Study "Race / Ethnic Studies / Racism" Essays 606-660

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Cultural Sensitivity and Language Use Essay

… Not so long ago, Irish and Italian immigrants in America were not considered 'white,' or amongst the privileged classes. Even something that 'feels' objective like race because of the culture power that we invest in it is actually located in a highly specific context of meaning. 'White' only makes sense if it compared against 'black.' But terms such as 'whiteness' or 'blackness' of race which seem so concrete would make very little sense when transposed, say, to India, where skin color is of less importance than caste status. In other societies, ethnicity or religion might be more important in classifying someone.

Language does not capture reality, rather it conveys who has power in a society. That is why Native American activist Amoja Three Rivers says: "No person of color can be a racist as long as white people maintain power. This is because racism is 'power over'" (Three Rivers 1996). This statement is somewhat controversial, given that even nonwhite persons may still have some cultural power in terms of their creative use of language. However, the power of subversion and humor is still often articulated using (albeit inverting) the culture and language of the oppressor. Three Rivers would note that it is impossible for nonwhite persons to ignore white culture in America, while until recently it was fairly easy to pretend for white that such cultures did not exist or were marginal and 'other.' And as noted by Lynette Clementon in The New York Times, even mastering the language of the oppressor can always be used against the oppressed, as seen in the epithet that 'he speaks so well.'


Clementson, Lynette. (2007). The racial politics of speaking well. The New York Times.


Three Rivers, Amoja. (1996). Cultural etiquette. Communities. Retrieved:… [read more]

Film Crash Essay

… ¶ … film Crash whether you agree, disagree and why. Untilize the examples the author gives and try to relate them to your own real life or to a real world example. Crash is a 2004 American drama film co- written, produced, directed Paul Haggis. The film is about racial and social tensions in Los Angeles, California.

In spite of the fact that modern society has experienced significant progress in the recent decades, racism continues to be a pressing issue and Paul Haggis' 2004 motion picture "Crash" perfectly demonstrates this. Skin color is a significant factor in today's world and many people discriminate on account of it with every chance that they have. Even with the fact that Haggis' film is exaggerated with the purpose of emphasizing one of society's pressing problems, the movie nonetheless manages to put across a strong message concerning peoples' tendency to employ prejudice as they deal with individuals belonging to other racial groups.

Paul Haggis' film takes place in the racially-tensioned environment of Los Angeles, a place known for its history of racism. This is also a location where people belonging to a multitude of races live together and are actively engaged in making their city one of the most racially-divided locations in the world. One can observe Asians, Latino, African-American, and Anglo-Saxon individuals in this film as they express more or less understanding regarding individuals who do not belong to their racial group. The director most probably wanted to provide viewers with the idea that things are more complex than they initially appear and that a person cannot be judged on account of a single act that he or she performs.

Haggis does not only relate to the negative aspects present in his characters and actually intends to demonstrate that there is more to a person than one might think. The film also uses humor and drama with the purpose of demonstrating that some individuals are…… [read more]

Wal-Mart Labor Relations Essay

… Wal-Mart Labor Relations

What factors may have accounted for the discrepancies uncovered by the Drogin Report?

According to Drogin, one of the possible factors was that many Wal-Mart store managers believed that salaried management candidates had to be willing to relocate and they communicated those beliefs to women who could have been candidates for management positions. This was the case despite the fact that necessary relocation was actually a rarity and that there were provisions to enable women to opt out of that requirement. Generally, female employees are less likely than male employees to consider relocating to take a new position, especially if they are married, because more families rely on the husband's employment as their primary income source than rely on the wife's employment.

By purposely stressing the relocation issue in discussing promotional opportunities with female candidates, male Wal-Mart managers may have artificially steered them away from accepting those positions, especially if those managers were aware that relocation was rarely required or that the women could have used the available opt-out provision in the contract. Another possible factor identified by Drogin was that managers had the discretion not to post management opportunities publicly and that male managers may have chosen to communicate the availability of those positions only to male employees. By purposely communicating the availability of managerial openings, male Wal-Mart managers may have artificially ensured that more male candidates actually applied for those positions than potentially eligible female candidates for the same positions.

What should Wal-Mart do to correct those discrepancies?

The discrepancies identified by Drogin have relatively straightforward solutions. First, the company should clearly publicize the policy on relocation for managerial candidates, including the available opt-out provisions and it should retrain managers to communicate those policies accurately. Second, the company should consider withdrawing the discretion of managers to withhold publicizing available promotional opportunities and require that all eligible candidates receive notification thereof. Promotional opportunities should be announced to all eligible candidates and then selections should be made on the basis of merit from all of the applications received.

Should Wal-Mart implement affirmative action promotions programs for females?

Probably not. Affirmative action is associated with potential downsides and can create the appearance of so-called "reverse discrimination." It may be warranted in cases such as widespread public systemic and multi-generational discrimination could conceivably have undermined equal opportunity in employment to such a great degree (as in the case of racial bias prior to the Civil Rights era) that drastic measures were required to provide equal opportunity to subsequent generations.

However, in the Wal-Mart case, the discrimination affected only specific individuals (even though they numbered in the thousands). The best solution that would be associated with the fewest negative ramifications would be to simply correct the specific policies, procedures, and practices that were identified as being responsible and to ensure that future promotional and employee compensation decisions were made fairly and without regard for gender. It would also be appropriate to compensate the specific individuals affected directly, but there is… [read more]

Academic Journals to Submit Manuscript Two Journal

… ¶ … Academic Journals to submit manuscript

Two journal profiles: Manuscript submission

Journal 1: Journal of Management

The Journal of Management's stated aim is publish significant research on organizational theory and research in the field of management. "JOM encourages new ideas or new perspectives on existing research. Manuscripts that are suitable for publication in JOM cover domains such as business strategy and policy, entrepreneurship, human resource management, organizational behavior, organizational theory, and research methods" (JOM, 2012). A good example of a recent article in the journal that merges these two concerns is "The logic of deliberate structural inertia" in its current issue, which discusses how organizational culture can be highly influential in motivating employees and influencing employee behavior.

Given that my proposed article is on ethical concerns regarding 'revolving door' policies, whereby former government officials move seamlessly into industry and industry insiders move into government, the journal's current concerns seem an idea match for my topic. My article discusses the culture of corruption and 'inside thinking' that is created when there is a revolving door between members of industry and government

Submissions to the journal are online. The online tracking system allows authors to follow their articles through the entire review process, up to publication. The journal reserves the right to return manuscripts that do not follow its formatting guidelines or are not on-topic and should not exceed fifty pages. They should also not be under consideration at another journal. Revisions to the original manuscript may take 3-6 months, so the fact that my article is on an issue of longstanding concern will make it more likely to be accepted.

Journal 2: Journal of ethics

The Journal of Ethics: An International Philosophical Review is a peer-reviewed journal that is devoted to publishing articles on a wide range of theoretical and practical topics, including…… [read more]

Hispanic Readers Since the Invention Introduction

… This removes objections from more conservative Hispanic mothers and removes the woman psychologically from the idea of the sexualized singer and instead appeals to the potential consumer as a lovely young woman who was innocent and cut down in her prime. The text of the cover reads: "Selena's Story" and in smaller print: "A new TV-movie explores the magical life and tragic death of the Tejano superstar." This text is very carefully chosen and designed to appeal to Hispanic consumers. First it promises to explore Selena's "magical" life and then her "tragic" death. The use of these adjectives is designed so that someone seeing the magazine cover will internalize and relate. If the reader agrees that Selena's voice was magical and her death tragic, they might be more inclined to pick up the magazine. Similarly, by using the term "Tejano superstar," the editors are making a claim that they understand Tejano music and the culture of Hispanic-Americans. They also elevate Selena to the status of "superstar," a term rarely used for performers of ethnic music.

The final clue that this cover is intended to appeal to a Hispanic-American readership is the very small black type beneath the article description. The TV Guide promises that there will be an article in the magazine about Selena and the television program. What's more, the article will be in Spanish. Hispanic-American readers may or may not be able to read in English, but for most immigrants, English is the secondary language and Spanish the primary. By offering the article "en espanol," TV Guide makes the statement that they feel the information is so important that they want to ensure that every Hispanic-American can read it. They are being understanding of their potential consumer by printing their very American magazine at least partially in a language that is not spoken…… [read more]

Hispanic Culture Term Paper

… Hispanic Culture

Adler and the Hispanic Culture

From the 1960's researchers studying management have demonstrated increased interest in the concept of culture because of the belief that culture has influential ability on managerial performance and behavior (Sekaran, 1983). However, ofttimes… [read more]

Snow Falling Essay

… American Fears and Bigotry Toward Japanese-Americans During WWII

American fears and bigotry can in fact be understood within the historical context of he WWII era. Tis is not to say that these characteristics of American culture during this time were forgivable, or even bearable for anyone living then, but the American psyche, which was gripped by fear during these tumultuous times, bears a resemblance to the fear-based psyche of America during the Red Scare or during the time of slavery.

America became involved in a struggle for survival after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. It was necessary for America to mount a military offensive to combat the push for Japanese imperialism. It was also necessary, or so it was thought at the time, to help alienate a specific group of people, the Japanese, out of fear they would retaliate within the U.S. homeland or become spies for a country they may be more loyal to. None of this was largely true in the end, but psychologically, Americans took the hatred, misunderstanding, and projectionist attitudes they held toward African-Americans before WWII and turned them on the Japanese.

In this light, the prejudice and bigotry can be better understood. Also, as America was attacked in a surprise victory at Pearl Harbor, it is easy to see that the average American was eager to strike back at a military enemy that was, for them on the homeland, beyond reach. However, the enemy they sought to destroy was projected upon the Japanese-Americans living in the U.S. during that time period. It was a sort of proxy fear that overcame American at a time when racial bigotry and alienation was already part of the social and cultural scene.

By desensitizing the American public toward bigoted and racially motivated attacks, the American population was able to achieve a victory at home as well as in the Pacific Theater. The hatred, favoritism, and racism that was once afforded to African-Americans was thrust upon the Japanese, as claims of murder and other outrageous actions were leveled against this population, as in the book, Snow Falling on Cedars. It would have been difficult not to get caught up in the mass panic and hysteria associated with…… [read more]

Discrimination: White Supremacy White People Essay

… Some of these major areas where the issue unites both races are workplaces, school settings, and social gathering areas sporting events.

On the contrary, the ability of these policies to fight extreme discrimination and white supremacy have been challenged by white males who argue that the result in reverse discrimination. In various cases, different groups have claimed that they are discrimination victims because of affirmative action resulting in societal divisiveness. With the ongoing development and adoption of affirmative action policies across the country, skirmishes and tensions between various groups are continuing to grow.

Furthermore, opponents of these policies claim that the significance of equal opportunities as envisioned in affirmative action have resulted in preferences for some people at the expense of others instead of the same opportunities for everyone. Notably, affirmative action policies have failed to accomplish their main objective but rather resulted in more rifts and dilemmas especially in areas where they are coercive. Recently, these policies have shifted from being peaceful to coercive suppressing the freedom of businesses and many workplaces.

In my opinion, policies of affirmative action are ineffective in fighting extreme discrimination and white supremacy because they are unnecessary and divisive. This is because they have failed to achieve their original goals and resulted in extra rifts and dilemmas. Moreover, the policies are ineffective because they suppress the development of free competition among business, which would eliminate discrimination.

In conclusion, since the inception of affirmative action policies, several arguments have been raised regarding their ability and effectiveness to deal with extreme discrimination. Due to the various issues that these policies have brought and their inability to accomplish initial objectives, they are not the most suitable means of dealing…… [read more]

Geopolitics of Illegal Migration Case Study

… The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 was enacted in the same spirit, but its focus was on shutting down illegal migration across the Mexico/U.S. border. The IRCA was in response to the perceived economic threat that illegal migrants posed, in the form of employment competition and the drain on public funding for schools, hospitals, and social services (Coleman, 2008, p. 9-10). The other stated rationales for the Act were the preservation of American culture, preventing the flow of communicable diseases into the U.S., and preventing the perceived criminality associated with illegal migration.

Aside from racist policies influencing immigration policy, what other concerns might our White leaders have? Approximately 37% of California's population is Latino and even though this demographic is routinely underrepresented in elections, 64% and 14% are registered Democrats and Independents, respectively. It should be noted that 84% of California's Latino population is of Mexican descent (Jackson, 2011, p. 696). In addition, for the first time in history, the births of Mexican-Americans were almost double the rate of immigration during the past decade (PEW Hispanic Center, 2011, p. 2). All of these children, all 7.2 million of them, are now Americans by birth, which may explain why some political leaders want to end the practice of giving children born in the United States automatic citizenship (Preston, 2010).


Immigration policy in the United States has historically been framed by its leaders as necessary to preserve American culture and domestic and economic security. Vast amounts of political capitol and treasure have been expended in pursuit of these goals. This is unfortunate because the true motivations for such policies may actually be a reflection of racist strategies designed to preserve positions of power. If America is to become a government of the people, by the people, and for the people, a public critique of these motivations needs to be undertaken.


Coleman, Matthew. (2008). Between public policy and foreign policy: U.S. immigration law reform and the undocumented migrant. Urban Geography, 29, 4-28.

Ellis, Ashton. (2011, Jan. 21). Border fence update: Governing elites use promises to ease resistance for illegal immigrants' amnesty. Texas Insider. Retrieved Oct. 20, 2011 from

Jackson, Melinda S. (2011). Priming the sleeping giant: The dynamics of Latino political identity and vote choice. Political Psychology, 32, 691-716.

PEW Hispanic Center. (2011). The Mexican-American Boom: Births overtake immigration. Retrieved Oct. 20, 2011 from

Porter, Eduardo. (2006, April 16). Cost of illegal immigration may be less than meets the eye. New York Times. Retrieved Oct. 20, 2011 from

Preston, Julia. (2010, Aug. 6). Citizenship from birth is challenged on the right. New York Times. Retrieved Oct. 20, 2011 from

Spickard, Paul. (2007). Almost all aliens: Immigration, race, and colonialism…… [read more]

Lone Star a Significant Theme Essay

… Both act to separate families, nations, communities, and identities. At this level the notion of border is a metaphor for transgression. Explain this concept using examples from Lone Star and from the assigned reading.

Perhaps the central transgression of the film is Sam Wade's affair with Pilar Cruz, although neither of them realized until the end that they are half-brother and half-sister, and have therefore committed incest. John Sayles did not add the complication of children resulting from this affair since Pilar's medical condition makes it impossible for her to have any more. Even so, one of his goals in Lone Star was to end "all illusions about our separations as nations, races, cultures, and classes -- thus the sanctity of borders in challenged" (Torres 122). Her mother Mercedes also transgressed racial borders with Buddy, but as always in the past this was kept completely hidden. So it was when Southern slave owners had children with the black women they owned, or with the mestizo offspring produced by the Spanish aristocrats and Conquistadores. Even the existence of these mixed-race offspring was a challenge to the strict racial hierarchies and boundaries that existed in the past, no matter that they had no power at all in the larger society.

Pilar and Sam never knew the truth about their history when they were growing up, since it was always kept hidden and unspoken. She is the stronger character, however, and has a more "solid sense of self" than Sam or most of the other Anglo characters (Torres 127). Pilar is a history teacher, as well, and does not instill the 'whitewashed' version into her student, but the reality of conquest and oppression. Wealthier and more educated than Sam, who is obviously not a traditional type of white male hero found in Western films, despite having a first name that might remind the audience of Uncle Sam or Sam Houston -- the founder and first president of the Texas Republic. In this sense, Lone Star is somewhat subversive on the traditional genre since Sam learns to "perceive how white male dominance looks from the subordinate position" (Torres 125). Sam has no intention or desire of following in Buddy's footsteps, and he is not the only character struggling against the past and attempting to find ways not to repeat the same patterns. Col. Delmore Payne, commander of the army base where Sheriff Wade's remains were discovered, also resents the fact that his own father Otis deserted the family, while his own son does not wish to follow in his footsteps by going to West Point (Lone Star Lecture Notes 2011). Whether these defections will result in fundamental change in Frontera is unknown, although they represent a white power structure that is no longer as confident and certain as it was when the country was at its apex as a global power in the 1950s and 1950s. Other forces have been challenging its dominance for thirty years, not only feminism and movements demanding minority rights,… [read more]

Birth of a Nation Essay

… Birth of a Nation

In the period after the Civil War, the United States of America was anything but united, but despite the harsh reconstruction program imposed upon the South by Congress, the country eventually healed. D.W. Griffiths "The Birth of a Nation" is a dated attempt to describe the events of the Civil War and its aftermath. However, by imposing the views of the time the film was made, particularly the racial animosity toward African-Americans and relations between African-Americans and white Americans, the film is actually a racially biased and patently offensive display of American racism and intolerance. But if the film were remade today, the producers would have to either remake the film with the same racially offensive themes or have to be entirely reworked and rewritten.

The film attempts to demonstrate the reconciliation between the North and South through the relationships of two families: one northern and one southern. However, in the film the actions of the African-Americans, who attempt to take over society and impose harsh conditions on their former white masters, are the main problem. They are led by a mulatto named Silas Lynch, protege of radical Congressman Stoneman who keeps a mulatto mistress. Stoneman's relationship to his mistress, Lydia Brown, is described as a "weakness… [and a] & #8230;blight to the nation." (The Birth of a Nation 18:35) A modern remake could not possibly maintain the idea that interracial relationships are a "weakness" or "blight," and would have to either remove that idea, or simply use Stoneman's relationship with a mulatto as inspiration for his advocacy for equal rights.

Silas Lynch represents the evil that supposedly lies within the African-American; he covets power, violence, white women, and the oppression of the whites. His character could not be portrayed as it is in the original, it is simply too extreme and offensive. However, in reality many northern reconstruction officials were harsh and uncaring toward the Southerners. If Silas Lynch's character was portrayed as a corrupt, uncaring, vengeful northern official, without the racial overtones, then he…… [read more]

Difference Between Disparity and Discrimination Research Paper

… Disparity Discrimination

Disparity and Discrimination

The United States criminal justice system came into existence with a racial discrimination as an inherency. The institution of slavery and the many incarnations of racial inequality that persisted during America's infancy and maturation would give way to a sustained condition of racial disparity that results in a wide variance of racially-bound socio-cultural experiences. This is to argue that the primary distinction between racial discrimination and racial disparity is that the former is an intentional social construct whereas the latter is a consequence thereof. This cause and effect relationship has largely defined the experience of minority groups such as African-Americans and Latinos living in the United States.

Perhaps the most salient example of racial discrimination as channeled through the American criminal justice system is the set of segregation laws that emerged in the era following emancipation. The Constitutional status of African-Americans had changed considerably with the abolition of slavery. Still, Banks (2004) reports, "despite these legal statements of freedom, patterns of discrimination persisted after the war because many states passed Jim Crow laws, which had the effect of maintaining forms of discrimination in legal, social, and economic forums. For example, African-Americans were denied the right to vote or to enter into con- tracts, and the doctrine of separate but equal was applied to keep the races separate." (Banks, p. 58)

This demonstrates a sustained ambition on the part of many appendages of the legal system to engage in explicitly discriminatory policy development in order to prevent the advancement of ethnic minorities. Quite in fact, Banks indicates, the mere employment of race as a factor for decision-making in the criminal justice system qualifies as an act of discrimination. Banks expresses the idea that racial identity is socially constructed and typically employed to define and magnify differences between ethnic groups as a way of…… [read more]

Racism Is a Social Problem Essay

… Part of that approach would involve promoting collaboration of youth and police agencies in the education system rather than attempting to resolve negative perceptions after the fact. Naturally, greater sensitivity on the part of government institutions to the justified complaints of civilians is essential to that approach.

Response to Post # 4

While I certainly agree that addressing the various risks posed by terrorists is one of the most important concerns of contemporary government, I would suggest that the traditional approach of using military resources to protect physical borders is likely to be insufficient because it is outdated. First, the growing trend among international terrorists is to promote attacks by decentralized organizations without any affiliation to groups that can be combated through traditional applications of force. In many cases, international terrorist groups rely on the Internet to recruit and indoctrinate prospective terrorists who operate from within the national borders of nations and, increasingly, as "lone-wolf"-types of terrorists.

Second, and perhaps more importantly, the greatest international threat today is likely to be executed through asymmetric types of warfare that permit hostile nations and major terrorist groups to attack larger and much better equipped nations with whose military forces they could never fight through traditional military means. In that regard, the greatest terrorism and asymmetric warfare operations are conducted through the cyber medium and, increasingly, by infiltrating and attacking computer systems responsible for maintaining non-military operations such as civilian monetary institutions and municipal systems upon which modern society depends. While continued military capabilities with respect to physical borders are still important, the emphasis for the future defense against terrorism should probably focus on protecting the computer system infrastructure such as municipal electrical power systems from attack through the cyber medium.

Response to Post # 5

I would completely agree with your emphasis on cultural awareness and the reduction of cultural imperialism and relativism as some of the most important ways of improving contemporary society. As I have suggested in other post responses in a slightly different context, the most effective way of improving the interrelations of local communities as well as global communities is to focus on preventing the formation of prejudicial beliefs and attitudes very early in the socialization process. By comparison, trying to reduce their prevalence and their effects after those attitudes and beliefs have already become established in the individual and within communities (at every level) is much less likely to be successful than preventing their formation in the first place through the socialization process.

Response to Post # 6

Your post illustrates some of the more extreme ways that human rights are still denied in contemporary societies. However, it is unlikely that direct pressure on oppressive governments from other nations will succeed in making the types of changes that are necessary to support human rights in those nations. In principle, social change must come from the people within any society such as recently witnessed in connection with the so-called "Arab Spring" in several Middle Eastern nations. In my… [read more]

Minority Culture in South Dakota Research Paper

… S. Census Bureau.

6.2 Most significant source

The most significant source of data and information was the U.S. Census Bureau since it acted as the guide to the entire research. It enabled me to know exactly the population of each group in South Dakota and from there make out which ones were the minority. It also provided comparative data whenever I needed.

6.3 Review and synthesis of data/information

The collected data was broken down from the general minority groups in the entire nation to the specific culture groups that were being studied. The numerical data were first verified by cross checking in at least two of government-based or organizational websites before being used. The crosschecked data would then be highlighted and the website saved in a separate sheet as the related information was collected from other sites. Later the several pieces of information were grouped and synthesized. In the case of numerical data, there was comparative analysis first between the figures about the same subject before a credible figure was settled upon.

6.4 Significance of the report to me

Without this report, I would still not be knowing the economic and social life that the minority groups in my state were living in. This report has opened up my senses and will act as a catalyst towards carrying our research on the remaining minority culture so that I can understand them better and be able to appreciate their life in general. In the teaching profession, it would now be easy to talk to students about the cultures and way of life that is unknown to many about the minority other than the criminal side which, as the research has revealed to me, is not the true nature of the minority cultures.


Ann W.C. & Ruben D.N., (2011). Understanding the Hispanic Culture. Retrieved May 22,

2011 from

Bloomberg L.P., (2011). South Dakota Grows as Minority Population Surges, Census Finds.

Retrieved May 22, 2011 from

Janice C.P., (2002). Minorities in Rural America: An Overview of Population

Characteristics. Retrieved May 22, 2011 from

Medscape, (2011). Gambling Among American Indian & Hispanic Veterans: Discussion.

Retrieved June 14, 2011 from

Christopher Brookeman (1990). The Native American Peoples of the United States. Retrieved May 22, 2011 from

U.S Census Bureau, (2010). State & County QuickFacts: South Dakota. Retrieved May 22, 2011


U.S. Department of State (2006). Minority Groups Now One-Third of U.S. Population

Variety of Ethnic Groups Contribute to U.S. Economic and Cultural life. Retrieved May 22, 2011 from… [read more]

Multiculturalism the Utterance Research Paper

… Within those groups are sub-groups culturally different from the larger group. (Sue and Sue, 1990). In the cultural value system of Asian-Americans, submissiveness is revered, silence is a symbol of wisdom, and conformity is a fashion of refinement. Since humility and modesty are so valued, it is difficult for counselors to draw out a response from an Asian-American in a group setting. (Ching and Prosen, 1980). Private settings for treatment would be more conducive to the cultural value structure of Asian-Americans.

Some of the typical stereotypes about Asian-Americans all being financially and socially successful, in addition to being intelligent, are inaccurate. As with any cultural group there is a degree of success as well as failure. There are those who are gifted and those who are average. Cultural conflicts exist in the Asian-American community because of identity problems, thus forcing another culture's value system and methods of healing on to Asian-American clients may send a patient into withdrawal. The English language of communication is another barrier within the Asian-American community. (Sue and Sue, 1990).

In many verbal social-orders, the seniors in the group are pursued for counsel as a sign of respect towards their years of wisdom. For additional assistance beyond the scope of the elder in the community, the counsel of a traditional healer for the culture is approached. Thus, the individual's ethnicity influences the duty of helper to their society. This is dramatically different from the standards for helpers in Western societies. Educational training and any required license to practice is the only requirements of the culture. (C. E. Vontress, 2002).

In emergent countries the relationship between counsel and patient is not governed by a strict… [read more]

Racial Profiing Discussion the Events Essay

… Nowadays the phenomenon is spread to such an extent as it includes religion, nationality or race as well.

Racial profiling is not uncommon and is no longer a phenomenon restricted to the United States. Cases of police abuses based on racial profiling have been reported in Canada as well as serious allegations of police brutality and racial profiling have been presented in the local and national media. One case presented in the Canadian media is that of Toronto Police Const. Michael Shaw who was condemned after stopping Ron Phipps on March 9, 2005. He stopped him mainly based on the fact that Phipps "was an African-Canadian in an affluent neighbourhood" adjudicator Kaye Joachim wrote in her decision on the matter. (Taylor, 2009)

There are several arguments that oppose labeling the activity of the police in many cases as being racial profiling. Perhaps the most important is related to the perception law enforcement authorities receive from the community. In other words, nowadays, as a result of the constant popularity of racial profiling, most white police officers for instance that perform their duties in African-American predominant communities are accused of racial profiling (Cloud, 2001). At the same time though, statistics can point out that indeed, for particular crimes, there is a wider predominance of a certain racial pattern that, in a sense, may justify the reason for which racial profiling is still a practice in the United States. Even if there are laws banning this practice officially, this type of profiling can take place at the psychological level as well.

Racial profiling represents a negative legacy of the human rights movement in the United States. The 9/11 events further justified the application of racial profiling on extended criteria to include religion, and nationality. Despite the fact that there are statistics that may indicate a larger predominance of one race for certain crimes against another, the practice hinders the human rights of the individual and the exercise of its freedoms.


Cloud, John. "What's Race Got To Do With It?" Time Magazine. 2001. Online edition. Available at

Taylor, Leslie. "Police condemned for profiling of letter carrier." The StarI 2009. Available at

Dept. Of Justice. Fact Sheet: Racial profiling. June 17, 2003. Available online at… [read more]

Generation X Growth Trend Book Report

… The table below shows the growth trend for the African-American Generation X market segment.

Year Population Percentage of Total Population

2005 7,628,000 2.65%

2006 7,792,000 2.69%

2007 7,764,000 2.65%

2008 7,741,000 2.62%

2009 7,739,000 2.60%

2010 7,774,000 2.59%

Growth Trend for Asian Consumer Segment Members for 2004 to 2010

The growth rate for the Asian segment of Generation X resembles that of the Hispanic segment. The table below shows the growth trend for the Asian Generation X market segment.

Year Population Percentage of Total Population

2005 2,958,000 1.03%

2006 3,141,000 1.08%

2007 3,195,000 1.09%

2008 3,241,000 1.10%

2009 3,293,000 1.11%

2010 3,351,000 1.12%

Growth Trend for Asian Consumer Segment Members for 2004 to 2010

Currently, this market segment makes up approximately 19% of the general population. However, as this group ages, the percentage is expected to decrease. The table below shows the growth trend for the Generation X market segment.

Year Population Percentage of Total Population

2005 56,544,000 19.65%

2006 59,959,000 20.66%

2007 59,223,000 20.24%

2008 58,607,000 19.87%

2009 58,147,000 19.55%

2010 57,976,000 19.33%


Hachtmann, F. (2008). Generation x revisited: An exploratory cross-cultural case study. American Academy of Advertising Conference Proceedings, 13-23. Retrieved from ebscohost.

Martin, N., & Prince, D. (2008). Factoring for x: An empirical study of generation x's materialistic…… [read more]

Generation X Book Report

… Strategic Marketing Strategy for Whites: Identifying the Most Profitable White Generation X and the Most Profitable Consumer Product for These Consumers

Demographic Profile of the Most Profitable White Generation X

White Americans make up the largest segment of Generation X… [read more]

Italian-Americans the Standard History Research Paper

… But religion also plays a large part in keeping these gender roles strictly defined. Italian-Americans being considered an ethnic sub-group means that we must take into account various cultural factors in assessing them, and the fact that Italian-Americans are almost… [read more]

Instruction, Namely Introduction Added and 15 Sources Research Paper

… ¶ … instruction, namely Introduction added and 15 sources.

Latina theologians on Our Lady of Guadalupe:a study of Jeanette Rodriguez and Nancy Pineda-Madrid

Theological analysis of the works of Jeanette Rodriguez and Nancy Pineda-Madrid and their contribution to the study… [read more]

New Haven Firefighters the Supreme Article Review

… The New York Times gives 2000 census data which shows that New Haven's population if 43% white and 37% black: in other words, these two communities are of roughly similar size, but do not participate equally in the city's civic… [read more]

Frailty of the Human Psyche Essay

… ) When an African-American gets on the bus, she says, "Now you see why I won't ride these buses by myself" (1096). Here, we see her racism. Furthermore, Julian is as racist as his mother is. When he believes he "could not forgive" (1095) her because she "enjoyed the struggle and that she thought she had won" (1095). He also bleieves he has an excellent education and an open mind, "free of prejudice and unafraid to face facts," and was not emotionally attached to his mother (1095). The truth is he judged people by their skin color and the clothes they wore. We read "tried to strike up an acquaintance on the bus with some of the better types" (1097) and started talking with a "distinuished-looking dark brown man" who, disappointingly, turned out to be an undertaker. Julian inherited his mother's racism but the sad thing is that she did not know she passed this behavior down to him and he did not realize he had inherited it. Honesty becomes an important theme in "Everything that Rises Must Converge." Race is the primary motivation in with the author focusing on social inequality in the politically volatile South. By turning attention to Julian and his mother, O'Connor successfully points out the depth of racism. When she offers the little boy a penny, she is demonstrating a racist theology, though she would deny it at all costs. However, she puts the child in his place when she does this and this patronization is clear to everyone but her. Julian is correct in telling her that "the old world is gone. The old manners are obsolete and your graciousness is not worth a damn," but even in this moment of truth, he is still blind to his own shortcomings. Julian hates his mother for all she represents but he cannot live without her. He secretly despises her but he cannot break away from her. He is malcontent and cynical but feels morally superior to everyone he encounters. His duty is to enlighten the less fortunate around him but his hypocrisy ruins his efforts. In addition, he is a mother's boy because he cannot separate himself from her. he still lives with her even though he is old enough to have his own place and certainly wise enough to have any job he wants. His weakness is appalling.

Both stories illustrate the complexity of the human psyche and man's innate ability to convince himself of something that is simply not true. As a society, we want to believe nice things about ourselves. "Everything that Rises Must Converge" reveals this faulty behavior and, as a result, surfaces as the superior of the two stories. Julian and his mother are not rare by any means. While their prejudices are personal, their behavior is not. We are all prejudice against something and the sad thing is that most of us will be blind to just how prejudice we are because we tell ourselves lies like the one… [read more]

White Privilege Peggy Mcintosh Term Paper

… White Privilege

Peggy McIntosh's White Privilege is a moving article that should be required reading in American schools. A typical person of student-age today may see race (and gender) as relatively superficial distinctions that are recognized and respected in the sense of political correctness, but not necessarily that important to the lives of people or to society. On the other hand, most white students encountering or observing an African-American twice or three times their age would not necessarily appreciate the struggles that individual has encountered in this country strictly by virtue of his or her race.

The article has particular relevance to me for two reasons: First, I believe that the experiences of African-Americans with racism, especially prior to and during the infamous Civil Rights movement of the 1960s is more on my mind than it might be for many other white people, although I am not sure why that is. Long before taking this course, I found myself both fascinated and horrified that the violence and injustices perpetrated against African-Americans still occurred during my parent's lifetime. For example, when I see documentaries about the civil rights marches, the arrest of Dr. Martin Luther King, and the murder of African-Americans and of civil rights workers in the South, I always find myself calculating the ages of my parents at that exact time for perspective of how long ago, 1964 was, for example. Second, because I am a woman who has also experienced some analogous types of the prejudices detailed by the author in connection with race, I may be more able to appreciate the accuracy of her examples than someone who has never experienced being on the underprivileged side of society in any respect, such as a wealthy white male.

In my opinion, the piece does not necessarily lose its persuasive strength (or even apply less to gender inequality than it does to racial inequality) by virtue of the fact that the author does not attempt to explore genderism as thoroughly after introducing it at the outset. It certainly would have been easy enough to do in the same fashion, such as by including a list of similar list entitle "Daily effects of male privilege" that laid out privileges such as 1. I can dress to feel my most attractive…… [read more]

Shirley Sherrod Term Paper

… Shirley Sherrod was the Director of Rural Development in Georgia for the United States Department of Agriculture. In 2010, she was forced to resign after a video was featured on the internet with Sherrod appearing racist. In one of the speeches she gave in March to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Sherrod told a story which took place nearly a quarter of a century ago in which herself -- a black woman -- strived to save the farm of a white man. The commencement of the story tells how Sherrod was prejudiced and associated the white race with wealth and how she perceived her role in terms of assisting the blacks.

"He was trying to show me he was superior to me. I was struggling with the fact that so many black people have lost their farm land, and here I was, faced with having to help a white person save their land. So I didn't give him the full force of what I could do. [I] took him to a white lawyer [because] I figured if I'd take him to one of them, that his own kind would take care of him" (Sherrod quoted by William Saletan, 2010).

This particular part of Sherrod's speech was selected and posted on the internet by blogger Andrew Breitbart and it was posted in such a manner that it accused Sherrod of racism as her refusal to help a white man. Additionally, it also accused the NAACP of promoting racism, not only the Director of Rural Development.

The immediate reaction was powerful and the video clip was quickly running on various media channels. Sherrod's employer -- the government, and especially the U.S. Department of Agriculture -- took an immediate action against her and forced her to resign. The logical fallacy was constituted by the immediate reaction of the government and even more so, by the rationale used in the reaction they generated. Specifically, it would appear that the U.S. government rushed to fire Sherrod as a quick and immediate response to an accusation of racism and bigotry. Such a response could have been caused by the realization of the need to satisfy public perception through quick action. In this order of ideas, the fallacy is represented by the failure of the U.S. government to document the circumstances of the speech and the reliability of the accusations.

The general reaction of the media was intense and reports about Sherrod's speech were increasingly popular within various channels. Enthusiasm broke out and accusations of racism erupted to create the much loved sensation in the media reports. Fox News for instance described the incident as one "showing an Agriculture Department official regaling an NAACP audience with a story about how she withheld help to a white farmer facing bankruptcy -- video that now has forced the official to resign" (Fox News, 2010). Andrew Breitbart, the one who originally edited the video and launched it on the internet described it as "evidence of… [read more]

Racial Profiling Drachman, Edward Research Paper

… "The Davis program was constitutionally problematic because it used a quota system in which a 'specified percentage of the student body is in effect guaranteed to be members of selected ethnic groups" (113).

University of Michigan: "Under the undergraduate admission system, applicants from 'underrepresented' racial groups, including African-Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans, received and automatic 20-point bonus out of 100 points needed for admission" (114).

Moore, Jamillah. Race and College Admissions: a Case for Affirmative Action. Jefferson, NC:

Mcfarland, 2005. Print.

"Education is the gateway to opportunity, and many students compete to gain admission to selective and elite institutions every year throughout the United States. As the population increases and access to resources, employment and education become increasingly limited, competitive policies like that of affirmative action will continue to come under attack" (1-2).

The Moores report: UC Regent John Moores looked at the SAT scores of accepted students given the necessary diversity quota. Of the "36,472 applicants, 374 applicants were admitted to Berkeley with SATs under 1000 while 3,218 applicants with 1400+ SAT scores were denied admission" (16).

"The reality is that well-qualified students from all backgrounds get rejected every year by their institution of first choice; it does not mean they were excluded based upon their race" (20).

Zamani-Gallaher, Eboni M. The Case for Affirmative Action on Campus: Concepts of Equity,

Considerations for Practice. Sterling, VA: Stylus Pub., 2009. Print.

Affirmative action was "meant to restore the victim to the place he or she would have occupied, but for discrimination. Affirmative action was and is primarily about restorative justice" (xiv).

"The Supreme Court under its new chief justice decided the Meredith v. Jefferson County case, involving the Louisville, Kentucky, public schools, and a companion case involving the public schools of Seattle, Washington, it outlawed the use of race or diversity for any purpose -- benign as well as punitive, inclusionary, or exclusionary. The court found there is no compelling state interest that would justify acknowledgement of group characteristics in public education or the value of diversity" (xv-xvi).

Wygant v. Jackson Board of Education (1986): "Required that the use of racial classification support a compelling interest of state and be narrowly tailored to satisfy that particular interest. The court's ruling in this case also stated that historic social discrimination was not by itself a compelling reason for an affirmative action policy, and that a public employer should only enact such a policy if it is indeed needed" (7).

1994 -- 5th Circuit of the U.S. District Court of Appeals "held that the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment does…… [read more]

Urban Geography Trends in Baltimore Segregation Research Paper

… Urban Geography

Trends in Baltimore Segregation and Their Implications

When studying the various maps of the urban geography of Baltimore City, one will notice some obvious trends based on race and economic factors. From maps detailing the data between 1990 and 2000, there is a noticeable segregation taking place between black, white, and Hispanic residential areas as well as between higher and lower income areas. In the period of a decade, the segregation only becomes more severe, which has negative implications, including an eroding economic impact upon blacks in the inner-city. The only way that Baltimore City government officials would have of relieving this issue is by studying the facts, recognizing the trends, and offering solutions based on their conclusions of the data in the maps.

Focusing on the maps for the year 1990, the map for total population shows a patchwork pattern of higher vs. lower population neighborhoods across the city, with a more dense population evident in the northern neighborhoods from the Orchards to Loch Raven and in western neighborhoods from Seton Business Park to Greenspring, both the northern and western populations spread out from west to east (Total 1990). The map depicting the white population for the same year shows a dense white population spread out in an X-formation across the city, but also along the north-central and south-central neighborhoods, from Cross Country to North Roland Park in the north and Violetville across to Holabird Industrial Park (White 1990). The map depicting the black population shows a heavy concentration of blacks in the central and western regions, spanning as far out as Seton Business Park (Black 1990). The Hispanic population seems to take up its own little southeastern corner of the city, including Little Italy and O'Donnell Heights (Hispanic 1990). With regard to differences in population between residential areas of high vs. low economic status, the population having higher economic status seems to be spread out around the perimeter of the city, with concentrated areas in the north-central neighborhoods from Cheswolde to Cedarcroft (Income 1990).

Essentially, the main picture we see is one of subtle, but definite segregation. The black population focuses in on the central and western side of the city, the whites mostly spread themselves out along the north and south, and the Hispanics are condensed into a small area in the bottom left-hand corner. The black population certainly seems to dominate the northwestern region of the city, and the whites dominate the north central section, with the exception of a huge split in black/white population with blacks on the eastern side of York Road and whites on the western side. All of the other racial lines in the city seem to be blurred; although the whites own an overwhelming percent of the population in the Hispanic corner, the Hispanic population is most dense there.

Studying the maps for 2000, however, we see very noticeable changes in all the maps. The white population still inhabits the same area as it did ten years prior, but… [read more]

Affirmative Action in Hiring Affrimative Research Paper

… Affirmative Action in Hiring

Affrimative Action In Hiring

An Analysis of Affirmative Action in the Hiring Process

The human resources department of an organization/agency can be one of the most challenging to run in the organization. Decisions will constantly be… [read more]

Asian Immigrants Book Report

… Sun-Hee Park, Lisa. Consuming Citizenship: Children of Asian Immigrant Entrepreneurs. (2005) Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Park's main purpose in this book is to examine "the process by which Korean-American and Chinese-American children of entrepreneurial immigrants struggle to define themselves as Americans" (p. 16). Park's examination is based on more than a hundred interviews, of which eighty eight adolescents, like herself, grew up in immigrant entrepreneurial families. She also interviewed seventeen children of non-entrepreneurial immigrants and additional thirty four family and community members of Korean and Chinese immigrants. Park proposes a new perspective on examining the experiences of Asian immigrants and their second-generation offspring in the United States. Moving away from a long-established tradition of exploring how Asian immigrants managed to integrate into the American mainstream successfully -- which she critiques as an approach "that necessitates the absorption of immigrants into a preexisting and unequal social hierarchy" (p. 1) -- Park attempts to explain how the existing social structure in the United States shapes the lives of Asian immigrants. "I argue that for Asian-Americans, the process in question is not whether or not they have adapted," Park writes, "but rather why Asian-Americans are made to feel compelled to prove their 'Americanness" and how Asian-Americans display their social citizenship (or belonging)" (p. 2).

According to Park, Asian immigrants are quire ready to integrate into the American mainstream society. Therefore, the pressing question is to understand why second-generation Asian immigrants -- legal American citizens -- are continuously pressured to prove their "real" Americanness. Focusing on children of entrepreneurial immigrant families is illuminating, Park says, because these children try to live to the hope of reaching the American dream by immigrants, on the one hand, and live up to the expectations of Euro-Americans as the exemplary "model minority," on the other. These children try to meet the expectations of the American ideology of success (in terms of accumulating economic wealth), Park argues, by exerting "their social citizenship through consumption" (p. 2). Indeed, Park's analysis of how Asian immigrant children try to succeed in American society revolves around the idea of consumption as the most dominant social relationship in American society.

In Park's analysis, consumption in American society is a marker of identity for Asian-Americans, it defines their role in the society, and only by consuming more can these immigrants and their children demonstrate the rest of America that they truly belong to American society. This "belonging," she writes "is presented through possession of material goods that symbolize that one contributes to rather than burdens the United States -- thereby making one a 'good' (versus 'bad') immigrant" (p. 5). By climbing to the upper layers of the social hierarchy through acquisition of wealth and prestige, immigrants in America try to free themselves from racial discrimination directed against them. This process operates under an assumption…… [read more]

Cultural Influences Research Paper

… ¶ … minorities in the United States, it is hard to find two cultures more distinct than those of African and Hispanic-Americans. Both are vibrant communities, known for specific styles of music, dance, and cultural food. These two groups comprise the largest minorities in the United States, but account for the majority of crime reported in major cities. Often, and especially in cities where these two cultures intermix, much of this crime is unleashed upon one another.

It seems strange for two cultures, so closely related, to harbor such a bitter rivalry, especially among the youngest members of the communities. But perhaps it is those similarities that drive the wedge between these two groups.

In late September of 2005, a committee of black and Hispanic students known as the Presumed Alliance discussed the issues facing the Latino and African-American communities. Many African-American students discussed the issue of immigration, and the economic impact that has had on many black Americans. "A lot of African-Americans feel threatened by this influx," sophomore Eric Woodard said. "The media shows (Latinos) as downtrodden, but they are successful, even though they haven't been here for 300 years."

Indeed, the influx of illegal immigrants is at a record-breaking high in the United States. In the past decade, the number of Mexican-born illegal immigrants in the United States has multiplied 17-fold, now surpassing 12 million people.

These people risk their lives to cross the border, in the hopes of sending money to their families back in Mexico, or to reunite with relatives already in the states. For many young Mexican men, the illegal journey to El Norte has become something of a rite of passage -- thus encouraging the influx of illegals in the U.S.

Most of these illegal immigrants end up working on farms along the south and western U.S. However, many take jobs in the hospitality and service industries, filling many positions that American citizens might have otherwise taken.

For many African-Americans in the United States, the quick success of other minorities has only highlighted the long road to equality that lies ahead for the black community. Many black people recognize the struggle for black equality worldwide, in a variety of societies, including ones built of a Hispanic majority.

Famous rapper Tego Calderon is a black Latino from Puerto Rico. For him, the worldwide discrimination of black people is apparent, especially in his Latin homeland of Puerto Rico. "Latin American blacks are confused because we grow up side-by-side with non-blacks and we are lulled into believing that things are the same," Calderon explained in a recent interview with the New York Post. "[but] we are not part of the government or institutions."

When he first moved to the United States, he had a hard time finding a niche. The Latino community treated him as an outsider because he was black. He eventually found more acceptance from the African-American community as a "brother who happened to speak Spanish"

than as a part of the Hispanic community.

According… [read more]

How Reverse Discrimination Negatively Affects Employee Behavior Research Paper

… ¶ … Reverse Discrimination Negatively affects Employee Behavior

Reverse Discrimination and its Influence

The following pages focus on providing an analysis of reverse discrimination and its effects on employee behavior. The paper starts with an introduction that provides general information… [read more]

Managing Diversity in the Workplace Thesis

… ¶ … diversity goes beyond demographics and now includes ideology, political positions, religions, ethics, and philosophy." To test this hypothesis, an examination of the current practice of diversity in the workforce would need to be conducted. The best approach would be to conduct a survey of workplaces with respect to the content of their diversity policies.

H2 is "Despite advances in labor laws; women, blacks, Asians, and Hispanics are still underrepresented in managerial positions." With this hypothesis, the term "underrepresented" would need to be defined. Ideally, the issue would be given greater contextual consideration as well, given that labor laws are only one of a wide range of factors affecting minority participation at the management level. The survey used does not address the issue of minorities in management at all. To test this hypothesis, the definition of underrepresentation would need to be statistically tested against levels of different minorities in management positions. Again, this would require a survey of different companies.

H3 is "Diversity awareness training that includes the newly expanded definition of diversity would be helpful in promoting equitability in managerial positions." There are two questions that somewhat address the issue of training (Q035 and Q073) but in both cases these are questions answered by students rather than by workers at a company. There is no linkage made between the two questions asked and the promotion of equitability in managerial positions. To test this hypothesis would require a study comparing a group of organizations that offer their employees diversity training vs. A control group of companies that do not. These two groups would both be tested with respect to the representation of minorities in the workforce.

There are four research questions that were asked. In general, none of these questions was answered in the research.

The first question was: "Which elements should be considered in the new definition of diversity?" This question could be answered without much input from the surveys, as ultimately the answer is a subjective one. However, this question was not answered in Chapters 3 or 4.

The second research question was "How important are these new dimensions to diversity as compared to demographics?" Given that the new dimensions were never determined (see RQ 1) this question is not addressed. When the time comes to address this question, it is worth noting that there are two views on demographics as a means of measuring workplace diversity. The first is that demographics are a sufficient means for their own sake -- pulling people…… [read more]

Ku Klux Klans Effect on the World Essay


Continued research into the role of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) in America is becoming more, not less, relevant. With an African-American president at the helm, racism has reared its ugly head in the public sector. The KKK may represent an extreme of racist sentiment, but the group has continued to exist within the American underground since the Reconstruction Era. Formed by a group of disappointed Southerners after the Civil War, the KKK has become one of the most notorious terrorist groups in the United States.

The KKK is not the only hate group in the United States that uses violence. However, it is one of the most famous and historical. "Of all the types of right-wing hate groups that exist in the United States, the Klan remains the one with the greatest number of national and local organizations around the country."

The views and methods practiced by the KKK have doubtlessly influenced the culture of racism and hatred that perpetuates throughout the United States. "Every year, murder, arsons, bombings and assaults are committed by people who have no ties to an organized group, but who share their extreme hatred."

In the aftermath of the Civil War, the KKK prevented the Reconstruction of Southern and American society. Contrary to what the Klan itself claims, Reconstruction was a failure because racist groups like it perpetuated a culture of violence. Instead of accepting the equality of all Americans as outlined in the Constitution, KKK and individual racists drawing on similar philosophies demanded a culture of white supremacy.

The KKK expanded its base after the First World War, becoming "the most spectacular of all the social movements in American society."

Although "Klannishness is basically Southern, the KKK has influenced racist and anti-Semitic discourse throughout American society and outside of the Southern stronghold.

Because of the extent of the group's influence and the range of its hatred, the whole country has cause to fear…… [read more]

U.S. Supreme Court Case Concerning Civil Right Liberties Grutter v. Bollinger 2003 Term Paper

… Grutter v. Bollinger (2003)

Introduction -The case Gutter v. Bollinger (2003) was a 5-4 United States Supreme Court case that upheld the affirmative action policy of the University of Michigan Law School (Grutter v. Bollinger, 2003). The case was an important look at the way affirmative action impacts the nation's professional school systems and the impact that affirmative action has on highly qualified non-minority students. Barbara Grutter was the plaintiff, Lee Bolling, President of the University of Michigan, representing the University. Grutter was represented by the Center For Individual Rights, while the 41 Intervenors were represented by Scheff and Washington (Randall, 2010)

The Case -- The University of Michigan Law School denied admission to Grutter, a Caucasian Michigan resident who had a 3.8 GPA and an LSAT score of 161. Grutter alleged that the school discriminated against her on the basis of race and in violation of the 14th Amendment, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; that her race rather than qualification was used as a predominant factor in the application process, and that applications with a minority status received undue consideration for placement (The VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 1964). The District Court for Michigan found the use of race as an admission criteria unlawful, but the 6th Court reversed the decision, believing that establishing diversity in programs is an interest of the state. Further, they found that race was a potential factor, and not a deciding factor in admission. The case then went to Federal District Court

Viewpoint - Gutter's attorneys posited that during the 1980s the evidence showed that there was a large allowance given to mintority students who were in the same band or slightly lower than White students. Further, they argued that in modern society it was absurd and socially regressive to apply racially-based standards to professional schools. The University's position indicated that it was essential to have a critical mass of minority students enrolled in professional schools. The Intervenors testified that they had a much more difficult time in public…… [read more]

Diversity and Effective Communications What Is Cultural Term Paper

… Diversity and Effective Communications

What is cultural diversity?

Generally, "cultural diversity" refers to the differences in the social background and culture of origin that may exist within any group of unrelated individuals. In contemporary terminology, cultural diversity also includes differences based on race, religion, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

Why is an appreciation of diversity important in communication?

Individuals from different backgrounds typically have very different perceptions and beliefs about social concepts and societal issues. Many times, these differences in perspective cause individuals from different backgrounds to react very differently to events and circumstances. Whereas some of these differences are somewhat obvious, many others may be much more subtle. In any collaborative environment, it is important to recognize and appreciate diversity among group members because failure to do so can often lead to misunderstanding or conflict that occur unintentionally mainly by virtue of ignorance with respect to diversity issues within the group.

In principle, appreciation of diversity is a prerequisite to establishing communications that are appropriately respectful and sensitive to different perspectives. In that regard, I have witnessed situations where one group member said something highly offensive to others without any intention to do so or awareness of the fact that it even happened.

How would you describe your cultural background?

My cultural background is that of a 36-year-old African-American male raised with Southern Baptist religious beliefs and values. I make an effort not to make unfounded assumptions about others based on their cultural backgrounds.

How do your values affect the way you communicate with others and the way they communicate with you?

In general, I do not communicate with others differently based on our respective values. I have learned that there is no way of knowing what strangers' values are without interacting with them unless they have purposely adopted a specific manner of dress or of conducting themselves that communicates their values overtly. Even in those cases, the cues that we normally associate with indications of values may not be particularly accurate. In other cases, certain purposeful cues can be indicative of their values and attitudes. I have had experiences where I expected certain attitudes with respect to me from white males because of the way they seemed to fit various superficial molds only to find that they harbored no such attitudes toward me at all. Conversely, I have experienced prejudice from those whose appearance would have suggested that they were much more enlightened.

Once I have communicated enough with strangers to have some basis for concluding what their values are, I consider myself to have three options: (1) If their values are consistent with mine or at least respectable from a basic moral and humanistic perspective, I expect to be able to establish a positive rapport and mutual respect without making any specific effort based on what I know about their values; (2) If their values are incompatible with mine and offensive to me, I try to minimize any interaction with them in order to preserve my own integrity;… [read more]

Diversity and the Future of Our Communities Application Essay

… Diversity and the Future of Our Communities

The election of Barrack Obama as President of the United States highlights how the country is shifting from the traditional White Anglo Saxon Protestant (WASP) society. To one that is becoming a mix of various races, nationalities and ethnic backgrounds. Where, it is estimated that by the year 2050, the WASP / Caucasian ethnic group will cease to be the majority in the country. Instead, it expected that Hispanics and mixes of different races / nationalities will become dominate at that time. With famous demographer William Frey saying, "One America will be white, middle-class and graying, and then you'll have this new kind of globalized America coming to the fore, a racial generation gap." (Krase, 2009) This is significant, because it shows how the overall racial mixture in America is going to be changing. As a result, this means that diversity must be utilized with in our communities, across the country. To achieve this objective you must examine: how diversity can benefit the community and what will be the impact. Together, these two elements will provide the greatest insights as to how diversity is vital part of every community in the future.

How Diversity Can Benefit the Community

The desert Southwest is leading the United States in cultural shift that is taking place. What is happening is the states of Nevada, Arizona and California are seeing a dramatic shift in the population. Where, larger numbers of Hispanics are relocating to the area from a variety of different countries to include: Mexico, Cuba and El Salvador just to name a few. (Arreola, 2004) in California there is also large groups of Asians including: Chinese, Korean, Japanese and Vietnamese just to name a few. (Krase, 2009) This is significant, because it shows how some kind of diversity must be embraced by various communities.

Those communities that are embracing diversity are: helping to increase understanding between these different groups. This is…… [read more]

Immigration in the United Kingdom Essay

… Immigration in the United Kingdom: Challenges and Troubles

One of the most embarrassing public relations snafus for the Labour Party in Great Britain occurred when Prime Minister Gordon Brown was overheard calling a woman a 'bigot' because she had expressed her opposition to all immigration, which she believed was changing the culture and character of the British Isles for the worse (Weisberg 2010). As an island nation, England has been more isolated than Continental Europe from rapid influxes of new populations. Yet, as a nation with many colonies, it has both willingly and unwillingly incorporated new cultures into its own. Still, many Britons today clearly feel powerless in the face of rapid influxes of new immigrants and tensions remain between whites and non-whites, although Great Britain is growing more diverse in its composition.

Class tensions have been rife throughout British history and disenfranchised white members of the working class who saw themselves as the 'true' Britons have often chafed at any perceived incursions of non-whites into social, political, and economic institutions of power. This is ironic, given that British culture itself is multicultural, ever since the first Viking arrivals on the Isle, the Norman Conquest of 1066, and the incorporation of Scotland and Wales into the UK. Britain's participation in the slave trade also created a population of Black Britons on the mainland as well as in the colonies. Later, "wealthy families brought Indian servants to Britain. Cama and Company became the first Indian merchant to open offices in London and Liverpool. Black and Chinese seamen began putting down the roots of small communities in British ports, not least because they were abandoned there by their employers. Between 1830 and 1850, tens of thousands of Irish arrived in Britain, fleeing poverty at home" ("Short history of immigration," BBC, 2010).

Britain abolished its slave trade and legalized slavery earlier than America, and elected its first non-white MP, Indian Dadabhai Naoroji, to the House of Commons in 1892. However, as anti-immigration sentiment erupted in 1950s so did the rise of racial violence and prejudice. "The Irish were British subjects as were all members of the vast and growing British Empire, and until 1962 there was nothing to prevent anyone with that status from entering and settling in the United Kingdom. This included about a quarter of the human race, especially Indians and Africans as well as Australians and Canadians. Their right to enter and settle in Britain was not curtailed until successive changes to the law in 1962 and 1968. By the 1960s large communities from the West Indies, India and Pakistan were established in London and several industrial cities" (Jupp 2010)

The British government simultaneously tried to restrict entry into Britain, yet also pass more stringent laws condemning racist and anti-discriminatory actions. This was intended to be a balanced policy, although critics said it sent a contradictory message. The policy of outlawing racism and restricting entry has been a standard pattern in Britain. For example, in the 1980s, while condemning the… [read more]

Arizona Immigration Law Article Review

… ¶ … New Arizona Immigration Law raises important racial, labor, and civil liberties issues for the Latino-American community and Americans in general. The new law would require all immigrants to carry immigration papers on them at all times and also gives the police the authority to arrest and detain anyone they suspect of being an illegal immigrant. those people found to be in the country illegally will be sent back to their home country immediately, according to the new law.

It is no surprise that the collective reaction to this outrage has been furious. Mexican-American community leaders and Democratic Party leaders have voiced their disapproval. President Obama himself has gone out of his way to notify the Governor of Arizona publicly that he is not happy with her decision. The state of Arizona and its politicians have become the target of repeated criticisms and outright attacks.

The overall population change in America provides the essential backdrop for understanding the both the Arizona legislature's actions and the Latino community's reaction to it. The Latino population in the Southwestern United States has seen high increases throughout the years. This new law is suggesting that too much of this increase is the result of illegal immigrants flowing into Arizona from the Mexican border. If this new law is any indication of the Arizona population's views, it is reasonable to assume widespread resentment and animosity among Arizonians towards Latino immigrants.

Though Arizona is a major entry point for illegal immigrants into the United States, it is also home to many legal immigrants of Latino descent as well as American-born citizens of Latino descent. The legislature of Arizona cannot ignore this fact but has chosen to pass broad, sweeping legislation that would threaten all Americans of Latino descent with unwarranted and indefinite detainment. The legislature's curious approach confirms a deeply held suspicion about immigration policy…… [read more]

Brent Staples, Called Black Men and Public Essay

… ¶ … Brent Staples, called "Black men and public spaces" in which he analyzes the impact of gender and race in the contemporary American society. In order to better illustrate the thesis which Brent makes upon the today's racist America… [read more]

Masquerade of Wrong Colors Reaction Paper

… ¶ … Black, White, Other: Racial Categories are Cultural Constructs Masquerading as Biology" by Jonathan Marks argues the case that race can be considered as a category, but not a biological one. The author begins with an anecdote: a New York Times article that describes, in err, a person in a photo as "half-black." He poses the question: how can a person be "half-black?" He argues that race is not strictly biological, but rather, a cultural trait that is inherited, passed down over generations.

Marks starts his logic with a history of the study of human variation. Linnaeus, the first to classify humans into groups, established Homo sapiens as one among a group he called Primates. Many scientists thus followed, attempting to establish specific groups within Homo sapiens, but they could never agree on the specific divisions between groups. Marks then points out two ways humans think about race: biologically, as Linnaeus did, and culturally (read: "Hutu" or "Jew"). Of particular significance to Marks' argument is his claim that these cultural groupings are "neither strictly nature nor strictly community. The groupings are constructions of human social history."

Adding to his argument, Marks states, quite logically, that visually obvious natural variation is almost never as important as cultural difference. For example, rarely do you see institutional discrimination against, say, people with black hair by those with people with blond hair. This fact contributes to Marks' argument because it illustrates how culture is a stronger indicator of division than physical features (genes), which can be applied to what race truly means: a difference in culture, not a difference in genes.

That aside, Marks, in support of a well-rounded argument, seeks "truly 'racial' distinctions" within our species. Physical variation obviously exists, he says, but unique characteristics do not exist in discrete groups, and instead are distributed on strictly geographical gradients. These gradients come about by three ways: natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow. These gradients surpass 'race.' For race to…… [read more]

Culture Identity Essay

… Cultural Identity and Personal Perspective

The Nature of Culture and Cultural Markers

Culture refers to the full range of behaviors, shared beliefs, values, attitudes, and social expectations within defined societies (Macionis, 2003). All known human societies share elements of what constitutes culture, and that is also the case for many higher forms of animals such as elephants, primates, whale, dolphin, and other mammalian species.

Typical examples of animal culture would be tool-using and hot spring-soaking primates whose unique behaviors and environmental behavioral adaptations are handed down through successive generations in much the same way that cultural traditions are reinforced within human societies. Similarly, specific pods of Orcas or "Killer Whales" have been observed to develop hunting techniques that are completely unique to their family pods and perpetuated by successive generations in the wild (Macionis, 2003).

Naturally, the individual elements that constitute a given culture differ tremendously between human societies and animals societies, primarily because of the intellectual and communications abilities of humans in comparison to even the most intelligent non-human animal species. Generally, any society-specific forms of shared behaviors and learned responses that are not products of biological processes but of social learning are considered cultural markers. In human societies, typical cultural markers include cuisine, language, architecture, art, philosophy, historical beliefs, religion, social rituals, beliefs, common practices, expectations, and social mores.

Hispanic Family Values and Cultural Identity

As a first-generation Hispanic-American female, I have become acutely aware from personal experience how significant cultural differences can be in contemporary society, especially for individuals raised in one cultural tradition and expected to succeed in another very different environment of different cultural values. In some respects, many Hispanic families maintain strong allegiances to some of the predominant social and cultural values and mores of their culture of origin even while assimilating successfully into mainstream foreign societies in many other respects (Schaefer, 2002). They may learn or absorb various American social behaviors and expectations while in public but still defer strongly to traditional Hispanic cultural perspectives, especially with respect to those that pertain to private matters and to those involving the family (Schaefer, 2002).

For example, many contemporary Hispanic females have taken advantage of the opportunities available in the United States to pursue higher education and advanced professional training to become doctors or lawyers or business executives. In some Hispanic families, even highly successful adult female family members may still be regarded as deserving a lower level of interpersonal respect from their male family members, merely because of traditional cultural attitudes about the relative status of men and women (Schaefer, 2002).

Within Hispanic-American Societies in the U.S., the Catholic religious tradition is common to even otherwise varied Hispanic cultures (Healey, 2003). While some U.S. Hispanic cultures maintain very similar Catholic religious beliefs and practices to those of non-Hispanic-American Catholics, other Hispanic-American cultures have continued extreme Hispanic variations of Catholicism such as Santeria, which actually originated in Africa but is practiced by large numbers of uneducated Cuban immigrants in particular. Just as in the case… [read more]

Arguments for Racial Profiling Thesis

… Racial Profiling

Rodriguez argues that racial profiling at the U.S. borders unfairly targets people of color and is used by politicians to exploit whites' fears. It is not that these arguments are entirely without merit, but Rodriguez misses some key… [read more]

Post-Racial Society Since Barack Obama's Election Research Proposal

… ¶ … Post-Racial Society

Since Barack Obama's election, many people have suggested that the U.S. is a post-racial society. While it would be tempting to proclaim that race is no longer an issue in modern America, to prematurely declare race as a non-issue could threaten the advances that have occurred in race relations and equality. In fact, it could set back racial advances significantly, much as occurred in the post-Reconstruction South. However, if America is a post-racial society, then it is time to put away the tools that have been used to help achieve racial equality, such as affirmative action. There are many different ways to investigate racial equality in America. However, one of the most pervasive badges of servitude was the economic inequality experienced by African-Americans. In fact, being economically disadvantaged has life-long consequences, because it impacts access to education, nutrition, and adequate healthcare. In fact, even if every other indicator of racism has been eradicated, such as feelings of prejudice; overt discrimination; and disparate arrest, prosecution, and sentencing, if blacks are still economically disadvantaged when compared to whites, then it would be premature to consider society post-racial.

This research project will investigate whether the economic status of blacks has risen to the same level as the economic status of whites in the ten years since the last census. The project will rely on data from the 2010 census and directly compare results from the census 10 years ago. At that time, it was clear that African-Americans were…… [read more]

Reviewing Mixed Methods Thesis

… Mixed Methods Review and Critique

Torres's (2006) study entitled "A Mixed Method Study Testing Data-Model Fit of a Retention Model for Latino/a students at Urban Universities" appropriately demonstrates a mixed method study. This becomes evident when the study is examined using the mixed methods checklist provided by Creswell and Plano-Clark (2007).

According to Creswell and Plano-Clark (2007), the first step in the mixed methods checklist is to assess the study's topic. The general issue that is being studied in Torres's (2006) study is the retention model of Latino/a students at urban commuter universities. The second step is to identify the purpose of the study. The purpose of the study is to examine the factors that affect Latino/a students' choice to stay in college.

The third step is to identify the methods that were used by the author to collect the quantitative and qualitative data. As a primary data source, Torres used surveys that asked questions that related to the environment on campus, the students' cultural background, and the influence their families had on their education. The surveys used culturally sensitive scales that had been previously used in a Latino/a study by Nora et al. (1997).

The fourth step is to determine how the qualitative and quantitative data were collected.

The interview data was collected from three urban college campuses. One of the campuses served predominately Caucasian students, while the other two campuses had a large Hispanic population. The researcher used an open sampling technique. All interviews were taped and were later transcribed.

The fifth step is to determine how the quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed. The data for Torres's study was analyzed in two stages. First, the qualitative data was analyzed…… [read more]

Tulsa Lynching of 1921 a Hidden Story by Michael Wilkerson Thesis

… Tulsa Lynching of 1921 a Hidden Story by Michael Wilkerson

The Tulsa Lynching of 1921

The Tulsa Lynching of 1921 - a Hidden Story by Michael Wilkerson

This video documentary deals with what is considered by many to be the worst race riots to have occurred in American history. In 1921 racial violence erupted in the town of Tulsa on a scale that had hitherto not been experienced. It escalated to the point where as many as three-hundred Black people had been killed and the black community almost completely wiped out, with the survivors having to relocate.

The film produced and directed by Michael Wilkerson is a very clear and lucid depiction of the events that occurred in 192. The director makes good use of a number of standard documentary techniques, such as stories and recollections by elderly witnesses, as well as the inclusion of commentary on the incident from various historians. The film also includes insightful black-and-white still photographs and authentic film depicting the destruction of an entire black community.

The Tulsa lynching refers to the destruction through violence of an entire Black community. One also has to bear in mind that the Black community in Tulsa was relatively well-off and affluent as a result of the town's lucrative oil supply. It was also known as a "little Africa" and the Greenwood section of town was known as "The Black Wall Street." As one critic notes: "Greenwood was a clean middle class community where African-Americans lived and were able to pursue their American dream, but all the changed in a twinkle of an eye" (Musser). From the film we also get the impression that a possible central cause of the riots was that some of the whites in the town felt that the black community was too affluent.

The director also takes pains to emphasize the social and political background to the events that where to take place in the town. For example, the fact that many veterans from the First World War returned to the town is shown in the documentary as an element in the violence that was to ensue. This also added to the militaristic dimensions to the unrest that further exacerbated the tensions. Another important aspect that is also dealt with very adequately in the documentary is the growth of the racist Ku Klux Clan in the region. The film also provides insight into the fact that northeastern Oklahoma was a hotbed of racial tension during that period. It is also enlightening that the Ku Klux Klan became as strong force in Oklahoma three months after the riots.

The violence was initiated by a single alleged incident. This occurred when a black man accidentally fell on top of white women. She claimed that she had been raped. However, this actual event is disputed and some see it as a fictional pretext for racist aggression. As one historian has noted, "…this wasn't the real incident -- that occurred at the local newspaper, The Tulsa Tribune, which… [read more]

Good Man Is Hard to Find by Flannery O'Connor Thesis

… Oconnor

The Southern Gothic in Three Key Flannery O'Connor Short Stories

Flannery O'Connor's literary style has been referred to as a quintessential example of the American Southern Gothic tradition. Her use of a variant of Southern dialects; the casual way… [read more]

Case Analysis and Comparison Research Proposal

… ¶ … Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978), the Medical School of the University of California at Davis ran two admissions programs for the entering class of 100 students. One was a regular admissions program and the other a special admissions… [read more]

2006, Six African-American Youth Brutally Assaulted Essay

… ¶ … 2006, six African-American youth brutally assaulted a fellow classmate at Jena High School in Louisiana. The six students, Mychal Bell, Carwin Jones, Jesse Ray Beard, Robert Bailey Jr., Bryant Purvis and Theo Shaw faced serious criminal charges including the most highly contested charge of attempted second-degree murder. Moreover, some of the adolescents were tried as adults. Some charges that were later deemed excessive, such as the attempted murder charges, were dropped. Plea-bargaining reduced the sentences for most of the "Jena 6," as they are known. The Jena 6 case is commonly advocated on the side of the African-Americans who perpetrated the assault.

The case also deserves to be viewed in light of the rights to free expression exercised by white students at Jena High School. Before the Jena 6 incident, racial tensions mounted due to little more than perceived injustices. For example, an African-American student asked to sit under a tree on school property "where white students usually sat." The next day several nooses were hanging from the tree. According to Bello, "Black parents were outraged by the symbolism, recalling the mob lynchings of black men." The parents complained, and the principal probably had to appease them for political purposes. The principal suggested that the students responsible for the nooses be expelled. However, the district superintendent reacted with more sense and overruled the principal. The superintendent gave the students three-day suspensions instead (Bello). After all, no one was hurt. The students simply invoked their constitutional right to free expression. They did not aim any racial slurs at an individual student, let alone beat one up.

However, race is blamed for any number of crimes that may not involve racism at all. For example, an arsonist set fire to Jena High School before the Jena 6 incident. The case has also been linked to racial tensions at Jena (Bello). The accusation that the Jena 6 were unfairly treated by the law also falls apart in light of other crimes that took place in Jena. One white man in Jena pleaded guilty to simple battery for punching a black teenager (Bello). Crime knows no racial boundary. The protection of the…… [read more]

Blessed Unrest Thesis

… Blessed Unrest

Info: "Blessed Unrest emphasizes issues pertaining to four different topics:

• Social Justice

• Destruction of the Environment

• Economical Abuse

• Preservation of Indigenous Cultures

After reading Blessed Unrest, you will have learned more about some of… [read more]

Canadian Aboriginals Essay

… Canadian Aboriginals

The interaction between the white man and the American continent is responsible for almost having extinct its aboriginal population. As they had been initially only interested in the profits that the new continent would bring them, white people… [read more]

Life of Cedric Jennings Thesis

… Cedric Jennings

The Opportunity of Cedric Jennings

The 2008 Presidential election -- the outcome of which led to the first election of an African-American leader of this nation, or indeed of any Western power -- and the even more recent… [read more]

Toulmin Analysis Asian Identity Essay

… Toulmin Argument

Claim: For minorities in the United States, ethnicity is an inextricable part of personal identity. Assimilating into the dominant culture entails sacrificing an integral part of the self. Moreover, assimilation often means severing ties to one's community of origin. "In America, trying to forget about being a minority can still get you in as much trouble as being one," (p. 4).

Subclaim 1 and Support: Ethnic identity may be an artificial construction in American culture. Most of the supports in Chang's essay derive directly from Eric Liu. Liu argues that identifying as Asian-American is a choice, and may also be entirely unnecessary. Referring to Liu as "one of Asian America's biggest stars" adds credibility to this specific support (p. 3). Chang also uses Liu to show how personal identity may be seriously conflicted for Asian-Americans who have historically enjoyed wealth and power.

Subclaim 2 and Support: One important subclaim of the argument is that Asian-Americans struggle with ethnic identity different than other minority groups in the United States. Citing Liu allows the author to explore the issue of ethnic identity from the specific perspective of Asian-America. The author also draws from personal experience late in the essay to support the claim that ethnicity and identity are inextricably entwined even for groups that have assimilated into the dominant culture. Chang also notes that while most Asian-Americans have not experienced discrimination to the extent that African-Americans have, discrimination is still endemic. As support for the subclaim, Chang notes that early Asian immigrants were culled from a professional demographic. The Asian-American experience is qualitatively different from that of other minority groups in the United States and most specifically African-Americans. Therefore, Asian-American identity construction is experienced differently from the identity construction of…… [read more]

Multiculturalism the Idea of Being Essay

… Multiculturalism

The idea of being multicultural was not that much of a concern until recently, when society became more global. Now that there are ways to talk to people all over the country and the world, language, culture, and history are changing how we look at things. People are being forced to adapt to some degree if they want to continue in the business world, because they have to treat others with respect -- and those others are often much different from them. The history of a person in one country is going to be very different from the history of a person in another country, so being aware of that becomes vital. Cultural issues are also important (Takaki, 1993). These are affected by where we come from, where we are now, and how we were raised. As a global society becomes more of a melting pot, much like America already has, the culture of many people shifts to allow other experiences to come in.

The idea of becoming more multicultural is not one that everyone embraces, though. There are people out there who still think that one culture, race, or creed is 'evil' while others are 'good.' This stems from two things: prejudice, and a lack of understanding of others (Takaki, 1993). Takaki (1993) discusses race and cultural in America, and the attitudes of whites toward blacks, Mexicans, Asians and Native Americans. This offers a very in-depth, interesting, and cohesive study of the way race and culture built foundations in America and is still doing so. Takaki (1993) also argues that all Americans, regardless of racial or cultural boundaries, must work together to create a good legacy of cooperation across cultures as America moves forward. If Americans do not work together to do this, the social health of the nation could be in serious jeopardy.

Takaki (1993) asks some very tough questions about how white men repressed themselves and did not live up to the full potential that they could have. Takaki (1993) does not ask why this happened. It seems unimportant to him. Instead, he asks how it happened, possibly to gain understanding so that the same…… [read more]

Structure on Mexican American Gangs Thesis

… Mexican-American Gangs

Mexican-Americans gang members live at the margins of an already marginalized group, according to Tellez and Estep (1997). They typically come from urban, low-income areas and are subject to severe persecution by law enforcement. Mexican-American gangs, however, aren't… [read more]

Prejudice and Discrimination Essay

… ¶ … prejudice against certain groups in my future occupation are unjustified.

Most organizations today emphasize that their most valuable resource is their human resource component and this is for a very good reason. Because organizations are by definition comprised of people and virtually everything worthwhile in the world is accomplished through an organization of one sort or another, it is clearly the people that make up the organization that are making things happen. In this author's future occupational capacity as a human resource director, it would be both foolhardy and most likely criminal to engage in any type of prejudicial behaviors that automatically classifies a group of people according to preconceived stereotypes, no matter whether these are good or bad. According to Black's Law Dictionary (1991), prejudice is "A forejudgment, bias; partiality; preconceived opinion. A leaning towards one side of a cause for some reason other than a conviction of its justice" (1179).

Clearly, there is no room in a well managed human resource service for prejudicial behaviors because there are laws against such activities, but even more importantly, perhaps, prejudicial behaviors might adversely affect the ability of the human resource director to recruit the most qualified candidate for a position based on spurious considerations such as race, religion, sexual orientation, gender, or an even more vague quality that has nothing to do with the candidate's qualifications or ability to perform. Indeed, institutionalized racism has characterized American society for two centuries in ways that have prevented African-Americans from achieving equitable opportunities across the board, and it has only been relatively recently that such prejudicial views have been set aside in favor or more egalitarian principles based on more relevant factors such as an individual's character, qualifications and demonstrated abilities. Prejudice has no room in the workplace because it is also detrimental to organizational productivity and profitability. For example, according to De Meuse, Claire and O'Neill (2007), "Racism, sexism, homophobia, and other forms of prejudice can foster discrimination within a workplace. Unless well managed, social identity differences can create emotional conflict among employees" (38).

Diversity in an organization can provide a number of benefits when they are well managed, though, and everyone has something they can contribute to accomplishing an organization's goals if given half a chance. In this regard De Meuse and his associates emphasize, "Truly diverse organizations can leverage this conflict by using it as a way to arrive at a clarification of values and foster honest communication" (39). This type of enlightened approach does not just fall out of the sky in most organizations, though, but requires careful attention to what problems are involved and what steps are best suited to resolving them. For instance, Matthews (1998) notes that, "Some organizational leaders are concerned that implementing diversity initiatives is too expensive, upsets productivity, and causes disruption in the workplace. Prejudice and hostile work environments also pose internal stumbling blocks to effectively managing diversity. These trends and internal stumbling blocks challenge effective cultural diversity management" (175).

One approach… [read more]

Urban Poverty Readings Summary/Critique Essay

… As mentioned by several authors in these readings, however, the main issue at hand is not the wage level, but rather the employment level of the urban poor that was endemic to the situation. That is, both the availability of jobs and the desire to work in legitimate enterprises is severely limited in racially segregated urban communities, and an increase in wages does absolutely nothing to alter this pattern.

As a partial (and implicit) answer to this, Jargowski and Sawhill (2006) also contend that the massive reductions in welfare benefits promoted an increased drive to join the legitimate workforce. Though this was certainly true to some degree, it is unlikely that it had effects of the magnitude suggested by the authors. Furthermore, the "color neutrality" of welfare policy recommended by Wilson is, as Massey eloquently argued, merely a less conspicuous form of racism, and is more insidious for its lack of obviousness. Ignoring the fact that levels of employment show a high negative correlation with being African-American moves past politically correct naivete and into tacit approval of discriminatory hiring practices. The problem is not as simple as plans like affirmative action tried to make it seem, however; the low availability of jobs ensures that without a proper education viable employment is an unrealistic dream for many urban poor.

Mincy (1994) also notes the low quality of schools in his evaluation of the issue, but this detail becomes lost in the myriad of other social influences to which he attributes partial credit. It seems clear that, given the focus of both Mincy and others such as Massey, Schiller, and even Wilson note the unavailability of legitimate employment, the ability to earn higher-skilled positions is essential to stop the perpetuation of the segregation and poverty cycle. Jargowski and Sawhill (2006) also touch on this in their article, noting the higher incidence of high-school dropouts amongst those defined as the underclass. This is especially noticeable in high-poverty areas (where 40% or more of the population in a given geographical neighborhood is living below the poverty line). It is for this reason that Jargowski and Sawhill (2006) champion the destruction of high-rise low income housing and the decentralization of housing programs -- breaking up these neighborhoods, their logic goes, will limit the potential for self-perpetuation within the segregated community by scattering the community itself.

The idea that the destruction of a community will somehow lead to its betterment is beyond misleading; it is simply appalling. Though this is not the direct and explicit argument Jargowski and Sawhill make, it is the eventual result. None of the authors of these readings dare to say that, quite frankly, a population cannot be lifted out of poverty if it does not want to be. This is not to say that there are not historical and current socio0economic and cultural barriers to be overcome. Policy can only put the mechanisms in place to be utilized, however; it cannot force anyone to actually use them. Education and community activism… [read more]

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