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Ethnic Studies as a Collective Disciplined Has

Ethnic Studies as a collective disciplined has had a varied history since its inception during 1968. The first institutions to offer such programs include San Francisco State and the University of California, including Berkeley and Santa Barbara. Ethnic Studies are also known as Black Studies, African-American Studies, Africana Studies, Mexican-American, and Puerto Rican Studies. Other ethnic programs include American Indian…

Pages: 5  |  Thesis  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 5


How to Improve Race Relations in the United States

Race Relations and Racism Racism is a disease, a historical ill, a disorder of the historical self... [and] it is the outcome of the West's assault upon the living world to create this idolatrous property, of an attempt, existing beneath white rationalizations, to take back from the world what we fancy was taken from us in the process of separation."…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Chicano Studies Segregation Helped Form an Intense

Chicano Studies Segregation helped form an intense cultural exchange between different ethnic groups in 1940s Los Angeles, mostly because the ethnic groups all existed in the same basic area, which means they attended the same schools, shopped in the same stores, and socialized in the same clubs and restaurants. Of course, this was not always the case, but it occurred enough to crate true cultural exchange and social relations among the many different immigrant groups converging on Los Angeles and other U.S. cities. They were determined by the segregation of ethnic minorities from the white communities, and they have continued to form youth identity, as these communities tend to continue to exist, even after segregation ended, but discrimination and misunderstanding continued. Ethnic boundaries are the boundaries placed on a people by society, and the boundaries that many ethnic groups still adhere to and support, even unconsciously. They form out of prejudice and misunderstanding, and they support the subjugation of a people by not allowing them to move across borders in society. For example, ethnic boundaries are still in place in much of America education, which is why fewer Hispanics make it to college and then into the upper levels of the American economy. They are maintained by everyone who believes minorities cannot achieve the same things whites can, and they impact ethnic studies because they indicate there is still prejudice and disparity in America. 3. Today, political consciousness is valued, and even encouraged as it was in the 1940s. Chicanos today are becoming much more involved in the fight for citizenship, immigration issues, and better pay. They are becoming much more vocal, even if it threatens their own lifestyle, and they are trying to get others to understand the rigors of immigration and work in the U.S. This is similar to those who protested the war and democracy in the 1940s, and different from other eras, where for the most part,……

Pages: 2  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 0


Cultural Pluralism

Cultural Pluralism The American territory is well-known for its cultural pluralism. The outstanding cultural diversity and ethnic pluralism in the United States call for cultural awareness and special social education of the community members, in order to avoid important problems, such as racism and discrimination. The basis of the modern democratic society requires more than tolerance towards the different racial,…

Pages: 7  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 3


Ethnic Studies Asian American and African Americans

¶ … Asian-Americans and African-Americans in several key areas of their immigration to the United States. African-Americans and Asian-Americans have suffered many of the same abuses and prejudices as they sought to become Americans. They have many commonalities and some differences as well. Their arrival in America has been controversial, and their presence here adds to a more diverse and varied society today. Asian-Americans and African-Americans both had to immigrate to the United States, they were not native to the area. African-Americans were some of the first immigrants to arrive; most of them were initially brought here against their will to serve as slaves in both the North and South of the eastern United States. There are records of slaves and free blacks living in the U.S. In the 1700s and by the early1800s, there were thousands of blacks working as slaves on the great plantations of the South. African-Americans came to the U.S. via two main routes. Most all were shipped to the U.S. from Africa on slave ships after they were captured from their homelands. The route from Africa to Europe and on to America was called the Middle Passage (Palmer, 2000, p. 15). Conditions on the slave ships were horrible, as many black historians have noted. One writes, "Chained together and confined to the cramped, hot, and humid holds of the ships, these Africans were lucky if they survived the ordeal" (Palmer, 2000, p. 15). Some slaves also came to America via the Caribbean, where they worked on sugar cane and other plantations before they were "imported" to the United States. Asian-Americans also came to the United States aboard ships, mostly from China. They too suffered horrible conditions, and many perished before they arrived at their destination. Later, many Chinese women were shipped to the United States against their will to work as prostitutes, and they came by ship as well. Thus, both groups endured difficult voyages to reach America. The Chinese had to pay, sometimes exorbitant sums to reach their destination, while blacks had no say in their lives after they were kidnapped and boarded ship. Asian-Americans immigrated to this country mostly out of hope for work and a better life. The first Asians to arrive were Chinese on the West Coast. One author notes, "The Chinese were the first Asian group that entered in large and persistent numbers. About 52,000 Chinese arrived in 1852 alone.…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 4


Racism and Discrimination

In addition, some sociologists employ field research and participant observational techniques which can provide robust findings and valuable empirical observations; however, these approaches can be highly time-consuming and expensive (Neuman, 2003). By contrast, survey research is a highly cost-effective approach that can provide sociologists with large amounts of data in a relatively short timeframe (Neuman, 2003). Case studies also provide a useful framework in which an issue of interest can be investigated in depth and with greater attention to details (Leedy, 1997). Furthermore, case study research can help identify gaps in the literature and directions for future studies (Neuman, 2003). Irrespective of the research methodology employed, though, sociologists generally explain the causes of prejudice in terms of personality types that are predisposed towards prejudicial thinking (Farley, 2005). People that hold prejudicial views about others and practice discrimination against one group of people typically have negative views about other groups as well (Farley, 2005). Conclusion The review of the literature showed that sociologists can use a broad array of qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, including surveys, interviews, case studies, participant observation, field research and secondary analysis. Each of these research methodologies has its respective strengths and weaknesses compared to the others, and the determination as to which approach is optimal for a given research project depends on the type of information that is needed and the goals of the study. In the final analysis, it is reasonable to conclude that sociologists that employ more than one research approach will gain more insights into the issues of interests compared to those that employ a single approach. References Dion, K. (2002, February). The social psychology of perceived prejudice and discrimination. Canadian Psychology, 43(1), 1-5. Farley, J.E. (2005). Majority -- minority relations, 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Grinnell, R.M. Jr. & Unrau, Y.A. (2005). Social work research and evaluation: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. New York: Oxford University Press. Leedy, P.D. (1997). Practical research: Planning and design (6th ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Neuman, W.L. (2003).……

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Race and Racism in the Chicano a Community

Race and Racism in the Chicana/O Community Two major challenges that exist regarding Chicana/o education that is connected largely to race are the high dropout rates for students of this ethnic heritage and the racial segregation that pervades schools that the majority of such students attend (Yosso, 2). For example, as Yosso explains, for every 100 Chicana/o elementary school students, 44 of them graduate from high school; 56 students of the initial 100 drop out (3). Of the 44 that graduate from high school, 26 enroll in college, but only seven graduate with a bachelor's degree, only two will continue on to graduate school and less than one will hold a doctoral degree (Yosso, 3). Yosso points out that Chicana/o students consistently underperform Caucasian students, yet also illuminates that this is no doubt connected to the fact that "Chicana/o students usually attend over-crowded, run-down, and racially segregated schools. Too often, these schools provide low per-pupil expenditures, few well-trained teachers, and limited access to a quality, college-bound curriculum" (Yosso, 4). As Yosso explains, often these schools lack basic resources and supplies. All these factors can contribute enormously to a higher drop-out rate because the experience of education for these students isn't about the journey or exploration of learning, presenting students with surmountable challenges, or demonstrating the value of teamwork, instead, school is like any other institution, perhaps resembling most of all, a prison sentence to a lot of these kids. Whereas children from other backgrounds receive the benefit of nurturing and being able to blossom to the full extent of their abilities in other classrooms, Chicana/o students merely have to get through the day. Furthermore, that lack of diversity can only contribute to the high dropout rate, as students don't get the benefit of being around motivated students from other backgrounds. As Yosso summarizes, "High schools tend to reflect the patterns of structural inequality evidenced at the primary levels of the pipeline. In urban, suburban and rural communities across the United States, Chicana/o students attend racially segregated, overcrowded high schools in dilapidated buildings with an insufficient number of functioning bathrooms" (57). This racial segregation is compounded by the fact that lots of textbooks used in these classes neglect to mention the contributions made by Hispanics and Latinos have made throughout history, adding to the development of the country. 2. Arizona's HB 2281 is a bigoted political move made to resemble education…

Pages: 4  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Race and Ethnicity Assimilation, Invasion

Race and Ethnicity ASSIMILATION, INVASION Race and Ethnicity: Changes through the Century Media Poll: Race Relations Improving Results of the 2009 CBS/New York Times survey showed that the majority of Blacks and a high percentage of whites described race relations as good and efforts at eradicating racial discrimination as progressing (CBS, 2009). Both percentages were higher than those in the…

Pages: 5  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Sociology Racism Throughout History Racism Has Been

Sociology Racism Throughout history racism has been seen as a plight that tends to target vulnerable groups. Racism is the conviction that characteristics and abilities can be attributed to people simply on the basis of their race and that some racial groups are superior to others. Racism and discrimination have been used as dominant weapons encouraging fear or hatred of…

Pages: 6  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 7


Nativism and Race

Nativism and Race Nativism and Racism Not only do I agree with the statement that "Nativism (anti-foreign immigrant prejudice) and racism (anti-non-white prejudice) have been common in American history; they have raised temporary barriers to white ethnic groups and permanent 'caste' barriers against non-white racial groups," but I believe that any person who disagrees with that statement is either hopelessly naive, or woefully ignorant of American history. As Sowell states, "History is what happened, not what we wish had happened- nor what a theory or ideology says should have happened." (Sowell, p.273). However, Sowell's writings tend to disregard the truth of that statement, because, at times, he takes a seemingly revisionist approach to some aspects of American history. As a result, I disagree with his conclusion that one cannot describe a cause and effect relationship between the treatment of specific ethnic groups and their current status in American society. Sowell does a wonderful job describing the evolution of different ethnic groups in American society. He describes ethnic groups whose use of the English language and physical appearance made it likely that they would be able to assimilate into the English-dominated American society, but he also describes groups like the Japanese who had both language and physical barriers preventing them from immediate assimilation into society. What Sowell's study of these ethnic groups reveals is that there is no direct correlation between the degree of difference between an ethnic group and the dominant society and how quickly that group could assimilate into American society. For example, he illustrates that the Irish had many advantages when entering American society, because they were physically and culturally similar to the English and spoke English, but that the Irish took an extraordinary amount of time to overcome the initial barriers to assimilation in America. He contrasts the Irish with the Jews, who came to America with few financial resources and were among the poorest of all ethnic groups at the beginning of the 19th century, but are now among the wealthiest of all ethnic groups. Sowell talks about the history of rampant anti-Semitism and discusses how the barriers erected against Jews were greater than those erected against any other ethnic groups, save blacks, so that one would anticipate them to remain at the bottom of American society. Furthermore, when discussing the Jews, and the Asian minority groups, Sowell immediately dismisses the role that any cultural emphasis…

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 1


Psychological Effects of Racism on Minority Groups

Psychological Effects of Racism When the effects of contemporary racism are discussed, the conversation frequently revolves around the more tangible, practical effects of racism that are evident in large-scale trends, such as the dearth of minorities in political and corporate leadership positions, or the disproportionate number of minorities incarcerated and executed by countries such as the United States (Bobo &…

Pages: 8  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 6


Racism Seven People in a

Using these factors poses imperative questions before attempting to answer about the races in the room. Some questions can involve where the seven people originally originated from, what they perceive about each other, what their cultures are and if they are discriminating against each other. However, the answer given will still be ambiguous. Culture, habits and customs have always been the determinant of a race and even not the biological makeup. Other societies consider and take certain perceived important physical characteristics and use them to place people in different racial categories. Such classification systems bring little or no difference from one society to the next. Different race and criteria for classification of races vary between different societies. Someone who is considered black in America may be considered as white in Brazil. In Rwanda, all people are black but they divide themselves to two races of Hutsis and Tutsis; hence human is the only one who can determine race in their own perceptions. [footnoteRef:5] [5: 4 "Capitalism and Racism," URL http:/ / http://www.bolshevik.org/1917/no12/no12capitalismandracism.html> (accessed 25th July 2012).] One can also choose to use social classification and behavior to group races; blacks are perceived to behave in certain ways, to achieve certain levels because they are blacks. Whites are assumed to behave and achieve in other ways because they are whites. This shows that physical difference does not have much significance, and the attributes of social significance that exist are put into consideration. Different aspects of racism show that racism is a dogmatic issue based on perceptions and ideologies. Racist thinking involves principles which lead inevitably to the natural and unequal treatment of people of other ethnic groups. There is no society that has equal distribution of resources. In multi-ethnic society's ethnicity is used as a determinant for the nature of distribution of resources. Ethnic groups are ranked in hierarchies causing inequalities. Top ethnic groups maintain power and dominate over those who are low in the hierarchy. Racism causes hatred and undue advantages to racists. [footnoteRef:6] [6: Mark Benson, "Hate and Racism," (2012): URL http:/ / http://www.expatforum.com/america/hate-and-racism.html> (accessed 25th July 2012).] Conclusion Different societies have different operative classification systems. It is obvious that the term race is misconceived hence making it exceedingly difficult to employ a useful, universal analytic manner. The point-of-view of cultural macro-evolution should be replaced; this makes it possible for genetic macroevolution and collaboration of cultures and collaboration with…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Health and Illness Racism's Role

This seems to smack of a racist bias against people of color. This look at certain disparities is disturbing if it is due to race, even if unconscious racism, but other factors have to be examined to make sure that race is the lone cause. Another historical fact is that people of color have a lower socioeconomic status than do…

Pages: 9  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 8


Sociology and Racism Sociologists Recognize

Instead, people form ethnic groups and racist belief as a result of their socialization and social interaction (Shibutani and Kwan, 28). The implication of the Shibutan and Kwan book is that racism arises not because the ethnic groups look different physically. Rather, racism results from the different ways that members of various ethnic groups communicate. Different racial groups develop various systems of meanings and communication. An illustration would be the way members of African-American groups have taken "ownership" of the N word. This word changes in meaning when spoken by a Caucasian person. The interactionist perspective has its limitations, particularly in its narrow focus. Focusing on micro level research such as symbols and language can neglect the influence of social institutions on the development of racist attitudes. After all, people do not live their everyday lives independent of institutions like religion and media. However, the interactionist perspective has the advantage of bringing people into the sociological analysis. As the example regarding the N word has shown, the interactionist perspective recognizes the dynamic role that people play in the development and propagation of racism in society. Works Cited Herrnstein, Richard. The Bell Curve. New York: Free Press, 1994. Nisbett, Richard. "Race, Genetics and IQ." The Black-White Test Score Gap. Christopher Jencks, ed. Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 1998. Olzak, Susan. The Dynamics of Ethnic Competition and Conflict. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992. Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian……

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Arrest Rates Against Race Is

However, the probability model will solely focus on the disparities among the whites, Hispanics and black arrest rates, assuming any possible bias within the judicial systems. This model will estimate the frequency differences in criminal activities between the whites and blacks. As well, it will take control for the correlated factors and frequencies of crime commitments against race. Under this…

Pages: 7  |  "Literature Review" Chapter  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 7


English 2nd Lang) I Was Most Affected

¶ … English 2nd Lang) I was most affected by the entire episode of American Slavery and the fact that institutionalized racist policies against African-Americans lasted and were so bitterly contested for so long in American history. Prior to the course, I was only aware that there was a period in early American history when African blacks had been exploited as human slaves and that there was segregation before the Civil Rights era in the 1960s. I did not think about it in detail or realize how long it lasted, how many lives it affected, and how brutal it was. I had known that the American Civil War was fought largely over slavery but I did not realize how much political negotiation was involved over it for so long before the Civil War; it was thought-provoking to realize that the slavery issue played such a great role in the admission of states to the Union. Likewise, I had believed that the living conditions of American blacks must have improved beginning after the Emancipation Proclamation in 1865. It was shocking to me to learn that black people were still preventing from getting the rights they were supposed to have after 1865 by such organized illegal actions in so many states. I knew that the Ku Klux Klan existed as a racist group during the late 19th and early 20th century, but I was not aware that they had millions of members early in the 20th century and it was very disturbing to learn that they marched in large numbers in a parade right in front of the White House. It made me realize that what happened in Nazi Germany before and during the Second World War could have occurred in the United States just as easily under slightly different circumstances. For decades after the Emancipation Proclamation, local and state governments throughout the former slave states enacted what Martin Luther King Jr. called immoral laws. The purpose of those laws was to prevent the former slaves from enjoying any of the rights they were supposed to get after the Civil War. "Jim Crow" laws prohibited blacks from voting and from owning property and even the American federal government discriminated in many ways against blacks. Only very recently, the U.S. federal government admitted that it had illegally refused loans to black farmers throughout the early and mid 20th century because of their race.…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Educational Equality in Canada Canada's Multiculturalism and

Educational Equality in Canada Canada's Multiculturalism and the Socially Disadvantaged Within the Educational System In the last forty years, Canada has officially embraced the notion of multiculturalism as a policy pursued both by the government and the public. From its first inception in 1971, multiculturalism in Canada has evolved gradually, affecting the perception of Canadians themselves and their view of…

Pages: 8  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 6


Affirmative Action and Race Relations Affirmative Action,

Affirmative Action and Race Relations Affirmative action, in higher education and elsewhere has been a hotly debated issue, since its inception, among a group of minority faculty and faculty organization from U.S. law schools conceived of the need for forcing social change through guided plans and procedures that would make up for missing opportunities for racial minorities, a year prior…

Pages: 15  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 10


Asian-Americans and Asian Jews and Their Reputation

¶ … Asian-Americans and Asian Jews and their reputation for academic success. The writer examines classroom, family and societal contributors to that reputation's development. There were six sources used to complete this paper. Racial Reputations for Academic Excellence Explored Society has dealt with stereotypes since the beginning of time. Whether those stereotypes were racially, ethnically or otherwise motivated they have…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 6


Theories of Race and Ethnicity

¶ … Scientific American by Michael J. Bamshad and Steve E. Olson ("Does Race Exist") brings the reader information that is understandably a bit heavy on the science end but helpful in a social context. And the article is helpful for the investigative young mind because after all, present day Western society is one of impressive human diversity. More than a mere "melting pot," America is a nation of many nations, many cultures and numerous immigrant groups of wildly diverse ethnicities. The point being, it is far too easy - and socially impolite - for a person to identify individuals strictly by "race." A person from Korea, for example, should not be referred to as "Oriental" (as that is vague as well as a racial slap in the face); but rather, that individual should be respected as an "Asian" whose ancestry is Korean. And of the several questions posed at the start of the article, the question most germane to the racial / ethnic issues at hand is, "...how valid is the concept of race from a biological standpoint?" The answer is, on one level at least, that the concept of race is not valid from a biological point-of-view, due to what has been discovered through DNA research. And while the authors dig deeper into the issue of ethnicity - through their discussion of DNA and "millions of polymorphisms" - interestingly, their research verifies that in some cases "...genetic analyses can distinguish groups of people according to their geographic origin." This would appear to be the most powerful revelation of this article. Additionally, it is eye opening to learn that for the average African-American (my friend in a History class, the running back for the San Diego Chargers - LaDainian Tomlinson - and our apartment neighbors who say "good morning" every day) only about 80% of his genes are directly connected to West Africa. Finally, this article delves briefly into the unfair, unpleasant "big brother" aspect of our government; the writers note that the FDA has continued "historical abuses associated with categorizing people by race." Indeed, the FDA authorizes the gathering of race and ethnic data from patients during clinical trials, and because the differences between groups are so miniscule and yet the abuses so vicious, this policy should be shot down. Meanwhile, Sally Satel's article ("Medicine's Race Problem") in the Hoover Institution's Policy Review begins by flatly stating that…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


Athabaskan-English Interethnic Communication," the Author Provides a

¶ … Athabaskan-English Interethnic Communication," the author provides a comparative analysis of communication between and among Athabaskans and English people. The discussion centers on four areas of study regarding communication between the two ethnic groups, that is, presentation of talk, distribution of talk, information structure, and content organization. In the presentation of the self during communication between Athabaskans and English,…

Pages: 7  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Mixed Race Means That a

In the past it was almost impossible for a "white" and a "black" person to date, when we talk about America; however such cases are hard to find today but are still there (Sullivan, 2011). People used and still do, curse them and call out insults whenever they used to see a couple like that. This was one of the worst social stigmas that could result from multi-racial discrimination. Likewise, children of a mixed couple also had to face lot problems when they went to school. They were not accepted easily by everyone. They were most of the time cornered by the people who thought their race, color and language was superior. Language was yet again another huge problem for people who were living in a place that was not their home country. Such children grow up to be extremely shy people and they find a lot of trouble in making friends at school and at workplace. This is because they are not confident of the fact that they will accepted by the people around them. These kids don't socialize with others because they do not want them to know that they speak a different language; paranoia to be made fun of. Moreover, when people of two different religions marry, their children grow up to be confused people. They are not sure what religion to follow so sometimes they just end up following the one that has a greater degree of acceptance in the society; even when their hearts wants to follow something else. Also, when people of one religion have to come and live in a country where some other religion prevails, they are also sometimes subjected to discrimination. References Abraham Lincoln. "House Divided" Speech. (1858). Carolyn Abraham, Molecular Eyewitness: DNA Gets a Human Face (quoted from Globe and Mail, June 25, 2005). Chestnutt, Charles W. "The House Behind The Cedars." Kessinger Publishing, 2004. Cohn, D'Vera. "Multi-Race and the 2010 Census." Retrieved 2011-04-26. MacShane, Denis; Plaut, Martin; Ward, David Ward. Power!: Black workers, Their Unions and the Struggle for Freedom in South Africa. Naqivi, Tahira. "Brave We Are." 1998. Raya, Anna Lisa. "It's Hard Enough Being Me." 1942. Sullivan, Cindy. "As the mixed-race population grows, stigma of the past fades"……

Pages: 6  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 9


Chinese-American Studies: Wen Ho Lee

Not only did the common Asian-American feel outraged, but also the leaders of this community who were very outspoken in demanding that Dr. Lee be compensated in some way. Former UC Berkeley Chancellor Chang-lin Tien, the first Asian-American scientist appointed to the National Science Council, stated that the case was at a critical juncture after Lee's acquittal. As a result,…

Pages: 10  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Affirmative Action the Impact of Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action The impact of Affirmative Action on the Professional Success of African-American MBA Graduates BASE THEORY: Affirmative action as it stands in the professional and business sphere has generated a wide spectrum of controversy. Antipathetic views have flourished over the years arguing that African-American MBA graduates should receive similar treatment and meet the standard criteria for admission into business…

Pages: 15  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 30


Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action

Equal Employment Opportunity, Affirmative Action Affirmative Action This brief study examines the issue of the policies of Affirmative Action and the policies of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Findings in this brief study demonstrate that Affirmative Action policies are outdated and are in a need of review due to the unforeseen and reverse discrimination perpetrated by these policies which were…

Pages: 10  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 8


Wages of Whiteness by David R. Roediger

¶ … Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class by David R. Roediger. Specifically it will contain an analysis of the book, including central issues and thesis of the author. Roediger's book is basically a history of racism in the United States, beginning with colonial racism and working its way up to the present. The author's thesis that racism of a "sense of whiteness" developed "hand in hand" with the development of the working class in the country (Roediger 8). However, the author attempts to place race in a larger perspective than just class, but rather to the larger issues of race, class, and racism in society, and how society manages those issues. Thus, the author explores the conceptual categories of race, racism, the working class, and society in the United States. The author's theoretical perspective includes a study of the Marxist attempts to place class over race. He attempts to show that this perspective is one-sided, and does not explain the larger issues of race, class and racism and how it is portrayed in our country. He also uses psychoanalysis, labor, and economic theories to explore and explain his perspectives. The author uses clear examples of his theories throughout this unique book, and he makes his points both with his own theories and perspectives, but with the writings and perspectives of many other experts in his chose themes. For example, when discussing the wage disparity between blacks and whites that has been continual in this country, we writes that this very wage disparity helped found the roots of racism in American workers, making the whites feel better about themselves and superior to the blacks because of their additional pay. He cites works by W.E.B. Du Bois in his arguments, writing, "Du Bois regards the decision of workers to define themselves by their whiteness as understandable in terms of short-term advantages" (Roediger 12). Du Bois does not defend the whites' decision, but understands it is an intrinsic part of human nature, and the author continually uses other perspectives like these to get his point across and bring the reader a clear understanding of his theories and perspectives. Of course, the central issue of the book is American racism and how it developed, but because the author uses so many perspectives to arrive at his conclusion, there are several other sub-areas of the book, such as…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 1


Multicultural Education Is a Field of Study

Multicultural Education is a field of study and an emerging discipline whose major aim is to create equal educational opportunities for students from diverse racial, ethnic, social-class, and cultural groups. One of its important goals is to help all students to acquire the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to function effectively in a pluralistic democratic society and to interact, negotiate,…

Pages: 8  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 6


Prostrate Cancer Health Disparities Among

(American Cancer Society, 2003). For 1996 to 2009, new prostate cancer incidence rates and death rates from prostate cancer among Hispanic men surpassed the proportions for Pacific Islanders and Asian-Americans and but were lesser than those for African-Americans and whites. (National Cancer Institute, 2002). Mexican-American men have meaningfully lesser amounts of prostate cancer than those that are of non-Latino whites and African-Americans. The quantities for Cuban-American and Puerto Rican men are alike to those for whites of non-Latino background. (Intercultural Cancer Council, 2001) Hispanics/Latinos males when it comes for treatment for prostate cancer are also disturbed by many financial and cultural disparities in health care, comprising of unequal influence in federally subsidized cancer study. Furthermore, lack of contribution in health investigation has deferred the development of discouragement and action labors for this unusual population group. Among Latino males, inadequate screening and defensive care normally leads to late diagnosis, later or inadequate treatment and, with some cancers, higher humankind. Social Work Practice with Cancer Patients For black and Latino males that have been diagnosed with cancer, a social worker is a very vital member of the health care team. A social worker will be able to provide counseling, education, and information services, and transfers to community means to these patients and their family members. Furthermore, a social worker will be able to assist these people in navigating the health care system and find encouragement to achieve the day-to-day tests of living with cancer. As a Social worker, in order to intervene, and improve health outcomes, I would like a bridge in helping these people to be able to connect to the resources that they will have to need in order for them to really find practical help for them. For some of the patients, this might mean involving a transfer to the financial aid office of the hospital, or directions for applying for disability, or a clarification of rights that are supposed to be covered up under the Family Medical Leave Act. For others patients, it will more than likely mean learning about support groups that are stationed at the local community wellness center. As a social worker, it would be easy to also help begin dialogues about the cost of cancer care. It would also be my duty to connect them with other people that are going through the same thing that they are. It would be explained to them…

Pages: 8  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 8


Health Disparities

Race and Class As the Ignored Determinants of Health Disparities For decades researchers have kept statistics, in the United States, regarding health disparities amongst its citizens. The most common stratification of this research often lies along the lines of race. Many studies have been performed regarding the differences in health issues among those of the Caucasian, Black, Hispanic, Native American, Asian, etc. populations. However, very rarely "(t)he U.S. government is one of the few developed Western nations that does not routinely report health statistics by class" (Kawachi, Daniels, & Robinson 141). As Kawachi, Daniels and Robinson note, there is very little information on important health disparity topics by such class stratifications as: income, occupation, or educational attainment. Where class is the ignored determinant of health disparities, race has become the increasingly more common variable. Race is "a way to categorize humans, (and) race has since come to take on a wide range of meanings, mixing social and biologic ingredients in varied proportions. This plasticity has made it a tool that fits equally well in the hands of demagogues who want to justify genocide and eugenics and of health scientists who want to improve surveillance for diseases" (Kauffman, Cooper, & Ward 1166). Kawachi, Daniels and Robinson discuss three primary views of racial health disparities. First, there are the biological links to disparities that give rise to research centered on race-based genetic susceptibility to diseases. Kauffman, Cooper, and Ward support this first view. Although they mention that class could be a factor in health disparities, they note that there are racial and ethnic differences in the causes, expression, and prevalence of various diseases. The relative importance of bias, culture, socioeconomic status, access to care, and environmental and genetic influences on the development of disease is an empirical question that, in most……

Pages: 2  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Chinese-American Women and Their Experiences With Discrimination

Chinese-American Women and Their Experiences With Discrimination in the Workplace Case Summary, Methodology, and Literature Review The Case of Chinese-American Women and Their Experiences with Discrimination in the Workplace: Persevering in the Face of Adversity and Its Price Analysis using theoretical constructs from the literature review This analysis concerns the experiences of a professional Chinese-American young woman, "Sue," employed at…

Pages: 45  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


How Racist Is America?

¶ … racism changed since the civil rights movement, if so has it been a positive or negative change? According to the law, there are two types of segregation commonly practiced: that of de jure (legally enforced segregation) and de facto (not legally mandated, but that which exists in fact). De jure racial segregation is now prohibited in the U.S.…

Pages: 5  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Affirmative Action the End of Legally Sanctioned

Affirmative Action The end of legally sanctioned racial segregation in the 1950s and 1960s was a major step in the direction of racial equality. However, as had been the case with the end of slavery, the removal of formal oppression did not eliminate customary and private discrimination. As a result, the federal government had to take certain steps to ensure…

Pages: 9  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 6


Impact of Affirmative Action in the US

Affirmative Action The Impact of Affirmative Action in the U.S. United States is a multicultural nation with divided socio economic status among its various races, ethnic groups and gender. Though ours is a democratic nation, deprivation and discrimination has led to a gap between various groups in the society. Civil rights and freedom of all individuals have not been exercised equally. The term of 'Affirmative Action' first was used by John. F. Kennedy in 1961 was aimed to bring an end to the discrimination against particular sections of society which has been undergoing discrimination throughout history and were deprived of basic rights like education. Affirmative action is a positive reservation, wherein the once underprivileged sections of the society get preference in terms of education, job and housing. (Weisskopf, 2004) The impact of affirmative action is a mixed one. It has good as well as bad effects. Affirmative action has assisted women and minority groups in the middle class segments of the American society. The benefits enjoyed by the middle class segments are high when compared to the benefits enjoyed by others. Afro-Americans were able to benefit from affirmative action during 1964 to 1975 when racial discrimination was lawfully barred. The Afro-Americans gained socio economic status during this period. However after 1975, there was not much momentum to the economic growth of the Afro Americans. After 1975, the socio-economic inequality among minority groups has been witnessed. Further the economic position of double earners in a family have gained higher position in society or continued with its financial position when compared to the single employed families which has been pushed into poor economic status. (Rushefsky, 2002) Those against the policy of affirmative action calls for a requirement centered policy. A requirement centered policy is a narrow method to address the issue of socio economic status. There have been arguments that preference should be given focusing on the financial status of individuals rather than the race or color. An example is wherein admission is granted to a rich minority candidate in place of a poor white candidate. However those in favor of affirmative action argue that besides earnings, education and job being the criteria, preference should be given by considering the living conditions, affluence and the deprivation faced by the prospective candidate. Those who argue against affirmative action are of the view that providing preference to minority students in leading educational institutions and…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 3


Ethnicity Gender or Disability

¶ … equal opportunity policies specifically related to ethnicity, gender or disability under the current british governmental educational policy or proposal The objective of this work is to critically examine EEO policies specifically related to ethnicity, gender, or disability under the current British Governmental Educational policy or proposed policy. While laws, policies and regulations have been enacted in Britain to…

Pages: 12  |  Term Paper  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 6


Personal Socialization Project

Personal Socialization Project The objective of this work is to take the discussion about race and apply them in the life of the researcher of this project. This work will address the question if "what is race" and "what purpose does the concept of race serve in contemporary society?" Further, this work will relate what the researcher learned about race and ethnicity and from whom was this learned and in what manner were these instructions given? The experiential knowledge of the researcher relating to educational institutions will be related and finally the consequences of having held this particular view will be related. "Measuring Race and Ethnicity: Why and How?" states the fact: "Race and ethnicity are constantly evolving concepts, deceptively easy to measure and used ubiquitously in the biomedical literature, yet slippery to pinpoint as definitive individual characteristics. A current dictionary definition of race is 'a family, tribe, people, or nation belonging to the same common stock, or a class or kind of people unified by shared interests, habits, or characteristics." (Winker, 2004) it is interesting to note that in 1850 in the United States there was the default race of white and places to mark with a check by those who were either black or mulatto. In 1860, the category of Indian was added and "since 1960 individuals have been able to specify their own race and ethnicity, and by 2000 the census enumerated 126 racial and ethnic categories." (National Institutes of Health. 2004; as cited in Winker, 2004) I. WHAT IS RACE/ETHNICITY? The work of Dennis O'Neil (2006) states that human 'races' are "primarily cultural creations, not biological realities. The commonly held belief in the existence of human biological races is based on the false assumption that anatomical traits such as skin color and specific facial characteristics, cluster together in single distinct groups of people. They do not. There are no clearly distinct 'black, 'white', or other races." While this is a wonderful view, and is a factual view, this still is not the view that the world-at-large holds. The writer of this work is of the Japanese race and was taught about race and ethnicity by the parents of the writer who explained that the world was a very large place full of countries such as Japan with many different kinds of people that talked different, looked different, and had different beliefs that were held in the…

Pages: 4  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 2


Black Rednecks and White Liberals

Black Rednecks and White Liberals by Thomas Sowell This new unpredictable book by Thomas Sowell confronts many of the long- existing assumptions about blacks, Jews, Germans, slavery, and education. The book has been openly written, strongly reasoned and supported with an amazing collection of documented facts. It took on not only the popular intellectuals of our times but also highlighted historic interpreters of American life such as Alexis de Tocqueville and Frederick Law Olmsted. The book is a series of long essays, presenting an in-depth glance at main beliefs behind many missteps and dangerous actions, policies, and trends (Dutch, 2005). It gives the reader an eye-opening insight into the historical progress of the ghetto culture that is incorrectly seen today as a sole black identity -- a culture which is cheered on toward self-destruction by those white liberals who regard themselves as "friends" of blacks. Thus, the book is one of America's leading black conservative intellectuals' returns with this challenging collection of contrarian essays (Dutch, 2005). Analysis of the book Most of the Sowell's arguments presented that the 20th-century resegregation of Northern cities was a reaction to the crudeness of black rednecks that migrated from the South. However, these vigorously argued essays presents a rousing challenge to the conventional wisdom (Dutch, 2005). The author pointed out that even though over the generations most of the Southern blacks and whites moved away from the redneck culture that gave its destructive counterproductive effects has only survived today among poorest and least educated ghetto blacks and, since the 1960s, it has been respected by today's white liberal leaders (Dutch, 2005). However, many liberal intellectuals celebrate black ghetto culture as "authentically" black and condemn any criticism of it as "blaming the victim." As Sowell puts it magnificently: By cheering on counterproductive attitudes, making excuses for self-defeating behavior, and promoting the belief that "racism" accounts for most of blacks' problems, white intellectuals serve their own psychic, ideological, and political interests. They are the kinds of friends who can do more harm than enemies." The book is a great thesis, documented with thousands of references, signifying the fact that 'racism' alone is not responsible for the ghetto culture, but also 'culture' itself in the South is also responsible. The reason is as to how the Britain lived in the suburbs of England before moving into the antebellum South, carrying their lawless disordered culture with them (Dutch,…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Mirror of the Face of

Some groups, such as Chinese women, often experienced double forms of discrimination, both as women within their own community, and as Chinese people in Caucasian communities. (209) Plus, some White missionaries used the plight of 'poor' Chinese women to justify discrimination against Chinese culture. Also, discrimination against oppressed groups has resulted in different kinds of revolt. Indians used military tactics in revolutions such as Wounded Knee. (228) Groups that were discriminated against such as African-Americans have resisted not only through legal action but also fleeing America -- as African-Americans often did not come to America by their own free will, they would go 'back' to Africa. (126) This "Nostalgia on the Niger," as Takaki calls it, resulted in the founding of Liberia in Africa. But a romanticized view of a native past, like a romantic view of a White past, proves to only be an incomplete solution. Takaki suggests that a more, fuller way of embracing American identity is better than rejecting America altogether. In fact, one of the contradictions of Black slavery in the 19th century was that many Black slaves had White fathers, blurring the lines of racial identity in the racially segregated south. (128) Even in the most racist of societies and circumstances, the dominant theme of the book is that, in the mirror of the face of America, there is no one pure face and image all Americans can aspire to be like, rather all Americans must fight for a more inclusive image of American identity. Despite the many differences between the ethnic groups in the book, the one similarity in all of the experiences of the different ethnic peoples of A Different Mirror is that all of these groups continue to have trouble being seen as fully American today. Despite the fact that Indians were in America before Europeans, they are still seen as nonwhite and thus not fully Americans. Despite the fact that Robert Takaki's grandfather may have come to America before his European neighbor's grandfather, Takaki is not seen as fully American. Overall, the idea of who is an America must change before discrimination can end, suggests the author, a conclusion all readers of all nations and nationalities will agree with. Work……

Pages: 5  |  Reaction Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Racial Profiling if Seen From

It is highly required of the Congress to pass necessary laws for combating racial profiling. Furthermore, it is also imperative to reform police departments. It is also exceedingly important to recognize and acknowledge the profiling of Arabs and Muslims. In order to preserve democracy in the American society, it is the high time to stop detaining and mistreating Arabs and Muslims and denying them a free and fair trial. Secondly, the values of liberty and equality must be protected from the anti-democratic elements of the new security policies for combating terrorism. Despite the fact that all such regulations are clearly aimed to protect the U.S.A. from terrorism, chances are "that any new instrument of profiling directed toward Arabs and Muslims can become a potential tool for the violation of the civil liberties of other citizens" (Bah, 2006). To cut a long story short, racial profiling can gravely undermine the fundamental nature of democracy. It must be kept in mind while struggling for ending racial profiling to not substitute one victim for another. Rather, the aim must be to struggle for the values of liberty and equality which would ultimately save and keep all citizens in a democratic society (Bah, 2006). References Annabelle, L. (2007). What's Wrong with Racial Profiling? Another Look at the Problem. Criminal Justice Ethics, 26 (1), Retrieved August 4, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-202802842/what-s-wrong-with-racial-profiling-another-look-at Bah, A.B. (2006). Racial Profiling and the War on Terror: Changing Trends and Perspectives1. Ethnic Studies Review, 29 (1), Retrieved August 3, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1P3-1154091261/racial-profiling-and-the-war-on-terror-changing-trends Etienne, M. (2012). Making Sense of the Ethnic Profiling Debate. Mississippi Law Journal, 80 (4), 1523-1538. Retrieved August 3, 2012 from http://Mississippilawjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/12_Etienne_Final_Edit.pdf Rudovsky, D. (n.d.). Racial Profiling and the War on Terror. Retrieved August 4, 2012 from http://www.pennumbra.com/debates/debate.php?did=5 Tom, C. (2002, January 14). Profiling is 'Flawed' Tool to Beat Terror. The Washington Times. Retrieved August 4, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-81757877/profiling-is-flawed-tool-to-beat-terror…

Pages: 5  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Justification of Islamophobia

¶ … Islamophobia Justified Islamophobia An introduction to the topic, addressing the specific information that will be discussed so the reader has a clear understanding of what is being offered in the paper. A history of the term "Islamophobia," where it came from, why it is used, and how it is used. A discussion of racism in the context of…

Pages: 12  |  Research Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 8


Affirmative Action - Historical Review Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action - Historical Review Affirmative Action is defined as the "set of public policies and initiative designed to help eliminate past and present discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin." (National Organization for Women, 1995) the Civil Rights programs were enacted originally to enable African-Americans to become full citizens of the United States. The phrase 'affirmative…

Pages: 11  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 4

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