"Psychology / Behavior / Psychiatry" Essays

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Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance, by Leon Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,234 words)
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¶ … Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance, by Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith (1957), (Lesko, pgs. 115-123). Write a brief review of the study, and be sure to answer the following questions: What was the hypothesis in the Festinger/Carlsmith experiment? Describe the experimental procedure in your own words. Compare and contrast the experimental procedure with the control group procedure.… [read more]

Psychology - Personality Psychoanalysis, Humanism and Existentialism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (601 words)
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Psychology - Personality



Classical psychoanalysis originated with Sigmund Freud in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. According to Freud, much of outward human behavior is, in fact, driven by completely subconscious urges and fears and repressed emotions. Freud also considered the sexual urge as a major motivation in human behavior and emphasized the importance of the parent-child relationship as the source of psychological difficulties in adulthood. The psychoanalytic method introduced by Freud consisted of conversations between therapist and patient wherein the therapist sought clues to the patient's medical complaints in the subconscious memories of the patient.

The foundational basis of Freud's psychoanalytic approach is that the human mind protects the individual from troubling emotions by suppressing potentially traumatic experiences and memories from conscious awareness. It was Freud's belief that the energy devoted to keeping repressed emotions from emerging into conscious awareness results in medical symptoms without physical causes, to which he referred as psychosomatic illness.

The general concept behind psychoanalytic therapy is that identifying the original traumatic emotions and resolving them with the guidance of the therapist is the key to treating the outward manifestations of those repressed traumatic emotions and memories.

Psychoanalytic theory does not address the general beliefs of individuals outside of the realm of the internal psyche.


Humanism is a philosophy of objective ethics that absolutely rejects any religious rules or definitions of human conduct and affairs. Instead, the humanist point-of-view is that people are capable of deriving principles such as "right" and "wrong" and of formulating social rules by objective logical reasoning without any reference to divine sources, cultural myths, or autocratic authority.

Humanism conceives of "goodness" as an inherent natural potential quality of all people and suggests that the goal of human society should be healthy and prosperous…… [read more]

Psychology - Scientific Method the Role Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (915 words)
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Psychology - Scientific Method


The Experimental Method in Psychology: In general principle, the scientific method is applicable to all areas of intellectual inquiry and experimentation. It refers to the process of formulating a hypothesis capable of being tested empirically. To qualify as a bona fide scientific hypothesis, a concept must be capable of being definitively disproved by an experimental design that is repeatable. Strictly speaking, it is impossible ever to prove that a hypothesis is true, because the full range of variables that may contribute to the experimental results may include those beyond the ability of the researchers to anticipate or recognize.

Therefore, no matter how many times a particular experiment yields consistent results, their combined data merely suggest relative degrees of correlation. Nevertheless, when a sufficient volume of consistent results is produced by a series of validly designed experiments, the degree of correlation between the variables under examination is sufficiently high that they are treated as affirmative proof of the hypothesis under consideration. For practical purposes, we consider repeated consistent experimental results as conclusive evidence, despite understanding that, in principle, nothing is ever capable of absolute affirmative truth (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).

In the field of psychology and psychological experimentation, researchers propose given hypothesis suggesting a relationship between variables that is capable of being tested by controlled experiment. An experiment is designed that examines the specific relationship between two variables. The range of variables is virtually limitless, but generally, the experimenter purposely limits them to those suspected of a correlative or dependent relationship without necessarily discounting other conceivable independent contributing factors (Carlson 2006).

For example, an experimenter may wish to examine the role of testosterone on male aggression leading to domestic violence within marital relationships. One experimental proposal may include measuring the testosterone levels of males arrested for domestic violence with those of men with no criminal history. A high degree of correlation between higher testosterone levels in domestic violence perpetrators in comparison to non-violators suggests that the initial hypothesis as to the relationship between the two variables is valid (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).

The value of any results of experimentation are only as valid as the experimental design. For example, in the above experiment, higher testosterone levels among domestic violence perpetrators would seem to substantiate the original hypothesis, but additional areas of inquiry are necessary to produce any level of reliability on those results. It may be that all criminals, rather than domestic violence perpetrators in particular, have higher testosterone levels than non-criminals because high testosterone is cause of criminal deviance of all types.

Therefore, a companion series of experiments is necessary to validate the usefulness of the first study, such as where the experimenter follows…… [read more]

Trace the Historical Background of Its Early History Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,415 words)
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Psychology - History of Psychology


Background and Early History:

The interest in understanding human behavior likely predates any recorded history. The earliest known philosophers of ancient Greece and Egypt wrote extensively on theories of the mind, in addition to their historical counterparts in the Far East. Plato, Aristotle, and Thomas Aquinas devoted considerable… [read more]

Emotional Literacy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,647 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 12


¶ … emotional intelligence (EI) beginning with the original founders Mayer & Salovery. In addition, we will reveal the circumstances that led to the translation of EI into British Educational policy. Furthermore, this paper will reveal the growth and development of the concept of EI and its transportation across the water from American and into British educational policy. In addition,… [read more]

Ethics in School Psychology Counseling and Consultation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,564 words)
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Ethics of School Psychology

The development of systems and subsystems that ensure the health and well being of children in and out of the school setting goes back hundreds of years. Children are members of the worlds most vulnerable of populations, and in this population there is a subgroup of people who fall into a category that leaves them even… [read more]

Compulsive Hoarding Due to Childhood Sexual Abuse Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,019 words)
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Compulsive Hoarding Due to Childhood Sexual Abuse

The objective of this work is to research and examine childhood sexual abuse and compulsive hoarding. This work will identify the social impediments to the treatment interventions of this population with traumagenic compulsions and will further analyze how cognitive behavioral therapy would overcome these impediments and provide treatment for this disorder.

OCD Obsessive… [read more]

There Are Three Places Where I Sited Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,658 words)
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There are three places where I sited the textbook but did not know the

1. The instinct theory, or as some experts currently call it, Fixed
Action Patterns, is a theory of motivation based on the fact that
universally humans will react to certain releasers in a specific manner.
A releaser is a triggering event for the reaction. Some… [read more]

Organizational Behavior the Three Concepts I Found Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (884 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Organizational Behavior

The three concepts I found to be of important significance were diversity (chapter two), motivation (chapter eight) and teamwork (chapter eleven). Diversity can be used to improve both the professional as well as the private life by understanding, embracing and making the most of the different features that define individuals. Its application at the workplace creates a more pleasant environment, where all workers feel safe rather than marginalized and discriminated against. In both professional and private life, embracing diversity generates a new means of gathering knowledge about techniques, cultures or customs.

Motivation can also be applied to both personal and professional lives. As such, within the professional life, motivation is the key to achieving the organizational goals. By motivating yourself and by presenting your colleagues and employees with the proper incentives, you will manage to unify the organizational goal with the individual goal of the workers, ensuring as such the company's success. In the personal life, motivation is the key to realizing ones' goals.

The application of teamwork can generate benefits on both private and professional levels. At work, the concept can be used as a means of better relating to colleagues, of sustaining team learning and of increasing productivity. In the private life, teamwork can be used to unite those friends who have common goals and aid them reach those goals together.

2. Self-assessment is an extremely powerful tool to identify one's strengths and weaknesses. It helps the individual get a rather objective idea of his capabilities as it increases his awareness of both his fortes and shortcoming.

To me, the self-assessment tasks revealed some features I wasn't aware of. For instance, it shuttered my misconception of being a quiet person. Other than that, the information retrieved from the self-assessments proved I was a strong and skilled person, despite my personal and underestimated beliefs. As such, the self-assessments made me realize my true worth and increased my self-confidence. And from now on, I will speak my mind and state my opinions without the fear of saying something wrong. This is a great step in the path to self-development.

3. My desire to obtain my degree at Davenport was primarily generated by family traditions. As most members of my family had studied at Yale, there was the self implied idea that I myself would follow Yale courses, at their Davenport residence. But as time went by, I discovered other reasons that alimented my desire to study at Davenport, needs that can be best explained throughout Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

At a rudimentary level, the basic motivation is that of registering an income with which to cover for my primary needs.…… [read more]

Psychology Forrest Gump Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,244 words)
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Forrest Gump

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the film Forrest Gump, directed by Robert Zemeckis. Specifically it will examine the character of Forrest Gump as it relates to human development and psychology. Forrest Gump's character in the film displays several characteristics of psychology, including emotion (Forrest is always emotional and demonstrative), naivete (his innocence… [read more]

Adolescent Suicide Integration of CBT and Self-Psychology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  50 pages (15,095 words)
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Adolescent suicide integration of CBT and self-Psychology

Adolescent Suicide: Integration of CBT and Self-Psychology

Determining why children and adolescents commit suicide is a concern that many individuals in the helping professions face. Obviously, they commit suicide because they are depressed in many instances, but it is also accurate to say that there are other reasons why many of these adolescents… [read more]

Social Psychology Conformity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (596 words)
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Psychology - Conformity

Message against Drunk Driving

Given the probabilities of students and teenagers susceptibility to interpreting a message meant to convey the exact opposite of what is actually incurred, the message for a poster discouraging drunk driving must be concise and very firmly informative. It must cover the entire basis for what will provide an unmistakable cautionary depiction of the possibilities students and teenagers may face in associating themselves with alcohol regardless of the sociological aspects alcohol consumption may pertain to.

Statistics are, in most instances of conveying dangers, an effective and supportive way of confirming the intent of any message. However, in this instance where students and teenagers are susceptible to wrongful interpretations due to the desire of matching conformity and the four types of social controls (Hirschi, 1969), statistics have shown a likely manipulative directive through their display and advertising under this subject. Therefore, the message of the poster will need to provide similar effectiveness and support without the use of gathered statistics. Herein also lays the opportunity to mislead the actual commonalities of occurrence because no actual accuracy is being cited. Hence, in swaying from the use of statistical data, there is more chance in portraying drunk driving to be more common than it actually is. These two factors - not using statistical information and remaining accurate to the occurrence of drunk driving - can substantiate the very contradictions of the intent of the poster, but collaborated precisely with their objectives, the most influential and beneficial method of conveying the intended message is much more attainable.

Given the understanding of the previous dissections into conveyance, a full model for an effective poster can be developed. The verbal wording of the message will need to strike some type of warning degree that provokes thought. I…… [read more]

Psychology Theology and Spirituality in Christian Counseling Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (977 words)
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Psychology, Spirituality, And Healing

Book Review & Reflection

McMinn, M.R. (1996). Psychology, theology, and spirituality in Christian counseling.

Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishers.

Christianity and psychology have long been regarded as inharmonious ideological systems. However, this book attempts to establish a connection between the roles of believing Christian and trained counselor and therapist. M.R. McMinn suggests that serving as a psychological counselor does not mean that a therapist must give up spiritual guidance, and he also acknowledges that a minister today must often come to grips with the psychological needs of a client who is coping with a crisis that threatens his or her mental health as well as his or her spiritual health. In fact, mental and spiritual health is intertwined. After all, the confessional existed long before psychoanalysis became fashionable, and today's twelve-step programs require the individual to surrender to a higher power to achieve full healing from the grip of addiction.

This ideal of surrender, either to God or to the Christian community as a whole, is one of the key notions of the book. Perhaps the most contemporary and relevant concept that emerges from the text is the ideal of interdependence, rather than independence. The notion of connection between families and the need for individuals to feel connected to a meaningful community and schema of values is one of the most convincing arguments of the text. If such a sentiment is crucial to psychological healing, how can the therapist put religion aside when discussing psychological issues with a client? For individuals to come together, for example, when a marriage is experiencing difficulty, both persons must acknowledge their mutual vulnerability and sinfulness, according to the author, and find a way to broach such differences. This can be seen in the example of a couple where one partner has cheated. The couple must look to attain a state of interdependence, acknowledge one another and their mutual imperfections rather than pass godlike judgment upon one another, and find mutually shared values to sustain their marriage. Rather than blaming one another, they must look within themselves and then reach outside themselves to create their marriage anew.

Personal Reflection

The need to merge spiritual counseling with psychological counseling is clear to anyone who has ever known someone enslaved to the addiction of drugs. At my high school, I knew an extremely intelligent boy from a troubled, broken home who begin to experiment with drugs. Although many of his friends were involved in drugs, his use of drugs as an outlet did not, it seemed to me, be purely in a desire to do what everyone else was doing. He justified his experimentation as a way of expanding his consciousness, of improving his creativity or mental sharpness (depending on what drug he was experimenting with at the moment) and of emulating great thinkers of the past who also experimented with drugs. Unfortunately, in seeking to be 'different,' Eric ended…… [read more]

Psychological the Most Creative Person Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,872 words)
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The most creative person I know is my friend, Clinton. He is a graphic artist but also does some prop design and animation. His work style is very different than that of my less creative friends. He is very deliberate in his actions. When he gets an idea about some project, he will research and prepare before he starts… [read more]

Education Psychology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,581 words)
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Adult Learning

Fodor (1987) offers a theory of psychology that avoids the problems of physical reductionism, implied by many psychological theories, and suggests that language can be approach as a far more intuitive and natural process -- he calls this folk psychology. Fodor's form of folk psychology takes into account the realization that people in general cannot have a conscious… [read more]

Human Behavior Psychopathology Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (949 words)
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Human Behavior (psychopathology)

Human Behavior Theory

New Theory: Modified, Modernized Gestalt Theory

One of the challenges of modern theories of psychopathology is to take what neuroscientists have learned about the functioning and chemical balance (and imbalances) of the human brain, and to integrate this theory into the personalized therapeutic process. Although a patient's treatment may benefit from drug therapy, most research indicates that patients show the greatest improvement when therapy and drug treatment are combined. A therapist must address a patient's underlying physical issues and help patients function better in the world with more effective coping and cognitive strategies. Thus, an effective theory of human psychopathology must not view the human being merely as a psyche detached from a physiological and genetic history, like Freud, but the therapist still has a responsibility to deal with the emotional needs of the patient. The therapist must still communicate with the patient as a person, not merely as a collection of cells, or a chemistry set.

Gestalt theory is holistic. "As holists, Gestalt therapists consider the body / mind a unity," and view "the physical dimensions of the individual with the same avid interest...[as] emotional, spiritual, and cognitive dimensions" of personality (Latner, 1992). At the time when the theory was first advanced, body therapy was seen in terms of the body's cycles of wakefulness and rest, encouraging a patient to make use of more positive ways of using the body and to help both patients and therapists better respond to the body's natural needs. But in modern therapy, treating the body has been expanded to include methods of drug treatment. Using Gestalt's theories with the knowledge gained from medical science is the best way to treat the patient in an effective manner.

In addition to treating the body and the ailment the patient is suffering, whether schizophrenia or depression, the patient's own experience of his or her current state of emotion at the present point in time must be acknowledged and dealt with by the therapist. "Gestalt therapists work with a theory of psychopathology based...contact boundary disturbances" that cause negative and positive behaviors, and in some cases mental disturbances (Latner, 1992). A patient's frustration over transgressed boundaries may be the result of past history, may be the result of genetics or physiology, or may be the result of a combination of all of these influences.

A person with a predisposition to depression or bipolar disorder, for example, may be triggered to have an episode by a stressful life event, like going away to college, if the stress upsets his or her homeostasis in a negative fashion. Character or personality or even a genetic predisposition to have certain ailments is thus not a static thing for Gestalt therapists, rather it is a present moment in time, a state of being depending on one's emotional, physical, and social state.…… [read more]

Dissociative Identity Disorder Formerly Known as Multiple Personality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,348 words)
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Multiple Personality Disorder the first published example of multiple personality was... "A Double Consciousness, or a Duality of Person in the Same Individual." Mary Reynolds was born in England in 1793, and was brought to Pennsylvania by her family when she was four years old. The girl was intelligent. She grew up in a strongly religious atmosphere and became melancholy, shy, and given to solitary religious devotions and meditations. She was considered normal until she was about eighteen. Then she began to have occasional "fits," which were evidently hysterical. One of these attacks, when she was about nineteen years old, left her blind and deaf for five or six weeks. Some three months later, she slept eighteen or twenty hours, and awoke seeming to know scarcely anything that she had learned. She soon became acquainted with her surroundings, however, and within a few weeks learned reading, calculating, and writing, though her penmanship was crude compared to what it had been Now she was buoyant, witty, fond of company and a lover of nature. After five weeks of this new life she slept long again, and awoke as her "normal" self, with no memory for what she had experienced since her recent lapse. Thereafter the "new" or "second state" and the "old" or "first state," as she came to call them, alternated irregularly. The second state gained over the first, however, and became more rich and stable, until the woman was about thirty-six years old. At that time the second state became permanent and continued until her death in 1854 (Taylor & Martin, 1944).

This is part of an article on multiple personality disorder written in 1944. At the time there was some controversy about whether or not such cases were "faking" or genuine. The authors argued that they were real and define multiple personality as "two or more personalities each of which is so well developed and integrated as to have a relatively coordinated, rich, unified, and stable life of its own" (p. 282). The article catalogs 76 cases that the authors found in literature available to American psychologists. They estimate about the same number probably could be found in the literature of other countries unavailable to them. The purpose of the article was to place different cases into categories of meaning, such as alternating personality, coconscious personality, intraconscious personality, mutually amnesic, one-way amnesic, propriety (good behavior), quality of personality (temperament, sociability, values, etc.), responses (automatic acts, paralyses, etc.), sensibility (paresthesias, anesthesias, etc.), sex (One personality masculine, another feminine, or one heterosexual, another homosexual, etc.), and youthfulness (one personality seeming younger or more childlike than another). These are described in detail and a table constructed categorizing each of the 76 cases found.

Even at that time, some psychologists believed the condition could be brought about by suggestion -- either from the patient, from some outside person, or "from the physician (especially if he hypnotizes the patient)..." (Taylor & Martin, 1944). The authors cite Harrman who "produced characteristic phenomena of multiple… [read more]

General Psychology Bulimia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,801 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Bulimia Nervosa: Diagnosis, Treatments, And Prevention

Bulimia is a serious, multifaceted psychiatric illness that entails physiological, psychological, cultural, and developmental components (McGilley & Pryor, 1998). Over two million adolescent girls and young women in the United States alone are affected by this disorder (Lamb, 1999). The disorder involves the consumption of extremely large amounts of food, also known as binge… [read more]

Deviant Behavior the Foundational Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (701 words)
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Deviant Behavior

The foundational aspects that define the gifted or developmentally advanced are often difficult to assess as they are often poorly defined and offer challenges to educators, parents and the community. In the literature there is an abundance of information that details the concepts of deviance, qualified by negative behaviors and yet gifted and developmentally advanced individuals are also outside the norm. It is for this reason that many, consider gifted or developmentally advanced individuals positive deviants. Quite simply, to be deviant is to be outside the norm and as there are many multitudes of people who are outside the norm there are deviants on both sides of the spectrum. Defining positive deviants has not always been easy, and there are currently several schools of thought on the subject, yet one of the most widely utilized guides includes a set of qualifications that define gifted children. There are those who are defined as gifted because they have an exceptionally high IQ and those who have an exceptionally high IQ and are also particularly gifted in a certain area.

The National Association for Gifted Children (2000, p. 1) offers the following definitions: Openly able: enjoying their talent and excelling in all they do. Concealed able: under-achievers who fade into and hide in their peer-group. Rebellious able: disruptive under-achievers with a range of behavioral problems. Creative able: "odd-balls" often with unusual divergent thought patterns, which can make them intense and abrasive. Talented able: intellectually able but with a particular talent in one area. (Bentham, 2002, pp. 77-78)

As can be seen from the above classifications the challenge of being gifted or positively deviant also comes with a whole string of potentially negative problems, i.e. deviance that is not as positive. It is for this reason that many gifted children get negatively labeled as difficult to handle. It is for this reason that the idea of positive deviant is a fruitful definition, as positive and sometimes arduous guidance is required to channel advanced deviance into positive deviance. The framework provided by the NAGC is farther advanced by appropriate and holistic identification of…… [read more]

Psychology Degree: Does it Mean Something? Term Paper

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¶ … Psychology Degree Does Mean Something

The value of an examined life, the value of examining the thought processes of others -- the meaning of my psychology degree

Plato's "Allegory of the Cave" suggests that most human beings live an unexamined life. Plato's allegory of human existence depicts humanity as a group of people, most of who are chained to one another in a dark cave. The prisoners only see shadows that they take for the real meaning of human existence, even though these shadows are false, projected images. I cannot claim perfect understanding of the world, no matter how many books I have studied, I know I am still young and not free of the confines of the cave. However, I have learned, through my classes that studying the psychology of others will be of immense aid to me in understanding the demands of my future personal and professional life. Through the various approaches to studying human life that I have read as a part of being a psychology major, I shall be a more insightful and broad-minded person, and therefore a better employee.

Yes, a psychology major will have applications towards my future goals in my professional life -- even though this assertion may go against some 'common wisdom.' Often I have been told that having a psychology degree is meaningless. What people usually mean by this sweeping assertion is that they believe that an undergraduate psychology degree has no value in the job market. Even if this were the case, such a view does not take into consideration the importance of becoming an insightful and ethical person when working at any job. All jobs require a certain amount of on-the-job training today in the daily procedures of the organization, whether the jobs are in marketing, sales, or advertising, or even IT. However, a psychology degree, by teaching a student about various approaches to examine how people think, can make future employees better and more tolerant and broad-minded people. These people are better workers as a result, and can bring their open-minded and…… [read more]

Humanistic Transpersonal Term Paper

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Humanistic and Transpersonal Psychologies

Existential-Humanistic Psychology Compared with Transpersonal Psychologies

There are fundamental differences between Existential-Humanistic Psychologies and Transpersonal Psychologies. First of all, the Existential-Humanistic Psychologies do not agree on basic questions having to do with human personality and change as a result from their widely different origins. Significantly different programs of application and therapy are used by these psychologies. And they do not agree on the final goal for the human psyche. But they do agree on their basic approaches.

The Transpersonal Psychologies find their similarities in their approach to the body-mind relationships and transformation. Essentially they believe that the mind controls the body and if you can put your mind at peace, the body will respond. Based on the work of Carl Jung, who first coined the term "transpersonal" (uberpersonlich) in the phrase "transpersonal unconscious" which he used as a synonym for his well-known "collective unconscious," it refers to the human condition as essentially healthy and full of potential, not as ill and diseased (Schneider,2004).

The mind is everything to the Transpersonal psychologies. The body is just the "crust" covering the transpersonal essence, that is, the mind and soul and spirit that navigates the body through the world. The psychotic and unstable are seen as not having developed and achieved object constancy or ego identity, as the normal mind has. Yet the "normal" mind still has not reached its full potential and it is believed that there are several steps upward from the normal into disidentification from one's personality or personal identity, with recognition of object impermanence or transiency. This stage is typified by the states of consciousness obtained by advanced meditators. A further step in development may be obtained when the person realizes the Supreme Identity (i.e., enlightenment or connection with God), and the relative state of normal reality, as seen in saints and mystics. (Cortright, 1997)

Similar to the mystics' Transcendental Meditation," the Transpersonal psychologies study the different states of consciousness, recognizing certain states in attaining them, such as dreaming, hypnotic trance, "waking" consciousness and all their sub-levels. Transpersonal psychologies believe that there is a mystical experience that becomes permanent, and through development of one's states or stations of consciousness, one can come to live in superconscious state continually. (Daniels, 2005)

An offspring of Freud and his successors, Jung, Rank, and Reich. Roberto Assagioli, who believed in a superconscious, as well as a subconscious, the therapeutic stream integrated transpersonal and depth psychology, based on the beliefs of Carl Jung. The transpersonal psychologists like to say that they may be most simply defined as spiritual psychologists, recognizing that humanity has both drives toward sex and aggression and drives toward wholeness, toward connecting with and experiencing the divine. They believe one cannot separate the spiritual and the psychological, as the mainstream psychologies have up to this time. Originally, the texts of ancient India, China and Greece did not distinguish between the psyche or spirit and practices associated with religion. But in the 18th and 19th centuries formalized psychology… [read more]

Dissociative Identity Disorder Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,202 words)
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Dissociative Identity Disorder

Dissociative disorders are uncommon, affecting an estimated 1% to 2% of the population. This kind of disorder affects females more often than males and most often begin whenever the abuse or traumatic event occurred (http://www.clevelandclinic.org/health/health-info/docs/2800/2819.asp?index=9786&src=news,2002). Many have tried to give a full and much detailed definition on Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), because there have been an increasing number of reported cases of this 'illness'.

In psychiatry, according to standard American textbooks in clinical psychology, Dissociative Identity Disorder is a psychological condition characterized by the use of dissociation as a primary defense mechanism. A chronic reliance on dissociation as a means of defending against stressors in the environment causes the individual to experience their psyche/identity as disconnected or split into distinct parts (Grohol, 2005).

Aside from the continuous research, there are also lots of arguments concerning the possible causes and the most effective therapy for this illness. There are some who argue that children who are stressed or abused (especially sexually abused) split into several independent personalities or ego states as a defense mechanism. People diagnosed with DID may exhibit erratic alterations of personality and may "lose time." On the other hand, there are some who affirms that people who act as if they have MPD/DID have learned to exhibit the symptoms in return for social reinforcement, either from therapists, from others with DID, from society at large or from any combination thereof. Others are saying that people with the syndrome really do have multiple selves or experience themselves so, they really cannot control their behaviors, and should be treated with the same respect and consideration afforded those with other mental disorders. In addition, some people argue that it is but normal to experience oneself as multiple and that "multiplicity" is not necessarily a disorder, so that it is possible to be multiple without having MPD or DID (Grohol, 2005).

But what really is the truth behind this dissociative disorder? Are there any symptoms? Is it curable... If so, how one gets 'out' of this illness?

It is already an accepted fact that dissociative disorder is a disease that is related to mental illness. Dissociative disorders are mental illnesses that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity and/or perception -- mental functions that normally operate smoothly. When one or more of these functions is disrupted, symptoms can result. These symptoms can interfere with a person's general functioning, including social and work activities, and relationships (http://www.clevelandclinic.org/health/health-info/docs/2800/2819.asp?index=9786&src=news,2002).

It was noted that dissociative disorders is commonly linked to overwhelming stress, which may be the result of traumatic events -- such as abuse, accidents or disasters -- that the person has experienced or witnessed. Dissociation is a way of coping that disconnects, or separates, traumatic memories from the person's normal awareness, or consciousness, thereby shielding the person from the pain or fear associated with the trauma. The traumatic memories, however, still exist but are deeply buried within the person's mind. The memories may resurface on their own or after being triggered… [read more]

Psychiatry Personal Statement Term Paper

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Psychiatry Personal Statement

Originally when I became interested in the field of medicine, I was looking at the physical side of the issue. However, as I became more interested in the problems of other individuals I realized that their physical health was not the only important and significant issue. Mental health is at least as significant, if not more significant, to many people today, and therefore the focus of my interest moved more toward psychiatry. One of the main reasons that my focus shifted to the mental health field was that I began to notice all of the intricacies of the psychiatric patients. It is literally true that no two people are the same, even if they have the same diagnosis and have had their difficulties for the same length of time. This was something that I was always intellectually and realistically aware of, but yet it did not seem to be significant for me until I spent more time with psychiatric patients and they became more 'real' to me in so many different ways.

There have…… [read more]

Seratonin -hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) and Mood Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,816 words)
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Seratonin and Mood

Understanding Seratonin

Seratonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is one of the most important neurotransmitters in the human brain. Seratonin plays an important role in the central nervous system. It plays a role in mood, sleep, vomiting, sexuality, and appetite (Biver, et. al, 1997). Low levels of serotonin have been associated with depression, migraines, bipolar disorder, and anxiety (Biver,… [read more]

Emotional Intelligence: Issues in Theoretical Construct Term Paper

Term Paper  |  33 pages (9,097 words)
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Emotional Intelligence: Issues in Theoretical Construct and Measurement

Business Administration)

This dissertation proposal examines the relationship that exist between the role of 'emotional intelligence' and 'effective leadership and job success.' In the terms of conceptual definition, Peter Salovey of Yale University and John Mayer at the University of New Hampshire view emotional intelligence as a set of skills hypothesized to… [read more]

Psychobiology Neuropsychology Term Paper

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¶ … Biology when Studying Psychology

It's all in your head!" This common phrase is often stated, to attribute an apparently psychological phenomenon to a physical cause -- as in "you don't have a cold; you're just dreading your upcoming psychology test, it's all in your head." But even apparently psychological disorders like drug addictions, behavioral disorders, sleep disturbances, and a lack of general mental health and wellness are reflected in the biology of the human body, as well as the human mind. A psychologist might very well say to a patient, "it's NOT just all in your head, it's in your body, too!" After all, the human brain is simply another organ, and subject to the same physiological influences as other organs of the body.

For example, in the case of drug addiction, although a patient may resort to the use of illegal drugs as a way of psychologically coping with life stressors, drug addiction fundamentally rewires the pleasure-seeking areas of the brain. "The brain survives addiction, but in the absence of the drug, the brain does not return to the base-line set point, and chronic dysphoria and anxiety are present." (Goldman & Barr, 2002) Thus, even if a therapist helps the client understand the negative impact drugs are having on his or her life, this does not mean that the client can easily use this insight to release him or herself from the grip of drugs. The drugs may be physically addictive, and even when dealing with a non-chemical addiction like gambling, the addictive behavior may have interfered with the reward center of the patient's brain. This alteration is shown through brain imaging, as well as anecdotal testimony of current and former addicts. Because the way that pleasure is experienced, is altered, the sensation of everyday experiences seem diminished, and the result is anxiety when the drug is withdrawn, motivating the desire to return to the drug. The addict's inability to deal with anxiety may have genetic as well as personal, psychological roots, which the therapist may need to…… [read more]

Psychology Testing: Psychometric Emotional Intelligence (Eq) Durrenmatt Term Paper

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Psychology Testing: Psychometric Emotional Intelligence (EQ)

Durrenmatt (1996) may have had it right when he said, "Emotions have no place in business, unless you do business with them." Or perhaps, he was wrong. Only the test of time, however, will tell. At this time, nevertheless, this researcher proposes to invest time to:

Define EQ and expand on its role in… [read more]

Psychology Social Constructionism Term Paper

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¶ … psychology a science and, if so, what kind of science it is, and should it be identified as social constructionist? Since psychologists are those who use the term "social constructionism" the most (almost exclusively it seems), it simply makes sense that psychology can be defined and identified with the term. Several characteristics embody social constructionism, and psychology meets… [read more]

Compare and Contrast Structuralism Functionalism and Behaviorism Term Paper

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Psychology Term Comparison

Comparison of Three Early Psychological Theories: Structuralism, Functionalism and Behaviorism


Like the other psychological terms under consideration here, Badcock (1976) makes the point that the term "structuralism" did not simply fall out of the sky, but rather can be traced to authors such as Claude Levi-Strauss, Emile Durkheim, Wilhelm Wundt and Edwards B. Tichner, among others, but the approach has not enjoyed the same level of acceptance of some others in use today. According to Noble (2006), in its psychological context, structuralism attempted to provide a framework in which the adult mind (defined as the sum total of experience from birth to the present) could be analyzed in terms of the simplest definable components, followed by an attempt to identify the precise manner in which these individual constituents fit together in complex forms. For this purpose, structuralist psychologists employed introspection; in this regard, Titchener maintained that individual experiences should be regarded as facts because they exist without any analysis of the significance or value of that experience being required and believed that the only components that were required to describe the conscious experience were affection and sensation (Noble, 2006).

Likewise, in his seminal work, Structuralism, Jean Piaget maintained that his concept of structure can be observed in an arrangement of entities that are comprised of the following fundamental ideas: (a) the idea of wholeness; (b) the idea of transformation; and - the idea of self-regulation (pp. 5-16, cited in Hawkes, 2003). In this regard, Piaget meant the sense of internal coherence when he used the term "wholeness"; in other words, the organization of the individual constituents will be complete in and of themselves rather than being part of something that is an amalgamation of otherwise independent components (Hawkes, 2003). Consequently, Piaget's concept of structures are significantly different than their arrangement as a whole, and their constituent elements do not enjoy any authentic independent existence outside the structure in the same form that they have within it (Hawkes, 2003).


According to Owens and Wagner (1992), early functionalism can be regarded as the parent of contemporary scientific psychology; in fact, these authors maintain the spirit of functionalism remains a powerful guiding force in modern psychological research. Like the other psychological terms under consideration here, though, there have been a number…… [read more]

Fear of Success Through Positive Term Paper

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William James at the turn of the last century; the Mental Hygiene movement of the early 1900s; post-Freudians like Menninger, Anna Freud, and Jung in the 1920s and 1930s; R.B. Cattell and other personality psychologists in the 1940s; a raft of theorists in the 1950s, including Erikson, Super, and Allport; Jahoda, Tyler, Shostrum, Maslow, and Rogers in the 1960s and… [read more]

Brief Psychology History About Maslow Term Paper

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¶ … Psychology History of Maslow

Abraham H. Maslow was a significant figure of his time. He had a passion for learning accompanied with a high level of intelligence. In addition, Maslow loved the field of psychology in which he majored in at the University of Wisconsin in 1928 (Maslow, 1970). He received training from some of the worlds finest experimental psychologists. He eventually moved on to a post-doctoral position as a research associate working alongside with several highly distinguished and respected individuals in the fields of behaviorism and psycho analytics, as Edward Thorndike and Harry Harlow (Maslow, 1970).

After Maslow realized the limitations of the methodical behaviorist psychological approach, he started to question it and explore. He expressed it was a great program; however, it had flaws. He expressed that it was good for the laboratory but not for a true image of man (Maslow, 1970). In addition, Maslow had an admiration for Freudian theory. He felt that it provided a major contribution to human understanding as we know it, especially when it came to the central role of sexuality in human behavior.

Maslow, eventually, accepted a professorship position in psychology at Brooklyn College. He taught there for 14 years (Maslow, 1970). He ended up causing a controversy on the campus because he interviewed college women about their sexual lives as part of his research. It was a controversy because research on sexuality at that time, 1936, was not taken lightly (Maslow, 1970). He often inspired students due to his own love of learning and enthusiasm for the field of psychology. Maslow showed concern and caring for his students, of whom took great appreciation since they were far from home. Other professors were not as Maslow was. He was one of the most popular professors, often coined as the "Frank Sinatra of Brooklyn College" (Maslow, 1970).

In 1951 Maslow finally left Brooklyn College and moved to a newly established Bradeis University (Maslow, 1970). He obtained a position as the first chairman of the psychology department and was committed to the university's growth. Maslow remained teaching at Brandeis until a year before his death in 1969 (Maslow, 1970).

Maslow's life was devoted to the study of people that were psychologically healthy, self-actualizing people; in other words those who have accomplished the highest level of maturation, health and self-fulfillment. Maslow eventually came up with his famous hierarchy of needs.

It was postulated, by Maslow, that human need structures are organized in a hierarchal system. Maslow was one of the first to address the hierarchy of needs that arises as basic needs or problems are being solved (Korman, 1974). He suggested that human motivation is managed by…… [read more]

Counseling Assessment Term Paper

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Psychological Counseling Interview

Counselor: Tom, can I offer you a drink?

Counselor: Great! Well for starters you already now my name is Christina, you will be meeting with me on a weekly basis here in my office. Our sessions will be an hour and if you are having any difficulties outside of our meeting times feel free to call the… [read more]

Philosophy for Psychology Provide a Philosophical Analysis of Behaviourism an Identifiable School Term Paper

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Philosophy of Behaviorism

For centuries, humans have been captivated by the mechanisms of the human mind. Philosophers and physiologists contemplated the questions that psychology, as an independent science, currently addresses. Psychology is the study of mind and behavior, both in humans and animals. While the sub-disciplines of this science abound, there exists a school of psychology that exclusively investigates behavior;… [read more]

Deviant Behavior Study Term Paper

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Deviant Behavior Study - Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is usually described as part of a large group of psychotic disorders characterized by distortions of reality, language and communication problems, withdrawal from ordinary society and a disorganization and fragmenting of thoughts, perceptions and emotions, especially regarding reactions to normal circumstances. Other characteristics include apathy and confusion, delusions and hallucinations, rambling and mumbling to oneself, and regressive and bizarre behavior in public.

Since schizophrenia is such a debilitating disorder, the person affected by it is usually confined to some type of institution, where he/she can be observed and treated with a wide range of medications. However, in some instances, the person affected with the disorder may not fully understand that he/she is suffering from schizophrenia. In public places, a person with the disorder may be seen as very odd and bizarre, especially when the person talks to himself, a reaction to hearing voices in one's head that appear to come from outside the mind. The reaction of the person with the disorder to those around him/her would be very disruptive, due to not being able to act "normally" in a public place, like a restaurant, movie theater or a shopping mall.

For example, in a restaurant, a person with schizophrenia would be thinking that people are his/her enemies and would react to comments about his/her behavior in several ways. First, the person might cower by himself and try to avoid interacting with others in the restaurant. Of course, this would make the person with schizophrenia feel very isolated, a stranger among strangers in a world that he/she does not understand. In the mind of such a person, thoughts would run rampant and could result in violent outbursts in the restaurant which would probably result in the person being thrown out or even arrested by the police. From the schizophrenic's viewpoint, everyone would be against him/her and would react with surprise or even fear because of his behavior.

As to the problems, issues and prejudices a person with schizophrenia would face in real life, the afflicted individual would find it almost impossible to interact with "normal" people in various situations, such as at a place of employment or during those times when the person is part of a group, such as in school and college. Most people would obviously have some prejudice against a person with this disorder, due to not understanding the reasons why the person acts as he/she does. For example, in an educational setting, the afflicted person would be unable to communicate with fellow classmates in a normal fashion and would not be able to participate in any classroom activities, due to the constant hearing of voices within his/her head. But most importantly, the issue of having to live in a "normal" society would be the greatest problem, for the afflicted person would find it…… [read more]

Person-Centered Therapy Today a Sign Term Paper

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One thing they found was that he used non-expert language. You could say Rogers spoke in a caring, supportive way as a friend and equal, not as an authority. As he put it himself in On Becoming a Person (1961): "I have found that the more that I can be genuine in the relationship, the more helpful it will be.… [read more]

Phobias Research Estimates Term Paper

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Research estimates that between 3.3 and 9.2% of children and adolescents have phobias, with age, case definition, and diagnostic instrumentation contributing to the observed variation. Additional testing is required to determine which phobias are most prevalent by age group, cultural background, gender and other similar factors. The present study surveyed 25 males and 25 females between the ages of 13 and 15. All the respondents were members of a youth group, coming from similar socio-economic and cultural backgrounds. It was hypothesized that the things feared as well as the amount of things feared would be different between the two sexes, and females would have more phobias. The results showed.


Phobias are defined as unreasonable fears of particular objects, activities, or situations that lead to avoidance of the phobic stimuli. A diagnosis of phobia requires the stimulus to be a source of distress or to interfere with normal functioning (American Psychiatric Association, 1987). Although phobias are often acquired in childhood or adolescence, they have received little attention in these groups. Since phobias are common in adults and rarely lead to treatment-seeking behavior unless severe, their early diagnoses are important.

Some researchers argue that some irrational fears are evolutionary hangovers from the dangers of ancestral environment. "Spider phobias, for example, are much more common than car phobias," says Clark Barrett, an anthropologist at University of California, Los Angeles. "But the probability of being killed by a car is much higher in modern urban environments than the probability of being killed by a poisonous spider."

Barrett believes that if predators have been an important influence in human evolution then scientists should be well attuned to understanding them. For instance, children from different cultures -- urban ones included -- learn facts about how dangerous animals are faster than information about their habitats. They also seem to have an insatiable appetite for information about predators -- even extinct ones. Barrett calls this "Jurassic Park syndrome." Further, very young children seem to be well aware of the true motivations of predators even if they have been bombarded with false images such as the friendly lion in the Lion King.

Community studies of children and adolescents report prevalence rates of phobia between 3.3% and 9.2%, with differences existing in age, case definition, and diagnostic instrumentation contributing to the observed variation (Anderson et al., 1987; Costello, 1989; Kashani and Orvaschel, 1988, 1990; McGee et al., 1990).

It is found that females report more fears and phobias than males, with gender differences occurring in both type and severity of fears reported (King et al., 1988; Marks, 1987). Disagreement exists about whether the number of fears changes with age, but acceptance that the nature of fears changes over time (King et al., 1988). The impact of single-parent and nontraditional families could be critical, though lack of a father in the household did not prove to be a significant risk factor for anxiety disorders among children (Costello,1989).


Data were collected on x (date). Subjects included 25 males and… [read more]

William Mcdougall Problems With Instinct Theory Term Paper

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William McDougall: Problems with Instinct Theory

William McDougall was an experimental psychologist and theorist who believed in a holistic psychology that integrated all of the tools available to help understand the human psyche. "He was the first to formulate a theory of human instinctual behavior," Margaret Alic notes, "and he influenced the development of the new field of social psychology"… [read more]

Cognitive Aspects of the Aging Term Paper

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1,500 milligrams per day was given to elderly subjects in a clinical rial with findings that after 90 days significant improvements in memory, mood and responses to stress were noted and these favorable effects lasted up to 30 days after discontinuation of treatment. (Vitacost, 2005)

Phosphatidylserine, a substance derived from bovine brain phospholipids has been shown to:

Improve memory

Improve… [read more]

Neuropsychiatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Term Paper

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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that often disrupts academic, social, and vocational activities. The primary feature of this disorder is recurring obsessions and compulsions that interfere with one's life (Nissen, Mikkelsen, & Thomsen, 2005):

is preoccupied with details, rules, lists, order, organization, or schedules to the extent that the major point of the activity is lost shows perfectionism that interferes with task completion is excessively devoted to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships is overconscientious, scrupulous, and inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values is unable to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value is reluctant to delegate tasks or to work with others unless they submit to exactly his or her way of doing things adopts a miserly spending style toward both self and others; money is viewed as something to be hoarded for future catastrophes shows rigidity and stubbornness

The most clinically useful and detailed symptoms checklist is included in the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Mataix-Cols, do Rosario-Campos, & Leckman, 2005). The most common theme of obsessions are contamination themes, and the related compulsive behavior is washing, usually compulsive handwashing. Along with contamination themes, problems with aggressive obsessions, sexual obsessions, the need for symmetry and order, obsessions about harm to oneself or others, and the need to confess exist. When overt, observable compulsive behaviors are relatively easy to observe to make the diagnosis, covert behaviors are harder to assess and evaluate.

Risk Factors

No single definitive cause for OCD exists (Foa et al., 2005; Kordon et al., 2005). One of these messengers, serotonin, functions to prevent people from repeating the same behaviors over and over again. Those with OCD may lack sufficient serotonin concentrations. Many people with OCD function better when they take medications designed to increase serotonin uptake in the brain.


Diagnosis of OCD is not exclusionary (First et al., 1995). Other anxiety disorders, tic disorders, and disruptive behavior disorders are common comorbidities with OCD. OCD is considered a neuropsychiatric disorder. Relatively few OCD behaviors exist, and they are experienced in much the same manner by patients, regardless of their interpersonal histories.

If OCD is suspected, referral to a mental health professional is indicated. A complete family history is essential, especially any history of relatives who may have OCD or Tourette syndrome, as is a history of any infection that may have preceded the onset of symptoms. Of structured interviews and psychological tests used, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale is considered the instrument of choice in making the definitive diagnosis (Mataix-Cols et al., 2005).


Successful treatment of OCD involves both the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and structured psychotherapy designed to provide the patient with the skills to master the obsessive thoughts and accompanying compulsive behaviors. Cognitive behavioral therapy routinely is described as the psychotherapeutic treatment of choice for adults, children, and adolescents who have been diagnosed with OCD (First et al., 1995). Treatment relies heavily on exposing…… [read more]

Personality Psychological Perspectives in Psychology Term Paper

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These "environmental conditions" include other people apart from the individual's family, realities and experiences encountered in one's social environment, as well as the individual's responses to his/her physical environment. The behaviorist perspective is closely linked with the cognitive approach, which looks at the biological operations of the human mind, positing that the way humans "mentally represent information" leads to the formation of 'constructs' that shape personality among individuals (474). Lastly, the humanistic perspective, centers on the capacity of the individual himself/herself to make decisions and create his/her own personality. This perspective, although it takes into account the influence of the social environment, mainly acknowledges the individual's personal choice to discover and eventually realize his/her 'true self,' the kind of person s/he wants to become.

Understanding and discussing each perspective of the psychology of personality does not create confusion and conflicting explanations about human personality; instead, these perspectives offer a complementing discussions on how people can possibly explain what human personality is and how it develops over time (Nairne, 2003:411). The psychoanalytical approach can be directly linked with the behaviorist approach for both perspectives consider the social environment as vital to understanding human personality. The cognitive and humanistic approaches, meanwhile, looks at personality at the individual level, where the former looks at the scientific explanation of how personality develops in society, while the latter, a humanistic discussion of personality development within the individual.


Atkinson, R. et. al. (2000). Hilgard's Introduction to psychology. USA: Wadsworth Group.

Nairne, J. (2003). Psychology: the adaptive mind. USA: Wadsworth.… [read more]

Psychological Development Term Paper

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Psychology and Culture

Since the science of psychology first developed at the end of the 1800s from the ideas of philosophy, it has undergone a number of changes. These changes have been due to both findings in the way the brain functions as well as transitions in society and its culture. One of the main purposes of psychology is to help people relate to their surroundings. As society became more complex, is has been necessary to provide newer and more effective ways to help individuals understand their psychological needs and alter their behavior.

Psychology was first understood to be the practical application of a philosophy. This philosophy was based in moral thought and religious principles, emphasizing man's requirement to be in touch with his spiritual nature. However, by the end of the l9th century, the newer scientific, rationalistic tradition arose in opposition. Psychology sought to break ties with its philosophical roots and to be the objective, empirical and science of human nature.

Earlier psychology, such as psychoanalysis, was developed by Sigmund Freud in the late 1800s. It was founded on the theory that behavior is determined by strong inner forces deep in the recesses of the unconscious mind. From early childhood, people repress or cover up any desires or needs that not acceptable to themselves or to society. These repressed feelings can cause personality problems, depression, self-destructive behavior, and even physical acting out. In therapy, by a means of free association, the patient talks about things that come to mind as the therapist listens quietly for hints to the person's inner feelings. The goal is to help the patient understand and accept repressed feelings and find ways to deal with them.

Although psychoanalysis has helped immeasurable numbers of people since it was first developed, it can be a very lengthy process. People may be in therapy…… [read more]

Psychology Trends Psychology Has Undergone Significant Transformations Term Paper

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Psychology Trends

Psychology has undergone significant transformations since it first became a science in late 19th and early 20th centuries. This evolution continues day and will do so in the future to meet the changing psychological needs of society's members.

One of the major changes that have occurred over the past 50 years, and especially over the past several decades, has been the introduction of numerous pharmaceuticals to help people cope with their problems such as depression, schizophrenia, anxiety, and bipolar disorders. Although a combination of therapy and medicine is recommended by most psychologists, psychiatrists and other physicians, it is recognized that the medicine provides additional support and assists the patients to function more effectively than they could without it. Every day there are new types of pharmaceuticals being developed that relate to specific psychological issues.

Another trend is the research being accomplished by scientists that is providing a much better understanding of the brain and its functioning. It is increasingly being recognized that psychological problems can be a function…… [read more]

Sigmund Freud I Have Chosen Term Paper

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They all say so in different ways, and they all pay homage to him, even if they do not come right out and say so. Along with all the information available, and the case studies that he left behind, it is clear his theories work, and this search helped me understand more about the man, but also about why his theories work, and why they are so important to the world, and the world of psychotherapy.

What does Freud's life mean to me? At first glance, maybe not a lot, but after learning more about the man, it is very clear that he has influenced psychological thought and practice for decades. His creation of psychoanalysis was an important breakthrough in the treatment of psychiatric disorders, and because of his work we know more about the mind and how it works, and know more about how to help many people with mental diseases. In addition, it has helped me understand my father a little bit more, by learning about what he studied when he was in school, and what some of his ideas and thoughts are on Freud and his work. This has made me feel closer to my dad, and closer to Freud, too. I knew he was important before I began this research, but now have a much better understanding of just why he is so important, and why his life influences everyone's life today, if only a little bit. In fact, the author who edited some of Freud's writing said, "It is therefore of particular interest to note that there was hardly a psychoanalyst outside Freud himself who ever made an original contribution to the theory and practice of psychoanalysis" (Strachey xi). Today, psychoanalysis is accepted and the preferred method of treatment for many people. It allows people to look deep inside themselves, understand their behavior, and work to correct it. I think that is important for everyone in our society, and that more people would benefit from studying Freud's work, and working with professionals to understand themselves a little bit better.


Benjamin, Ludy T., and David N. Dixon. "Dream Analysis by Mail: An American Woman Seeks Freud's Advice." American Psychologist 51.6 (1996): 461-468.

Boeree, Dr. C. George. "Sigmund Freud." Shippensburg University. 1997. 22 Nov. 2004.

< http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/freud.html

Editors. "Conflict and Culture." Library of Congress. 7 Nov. 2001. 22 Nov. 2004.

< http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/freud/

Freud, Sigmund. Beyond the Pleasure Principle. Ed. James Strachey. New York W.W. Norton, 1975.

Freud, Sigmund, and Rudolf Allers. The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis. South Bend, IN: Gateway Editions, 1955.

Gay, Peter. Freud for Historians. London: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Jones, Ernest. The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 1. New York: Basic Books, 1961.

Jones, Ernest. The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud. 1st ed. Vol. 2. New York: Basic Books, 1953.

Thornton, Stephen P.…… [read more]

Medical Model and Learned Helplessness Term Paper

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¶ … Medical Model and Learned helplessness in the movie, "One flew over the cuckoo's nest"

Towards the nineteenth century, focus on the science of psychology has become prevalent with recent developments in the field, such as the introduction of psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud, as well as medical and scientific technologies that probed deeper into the study of human thought and behavior. Parallel to the proliferation of new scientific and medical discoveries in psychology is the prevalence of literary works and visual materials that provide information about psychology, specifically depictions of people diagnosed to have illnesses associated with abnormal psychology.

Abnormal psychology, as a field of study in psychological science, elicits interest among people because it provides a new perspective in understanding human behavior -- that is, actions and behavior that are beyond the capacity of a 'normal' individual, bound by the social norms and rules of the society. Abnormal behavior is often characterized as "deviant, maladaptive, or personally distressful" (Santrock, 2001:448). However, among these characteristics, abnormal behavior is almost always considered as deviant; deviant behavior is characterized as "atypical behavior...that deviates from acceptable norms." The prevalence of atypical behavior in human society resulted to the development of psychological theories and models explaining a specific abnormal behavior or phenomenon.

This paper focuses on the issue of abnormal psychological theories and models that is reflected in a popular visual material, which is "One flew over the cuckoo's nest," led by Jack Nicholson. In this movie, each character depicts a particular abnormal behavior, and this is the focus of discussion and analysis of the paper: identifying the psychological theory or model prevalent in the movie, and associate these theories or models in the analysis of the plot or characters in "Cuckoo's nest." Thus, this paper posits that Nicholson's character, McMurphy, and his wardmates in the mental institution reflect vital principles parallel with the thesis of the medical model and learned helplessness phenomenon, respectively.

McMurphy, as the lead character of the story, depicts the stereotypes often associated with individuals afflicted with mental illness: upon his admittance to the mental institution, he had showed rowdiness in character, often upsetting the daily routines of the institution. He creates an annoying character for the institution's staff in order to convince that he, indeed, is mentally unstable, and in the process, avoiding penalty and imprisonment for having sexual relations with an underage girl.

Dr Spivey's characterization of McMurphy as "belligerent, talked when unauthorized, been resentful in attitude toward work in general... lazy" are descriptions arising from Nurse Ratched's and the institution's staff's daily observations of his behavior and daily interaction with his ward mates. His conscious and convincing effort to appear insane to Nurse Ratched had its dire results, however. It is quite a paradox that within an institution, abnormal behavior is considered 'normal,' or is usually encountered by people there. Nurse Ratched's intolerance of McMurphy's behavior is not based on the fact that he acts abnormal, but rather, he acts like a normal individual in… [read more]

Memory Dreams Learning Term Paper

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According to "the Father of Psychoanalysis," dreams are expressions of unconscious wishes, usually wishes of a sexual or aggressive nature. Dreams provide the individual with a safe scenario in which to act out wish-fulfillment, especially when the wish represents a taboo activity. If considerable guilt surrounds the desire then the dream could be wrought with anxiety and turn into a nightmare.

While not all dreams can be categorized this way, some certainly are. For example, I have had two types of dreams that are obviously expressions of unconscious wishes. One type represents the biological wish or need to eat. After going grocery shopping and resisting certain foods because of price or because they are unhealthy foods, I often dream about eating those foods that night.

Another wish-fulfilling dream represents an emotional or psychological state. When I am upset with someone and haven't been able to tell them, I have had dreams in which I am getting angry and enter into arguments with that person. Sometimes in the dream, it's not really that person but rather someone why symbolizes or represents that person, but I know based…… [read more]

Abnormal Psychology: What Do Clinical Term Paper

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They will receive a "placebo," or something not likely to not change the dependent variable. "Blinding" helps eliminate researcher bias. The person evaluating the study does not know which participants received the independent variable and which received the placebo. In fully blinded studies, the researchers themselves don't know who gets the placebo. An experimental design can follow up a correlational study to start idenfitying how the two correlated events are related. Blinded studies are often used to test medications.

Alternative Experimental Designs: Sometimes not every variable can be controlled, and sometimes, natural groups of possible participants already exist. For example we cannot abuse children so we can study abused children afterwards. We have to find a group of children who have already suffered that. It is harder to control such groups from other variables, such as economic or racial status. Other groups might be survivors of some disaster.

Quasi-experiments, or mixed designs, do not control for every variable. Their advantage is that they use real-life events without any changes applied to them. One way to handle the lack of controls is to match each affected participant with an unaffected applicant. So, every abused child might be matched with a child of similar age, sex, intelligence, economic and racial background who had not been abused.

One choice researchers have is use an analogue design, such as working with animals, and subject them to the independent variable. This is done for early drug studies. Skillfully done, animal studies can provide valuable information about human functioning.

Single-Subject Experiment: This form may be used if a person has particularly unusual circumstances that makes him or her a "class of one," or it would be very difficult to find similar subject to add to the study, or the information sought is how an intervention affects that one person. One approach is the "ABAB" design, where A represents one set of circumstances for that person and B. another. If the question is how the person responds to a medication, A might be the medication and B. A placebo.

Another way to study one individual is to pick multiple behaviors and see how the application of one independent variable affects that person. Both approaches can be used with children of special needs to determine whether an intervention really changes behaviors or not. The approach has several flaws: many uncontrollable variables affect us, including mood, climate and the very things we think; causes are not always as simple as we think they are; the approach cannot be blinded since the researcher knows exactly when he or she is using the independent variable and the subject is likely to notice it as well; and the researchers usually have some kind of personal connection to the subject. In addition there are the ethical concerns involved any time we manipulate human events.

The rights of research subjects guide what researchers can and cannot do. They must give informed consent, which is of particular concern when the subjects have some kind of… [read more]

Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess, Contains Term Paper

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¶ … Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess, contains many references to conditioning and to behavioral psychology in general. Burgess presents his readers with a view of operant conditioning and behavioral psychology as a dangerous, deadly pursuit of sameness and control over mankind. This paper will examine examples of conditioning in a Clockwork Orange, and will examine those examples both in… [read more]

Borderline Personality Disorder (Bpd) Is Characterized Term Paper

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Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is characterized by repetitive instability in behavior, close personal relationships, mood, and self-image (Corelli). Attachment styles among those with BPD tend to be unstable, characterized by intense shifts in feelings, resulting in difficulty maintaining close relationships. Individuals with BPD often demonstrate impulsivity, as seen in inappropriate and intense displays of rage, and brooding (Corelli). Essentially, BPD can be seen as a failure to successfully integrate the entire personality. BPD can be operationally defined as "a serious mental illness characterized by pervasive instability in moods, interpersonal relationships, self-image, and behavior" (National Institute of Mental Health).

The integration of developmental and abnormal psychology is important in understanding BPD. There is a clear relationship between early experiences (as noted in more detail below) and the development of BPD. As such, while the domain of abnormal psychology provides an understanding of the disorder at the present time, a focus on the developmental aspects of BPD helps to further reveal the etiology of the disorder.

Further, this integration between developmental and abnormal psychology advances the knowledge base of BPD. A clear understanding of both the abnormal psychology and the early development of the BPD patient can lead to a deeper understanding of both the disorder's etiology, the current presentation of the disorder, and also opens up potential avenues for research and treatment.

Early family development is clearly linked to the development of BPD. Primitive defense mechanisms such as splitting and projective identification play a large role in muting the empathic response of BPD patients in early development. Further, such responses play a role dampening empathic responses during family interactions in adolescence (Shapiro).

Sexual and physical abuse during childhood is a common characteristic of many individuals with BPD. Between 40 to 71% of patients with BPD report sexual abuse during childhood. Many others report a history of separation, neglect, or abuse (National Institute of Mental Health).

Recent research suggests that the neural correlates of BPD behaviors can be seen in impaired regulation of neural paths that modulate emotion. This includes impaired functioning of the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex, and disturbances in serotonin, norepinephrin and acetylcholine (National Institute of Mental Health).

Personal Insights and Future Directions

There are a…… [read more]

Suicide Marilyn Monroe, Ernest Hemingway Term Paper

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A textbook of abnormal psychology explains it more aptly:

In general, any trait or any action of the individual will not be considered abnormal by the social group unless it proves to be an annoyance to the group. A man may possess an extraordinary fear of germs that will lead him to excessive hand-washing, but society as a whole will… [read more]

Canine Behavior: Genetics vs. Environment Term Paper

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946). When Pavlov subsequently observed the overall behaviors of animals in the laboratory, he identified significant individual differences such as temperaments that were comprised of three parameter characteristics of the nervous system: 1) the intensity or strength level of excitation and inhibition, 2) the interrelation between excitation and inhibition, and (3) the rapidity of the spread of these processes.

While… [read more]

Counseling Skills and Their Use Term Paper

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This is not meant in the physical sense of being in the same office with the client but rather in the mental sense of understanding where the client is in his or her life at the present moment (Glancy, Regehr, & Bryant, 1998). This means that a counselor must not moralize to a client and must not judge that client… [read more]

Organisational Psychology This Chapter Reviews Term Paper

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Goldman (1995, p 149) stated that 'Corporations have gone through a radical revolution within this century, and with this has come a corresponding transformation of the emotional landscape.' When exploring the current changes taking place within organizations, an important consideration may be the impact of these changes on the underlying emotional system within the organization. It can be demonstrated how… [read more]

Energetic Social Worker With First-Rate Resume

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Collected information about patients to help doctors and other health staff understand social, emotional, and environmental factors underlying illnesses of the patients.

Assisted with the transition from hospital to home and provide discharge planning services and resources.




Provided psychosocial assessments on identified/referred patients.

Assisted in developing an appropriate discharge plan. Collaborates with nursing, medical and rehab staff.

Counseled with patient and family and may involve community resources.

Documented activity in patient's medical record.

Conferred with Clinical Supervisor on caseload responsibilities.

Developed family support plan


1. Diana Marinucci

420 Allegheny Avenue Aliquippa, PA 15001


2. Helena Iccobucci

172 Linden Court, Pittsburgh, PA


3. Vivian Lee

4706 Acclaro, Antelope, CA 95843


Bachelor of Arts, Psychology


Master, Social Work



Social…… [read more]

Cognitive Psychology Cognitive Therapy Term Paper

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This can be accomplished by asking clients to record their perceptions about specific events, in order to allow the client to see that their perceptions can change with situation and time (British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy).

Second, an important technique that I can use to help clients deal with depression may be helping clients to challenge specific behaviors. For example, a client may feel that when they are at parties no one is interested in talking to them, and as a result the person avoids parties and other social gathering. In order to overcome distorted thought that they are uninteresting by helping the client to change their specific avoidance of social events. Simply put, by getting the client to go to a party where they will be greeted by close friends and family (changing behavior), the therapist helps the client to challenge the underlying thought that they are uninteresting (British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy).

Third, another useful technique in cognitive therapy can be getting the client to directly challenge their distorted thoughts. In this scenario, after getting clients to identify their thoughts, and even change behaviors, I would attempt to get the client to challenge the logic and validity of these thoughts and behaviors. I would ask them, for example, if their thoughts of being worthless and uninteresting are true, and get them to try to identify some positive aspects of their personalities. After these positives have been identified, I would instruct the patient to "replace" the negative thoughts with new, positive thoughts (British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy).

In conclusion, cognitive therapy is a viable theoretical approach that both fits with my personal belief system, and will provide helpful concrete techniques for working with my clients. Cognitive therapy focuses on changing underlying negative self-perceptions and thoughts, and can be especially effective in helping depressed patients.


British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy. Explanation of theoretical approaches. 23 March 2004. www.bacp.co.uk/seeking_counsellor/seeking_find_counsellor/new/theoretical-approaches.htm

CouncellingResource. An Introduction to Cognitive Therapy & Cognitive Behavioural Approaches. 23 March 2004. http://counsellingresource.com/types/cognitive-therapy… [read more]

Philosophical Dilemmas in Clinical Psychology Term Paper

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In this example (which I have actually encountered in my practice), the patient has a perfectly "normal" self gratification urge, which she must deny and repress on a regular basis, owing to her (Catholic) religious beliefs, which classify masturbation as a sin. Further analysis reveals that she considers masturbation to be a "mortal" sin, because it is purposeful) while the "sin" of her actual promiscuity is merely a "venal" sin, because her judgment on those occasions are always alcohol induced, and therefore, not "choices" of hers to defy her God.

In reality, neither act is objectively immoral (assuming she is not hurting her partners or lying to them and so forth), but the one that she occasionally gives into is far more harmful, at least potentially, to her safety, while the one she represses is comparatively safe and innocent.

As her therapist, my foremost goal is to improve her self-esteem and the corresponding quality of her life, not to mention protect her from self-destructive tendencies that could eventually spark a bona-fide, acute psychological crisis. My solution, therefore, was to remind her that (even) her religious beliefs include the notion that some degree of "sin" is inevitable, and expected, and most importantly, forgiven ahead of time. Furthermore, I explained that her use of alcohol is merely a means of "bypassing" responsibility for her choices, and that once she becomes aware of this (in therapy), her God will no longer consider "sins" committed while intoxicated to be venal, or involuntary, since she knows in advance what behavior she is (in effect) choosing when she decides to consume alcohol in the situations where her sexual dalliances generally begin. (These discussions included confronting the fact that she makes other obvious "preparations," such as cleaning her room and trimming her pubic hair before going out dancing, which she does not do, generally.

This enabled me to establish that she was (indirectly) choosing to seek out sexually explicit encounters, which (in her belief system) makes all the difference between "venal" and "mortal" sins. Similarly, it also enabled her to understand that it was precisely her "successful" resisting of her conscious sexual urge to masturbate that caused her to act out "less consciously," while intoxicated, in ways that were even more harmful (and more "sinful") than the original urge she was resisting.

My personal belief is that both masturbation and casual sexual relationships can be engaged in either healthily or dysfunctionally, depending on the surrounding and underlying factors. My professional responsibility is not to contradict her belief system, except to the degree necessary to effect a beneficial change in the behavior(s) that account for her clinical depression and shame. Ultimately, this patient understood that engaging in casual sex while intoxicated is more "sinful" than giving in to the urge to masturbate occasionally, and that "sins" of this nature were both expected and forgivable according to her religion.

Since these revelations, she has been able to resist any temptation to use the excuse of intoxication to pursue sexual… [read more]

Behavior Management in Education Term Paper

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As the child grows older and becomes more cognizant of the needs of others, he or she begins to realize that the behavior of sharing brings about positive emotional and physical responses of mutual sharing in others and results in the formation of lasting friendships. However, a child will only be willing to share his or her snack, for instance, if he or she is receiving enough food at home, and can be reliably sure that his or her own sense of security -- the snack given at snack time -- will not be arbitrarily snatched away for no reason, because of no behavior of his or her own.

Positive and reliable reinforcement ultimately results in the child or young adolescent reaching the highest principle of the hierarchy, seeking fulfillment in the larger 'scheme of things' by helping others to achieve a sense of empowerment in the world. Greater responsibility leads to greater approval and a sense of internal empowerment and satisfaction on the hierarchy of needs. This value of behavior management is in evidence not simply for children who are within the conventional, accepted framework of developmental identity, but even those children with emotional and behavior problems. The concept of IDEA, for instance, an advocacy group designed to help such children, is based upon the idea of social modeling, which states that, by being educated with other children and being placed in a relatively unrestrictive environment, troubled children will have age-appropriate social models on which to model their behaviors. (CECP.AIR.ORG, 2004) In line with Erikson's theories of behavior modification, IDEA suggests that cloistering special-needs children away from other children denies them the ability to engage in age-appropriate interactions.

Although special needs children with additional emotional, intellectual, or behavioral needs may need individual tutoring and reinforcement outside of the classroom, they also require the social teaching that takes place in the context of a community that includes all individuals, and exposes them to the needs and apprehensions of others, and the system of behavior that rewards socially open and giving behavior and discourages behavior that is selfish and threatening to the needs of others.… [read more]

Mental Illness the Foremost Question Term Paper

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A patient may be showing some external signs of schizophrenia, but may not be experiencing bizarre hallucinations. It is quite possible that with little counseling and training, the patient may be completely relieved of the symptoms. But once labeled, the patient will not only have to face hostile social response, she will also start believing that such a mental condition… [read more]

Bandura, A. ). Moral Disengagement Annotated Bibliography

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The author asserts that human being "are agents of experiences rather than simply undergoers of experiences. The sensory, motor, and cerebral systems are tools people use to accomplish the tasks and goals that give meaning, direction, and satisfaction to their lives."

English, A.D. (1998). The Changing Face of War: Learning from History. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press.

A discussion of the evolution of military philosophy in juxtaposition with parallel evolutions in societal development; author theorizes that military tactics and strategies reflect evolutionary change in societal mores. The book is divided into three distinct parts, each focusing on a different time period to examine the changes that have taken pace in military strategies over the decades. The third part appeared most interesting since it relates to our current times. The author sheds light on the possible reasons for warfare in future and studies the impact of things like globalization and information revolution on humanity.

Epstein, B. (1999, Spring). Why postmodernism is not progressive: if you seek understanding or social change, don't go there. Free Inquiry, 19, 43+.

Explores the contemporary paradigm of postmodernism, including fundamental changes in the formerly progressive movement of anti-structuralism.

Gambrill, E. (1997). Social work practice: A critical thinker's guide. New York: Oxford University Press.

Social work text exploring a wide range of sociological principles with an emphasis on critical analysis of each school of thought; objective consideration of the efficacy and utilitarianism of each social work paradigm.

Harrison, L.E., & Huntington, S.P. (Eds.). (2000). Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress (1st ed.). New York: Basic Books.

Specifically addresses the relationship between cultural values and societal development. Concludes that changes in societal values result in subsequent shaping of the developmental process of social structures. The… [read more]

Clinical Depression Major Depressions Term Paper

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Moreover people do not know the entire truth as to how clinical depression actually works and also to realize as to the kind of treatment required. Like lots of other diseases if the treatment for this is also given at an earlier stage then the illness is easier to get rid of and also early treatment can prevent serious recurrences.… [read more]

Abraham Maslow and His Contributions Term Paper

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They have a well-developed sense of humor that tends not to be hostile to others.

They are creative. (Hergenhahn, 2000 p.512)

It is also very important to Maslow that perfection is not a characteristic of his subject as they also exhibit some of the base examples of human failings that people generally lower on the developmental chain exhibit. (Hergenhahn, 2000 p.511) The characteristic of these people were according to Maslow the outgrowth of the reaching of their potential based on their needs having been met at each stage of his hierarchy.

According to Maslow's theories the compartmentalization of nearly every human drive or behavior may occur through the hierarchy yet he wishes to make clear that many can cross over into needs bases that are unexpected and therefore individual human needs can not all be classified easily.

Maslow prefers not to list specific human needs. Our motives are so complicated and interrelated, and our behavior is so overdetermined, that it is usually impossible to explain personality in terms of separate and distinct drives.

For example, making love may be due to needs for sex, power, and to reaffirm one's masculinity or femininity. A hysterically paralyzed arm may fulfill simultaneous wishes for revenge, pity, and attention. Or eating may satisfy the hunger need and offer solace for an unrequited love. (See Maslow, 1970b, pp. 22-26, 35-58.) Maslow also argues that the various human needs differ considerably in their level of importance, with some remaining virtually unnoticed until others have at least to some extent been satisfied. (Ewen, 1998, p. 417)

Probably the most lasting legacy of Maslow's work is that it has become a fundamental starting point for research and continued theorizing. In a 1993 review of the ideas of forgiveness and its importance within psychology and faith Gorsuch & Hao give one of countless examples of the collaborative nature of the psychological sciences. "Bonar (1989) emphasized the interpersonal, relational, reconciliatory components by using a learning paradigm coupled with the ideas of Abraham Maslow (1965), " (Gorsuch & Hao, 1993, p. 346) More recently Maslow has been given credit, with others for the development of another highly researched set of ideals with an entirely different name, known as transpersonal.

Transpersonal, meaning beyond the personal, refers to development beyond conventional, personal, or individual levels. More specifically, transpersonal refers to development beyond the average, although such higher functioning turns out to be more common than previously was thought. (Scotton, Chinen & Battista, 1996, p. 3)

Though Maslow and his ideas are often sited as oversimplified and even outdated the value of his ideas and the standards he set furthering the cause of humanistic psychology will continue to influence psychology for many years to come. As more and more individuals who are relatively well adjusted within their own lives realize the personal value of the growth potential of Maslow's ideas, the belief in the condition of healthy and self-actualized as normal will continue to grow. Already the basic tenets of Humanistic psychology have formulated… [read more]

Sigmund Freud and B.F. Skinner Term Paper

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Skinner to denote man's consciousness in all those aspects which distinguish it from the sensory level of an animal's consciousness -- specifically: reason, mind, values, concepts, thought, judgment, volition, purpose, memory, independence, self-esteem. These, he asserts, do not exist; they are an illusion, a myth, a "prescientific" superstition. His term may be taken to include everything we call "man's inner world," except that Mr. Skinner would never allow such an expression; whenever he has to refer to man's inner world, he says: "Inside your skin."


Skinner's conception of humanity is one that is fundamentally and deeply materialistic in its conception; humans are little more than a composition of the most basic impulses that we see in the simplest protozoa. While this may seem strange, it is important to remember that, like physics, however, behaviorism was meant to be an applied science. Behaviorism was not a methodology in which behaviors of organisms were passively observed so that we could learn more about the systems that make up organisms -- that structure was believed to be already known as the interaction of stimulus and response. Behavioral experiments were always directed with a specific goal in mind: the control of the organism.

Indeed, Sknner's whole project was to discover a new method for controlling the action of human beings. He couched the idea of this project in vaguely Utopian terms, arguing that the ability to control human behavior would lead to a perfect and Utopian society in which worldwide harmony would ensue:

In trying to solve the terrifying problems that face us in the world today, we naturally turn to the things we do best. We play from strength, and our strength is science and technology. To contain a population explosion we look for better methods of birth control . . . . We can point to remarkable achievements in all these fields, and it is not surprising that we should try to extend them. But things grow steadily worse, and it is disheartening to find that technology itself is increasingly at fault . . . . In short, we need to make vast changes in human behavior, and we cannot make them with the help of nothing more than physics or biology, no matter how hard we try.

(Skinner 4)

Now, however, it is difficult not to view Skinner's ideas as more applicable to means of authoritarian control along the lines of George Orwell's 1984 or, perhaps even more aptly, Yevgeny Zamyatin's novel about totalitarian collectivism, We. The scary aspect of Skinner's theories are here revealed in his essential desire to control the behaviors of organisms, an aspect which brings up all sorts of questions, such as who was to be responsible for controlling organisms in the global scheme to reform humankind. Well, Behavioral scientists like B.F. Skinner, we can only presume.


Felluga, Dino. "Modules on Freud: On the Unconscious." Introductory Guide to Critical

Theory. Purdue U. Web Site:.

Graham, George. (2002). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Available from… [read more]

Social-Environmental Context of Violent Behavior Term Paper

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Until this is done, reason dictates that uncontrolled psychoaffective disorders can be instrumental in delusional behavior, and when all other factors are in place, causal to violence.


Swanson J, Holzer C, Ganju V, Jono R. Violence and psychiatric disorder in the community: evidence from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys. Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1990;41:761-770.

Link B, Stueve A. Psychotic symptoms and the violent/illegal behavior of mental patients compared to community controls. In: Monahan J, Steadman H, eds. Violence and Mental Disorder: Developments in Risk Assessment. Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press; 1994:137-159.

Steadman HJ, Mulvey EP, Monahan J, et al. Violence by people discharged from acute psychiatric inpatient facilities and others in the same neighborhoods. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55:393-401.

Swanson J. Mental disorder, substance abuse, and community violence: an epidemiological approach. In: Monahan J, Steadman H, eds. Violence and Mental Disorder: Developments in Risk Assessment. Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press; 1994:101-136.

Estroff S, Swanson J, Lachicotte W, Swartz M, Bolduc M. Risk reconsidered: targets of violence in the social networks of people with serious psychiatric disorders. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1998; 33(suppl 1):S95-S101.

Swartz M, Swanson J, Hiday V, Borum R, Wagner H, Bums B. Violence and severe mental illness: the effects of substance abuse and nonadherence to medication. Am J. Psychiatry. 1998;155:226-231.

Swanson J, Estroff S, Swartz M, et al. Violence and severe mental disorder in clinical and community populations: the effects of psychotic symptoms, comorbidity, and lack of treatment. Psychiatry. 1997:60:1-22.

North C, Smith E, Spitznagel E. Violence and the homeless: an epidemiological study of victimization and aggression. J Trauma Stress. 1994;7:95-110.

Jacobson A, Richardson B. Assault experiences of 100 psychiatric inpatients: evidence of the need for routine inquiry. Am J. Psychiatry. 1987;144:908-913.

Steadman HJ, Mulvey EP, Monahan J, et. al. Violence by people discharged from acute psychiatric impatient facilities and by others in the same neighborhoods. Archives of General Psychiatry 55:393-401, 1998.

Sosowsky, L. Explaining the increased arrest rate among mental patients: A cautionary note. American Journal of Psychiatry 137:1602-1605, 1980.

Taylor P. Motives for offending amongst violent and psychotic men. British Journal of Psychiatry 147:491-498, 1985.

Swanson JW, Swartz MS, Essock SM et al. The social-environmental context of violent behavior in persons treated for severe mental illness. American Journal of Public Health 92:1523-1531, 2002.

Wollstonecraft, M. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman with Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects. Boston: Edes:1792.

Davidoff, L., Holden, K., Fink, J. The Family Story: Blood, Contract and Intimacy. Addison-Wesley: 1998.

The Appraisal of Violence Risk," an overview of research literature on a very timely topic, violence risk assessment. The article, from Current Opinion in Psychiatry, posted 12/02/2002, is by…… [read more]

Psychology Law and Ethics Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (692 words)
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Ron's statement that "their children don't understand why he stays with her," shows signs of degradation of his wife and it also lacks credibility. How many children do you know that recommend that their father abandon their mother? Ron's credibility issue is reinforced with Beverly's pronouncement that this is a lie. Also, Ron's statement that "he's had it" shows signs of lack of patience and a possible short fuse.

The therapist in this situation must take care to represent Ron and Beverly within the context of the family, rather that serving the interests of one or the other. This may be challenging because Ron is the one that has sought counseling and he initially appears to be the more lucid of the two. And, it's simply not clear what type of therapy to treat the couple is required. There could be physical and mental health issues related to either spouse; this does not at first glance appear t be a type of situation where marriage counseling would necessarily be the most beneficial to either party. If this is the case, it's the responsibility of the therapist to advise them of appropriate alternative treatment (s).

Finally, in representing the couple, it will be important to maintain the confidentiality of both Ron and Beverly. Here, the therapist must likely rely on his or her own judgment about the best way to accomplish this, whether it is by refusing to see Ron on Beverly separately, or whether to allow separate treatment and to treat all information received just as if the individual was in therapy.

In conclusion, it's important to keep an open mind when trying to assess a case. The situation between Ron and Beverly warrants further exploration to gather facts and to take appropriate actions if there are instances of abuse or if the couple requires alternative treatment. This must be done in a way that treats both spouses in an equal and confidential manner.… [read more]

Managing Behaviors &amp Teaching Social Dissertation

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This program was called Committee for Children's First Curriculum Talking About Touching (www.cfchildren.org).This program was an improvement over Boys Town as it searched for the reasons behind a behavior. Boys Town was treatment focused, whereas this new approach sought to explain a behavior and resolve the issues that led to the behavior. This second-generation program concentrated on preventing child abuse.… [read more]

Dream Content as a Therapeutic Term Paper

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Bibliography Sources: 1+


And last, it might be a depiction of the future. Confirmation occurs either when the dream comes true or when the client makes life changes so it won't come true. For example: the client repairs their car brakes so he or she won't literally slide off the highway, as he or she keeps doing in their dreams. Methods that determine… [read more]

Functionalism and Structuralism Psychology Term Paper

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" In reaction to this school of psychology, William James (1842-1909) promoted a school of psychology known as functionalism-- the belief that the real task of psychology is to investigate the 'function,' or 'purpose,' of consciousness rather than its 'structure.' James was greatly influenced by Darwin's evolutionary theory about 'survival of the fittest' and functionalism in some ways is a natural outgrowth of interest in Darwin's theories at the time. Functionalism introduced techniques such as human intelligence tests and controlled experiments to test the ability of humans to learn and solve problems and enjoyed its period of greatest influence from 1890 to 1910. It is considered to be a precursor of behaviorism in some ways and has influence modern psychology in fields such as intelligence and aptitude testing.

Other schools of psychology that emerged in the early period of its development include the Gestalt psychology, founded by Max Wertheimer (1880-1943), which was based on the premise that the 'whole is greater than the sum of its parts.' The Gestalt psychology also developed partly as a reaction to structuralism that believed in breaking conscious experience into its component parts. Although the Gestalt school had a short period of influence in the field of psychology, it has contributed to the emergence of two other schools of psychology -- humanism and cognitive psychology.

Sigmund Freud, a Viennese neurologist of the late 19th and early 20th century, is another prominent psychologist. His theories too were developed as a reaction to Wundt and James theories (who believed that psychology was the study of conscious experience.) In contrast Freud theorized that largely unconscious forces motivate people, including strong sexual and aggressive drives.


Gestalt Psychology Challenges Behaviorism." [Available online]. Retrieved on October 31, 2002 at http://www.unb.ca/web/courses/fields/module/textbook/ch1pt2e.html

Leonard Carmichael. "Functionalism." Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2002

Sul Kassin. "Psychology." Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2002

Sul Kassin. "Psychology." Encarta, 2002

Ibid. Para on Structuralism and Functionalism

Leonard Carmichael. "Functionalism." Encarta, 2002

Gestalt Psychology Challenges Behaviorism."

Psychology… [read more]

Psychiatric and Psychotherapeutic Treatment Term Paper

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(McKay, 2000, pp. 70-78)

Another meta-analysis reviewed nine randomized controlled studies (N = 542) that directly compared cognitive therapy and tricyclic medications in the treatment of nonbipolar depressed outpatients. On the basis of their analysis, they concluded that (a) cognitive therapy appears to be roughly comparable to medication in the treatment of the acute episode; (b) combined cognitive therapy and… [read more]

Helping Teenagers With Mental Health Essay

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Losing the Mental Health Stigma for Adolescents

Mental health issues are not uncommon in society. As such, they present a significant problem to society as a whole, as well as to the members of its population that are most vulnerable to it. One of the areas of mental health problems that has received a fair amount of attention in recent… [read more]

Evolution of Counseling Theories and Orientations Chapter Writing

Chapter Writing  |  3 pages (876 words)
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Evolution of Counseling and Theory

Counseling theories and theoretical orientations have evolved over time in a number of different ways as the science of human development has deepened its own understanding of human nature. Kyziridis (2005) traces the historical evolution of multicultural treatments of mental disorders from ancient Greece to ancient India and China, showing how various approaches involved using everything from herbal remedies to music, prayer, and relaxation. Counseling in ancient cultures did not take quite the same form that it does today but it did, more or less, involve the same aims: the restoration of the patient's well-being via intervention on the part of the counselor or physician. In terms of dealing with the human psyche, treatments traditionally took into consideration what Plato called "the soul" -- "if the head and body are to be well, you must begin by curing the soul" (Plato, 2002). As Jones (2015), the psychological approach of the 19th and 20th centuries were about coming to terms with and redefining to a large degree "the soul."

Modern Approaches

Corsini and Wedding (2014) also note "that the construct unconscious plays a salient role…in the psychotherapies that emerged in the 19th century" (p. 2). This redefinition of what Plato and the ancients termed "the soul" was the extension of rationalist thought that had evolved out of the Enlightenment and naturalistic sciences that pervaded Europe after the fall of the Middle Ages and its attendant faith. A new route to man's psyche was plotted by various men of science who constructed a new terminology that could be used to explain in a new way what had previously been understood as the soul, in which reason, passion and will were at their best when ordered hierarchically, according to ancients like Aristotle. With Freud, the evolution of counseling and theoretical orientations took a turn more towards the latent passion and set out on a course of discovery in this respect.

Mesmer in the 19th century attempted to use hypnosis as a form of treatment by tapping into the unconscious mind via hypnotherapy and bypassing the conscious mind which, he believed, acted as a kind of gatekeeper to the secret inner desires and needs of the unconscious mind. This belief and orientation took a turn towards psychotherapy and psychology-philosophers, represented by poets that Schiller and Goethe and Schopenhauer and Carus. These pioneers in turn paved the way for Nietzsche and Freud (Corsini, Wedding, 2014). They also opened the door for clinical psychological therapy orientations. Benedikt, for example, developed a method of "purging 'pathogenic secrets'" from the psyche (Corsini, Wedding, 2014, p. 5).

Biological and Humanistic Orientations

In…… [read more]