of the interview subject invariably alters the analysis of the presented data.

Part 4:

The three main themes of the research document include male under-usage of medical facilities, the need of the researchers to find suitable research subjects, and the analysis of the data which linked male under-utilization with the male psychological need to be dominant rather than weak or enfeebled. The purpose of the experiment was to investigate potential reasons why males went to the doctor far less often than they should. This is a subjective question and dependant on individual experience and perception. It seems that the researcher's interest in the question was more to confirm their former opinions than in investigating a question free from bias. This is suspected because of the way that they acquired participants and the limited number of people who participated in the study. It would be foolish to postulate a potential reason for action based upon the survey of only ten participants. In their analysis, the researchers put a lot of emphasis on the male psychology as the reason for under-using healthcare facilities. To be ill is to be weak and to seek aid for the weakened body is weaker still. As a truly masculine and male individual, the man must avoid seeking help for as long as possible. This is an intriguing concept, but is not given enough evidence by the researchers.

Works Cited:

Hale, Susan and Sarah Grogan. (2010). "Male GPs' Views on Men Seeking Medical Help: a Qualitative Study." British Journal of Health Psychology.…… [read more]


Tina's Story Case Study

… In Tina's case we see that she thinks of suicide but she does not feel that she is at a point where she must decide for suicide. Yet, as she is hopeless because of her broken relationship with her husband… [read more]


Anxiety Disorders Diagnosis Research Paper

… Gelernter et al. (1991) compared the use of alprazolam in the treatment of social anxiety disorders and reported a positive outcome.

Antidepressants

Just anecdotal evidence is in support of the efficacy of TCAs in the treatment of the social anxiety… [read more]


Schizophrenia and Society Essay

… Schizophrenia and Society

Houston born, Andrea Yates was born to a German immigrant, Jutta Karin Koehler. She had five siblings and she was the youngest of all being raised in a catholic household. Andrea graduated in 1982 from Milby High School. From the high school records, it is seen that she was a brilliant student, captain of the school swim team, and she served as an officer in National Honor Society. Pre-nursing program was completed by her from the University of Houston and graduated in nursing from School of Nursing in University of Texas in 1986. From 1986 until 1994, she worked as a nurse in the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in University of Texas. She got married in 1993 and one of the main promises that the couple made was to have as many babies as the nature can allow them (Sarason, & Sarason, 2005, p. 90).

History of Mental Illness, Treatments and Behaviors

Andrea gave birth to her fourth son, Luke and this marked the beginning of depression in Andrea. The reports have shown that at this point, Andrea was attending some extremist sermons from Michael Peter Woroniecki, who also sold the couple their bus. At this point one of the main concerns that the family of Andrea had was that if Andrea was becoming more captivated by the sermons of the minister. In 1999, the first incidence occurred when rusty, Andrea's husband, found her chewing her own fingers and the next day she tried to commit suicide by overdosing on pills and she was immediately hospitalized. Hospitalization did not seem to have any effect on her. The next day she was begging her husband to let her kill herself and get over with her life while she was holding a knife against her neck. At this point, her psychiatrist was Dr. Eileen Starbranch. She prescribed Andrea a mixture of antidepressant drugs that included Haldol. Haldol was working well and Andrea's condition was improving when she was released from the hospital (O'Malley, 2004, p. 65). In July 1999, she succumbed to have a nervous breakdown that lead to additional suicide attempts. She was in and out of the hospital frequently diagnosed with postpartum psychosis. Her psychiatrist advised the couple not to have more children but Andrea continued conceiving until her fifth child in 2000, a daughter. Her psychiatrist testified that Andrea would most probably go into psychotic depression if she conceives more children. The psychotic depression of Andrea seemed to have accelerated after the death of her father. In 2001, after Andrea stopped taking Haldol, the symptoms of depression that were than seen in Andrea included feverish recitation of the Bible; she stopped feeding her daughter and stopped taking antidepressants. After immediate hospitalization, her psychiatrist was Dr. Mohammed Saeed. In April 2001, Andrea was nearly catatonic and she confessed to the police that she planned to drown three of her children. On 20 June 2001, Rusty left Andrea alone with her children against specific instructions of Dr. Mohammed… [read more]


Behaviorism Concept Essay

… Behaviorism:

Common Phobias and Common Characteristics in Trauma

As I have proceeded in my education on the subject of human psychology, I have become increasingly fascinated with the way that certain experiences and dispositions can influence significant behavioral differentials from… [read more]


Diagnostics on Hoarding Research Paper

… Diagnostics on Hoarding

The Diagnostics of Hoarding

Hoarding is a problem that the DSM has generally classified under OCD. However, it is very likely that the next edition of the DSM will show hoarding as a separate disorder when the… [read more]


Humans Behavior: Discriminative Control Article Review

… (Shannon, 1961) Thus experiences especially the sensory and perceptual experiences are dependant on the stimulus and the activation of the sensory receptors. While the learned reactions as with Pavalov's dogs are explainable as stimulus, the reactions of human subjects is not dependent on mere stimulus but on complicated variables like predisposition, attitudes, associative cognizance and personality. It also depends on individual motivation and the truth is that as of now psychologists are still debating the issue of the nature of perception. (Brown, 1961)

One aspect of this system is contingency management where the therapist uses models to control behaviors, or create new ones by altering existing stimuli and reinforcing the sanctions or rewards. It is assumed that all persons have the desired behaviors existing in the psyche but the need is strengthening their expressions. The operant reinforcement research further goes into seeking the environment that is a stumbling block in the continuous maintenance of the desirable behaviors and the often cause of the continuance of undesirable responses. Thus the environment also had to be changed with the insistence on removing the environments that often caused stimuli for regressing into undesirable behavior.

Using the environment or the in competition there is thus a rearrangement of existing contingencies and thus where young man with a learning disability was also an absconder from care, Sheldon (1995) suggests interesting car rides that the subject enjoyed without escort because the escort triggered the running away. The researcher also suggests rewards like "If there are three clear days without a single incident of fighting, William and Marion will be taken to the sports centre for one hour" and the case where there could be an insufficiency of certain behavior, the system ought to try a low-level adaptive response. (Sheldon, 1995) However in the cases where the cause and effect cannot be understood, as in extreme autism and in retardation selective punishment and infliction of some evil to correct the behavior could trigger responses that are normalized.

Conclusion:

The presence of correlation between punishment and the suppression of stereotypy may have said to have been proved the fact that discriminative control by an antecedent stimulus grows with punishment. However by itself it cannot be universal. There is a need to consider the behavior and introducing new stimuli that gives rise to a new system of behavior as opposed to punishments. Since the researches are still new, the effects of punishments will take more time to understand.

References

Biderman, Albert D; Zimmer, Herbert. (1961) "The Manipulation of Human Behavior." John

Wiley & Sons: New York.

Brown, Judson Seise. (1961) "The Motivation of Behavior."

McGraw-Hill: New York.

Buss, Arnold H. (1988) "Personality: Evolutionary Heritage and Human Distinctiveness."

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale, NJ.

Doughty, Shannon S. et al. (2007) "Discriminative control of punished stereotyped behavior in humans." Journal of the experimental analysis of behavior, vol. 87, no. 2, pp: 36-41.

Sheldon, Brian. (1995) "Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy: Research, Practice, and Philosophy." Routledge:…… [read more]


Freud and Rogers Theory Research Paper

… Freud vs. Rogers

Sigmund Freud vs. Carl Rogers:

A Discussion on Theories of Personality and Psychotherapy

Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers were two of the most influential psychological theorists of the previous century. These two men came up with psychoanalysis and the humanistic approach, both of which revolutionized the field. It is, thus, important not only to understand their individual approaches, but also to compare the two men in their theories of personality and psychotherapy, in order to see how these theories functioned, how the men explained the various approaches, and how the main principles and components evidence strengths and weaknesses.

Freud's Theory

In the Freudian point-of-view, a person was like an "energy system" and all mental processes were "energy flows." These "flows" were considered to either flow freely or be backed up by some other energy. Freud also argued that the "goal of all behavior is the reduction of tension through the release of energy, which produces pleasure," and added that "people function in accordance with hedonistic principles, seeking unbridled gratification of all desires."

Freud also states, according to Prevos (2005) that there is a pursuit of pleasure in all humans no matter what personality and what kind of person one is, and so this endless pursuit is in constant conflict with all civilization. This uncontrolled satisfaction of pleasure is certainly never wholly fulfilled. Freud also states, with regards to analyzing people's personalities, and even in psychotherapy his constant stress is upon this; namely the fact that humans are and will always be primarily driven by sexuality and aggression.

Freud adds:

"Sexual and aggressive energy prevent[s] from expression in a more direct way [and] are converted to cultural activities such as art and science. Energy used for cultural purposes is, however, no longer available to sexual purposes and […] the price of civilization is misery, the forfeit of happiness and a sense of guilt."

Freud also states that, with regards, to personality, "much of human behavior is determined by forces outside awareness."

Thus, the relation between a person and his peers (society) is essentially controlled by primitive urges, which are buried within us and form the basis of a "hidden self." In this way, according to Prevos (2005), Freud constructs the basis for dreams, neurosis, psychosis, etc. through an unmanifested world, which he divides into three levels of awareness (the id, ego and superego). These are thus Freud's theories on psychotherapy and with it, on personality.

Rogers' Theory

Carl Rogers, who came after Freud, build upon the previously existing theories in the field. Rogers was a humanist psychologist, and was quite dissatisfied with Freud's psychoanalysis.

He thought it completely dehumanized, and instead proposed that

"…people have drives that lead them to engage in activities resulting in personal satisfaction and a contribution to society: the actualizing tendency [which] is present is all organisms and can be defined as the motivation present in every life form to develop its potentials to the fullest extent."

In this view, this kind of psychology… [read more]


History and Current Applications of Behaviorism Research Paper

… Behaviorism: History, Development, And Current Applications

There are many different schools and branches of psychological theory and thought, and even though this area of science is barely a century old these branches have all developed and evolved tremendously. Behaviorism is certainly no exception; in some ways one of the oldest and most fundamental schools of psychology, there have been drastic changes and splits to behavioral psychology and amongst behavioral theorists. The following pages will briefly outline the foundation of behaviorism by detailing the contributions made to the theory by three of its most prominent researchers and theorists. Changes that were brought to the theory during the course of its development will also be discussed, as will current applications and trends in behaviorism. Though brief, an examination of these areas of the theoretical and practical implications of historical and modern behaviorism will provide a comprehensive overview of the theory and its potential effectiveness.

One of the major themes of John Watson's writings on behaviorism was the strain now known as methodological behaviorism, which is essentially a commentary on the science of psychology itself. Believing things like mood and mental states to be individual and thus ultimately unknowable and non-empirical, methodological behaviorists are quite strict in observing only external and thus objectively measurable data in drawing their conclusions (Graham 2010). Psychological behaviorism is not at all mutually exclusive of methodological behaviorism, and Watson as well as the more well-known Ivan Pavlov could both said to be of this school of though, which focuses on learning histories and conditioning as primary influences of psychology and behavior (Graham 2010).

Pavlov had his famous experiment (or coincidental discovery) with dogs in which the subjects became used to a bell ringing when their meal was being served, and would salivate at the ringing of the bell even without the presence of food (Mills 1998). Watson and others took this form of operant conditioning to its height with behavior modification techniques and therapies during the first half of the twentieth century (Mills 1998) B.F. Skinner, who came on the scene later (his life spanned most of the twentieth century, from 1904 to 1990) took psychological behaviorism to its logical conclusion, seeing mental activity and mental states as behavior and claiming it was circular reasoning to explain behavior with behavior; the most prevalent non-behavioral influence on behavior Skinner could identify was environment, and thus he became intimately concerned with the details of environment and its effect on learning and behavior (Graham 2010;…… [read more]


Cardsmax Abramson, R. ) Annotated Bibliography

… Secondly, he reminds us that 'mourning processes in psychotics' are not always 'psychotic mourning processes', that is to say, that they do not necessarily occur within, or give rise to, a psychotic clinical picture. These ideas are illustrated by a number of sessions and vignettes concerning two psychotic patients in psychotherapeutic and psychoanalytic treatment. In theoretical terms, it seems vitally important in this context to combine a relationship-based approach within a framework of special psychoanalytic psychopathology with an updated view of processes of mourning and affective loss.

Witkiewitz, K., & Marlatt, G. (2010). Behavioral Therapy Across the Spectrum. Alcohol Research & Health, 33(4), 313. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

This article discusses that there are numerous effective behavioral therapies have been developed that can bring the treatment to the patient rather than bringing the patient to treatment. These behavioral therapy techniques, which can provide effective treatment across the spectrum of severity of alcohol abuse disorders, include facilitated self-change, individual therapies, couples and family approaches, and contingency management. New methods of delivery and successful adjuncts to existing behavioral treatments also have been introduced, including computerized cognitive -- behavioral treatments, Web-based guided self-change, and mindfulness-based approaches. Although a wide variety of behavioral approaches have been shown to have good efficacy, choosing the treatment most appropriate for a given patient remains a challenge for most therapists.… [read more]


Theory Application Substance Abuse Research Paper

… Theory Application Substance Abuse

Over the last several years, the issue of substance abuse has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because there have been tremendous amounts of people that are being impacted… [read more]


Typology to Correlative Assessment Research Paper

… For example, areas of stratification could include the comparison (ideally in a highly quantifiable method, which may be hard to determine with a high degree of accuracy simply due to the subject matter and the subjectivity through which such information can be gained from patients) of such fundamental principles of cognitive therapy including over-generalization, minimizing and maximizing the importance of certain events which induce a state of depression, as well as dichotomous thinking, which occurs when depressed subjects believe something is either extremely positive or extremely negative, with no degree of overlap between these two thoughts (Beck, 1963). By codifying patients who suffer from such occurrences, and quantifying both the amount and the degree of sufferance endured due to such specific causes, it would be possible to identify patterns or themes existing in such data for those who were treated with cognitive therapy and for those who were treated with conventional methods of mitigating symptoms of depression.

The obtaining of such trends which occurred within the respective data sets, of course, could be used in an actuarial sense to then indicate which of the aforementioned methods is most efficacious for mitigating the circumstances of depression. The probability and rate of incidence of improvement or dearth of improvement of each form of depression as evidenced by the respective treatments could be easily quantified and applied to patients in manner which could be beneficial to them.

References

Beck, A. (1963). Thinking And Depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 14, 324-33.

Spradley, J.P. (1980).…… [read more]


Gordon Willard Allport Research Paper

… The fact that everyone has these feelings supports the idea that one trait may be dominant in one situation and another in another situation (Allport, 1937a).

In order to connect the traits and dispositions in order to make them work… [read more]


Organizational Behavior What Is the Boss Up Discussion Chapter

… Organizational Behavior

What is the Boss up against in relation to Bartleby? What does Bartleby represent? Who are the major players in the story? What do we know about them? Are they likable? Sympathetic? Realistic?

Bartleby's employer is dealing with the hopes that this person can help to represent a change in the atmosphere of his office. As the other two scriveners are moody and often bring added amounts of drama to the business. Bartleby represents the sense of hope and disappointment of the narrator for this character. The major players of the story include: the narrator, Nippers, Turkey and Bartleby. We know that Nippers suffers from chronic indigestion, Turkey is alcoholic and Bartleby is an underachiever. The only character that is likable is the narrator. There is no sympathy for them. This is because they all have various hang ups that effects their quality of life. The story is not realistic, due to the fact that the narrator moves his business when Bartleby refuses to stop living there. No one should allow this to happen. (Melville, 2006)

What is the function of the story's minor characters?

They are helping to support the underlying plot of the story and the complex relationships between the main characters. (Melville, 2006)

How does the Boss react when Bartleby repeatedly refuses to perform his duties? What is the Boss's dilemma?

He is surprised at first. Then, he begins to have a sense of sympathy. The Boss's dilemma is that he is letting his sympathy for Bartleby affect his business (which is creating added expenses and frustrations). (Melville, 2006)

Why does the Boss have sympathy for Bartleby? What do you recommend the Boss do?

The reason why the Boss has sympathy for Bartleby is because, he believes that he has been through a number of bad situations that…… [read more]


Human Psychology Compare and Contrast the Parental Essay

… ¶ … Human Psychology

Compare and contrast the parental and child behaviours commonly attributed to each attachment style in relation to the three attachment styles and the "Strange Situation" scenario.

A large volume of research was conducted during the second… [read more]


Cultural Psychology Two Cultural Groups Term Paper

… 2: Apparatus

The data for the experimental research analysis was collected by using the tool of focus groups. As the two samples are located in the two entirely different parts of the world so in order to accumulate timely and… [read more]


Procrastination: A Coping Mechanism Research Paper

… It is this latter reality that creates such a negative perspective on the cause of procrastination. Generally speaking the most probable cause is agreed upon as a coping mechanism for stress and anxiety. However, no one really elaborates on the reality that this stress/anxiety could arise for a number of reasons. In some cases, the procrastinator could be stressed or anxious about starting or completing a task but in other cases the procrastinator could be stressed or anxious about not having enough time (and thus can't seem to start) or be a perfectionist who works much better under deep pressure at the last minute, thus, he/she is too stressed to start too early Coping mechanisms are often really healthy implementations in life as stress management tools. A procrastinator may be simply coping with a very busy schedule and procrastination, thus, serves as a way to prioritize his/her schedule and goals. The problem is that not everyone will take the same perspective about priorities, especially if he/she is affected in the procrastination.

For example, a procrastinator may put off his/her role in a group project till the last minute because he/she has two children to care for and needs to pick up extra shifts at work to pay the bills. Perhaps, a procrastinator may put off his/her family responsibility (i.e. grocery shopping for a disabled relative or taking a relative to dinner) because he/she has a role in a group project that needs to be complete. Chances are that the procrastinator has weighed the options and prioritize what he/she needs to do in light of the evidence and, yet, the person(s) being put off probably think negatively of the procrastinator. However, it was a coping mechanism to deal with the stress of having multiple things to do and choosing the best way to prioritize.

Often the pressure of choosing how to prioritize makes a person procrastinate everything and just stay home to do entirely nonessential things like clean house, watch a build-up of shows on DVR, or bake, or some other task that is less important than the tasks or goals or decisions needing to be started/completed, achieved, or made, respectively, but soothing to the procrastinator in a time of stress. Chun Chu and Jin Nam (2011) are seeking to provide the different perspective on the root of procrastination as a behavior, believing that not all procrastination is debilitating or dysfunctional. They suggest (instead) that procrastination has some positive potential and does not always lead to negative consequences, but may in fact have some positive consequences in some cases (Chun Chu and Jin Nam 2011). In making their case, the authors differentiate between what they call passive procrastinators and active procrastinators, identifying the two in terms of using procrastination, respectively, as a pathological mechanism that emerges from a debilitating fear/anxiety about starting/completing tasks that leads to equally debilitating consequences or a more intentional method of engaging the pressure and subsequent adrenaline that comes with working at the last minute under pressure… [read more]


Procrastination Introduction- for Psychologist Research Paper

… Then, if failure results, the individual can say, "It was not my fault, they made me do it this way" (Ferrari, Johnson and McCown).

Temporal Motivation Theory (TMT) -- This theory represents the most recent thinking in the psychological community regarding procrastination. It represents the act of procrastination as a sliding scale of motivation, or Motivation = Expectancy X Value/Impulsiveness X Delay. This theory is called utility in other subjects -- the higher the utility, the greater the preference. In the contemporary world, we are constantly needing to make decisions based on various condequences of behavior and action. We therefore put off unpleasant tasks until the last moment, choosing instead to fulfill our primary, social needs. Modern individuals also want immediate and direct feedback; by procrastinating tasks that are unpleasant, we also delay any unpleasantness or potential for unpleasantness into the future where, ostensibly, we will be more equipped to deal with whatever issue we are avoiding (Pychyl).

Conclusions -- Of course, different people procrastinate for different reasons. Many people are relaxed about their responsibilities, and negatively avoid them by placing emphasis on other tasks. Students may prefer social time rather than homework; many see tasks as too huge to tackle. This typc of procrastinator continuously avoids situations that would cause any displeasure (Tuker-Ladd). Alternatively, the tense and afraid personaly constantly feels overwhelmed with pressure, is unrealistic about time, and have a sense of malaise, and "why bother," and constant doubt. This group feels such self-animosity that they believe they cannot even start a project because they are incapable. They will say they have grand plans, but continue to "relax" until it is impossible to even start a mediocre plan, let alone a plan that might actually be great (Steel).

Thus, as part of the human condition, procrastination is part of our unique ability to choose, to rank, and to organize a working hierarchy. This hierarchy is of a sliding schedule and is not really abnormal behavior until or unless it becomes chronic or has regular, detrimental, consequences. The irony, too, is that many procrasinators have trouble seeking help or treatment because they are task-averse to even trying to get help -- they procrastinate the very task that would allow them to overcome the disability (Ferrari, Still Procrastinating?).

Works Cited

Ariely, D. And K. Wertenbroch. "Procrastination, Deadlines and Performance." Psychological Sciences 13.3 (2002): 219-24.

Burka, Y. Procrastination: WHy You Do It. New York: DaCapo Press, 2008.

Ferrari, J. Still Procrastinating? New York: Wiley, 2010.

Ferrari, J., K. Johnson and W. McCown. Procrastination and Task Avoidance: Theory, Research and Treatment. New York: Plenum Press, 1995.

Pychyl, T. "Temporal Motivation Theory." 27 March 2008. Pyschology Today. March 2011 .

Rosner, S. And P. Hermes. The Self-Sabotage Cycle. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2006.

Schraw, G., T. Wadkins and L. Olafson. "Doing the Things We Do: A Grounded Theory of Academic Procrastination." Jounral of Educational Psychology 99.1 (2007): 12-25.

Steel, P. "The nature of Procrastination: A Meta-Analytic Approach and Theroretical review." Pyschological Bulletin 133.1 (2007):… [read more]


Hermeneutical Analysis of Psychotherapy as a Cultural Research Paper

… ¶ … Hermeneutical Analysis of Psychotherapy as a Cultural Artifact:

A Metabletical Approach

The world and the events that are contained therein are not static; everyone would acknowledge this as fact. A simple reading of history would say that this… [read more]

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