Study "Race / Ethnic Studies / Racism" Essays 1-55

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Ethnic Studies as a Collective Disciplined Thesis

… Ethnic Studies as a collective disciplined has had a varied history since its inception during 1968. The first institutions to offer such programs include San Francisco State and the University of California, including Berkeley and Santa Barbara. Ethnic Studies are… [read more]

How to Improve Race Relations in the United States Term Paper

… Race Relations and Racism

Racism is a disease, a historical ill, a disorder of the historical self... [and] it is the outcome of the West's assault upon the living world to create this idolatrous property, of an attempt, existing beneath… [read more]

Chicano Studies Segregation Helped Form an Intense Term Paper

… Chicano Studies

Segregation helped form an intense cultural exchange between different ethnic groups in 1940s Los Angeles, mostly because the ethnic groups all existed in the same basic area, which means they attended the same schools, shopped in the same stores, and socialized in the same clubs and restaurants. Of course, this was not always the case, but it occurred enough to crate true cultural exchange and social relations among the many different immigrant groups converging on Los Angeles and other U.S. cities. They were determined by the segregation of ethnic minorities from the white communities, and they have continued to form youth identity, as these communities tend to continue to exist, even after segregation ended, but discrimination and misunderstanding continued.

Ethnic boundaries are the boundaries placed on a people by society, and the boundaries that many ethnic groups still adhere to and support, even unconsciously. They form out of prejudice and misunderstanding, and they support the subjugation of a people by not allowing them to move across borders in society. For example, ethnic boundaries are still in place in much of America education, which is why fewer Hispanics make it to college and then into the upper levels of the American economy. They are maintained by everyone who believes minorities cannot achieve the same things whites can, and they impact ethnic studies because they indicate there is still prejudice and disparity in America.

3. Today, political consciousness is valued, and even encouraged as it was in the 1940s. Chicanos today are becoming much more involved in the fight for citizenship, immigration issues, and better pay. They are becoming much more vocal, even if it threatens their own lifestyle, and they are trying to get others to understand the rigors of immigration and work in the U.S. This is similar to those who protested the war and democracy in the 1940s, and different from other eras, where for the most part,… [read more]

Cultural Pluralism Term Paper

… Cultural Pluralism

The American territory is well-known for its cultural pluralism. The outstanding cultural diversity and ethnic pluralism in the United States call for cultural awareness and special social education of the community members, in order to avoid important problems,… [read more]

Ethnic Studies Asian American and African Americans Term Paper

… ¶ … Asian-Americans and African-Americans in several key areas of their immigration to the United States. African-Americans and Asian-Americans have suffered many of the same abuses and prejudices as they sought to become Americans. They have many commonalities and some differences as well. Their arrival in America has been controversial, and their presence here adds to a more diverse and varied society today.

Asian-Americans and African-Americans both had to immigrate to the United States, they were not native to the area. African-Americans were some of the first immigrants to arrive; most of them were initially brought here against their will to serve as slaves in both the North and South of the eastern United States. There are records of slaves and free blacks living in the U.S. In the 1700s and by the early1800s, there were thousands of blacks working as slaves on the great plantations of the South.

African-Americans came to the U.S. via two main routes. Most all were shipped to the U.S. from Africa on slave ships after they were captured from their homelands. The route from Africa to Europe and on to America was called the Middle Passage (Palmer, 2000, p. 15). Conditions on the slave ships were horrible, as many black historians have noted. One writes, "Chained together and confined to the cramped, hot, and humid holds of the ships, these Africans were lucky if they survived the ordeal" (Palmer, 2000, p. 15). Some slaves also came to America via the Caribbean, where they worked on sugar cane and other plantations before they were "imported" to the United States.

Asian-Americans also came to the United States aboard ships, mostly from China. They too suffered horrible conditions, and many perished before they arrived at their destination. Later, many Chinese women were shipped to the United States against their will to work as prostitutes, and they came by ship as well. Thus, both groups endured difficult voyages to reach America. The Chinese had to pay, sometimes exorbitant sums to reach their destination, while blacks had no say in their lives after they were kidnapped and boarded ship.

Asian-Americans immigrated to this country mostly out of hope for work and a better life. The first Asians to arrive were Chinese on the West Coast. One author notes, "The Chinese were the first Asian group that entered in large and persistent numbers. About 52,000 Chinese arrived in 1852 alone. They were lured by the prospects of finding good jobs and fortunes in the western United States" (Lien, Conway & Wong, 2004, p. 4). They also came to America because they were experiencing poverty, warfare, and other cultural issues going on at the time.

African-Americans came to this country mostly against their will. Slave traders kidnapped them in Africa and took them away from their homes and families to serve as slaves in the American South. When they arrived from their terrible journey, they were sold to the highest bidder and became… [read more]

Racism and Discrimination Essay

… In addition, some sociologists employ field research and participant observational techniques which can provide robust findings and valuable empirical observations; however, these approaches can be highly time-consuming and expensive (Neuman, 2003). By contrast, survey research is a highly cost-effective approach that can provide sociologists with large amounts of data in a relatively short timeframe (Neuman, 2003). Case studies also provide a useful framework in which an issue of interest can be investigated in depth and with greater attention to details (Leedy, 1997). Furthermore, case study research can help identify gaps in the literature and directions for future studies (Neuman, 2003).

Irrespective of the research methodology employed, though, sociologists generally explain the causes of prejudice in terms of personality types that are predisposed towards prejudicial thinking (Farley, 2005). People that hold prejudicial views about others and practice discrimination against one group of people typically have negative views about other groups as well (Farley, 2005).


The review of the literature showed that sociologists can use a broad array of qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, including surveys, interviews, case studies, participant observation, field research and secondary analysis. Each of these research methodologies has its respective strengths and weaknesses compared to the others, and the determination as to which approach is optimal for a given research project depends on the type of information that is needed and the goals of the study. In the final analysis, it is reasonable to conclude that sociologists that employ more than one research approach will gain more insights into the issues of interests compared to those that employ a single approach.


Dion, K. (2002, February). The social psychology of perceived prejudice and discrimination.

Canadian Psychology, 43(1), 1-5.

Farley, J.E. (2005). Majority -- minority relations, 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Grinnell, R.M. Jr. & Unrau, Y.A. (2005). Social work research and evaluation: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. New York: Oxford University Press.

Leedy, P.D. (1997). Practical research: Planning and design (6th ed). Upper Saddle River,

NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Neuman, W.L. (2003).… [read more]

Race and Racism in the Chicano a Community Research Paper

… Race and Racism in the Chicana/O Community

Two major challenges that exist regarding Chicana/o education that is connected largely to race are the high dropout rates for students of this ethnic heritage and the racial segregation that pervades schools that… [read more]

Race and Ethnicity Assimilation Essay

… Race and Ethnicity


Race and Ethnicity: Changes through the Century

Media Poll: Race Relations Improving

Results of the 2009 CBS/New York Times survey showed that the majority of Blacks and a high percentage of whites described race relations… [read more]

Sociology Racism Throughout History Essay

… Sociology


Throughout history racism has been seen as a plight that tends to target vulnerable groups. Racism is the conviction that characteristics and abilities can be attributed to people simply on the basis of their race and that some… [read more]

Nativism and Race Essay

… Nativism and Race

Nativism and Racism

Not only do I agree with the statement that "Nativism (anti-foreign immigrant prejudice) and racism (anti-non-white prejudice) have been common in American history; they have raised temporary barriers to white ethnic groups and permanent 'caste' barriers against non-white racial groups," but I believe that any person who disagrees with that statement is either hopelessly naive, or woefully ignorant of American history. As Sowell states, "History is what happened, not what we wish had happened- nor what a theory or ideology says should have happened." (Sowell, p.273). However, Sowell's writings tend to disregard the truth of that statement, because, at times, he takes a seemingly revisionist approach to some aspects of American history.

As a result, I disagree with his conclusion that one cannot describe a cause and effect relationship between the treatment of specific ethnic groups and their current status in American society.

Sowell does a wonderful job describing the evolution of different ethnic groups in American society. He describes ethnic groups whose use of the English language and physical appearance made it likely that they would be able to assimilate into the English-dominated American society, but he also describes groups like the Japanese who had both language and physical barriers preventing them from immediate assimilation into society. What Sowell's study of these ethnic groups reveals is that there is no direct correlation between the degree of difference between an ethnic group and the dominant society and how quickly that group could assimilate into American society. For example, he illustrates that the Irish had many advantages when entering American society, because they were physically and culturally similar to the English and spoke English, but that the Irish took an extraordinary amount of time to overcome the initial barriers to assimilation in America. He contrasts the Irish with the Jews, who came to America with few financial resources and were among the poorest of all ethnic groups at the beginning of the 19th century, but are now among the wealthiest of all ethnic groups. Sowell talks about the history of rampant anti-Semitism and discusses how the barriers erected against Jews were greater than those erected against any other ethnic groups, save blacks, so that one would anticipate them to remain at the bottom of American society. Furthermore, when discussing the Jews, and the Asian minority groups, Sowell immediately dismisses the role that any cultural emphasis on education could have had on rates of assimilation. For example, he draws the conclusion that because newly immigrated Jews were so focused on sustenance, they had no time for education. However, this approach ignores the important… [read more]

Arrest Rates Against Race Literature Review Chapter

… However, the probability model will solely focus on the disparities among the whites, Hispanics and black arrest rates, assuming any possible bias within the judicial systems. This model will estimate the frequency differences in criminal activities between the whites and… [read more]

Psychological Effects of Racism on Minority Groups Research Paper

… Psychological Effects of Racism

When the effects of contemporary racism are discussed, the conversation frequently revolves around the more tangible, practical effects of racism that are evident in large-scale trends, such as the dearth of minorities in political and corporate… [read more]

Racism Seven People Essay

… Using these factors poses imperative questions before attempting to answer about the races in the room. Some questions can involve where the seven people originally originated from, what they perceive about each other, what their cultures are and if they are discriminating against each other. However, the answer given will still be ambiguous.

Culture, habits and customs have always been the determinant of a race and even not the biological makeup. Other societies consider and take certain perceived important physical characteristics and use them to place people in different racial categories. Such classification systems bring little or no difference from one society to the next. Different race and criteria for classification of races vary between different societies. Someone who is considered black in America may be considered as white in Brazil. In Rwanda, all people are black but they divide themselves to two races of Hutsis and Tutsis; hence human is the only one who can determine race in their own perceptions. [footnoteRef:5] [5: 4 "Capitalism and Racism," URL http:/ /> (accessed 25th July 2012).]

One can also choose to use social classification and behavior to group races; blacks are perceived to behave in certain ways, to achieve certain levels because they are blacks. Whites are assumed to behave and achieve in other ways because they are whites. This shows that physical difference does not have much significance, and the attributes of social significance that exist are put into consideration.

Different aspects of racism show that racism is a dogmatic issue based on perceptions and ideologies. Racist thinking involves principles which lead inevitably to the natural and unequal treatment of people of other ethnic groups. There is no society that has equal distribution of resources. In multi-ethnic society's ethnicity is used as a determinant for the nature of distribution of resources. Ethnic groups are ranked in hierarchies causing inequalities. Top ethnic groups maintain power and dominate over those who are low in the hierarchy. Racism causes hatred and undue advantages to racists. [footnoteRef:6] [6: Mark Benson, "Hate and Racism," (2012): URL http:/ /> (accessed 25th July 2012).]


Different societies have different operative classification systems. It is obvious that the term race is misconceived hence making it exceedingly difficult to employ a useful, universal analytic manner. The point-of-view of cultural macro-evolution should be replaced; this makes it possible for genetic macroevolution and collaboration of cultures and collaboration with the study of races. Where there are inequalities, belief system, ideology patterns should be used to legitimate and regulate these dominant patterns. Regulation can be achieved by subordination of racism. Race is a concept that cannot be determined; one is who they want to be and sometimes what other people say one are.


"Capitalism and Racism," URL http:/ /> (accessed 25th July 2012).

Haslanger SA, "Racism," Problems of Philosophy (2001): URL http:/ /> (accessed on 25th July).

Mark Benson, "Hate and Racism," (2012): URL http:/ /> (accessed 25th July 2012).

Montagu Ashley, "The Genetical Theory of… [read more]

Health and Illness Racism's Role Essay

… This seems to smack of a racist bias against people of color. This look at certain disparities is disturbing if it is due to race, even if unconscious racism, but other factors have to be examined to make sure that… [read more]

Sociology and Racism Sociologists Recognize Term Paper

… Instead, people form ethnic groups and racist belief as a result of their socialization and social interaction (Shibutani and Kwan, 28).

The implication of the Shibutan and Kwan book is that racism arises not because the ethnic groups look different physically. Rather, racism results from the different ways that members of various ethnic groups communicate. Different racial groups develop various systems of meanings and communication.

An illustration would be the way members of African-American groups have taken "ownership" of the N word. This word changes in meaning when spoken by a Caucasian person.

The interactionist perspective has its limitations, particularly in its narrow focus. Focusing on micro level research such as symbols and language can neglect the influence of social institutions on the development of racist attitudes. After all, people do not live their everyday lives independent of institutions like religion and media.

However, the interactionist perspective has the advantage of bringing people into the sociological analysis. As the example regarding the N word has shown, the interactionist perspective recognizes the dynamic role that people play in the development and propagation of racism in society.

Works Cited

Herrnstein, Richard. The Bell Curve. New York: Free Press, 1994.

Nisbett, Richard. "Race, Genetics and IQ." The Black-White Test Score Gap. Christopher Jencks, ed. Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 1998.

Olzak, Susan. The Dynamics of Ethnic Competition and Conflict. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992.

Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian… [read more]

Mixed Race Research Paper

… In the past it was almost impossible for a "white" and a "black" person to date, when we talk about America; however such cases are hard to find today but are still there (Sullivan, 2011). People used and still do, curse them and call out insults whenever they used to see a couple like that. This was one of the worst social stigmas that could result from multi-racial discrimination. Likewise, children of a mixed couple also had to face lot problems when they went to school. They were not accepted easily by everyone. They were most of the time cornered by the people who thought their race, color and language was superior. Language was yet again another huge problem for people who were living in a place that was not their home country. Such children grow up to be extremely shy people and they find a lot of trouble in making friends at school and at workplace. This is because they are not confident of the fact that they will accepted by the people around them. These kids don't socialize with others because they do not want them to know that they speak a different language; paranoia to be made fun of. Moreover, when people of two different religions marry, their children grow up to be confused people. They are not sure what religion to follow so sometimes they just end up following the one that has a greater degree of acceptance in the society; even when their hearts wants to follow something else. Also, when people of one religion have to come and live in a country where some other religion prevails, they are also sometimes subjected to discrimination.


Abraham Lincoln. "House Divided" Speech. (1858).

Carolyn Abraham, Molecular Eyewitness: DNA Gets a Human Face (quoted from Globe and Mail, June 25, 2005).

Chestnutt, Charles W. "The House Behind The Cedars." Kessinger Publishing, 2004.

Cohn, D'Vera. "Multi-Race and the 2010 Census." Retrieved 2011-04-26.

MacShane, Denis; Plaut, Martin; Ward, David Ward. Power!: Black workers, Their Unions and the Struggle for Freedom in South Africa.

Naqivi, Tahira. "Brave We Are." 1998.

Raya, Anna Lisa. "It's Hard Enough Being Me." 1942.

Sullivan, Cindy. "As the mixed-race population grows, stigma of the past fades"… [read more]

Educational Equality in Canada's Multiculturalism Essay

… Educational Equality in Canada

Canada's Multiculturalism and the Socially Disadvantaged Within the Educational System

In the last forty years, Canada has officially embraced the notion of multiculturalism as a policy pursued both by the government and the public. From its… [read more]

English 2nd Lang) I Was Most Affected Term Paper

… ¶ … English 2nd Lang)

I was most affected by the entire episode of American Slavery and the fact that institutionalized racist policies against African-Americans lasted and were so bitterly contested for so long in American history. Prior to the course, I was only aware that there was a period in early American history when African blacks had been exploited as human slaves and that there was segregation before the Civil Rights era in the 1960s. I did not think about it in detail or realize how long it lasted, how many lives it affected, and how brutal it was. I had known that the American Civil War was fought largely over slavery but I did not realize how much political negotiation was involved over it for so long before the Civil War; it was thought-provoking to realize that the slavery issue played such a great role in the admission of states to the Union.

Likewise, I had believed that the living conditions of American blacks must have improved beginning after the Emancipation Proclamation in 1865. It was shocking to me to learn that black people were still preventing from getting the rights they were supposed to have after 1865 by such organized illegal actions in so many states. I knew that the Ku Klux Klan existed as a racist group during the late 19th and early 20th century, but I was not aware that they had millions of members early in the 20th century and it was very disturbing to learn that they marched in large numbers in a parade right in front of the White House. It made me realize that what happened in Nazi Germany before and during the Second World War could have occurred in the United States just as easily under slightly different circumstances.

For decades after the Emancipation Proclamation, local and state governments throughout the former slave states enacted what Martin Luther King Jr. called immoral laws. The purpose of those laws was to prevent the former slaves from enjoying any of the rights they were supposed to get after the Civil War. "Jim Crow" laws prohibited blacks from voting and from owning property and even the American federal government discriminated in many ways against blacks. Only very recently, the U.S. federal government admitted that it had illegally refused loans to black farmers throughout the early and mid 20th century because of their race. Prior to this course, I was unaware that government authorities continued racist policies for so long and well into the middle of the 20th century.

In many parts of the world, footage of the American civil rights era is viewed in a different context that is highly inaccurate. Without explanation, many of the scenes of police fighting protestors can be perceived as the police defending themselves against protestors or responding to rioting. I recognized some of the same pieces of footage and descriptions of events in this course as… [read more]

Affirmative Action and Race Relations Research Proposal

… Affirmative Action and Race Relations

Affirmative action, in higher education and elsewhere has been a hotly debated issue, since its inception, among a group of minority faculty and faculty organization from U.S. law schools conceived of the need for forcing… [read more]

Asian-Americans and Asian Jews and Their Reputation Term Paper

… ¶ … Asian-Americans and Asian Jews and their reputation for academic success. The writer examines classroom, family and societal contributors to that reputation's development. There were six sources used to complete this paper.

Racial Reputations for Academic Excellence Explored

Society… [read more]

Theories of Race and Ethnicity Term Paper

… ¶ … Scientific American by Michael J. Bamshad and Steve E. Olson ("Does Race Exist") brings the reader information that is understandably a bit heavy on the science end but helpful in a social context. And the article is helpful… [read more]

Athabaskan-English Interethnic Communication Term Paper

… ¶ … Athabaskan-English Interethnic Communication," the author provides a comparative analysis of communication between and among Athabaskans and English people. The discussion centers on four areas of study regarding communication between the two ethnic groups, that is, presentation of talk,… [read more]

Chinese-American Studies: Wen Ho Lee Term Paper

… Not only did the common Asian-American feel outraged, but also the leaders of this community who were very outspoken in demanding that Dr. Lee be compensated in some way. Former UC Berkeley Chancellor Chang-lin Tien, the first Asian-American scientist appointed… [read more]

How Racist Is America? Research Paper

… ¶ … racism changed since the civil rights movement, if so has it been a positive or negative change?

According to the law, there are two types of segregation commonly practiced: that of de jure (legally enforced segregation) and de… [read more]

Prostrate Cancer Health Disparities Research Paper

… (American Cancer Society, 2003). For 1996 to 2009, new prostate cancer incidence rates and death rates from prostate cancer among Hispanic men surpassed the proportions for Pacific Islanders and Asian-Americans and but were lesser than those for African-Americans and whites.… [read more]

Affirmative Action Research Proposal

… Affirmative Action

The impact of Affirmative Action on the Professional Success of African-American MBA Graduates


Affirmative action as it stands in the professional and business sphere has generated a wide spectrum of controversy. Antipathetic views have flourished over… [read more]

Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Thesis

… Equal Employment Opportunity, Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action

This brief study examines the issue of the policies of Affirmative Action and the policies of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Findings in this brief study demonstrate that Affirmative Action policies are outdated… [read more]

Wages of Whiteness by David R. Roediger Term Paper

… ¶ … Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class by David R. Roediger. Specifically it will contain an analysis of the book, including central issues and thesis of the author. Roediger's book is basically a… [read more]

Chinese-American Women and Their Experiences With Discrimination Term Paper

… Chinese-American Women and Their Experiences With Discrimination in the Workplace

Case Summary, Methodology, and Literature Review

The Case of Chinese-American Women and Their Experiences with Discrimination in the Workplace: Persevering in the Face of Adversity and Its Price

Analysis using… [read more]

Multicultural Education Is a Field of Study Term Paper

… Multicultural Education is a field of study and an emerging discipline whose major aim is to create equal educational opportunities for students from diverse racial, ethnic, social-class, and cultural groups. One of its important goals is to help all students… [read more]

Health Disparities Term Paper

… Race and Class As the Ignored Determinants of Health Disparities

For decades researchers have kept statistics, in the United States, regarding health disparities amongst its citizens. The most common stratification of this research often lies along the lines of race. Many studies have been performed regarding the differences in health issues among those of the Caucasian, Black, Hispanic, Native American, Asian, etc. populations.

However, very rarely "(t)he U.S. government is one of the few developed Western nations that does not routinely report health statistics by class" (Kawachi, Daniels, & Robinson 141). As Kawachi, Daniels and Robinson note, there is very little information on important health disparity topics by such class stratifications as: income, occupation, or educational attainment. Where class is the ignored determinant of health disparities, race has become the increasingly more common variable.

Race is "a way to categorize humans, (and) race has since come to take on a wide range of meanings, mixing social and biologic ingredients in varied proportions. This plasticity has made it a tool that fits equally well in the hands of demagogues who want to justify genocide and eugenics and of health scientists who want to improve surveillance for diseases" (Kauffman, Cooper, & Ward 1166). Kawachi, Daniels and Robinson discuss three primary views of racial health disparities.

First, there are the biological links to disparities that give rise to research centered on race-based genetic susceptibility to diseases. Kauffman, Cooper, and Ward support this first view.

Although they mention that class could be a factor in health disparities, they note that there are racial and ethnic differences in the causes, expression, and prevalence of various diseases. The relative importance of bias, culture, socioeconomic status, access to care, and environmental and genetic influences on the development of disease is an empirical question that, in most… [read more]

Justification of Islamophobia Research Paper

… ¶ … Islamophobia Justified


An introduction to the topic, addressing the specific information that will be discussed so the reader has a clear understanding of what is being offered in the paper.

A history of the term "Islamophobia," where… [read more]

Racial Profiling if Seen Research Paper

… It is highly required of the Congress to pass necessary laws for combating racial profiling. Furthermore, it is also imperative to reform police departments. It is also exceedingly important to recognize and acknowledge the profiling of Arabs and Muslims. In order to preserve democracy in the American society, it is the high time to stop detaining and mistreating Arabs and Muslims and denying them a free and fair trial. Secondly, the values of liberty and equality must be protected from the anti-democratic elements of the new security policies for combating terrorism. Despite the fact that all such regulations are clearly aimed to protect the U.S.A. from terrorism, chances are "that any new instrument of profiling directed toward Arabs and Muslims can become a potential tool for the violation of the civil liberties of other citizens" (Bah, 2006).

To cut a long story short, racial profiling can gravely undermine the fundamental nature of democracy. It must be kept in mind while struggling for ending racial profiling to not substitute one victim for another. Rather, the aim must be to struggle for the values of liberty and equality which would ultimately save and keep all citizens in a democratic society (Bah, 2006).


Annabelle, L. (2007). What's Wrong with Racial Profiling? Another Look at the Problem. Criminal Justice Ethics, 26 (1), Retrieved August 4, 2012 from

Bah, A.B. (2006). Racial Profiling and the War on Terror: Changing Trends and Perspectives1. Ethnic Studies Review, 29 (1), Retrieved August 3, 2012 from

Etienne, M. (2012). Making Sense of the Ethnic Profiling Debate. Mississippi Law Journal, 80 (4), 1523-1538. Retrieved August 3, 2012 from

Rudovsky, D. (n.d.). Racial Profiling and the War on Terror. Retrieved August 4, 2012 from

Tom, C. (2002, January 14). Profiling is 'Flawed' Tool to Beat Terror. The Washington Times. Retrieved August 4, 2012 from [read more]

Affirmative Action the End of Legally Sanctioned Term Paper

… Affirmative Action

The end of legally sanctioned racial segregation in the 1950s and 1960s was a major step in the direction of racial equality. However, as had been the case with the end of slavery, the removal of formal oppression… [read more]

Impact of Affirmative Action in the US Term Paper

… Affirmative Action

The Impact of Affirmative Action in the U.S.

United States is a multicultural nation with divided socio economic status among its various races, ethnic groups and gender. Though ours is a democratic nation, deprivation and discrimination has led… [read more]

Ethnicity Gender or Disability Term Paper

… ¶ … equal opportunity policies specifically related to ethnicity, gender or disability under the current british governmental educational policy or proposal

The objective of this work is to critically examine EEO policies specifically related to ethnicity, gender, or disability under… [read more]

Personal Socialization Project Term Paper

… Personal Socialization Project

The objective of this work is to take the discussion about race and apply them in the life of the researcher of this project. This work will address the question if "what is race" and "what purpose… [read more]

Black Rednecks and White Liberals Term Paper

… Black Rednecks and White Liberals by Thomas Sowell

This new unpredictable book by Thomas Sowell confronts many of the long- existing assumptions about blacks, Jews, Germans, slavery, and education. The book has been openly written, strongly reasoned and supported with an amazing collection of documented facts. It took on not only the popular intellectuals of our times but also highlighted historic interpreters of American life such as Alexis de Tocqueville and Frederick Law Olmsted.

The book is a series of long essays, presenting an in-depth glance at main beliefs behind many missteps and dangerous actions, policies, and trends (Dutch, 2005). It gives the reader an eye-opening insight into the historical progress of the ghetto culture that is incorrectly seen today as a sole black identity -- a culture which is cheered on toward self-destruction by those white liberals who regard themselves as "friends" of blacks. Thus, the book is one of America's leading black conservative intellectuals' returns with this challenging collection of contrarian essays (Dutch, 2005).

Analysis of the book

Most of the Sowell's arguments presented that the 20th-century resegregation of Northern cities was a reaction to the crudeness of black rednecks that migrated from the South. However, these vigorously argued essays presents a rousing challenge to the conventional wisdom (Dutch, 2005).

The author pointed out that even though over the generations most of the Southern blacks and whites moved away from the redneck culture that gave its destructive counterproductive effects has only survived today among poorest and least educated ghetto blacks and, since the 1960s, it has been respected by today's white liberal leaders (Dutch, 2005). However, many liberal intellectuals celebrate black ghetto culture as "authentically" black and condemn any criticism of it as "blaming the victim." As Sowell puts it magnificently:

By cheering on counterproductive attitudes, making excuses for self-defeating behavior, and promoting the belief that "racism" accounts for most of blacks' problems, white intellectuals serve their own psychic, ideological, and political interests. They are the kinds of friends who can do more harm than enemies."

The book is a great thesis, documented with thousands of references, signifying the fact that 'racism' alone is not responsible for the ghetto culture, but also 'culture' itself in the South is also responsible. The reason is as to how the Britain lived in the suburbs of England before moving into the antebellum South, carrying their lawless disordered culture with them (Dutch, 2005).

Thomas also detailed as to how slaves lived under the rule of their masters, and how the black culture in reality had their own privileged / light skinned class that constantly categorized against the dark and uneducated blacks that were woven into the cracker culture from the beginning (Dutch,… [read more]

Mirror Reaction Paper

… Some groups, such as Chinese women, often experienced double forms of discrimination, both as women within their own community, and as Chinese people in Caucasian communities. (209) Plus, some White missionaries used the plight of 'poor' Chinese women to justify discrimination against Chinese culture. Also, discrimination against oppressed groups has resulted in different kinds of revolt. Indians used military tactics in revolutions such as Wounded Knee. (228) Groups that were discriminated against such as African-Americans have resisted not only through legal action but also fleeing America -- as African-Americans often did not come to America by their own free will, they would go 'back' to Africa. (126) This "Nostalgia on the Niger," as Takaki calls it, resulted in the founding of Liberia in Africa.

But a romanticized view of a native past, like a romantic view of a White past, proves to only be an incomplete solution. Takaki suggests that a more, fuller way of embracing American identity is better than rejecting America altogether. In fact, one of the contradictions of Black slavery in the 19th century was that many Black slaves had White fathers, blurring the lines of racial identity in the racially segregated south. (128) Even in the most racist of societies and circumstances, the dominant theme of the book is that, in the mirror of the face of America, there is no one pure face and image all Americans can aspire to be like, rather all Americans must fight for a more inclusive image of American identity.

Despite the many differences between the ethnic groups in the book, the one similarity in all of the experiences of the different ethnic peoples of A Different Mirror is that all of these groups continue to have trouble being seen as fully American today. Despite the fact that Indians were in America before Europeans, they are still seen as nonwhite and thus not fully Americans. Despite the fact that Robert Takaki's grandfather may have come to America before his European neighbor's grandfather, Takaki is not seen as fully American. Overall, the idea of who is an America must change before discrimination can end, suggests the author, a conclusion all readers of all nations and nationalities will agree with.

Work… [read more]

Legal Memo the Dismantlement Term Paper

… In a culture noticeable by large differences of revenue, opportunity, and also the quality associated with public K-12 educational institutions, both of these imperatives have been hard to overcome. For almost 30 years, affirmative action seemed to be an essential… [read more]

Affirmative Action - Historical Review Research Proposal

… Affirmative Action - Historical Review

Affirmative Action is defined as the "set of public policies and initiative designed to help eliminate past and present discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin." (National Organization for Women, 1995) the… [read more]

How America Came to Be a Multinational Society Term Paper

… America as a Multinational Society

America is not a multinational society, but rather a multiethnic society. The result of this multiethnicalism has been the multicultural society in which we live. This multiculturalism has been a strength of our society, because… [read more]

Immigrant Labor and Identity Term Paper

… The author then notes how Mexican-Americans add to the American economy with taxes and purchasing goods and services, and that many of the jobs they perform would go undone if left to the white community. The author also discusses the political parties' support and resistance to the proposed Proposition, and shows how Prop 187 was just one in a long history of U.S. laws geared to blaming economic and societal woes on immigrants. He also discusses how immigrant labor provides tax incentives for many businesses, and how many companies have left workers high and dry in the United States when they have taken their jobs overseas to China, Mexico, or India, to name a few. He also talks about how many ethnic studies have helped people understand the disparities that form between ethnic members of a society, and how to combat them.

This article simply points out the realization that while we want to believe we are a nation above petty hatreds and ethnicities, we are not. We can still pass a blatantly racist law such as Proposition 187, and even if most of the law was not upheld in the court system, some of the elements of Prop 187 did indeed take effect, and racial hatred was continued. This article not only shows that racial hatred is still alive and well in the United States, it shows to what lengths some people will go to continue it. Proposition 187 was about more than just the lost rights of an entire ethnic group, it was about how intolerant white Americans can be, and how they tend to blame the problems of the country on a select few, while refusing to acknowledge their own participation in the country's woes. Proposition 187 was a wake up call for many Americans, but unfortunately, not for many others, as racial hatred still exists in this country, and it seems… [read more]

Racism and Ethnocentrism in the Media Term Paper

… Stuart Hall's hypothesis explains that Western media is structured on the prejudiced perception when the first colonizers and slave traders occupied the colored people, who were not of their own race. As a consequence, the western media makes the whites… [read more]

Race Ethnicity in the 18th Century Term Paper

… Racism

Race/Ethnicity in the 18th Century

A Comparative Analysis of Racism in Country Lovers and What it's Like to be a Black Girl

The practice of racism and the fight against it have been the most defining phenomena of the… [read more]

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… This finding suggests that changes in either depressive symptoms or self-esteem are not due to past experiences of ethnic/racial discrimination or economic stress. This is consistent with other findings in the literature that show that for Asian-American youth ethnic/racial discrimination… [read more]

Racism and Various Forms Term Paper

… The neo-liberal laws of Australian government are also regarded as an attempt to cope up with the global economy rather than creating a multicultural society.

Infect the presence of individuals and families of Asian descent in Australia are evident that… [read more]

Sociology Racism What Is Obama Essay

… They may harbor motives to eliminate those groups they perceive inferior or undeserving. It is therefore, as earlier described, to have a universal perspective of racism. What may be regarded as racism, say in Europe, may not be racist in Africa.

However, the effects of this monster, racism has hit humanity where it hurts most, their dignity. It has fuelled hate among the souls of certain people, to the extent of purposely determining to eliminate another group of people due to issues that in most cases are beyond their control or making. This is preposterous and leaves a sour taste to the mouth. However, an observation of the various attempts made by scholars reveals that racism as some aspects that are common in all racist orientations. These aspects are the ideal held by a group of people suggesting that they are superior to another group of people. These people may feel interactions with the inferior grouping may dilute their purity.

After this critical analysis of the nature of racism, it becomes rather easy and complicated to answer the question on the seven people in a room. It will be easy to answer this question if we link the skin color, and hold on to a racist sentiment that blacks are from Africa and whites from Europe. In this case, the room will have one black and one white people. However, if we are to take into account all the various factors that influence racism, then it becomes imperative to ask some hard questions before attempting to answer the question. For example, from what country or region are the seven individuals? What are their individual perceptions on the other people in the room? For example, a black man who migrated to France centuries ago, and fought in their wars, adopted their culture, look at a fellow black man from Africa in a different manner. In this case, who is discriminating the other? This makes the answer to the question elusive. Moreover, racism has never based its ideals on natural-sound principles, but rather on issues such as habits, customs and so on. It has never based its reason on biology either. This aspect of racism, interestingly, proves that racism is actually a dogmatic issue based on perceptions and ideologies, and that explains why it keeps changing in nature. It may appear as though racism may be a well-organized ploy by some powerful individuals, who conspire to retain power by creating a false sense of hate among members of a society, and derive undue advantages for themselves. [read more]

Racism in the Criminal Court System Research Paper

… ¶ … Racism in the Criminal Justice System

The common causes of racial disparity in the American criminal justice system

Racism, which is defined by Schmid (2008) as the deliberate infliction of consideration in unequal measure and motivated by the… [read more]

Political Culture of Race and Racism Essay

… ¶ … Political Culture of Racism and Criminology

Race is not only a biological determination of skin color and ethnicity. It is also a social construct, meaning that "it is defined and created by those in power in a society,… [read more]

Race and U.S. Imperialism Research Paper

… The arbitrary nature with which race was used to further the aims of U.S. imperialism is also well elucidated within the question of religion, which in itself evolved quite a bit during U.S. colonialism. As previously explicated within this document, one of the reasons that the concept of race and racism was solidified during the era of U.S. imperialism was to continue to perpetuate the notion of chattel slavery. Early on in this era, European Christians were adverse to enslaving other Christians, since one of their main reasons for justifying slavery was that indigenous peoples were heathens and not adhering to Christianity. As the country progressed, however, Christianity became acceptable for slaves to practice; in fact, it was virtually the only religion that slaves were allowed to practice. By this time, of course, the issue of race was widely used to support the notion of slavery, so that it was now acceptable for slave to practice Christianity. There are several tenets of this religion that are actually conducive to reinforcing slavery -- once those of European ancestry determined that they could reinforce the institution with racism. Christianity is a wholly passive religion; it constantly supports quiescent behavior and abstaining from actions while awaiting the presence of some invisible deity. As such, whereas it was once used to support slavery by disallowing slaves to practice it, there came a time in which it supported slavery by enabling slaves to practice it. This sort of vacillation demonstrates how arbitrary the conventions of religion in U.S. imperialism ere, a concept which also relates to the arbitrary nature of race to further imperialist desires.

In retrospect, it is apparent that the issue of racism played a formidable role in the completion and success of U.S. imperialism. However, it was arbitrarily utilized, and is an illusory concept that was simply employed to engender the true goals of imperialism -- capitalist expansion. It was primarily manifested as justification for exterminating Native Americans and procuring inexpensive labor via chattel slavery.


Adas, Michael. 1998. "Imperialism and Colonialism in Comparative Perspective." The International History Review, Vol. 20, No. 2 (Jun., 1998), pp. 371-388.

Blackhawk, Ned. 2006. Violence over the land: Indians and empires in the early American West. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

Rifkin, Mark. 2009. Manifesting America: the imperial construction of U.S. national space. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Silver, Peter Rhoads. 2008. Our savage neighbors: how Indian war transformed early America. New York: W.W. Norton.

Shoemaker, Nancy. 1997. "How Indians Got to be Red." The American Historical Review. 102 (3).

Wolfe, Patrick. 1997. "History and Imperialism: A Century of Theory, from Marx to Post Colonialism." The American Historical Review. 102 (2): 388-420.

End Notes

1. Nancy Shoemaker, "How Indians Got to be Red," The American Historical Review, 102 (3), 1.

2. Silver, Peter Rhoads, Our Savage Neighbors,: How Indian War transformed Early America (New York: W.W.Norton), xviii.

3. Shoemaker, "How Indians," 631.

4. Ibid.

5. Michael Adas, "Imperialism and Colonialism in Comparative Perspective." The International History Review,… [read more]

Social Construction of Race Essay

… Thus, white men have escaped the racial profiling that many argue is an essential law enforcement tactic (Irons, 2010).

How Social Institutions Contribute towards Racism

Social institutions like education, social welfare, and the criminal justice system reproduce social arrangements based on race and gender. Individuals who staff and run these institutions bring to them some consciousness informed by ideological belief systems that rationalize racial disparities. Pervasive ideological constructions of race create preconditions for how individuals are perceived and treated. The extent to which institutional arrangements mirror those of the broader society can be seen as normal and inevitable outcomes.

Uniformity in managing these tensions of race is found among all major social institutions. The ability of the criminal justice system to absorb the individuals, who fall through the bottom in education or social welfare, is predictable and predetermined. For example, by investing more money in corrections than education our expectations for the attainment of future generations has been sealed. For the cost of imprisoning one person for one year, California could educate ten community college students, five California State University students, or two University of California students. The role of institutions to formalize, document and label individual statuses to function as tracking systems that influence and even determine status arrangements. Its role also extends to include concealing any arbitrariness within the culture (Gurin, 2008).

The Problem of Racism

Most people believe that racism is an individual problem and that if individuals become nice to one another, this problem will be solved. However, racism supersedes an individual problem because it is structural. Racism depends on individuals to transfer racial values and endorse their laws and practices that legitimate racial hierarchies. However, the center of these actions is established in the hegemony; social structures made of practices, policies and laws normalizing race hierarchies and enabling them to be viewed as just and common sense. This is despite knowing that these systems are likely to reproduce racial inequalities. Individuals must be taught to view such inconsistencies as the result of individual failures that come from groups who cannot get it correctly. After watching the Color of Fear Video, white owners of vineyards describe their view of how the whites cling on their ethnic identities rather than just being Americans (Irons, 2010).


Instead of perceiving racism as an unfortunate symptom of current institutional arrangements, it should be interpreted as a set of tools, which produces and sustains social hierarchies. This study has identified some of these tools in the hope that they are rendered more discernible and criticized and resisted but possible to notice ideologies (Wedding, 20100. Contemporary societies have rendered invisible structural and ideological dynamics used to determine racial outcomes. Lack of old discrimination frameworks, like segregated houses, racial epithets and cross burning.

The elimination of rigid laws of exclusion, which seems to have eradicated the most overt signs and symbols of racism, implies that we are living in a racial democracy. This shows that instances of racism have been diminished. This… [read more]

Racism in America Essay

… Again, these trends show that racism may not be overt or blatant -- like someone, for example, shouting mean racist words at a black student or attacking a black student because of the color of his or her skin -- but they racism is more apt to be subtle and institutional.

Institutional racism is also present in the healthcare field, according to an article in the peer-reviewed journal Seminars in Dialysis. The authors' research reveals that (according to many empirical studies) black Americans are "…less likely than whites to receive a wide range of medical services," and that includes services that are designed to save lives (Callender, et al., 2004). Blacks make up about 12% of the U.S. population but they account for 50% of the waiting list for kidney transplants, Callender writes, adding that a study in the New England Journal of Medicine showed that heart patients -- all of whom had the ability to pay -- got "inequitable and inferior health care" if they were black (Callender, 178).

The institutionalization of white racism can be found in the history books and in the textbooks, according to James Loewen's book. The matter of John Brown is a case in point; Loewen researched 18 history textbooks in order to examine how the authors treated the case of Brown (who was an abolitionist). Loewen found that books published before 1890 found that Brown was "…perfectly sane" but books published between 1890 and roughly 1970, Brown "was insane" (Loewen, 2008, 173). But the textbooks published after 1970 have described Brown as "…slowly…regaining his sanity," Loewen writes, using some sarcasm (173).

The author suggests a reason for the textbooks that make John Brown out to be an insane savage is that between 1890 and 1940, for example, most "…white Americans, including historians, felt blacks should not have equal rights" (174). Some of the references to Brown in those above-mentioned textbooks include: "fanatical figure"; "fiendish butchery"; and "dubious dealings" (174). As Loewen points out, these references are really not appropriate for a textbook, which is supposed to be objective.

In conclusion, the thesis of this paper is that racism continues to be a blemish on the American society because it has been institutionalized. The times in which black were lynched in the South, and during the "Jim Crow" era -- those eras are gone. But racism is still in existence and it can be seen through the data presented in this paper: black students tend to be treated differently than white students; black don't get the same healthcare treatment as whites; and blacks don't earn as much as white workers. Until the institutionalization of racism is really confronted with better social values in the interest of justice, racism will continue to be present.

Works Cited

Callender, Clive O., and Miles, Patrice V. "Institutionalized Racism and End-Stage Renal

Disease: Is Its Impact Real or Illusionary?" Seminars in Dialysis, 17.3. 2004.

Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. Everything Your American History Textbook

Got Wrong.… [read more]

Ethnic Conflict in Xinjiang an Application of Internal Security Dilemma Term Paper

… Ethnic Conflict in Xinjiang: An Application of Internal Security Dilemma

There has been much discussion on this issue and from different points-of-view. An important study conducted on the Xinjiang and the internal security dilemma has been conducted by Jiaxing Xu,… [read more]

Fiction of Race Research Paper

… One trait infrequently predicts for another. (One cannot read deeper meanings into physical cues)" (Goodman 1998). Above all "there is greater variation within than among purported races" and members of different racial categories show more similarities between one another than differences as human beings when compared with other animal species (Goodman 1998). It is not 'race' that is useful in understanding the evolution and continuing biological and other needs of the human community. "What we should be studying instead are the complex ways in which biology and culture co-produce one another in the human species" (Marks 2012: 29). Aspects of human biology have been given great significance above and beyond their original roots in skin pigmentation but it is better to study the phenomenon itself rather than to classify diseases as 'racial' diseases.

Of course, some might argue that people want to define themselves by race and it is their right to do so. But in serious questions have arisen as to whether such traditional identity politics are feasible in the 21st century. Celebrities such as Barack Obama and Tiger Woods, although identified with the African-American community, also proudly proclaim their multiethnic heritage, which includes mothers who are not classified as African-Americans. The 'boxes' people must check on applications must grow infinitely more complex as intermarriage and changing cultural ideals transforms our society. Today, it would be surprising to ask if one's race was Irish or Italian on an application in a manner that would not be shocking to a resident of the 19th century. In another 100 years, as scientific advances and cultural changes coalesce, being asked to identify as Latino may seem equally strange and narrow. This does not mean that national identity and pride in one's heritage will go away. In fact, it may increase, as people are allowed to celebrate the diversity and multitudes which exist within them, rather than feel pressured to categorize their personal complex histories along the fiction of 'race,' a concept that is not biologically sound and has produced so much suffering, historically speaking.


Duster, Troy. (2005). Race and reification in science. Science, 307 (5712). 1050-1051.


Garcia, Richard. (2003). The misuse of race in medical diagnosis. The Chronicle of Higher

Education, 49 (35): B15. Retrieved:

Goodman, Alan. (1998). The race pit. Anthropology Newsletter. Reprinted:

Marks, J. (2012) Recent advances in culturomics. [Review of Sense and Nonsense, by Kevin N.

Laland and Gillian R. Brown; Darwinian Sociocultural Evolution, by Marion Blute; Cultural Evolution, by Kate Distin; Cultural Evolution, by Alex Mesoudi; Human Evolution and the Origins of Hierarchies, by Benoit Dubreuil; Ancestors and Relatives, by Eviatar Zerubavel; and Social Anthropology and Human Origins, by Alan Barnard.] Evolutionary Anthropology, 21:38-42. Retrieved:

Marks, Jonathan. (2003). Scientific and folk ideas about heredity. In The Human Genome

Project and Minority Communities: Ethical, Social and Political Dilemmas.

Raymand A. Zilinskas and Peter J. Balint (Eds). Westport, CT: Greenwood, 53-66.


Race: The Power of an Illusion. (2003). PBS. Retrieved:

Smedley,… [read more]

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