Study "Race / Ethnic Studies / Racism" Essays 771-825

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Reaction to the Documentary, "Eyes on the Prize Term Paper

… ¶ … EYES on the PRIZE (English 2nd Lang)

The documentary is very hard to watch. An innocent black man is being beaten by a crowd of white people even though he did nothing wrong. The documentary is not long enough to know exactly what was the reason, but the context suggests that it was for nothing more than trying to sit at a lunch counter or bus stop in one of the segregated southern American states when it was still illegal for African-Americans to eat at the same lunch counter or wait on the same bus stop benches as white people.

The angry crowd is shouting at him and calling him "nigger" while they are beating and kicking him as hard as they can. The scene then shifts to what seems to be the funeral of another black man killed during racial unrest or during some of the bombings that occurred in Mississippi and some of the other southern states during the 1950s and 1960s when the United States was undergoing race riots and civil rights demonstrations.

It is very difficult to imagine that these types of things happened in the United States less than fifty years ago, especially with the current importance of racial equality and cultural sensitivity. As someone from a different national origin and culture, I know that at that time, many people in the United States would also have been very prejudiced against me for being of Asian descent. When I see these types of videos taken during the 1960s, I also realize that many of the people in them might still be alive.

That makes me wonder about what they think about their behavior back then. I wonder about the white men who were in their early twenties at the time who must be approximately seventy years old today. Are they still as hateful toward African-Americans today as they were back then? Do they realize how horribly they treated other people for no… [read more]


Hispanic vs. Latino Research Paper

… This term, she argues, is designed to literally whitewash a subordinate culture. Puerto-Rican American activist Roland Roebuck would agree with her. In an interview on National Public Radio, Roebuck said "For me, Hispanic refers to white, Spanish-speaking individuals. So the whiter you are, the more inclined you will be to identify yourself as Hispanic" (Martin). Of course, there are also those who find the term Latino offensive because it is not specific enough in its description.

One of the possible reasons for this opinion of the term Hispanic can be traced back to the word's etymology. According to Granados, "The word Hispanic is derived from the word Espana, the country that led the conquest of the New World and whose language and culture has dominated Latin America." In essence, the term Hispanic then is a constant reminder of the genocide of the Latin American people by the Spaniards. "The word Latino traces its roots back to ancient Rome and some say it's more inclusive, encompassing Latin American countries such as Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, and others." The term is a reminder that the Spanish language originated in Latin, along with the other romance languages such as French and Italian. It is a unifying term rather than a reminder of war and bloodshed.

The Latinos believe that their term is less offensive because it was one that the group chose instead of a label that was thrust upon them. Whether this is accurate or not is a matter of perception. Indeed the debate over which term is the correct one: Hispanic vs. Latino is a matter of perception. Demographer Maria Aysa said in an interview about the differentiation of labels that, "There are Latinos who don't speak Spanish, and Spanish-speakers who aren't LatinoThe definitions go beyond language. it's about ethnicity, identity and political muscle" (Grech). From an analytical standpoint, it makes a good deal of sense that certain people of Mexican descent would identify with one label more than another depending on the culture they belong to in this country as well as the culture their predecessors held in the generations before that.

From the research done, there are understandable arguments on both sides of the issue. To those who identify themselves as Latino, the term Hispanic is a disgraceful one, reminding the minority that the larger culture will always have dominance over the minority. To others, the term Hispanic identifies them because it harkens back to their home language, or the language of their family members. The more appropriate term will be dependent not on the ruling class, but on the ruled. Those who prefer one term should be honored, as should the people who prefer the other. The best thing to keep in mind is that some people might not understand what these terms are not as interchangeable as the American society makes them appear to be.

Works Cited

Beretto, Holly." Cuts, by Budget. "Cultural Uniqueness: Hispanic vs. Latino | USARiseUp.

Cubias, Daniel. "Hispanic vs. Latino:… [read more]


African Nationalism or Nationalist Movement Developed Essay

… African nationalism or nationalist movement developed as a reaction to years of oppression by the whites in the name of white supremacy. Whether white supremacy existed or how brutal its effects had been is out of the scope of our… [read more]


Affirmative Action Research Paper

… Affirmative Action

Over the last 30 years, Affirmative Action has appeared to be one of the most controversial concepts of Civil Rights law. In spite of numerous decisions handed down by the Supreme Court, several Executive Orders, and many laws… [read more]


Affirmative Action in the Public and Private Term Paper

… Affirmative Action in the Public and Private Sector

Affirmative action has taken on many meanings for different people over the course of time. It can be defined as a proactive approach to removing barriers that prevent any person from having… [read more]


Mexico Issues Travel Alert Over New Arizona Article Review

… ¶ … Mexico Issues Travel Alert over New Arizona Immigration Law" by Kevin Johnson, published in USA Today on April 28, 2010. Specifically it will review and analyze the article. Arizona's new immigration law has fueled protests across the nation. Many feel it is racial profiling at its worst, and that it targets anyone who appears to be Hispanic. This article discusses the law and the official Mexican Tourist Board reaction to the law.

The social issue motivating this law is illegal immigration. Arizona has the distinction of being the area where more illegal immigrants enter the country than anywhere else. A majority of the residents feel the Federal Government has not done enough to address the issue, so they took it into their own hands to develop this law. The underlying social issue that many feel motivates the law is racism. They feel the Hispanics that are here legally will be consistently harassed and targeted, and that the underlying reason is not illegal immigration but racism.

Population change is a consequence of illegal immigration, and that is an issue with those that support the new law, as well. In many areas of the country, including Arizona, Hispanics make up a major portion of the population. Many people fear they are taking jobs from USA workers, and that they are utilizing American social services at a heavy cost to American taxpayers. These are all population changes that have become a major social problem for Arizona. However, there are questions about the legality and constitutionality of the new law, and many people fear it will be abused, which is why so many people are protesting the law around the country. They fear it will create racial profiling and will unfairly target anyone who looks Hispanic, whether they are in this country legally or not.

The article discusses the constitutionality of the issue, which is one social policy response, and it alludes that the government will have to look at whether the law is legal or not. However, the… [read more]


Response to Nella Larsen's Passing Essay

… Passing

Nella Larsen's novel Passing details the story of a difficult friendship between Irene and Clare. The two women unite after many years, and learn how their lives have changed since they were young girls. Although they still love each other, their different attitudes, ideals, and beliefs begin to sully their friendship. Larsen highlights the differences between Irene and Clare. Those differences are partly related to personality, but also to social and political issues. Passing is as much about the nature of friendship as it is about race, class, gender, and power.

Issues related to race, class, gender, and power are explored throughout the novel. In fact, the issue of race is one that most affects the relationship between Irene and Clare. This is because race is shown to be essential to one's personal identity. Race defines who a person marries, who they associate with socially, and in many cases also a person's career. Irene identifies strongly with being an African-American woman. Her life in Harlem consists of being politically active in support of the black community. For her, being black is a source of pride but she also understands the social stigma against racial minorities. It is possible that through Irene, Larsen shows how non-whites in America have developed an unhealthy inferiority complex.

Because she is half black, Clare can and does "pass" in the world of whites. Clare does not wish to be viewed as a woman of color. She was in fact raised as a white girl, and so identifies with being white rather than with being black. She even marries a bigoted man who might never have dated her if he knew the truth about her racial identity. By passing as white, Clare capitalizes on white privileges and social power. Irene knows this and resents it.

The title of Larsen's novel refers in part to Clare's "passing" as white, demonstrating the character's distorted racial identity. Clare betrays her racial heritage, but she does… [read more]


Socio Political Factors Encountered by Hispanics Latino Americans Essay

… Socio-Political factors encountered by Hispanics/Latino-Americans

Challenges facing Latinos in America today

When identifying the unique challenges faced by the Latino community, one of the first questions that must be asked is: who are Latinos? The demographic category of 'Latinos' embraces a wide range of socioeconomic and geographical areas. Latinos can be recently naturalized Mexicans who may work in manual occupations and are only beginning to learn English; wealthy and politically conservative Cubans who have lived in America for generations; Puerto Ricans who are American citizens; Spanish-speaking Dominicans; and Portuguese-speaking Brazilians. Latinos may be aliens who face unjust working conditions because of their undocumented status and individuals who are established in their own businesses.

Cultural and economic diversity is part of the richness of this ethnic group's Central and Latin American heritage. But Latino's lack of group cohesion can make political mobilization difficult. Latinos have fewer cultural similarities than one might initially assume. There are often profound differences in terms of policy and legislative needs between Latinos who work in rural areas as migrants and those who live in urban areas. The political sympathies of Latinos who came to the U.S. fleeing persecution from right-wing dictatorships (in El Salvador) versus those fleeing left-wing dictatorships (in Nicaragua) are quite distinct. Finally, the strong influence of Catholicism in many Latin American nations has made Latinos reluctant to ally with politically and socially liberal Democrats who might represent their economic interests but support gay marriage and abortion rights. All of these factors have conspired to create a lack of a coherent sense of what a 'Latino agenda' might be as a voice in politics, despite the fact that the 44-million-member community is "the fastest growing minority group in the United States, accounting for as much as half of the total population growth" (Kaufman 2007).

Latinos account for only 10% of new U.S. voters. Even though Latinos constituted 15% of the U.S. population in 2004, they composed 6% of the voting population. About 25% of Latinos are ineligible to vote because they are not U.S. citizens; many are also too young to vote given that the demographic 'skews' very young. But even amongst eligible voters, there is little civic… [read more]


Power of Preconceived Notions in "Everyday Use Essay

… ¶ … Power of Preconceived Notions in "Everyday Use" and "Recitatif"

Preconceived notions lead to trouble most of the time. People often allow themselves to fall victim to preconceived notions rather than to consider things and arrive at their own… [read more]


Reverse Discrimination in the Workplace Term Paper

… Reverse Discrimination in the Workplace

Since the 1970's, the overall issue of reverse discrimination has been increasingly been brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this was the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This outlawed… [read more]


Women in Literature Toni Morrison Uses Racial Thesis

… Women in Literature

Toni Morrison uses racial stereotypes and prejudices very effectively in her short story, Recitatif. For example, one of the themes is obviously racial, and yet Morrison cleverly uses tricks in her language to keep the reader wondering… [read more]


Historic Preservation and the Imagined Term Paper

… It was also during this time (late 1960s and early 1970s) that the inhabitants of Seattle began to identify more with the initial spirit of the settlers, who had found the right solution during times of economic hardships, similar to… [read more]


Utilizing the Law for Latino Empowerment Thesis

… Latino Empowerment Through Successful Legal Challenge
1. Case Description
Moments of legal empowerment and critical social reflection are often
incited by an intensification of the negative conditions demanding these
impulses. This has been especially true in the context of America's… [read more]


Discrimination in Business Term Paper

… They had to create more employment opportunities for black contractors as a result. This is exactly the situation that the equal employment laws were created to guard against, and the reason they were implemented in the first place.

How does… [read more]


Douglas Massey American Apartheid Term Paper

… ¶ … American Apartheid: segregation and the making of the underclass, David Massey and Nancy Denton explore the impact of racism on America and the manner in which it propagated economic disparity. The purpose of this discussion is to explore the central argument that the authors make in the book.

In this book Massey and Denton assert that the existence of poverty in America can be greatly attributed to the American apartheid or segregation. They argue that segregation prevented Black Americans from having access to several important resources that White Americans did have access to. These resources include education (K-12), admittance to institutions of higher learning and exclusion from certain professions. As it pertains to education black students did not receive an equal education under segregation. This led to many not receiving a high school diploma. Even when black students did receive a high school diploma, they were not permitted to attend many of the more prestigious colleges in America. Individuals who could get in to these universities, had to confront a great deal of racism. Black people were also excluded from certain professions including law and medicine. They were also excluded from many other high-paying professions. All of these factors contributed greatly to the conditions of poverty that continue to persist in the black community.

The book also focuses on the impact of segregated housing on poverty. The authors argue in chapter two of the book the authors discuss the construction of the ghetto and the ways in which this construction had an impact on poverty. In this chapter and in chapter four of the book the authors also explain how segregation in housing still persists and how it was perpetuated after segregation by discriminatory practices. The authors assert "the black ghetto, however, was maintained not only by the… [read more]


Monster by Walter Dean Myers Essay

… ¶ … character in Monster (Steve) different from you?

The main character of Monster is a sixteen-year-old resident of Harlem who is accused of being the 'look-out' during the murder of a convenience store owner. He has little hope for his future, and has had few opportunities to rise above his difficult personal circumstances. He is an African-American young man who has suffered racism and oppression for most of his life. Even before he was accused of the crime, the reader is left little doubt that 'the deck was stacked against' Steve.

In contrast to Steve, I come from a supportive environment of friends and family, and do not feel as if I have to be violent or participate in violence to be accepted by those who care about me or to protect myself. I am not economically insecure like Steve, and perhaps most importantly, I have reason to hope that I will have a future that will be better than my… [read more]


Social Inequality and Minorities in the United States Thesis

… Social Inequality and Minorities in the U.S.

There are many types of inequalities in our societal structural: racial, wealth, structural, economic, and social. Most of these are linked in one way or another, particularly social and economic inequality. And within… [read more]


Group Think Groupthink Refers to a Collective Essay

… Group Think

Groupthink refers to a collective and limiting process that occurs in groups where decision-making is a priority. When groups are driven towards quick decision-making, the tendency is often to suppress dissent and a consideration of alternatives in favor of reaching consensus. The results of this process range from benignly limited decisions up to catastrophic and tragic consequences.

Groups that are most prone to this type of process are those who are cohesive and isolated. Other internal factors include a biased leader, unclear procedures, and homogeneous members. Externally, groups can be influenced by threatening situations that need quick decisions, and where no good solution is immediately evident. Recent failures, current difficulties and moral dilemmas can also drive poor decision-making as a result of groupthink.

Samuel R. Sommers (2006) investigated this phenomenon as it applies to the racial dynamic in juries. Investigating deliberations by mock juries, the author found that white persons in diverse groups would not be as susceptible to groupthink dynamics as those in all-white groups. Whereas the… [read more]


New Majority Hispanics Essay

… Hispanics (the new Majority)

Hispanics: The new Majority

As a melting pot of various cultures, the U.S. demographics continues to change at a remarkable rate. Among the minority communities, the Hispanics continue to be a dominant group making up for more than 15% of the national population. The Hispanic population which stood at 35.7 million in 2000 shoot up to 45.5 million by 2007 indicating an astounding increase. This increase among the Hispanic population is largely due to new births (62% of increase in Hispanic population between 2000 and 2007) than due to immigration. Statistics further show that Hispanics are fast outstripping other communities in terms of their purchasing power, which is projected to grow from the current $860 billion a year to $1.3 trillion by 2012. [Arcanna] These numbers clearly show how important the Hispanic population is for the businesses as well as the politicians.

Hispanics Underrepresented

Unfortunately, there seems to be a gross neglection of the Hispanics by the public corporations, which is evinced by the lack of Hispanic representation at the top cadre. In Houston for example, where the Hispanic community represents more than 40% of the population, there are only 43 Hispanic board members in a total of 2403 corporate board positions, which translates to less than 2% of corporate leaders. [Edgardo E. Colon] Other surveys in the nation also tell of a similar dismal picture. A recent nationwide study by the Hispanic Association on Corporate Responsibility (HACR) showed that Hispanics held only 3.1% of the board seats in fortune 500 companies. As the HACR president, Carlos orta said, 'At current growth rates, it would take more than 100 years for Hispanics to achieve real parity'. [Latino Professional Network]

It is a very hard fact to reconcile with as it makes perfect business sense to induct more Hispanics in decision making capacity as board members. Hispanic Board members can better leverage the Hispanic-American market by making products that cater to the community and in designing a more effective marketing strategy. Having Hispanic board members would also facilitate better relationships with the Hispanic customers. As Carlos puts it, "If a company is interested in reaching the Latino market, it makes corporate sense to hire people who understand that specific demographic and have the cultural sensitivity necessary to target that segment," [Latino Professional Network]

The growing Hispanic population is already shaping up the new political dynamics across the nation. Results from previous polls show the Hispanics as being nonpartisan and are less racial unlike the African-American community, which is highly monolithic in their voting behavior. For instance, in the 2001 Houston mayoral elections, 26% of… [read more]


Equality What Is the Meaning of Equality? Thesis

… Equality

What is the meaning of equality?

"At least since the French Revolution, equality has served as one of the leading ideals of the body politic; in this respect, it is at present probably the most controversial of the great social ideals," (Gosepath 2007). How to measure equality, how to assess the relationship between justice and equality, and the extent of equality are among the most salient controversies (Gosepath 2007). Equality is impossible to measure precisely in any society, let alone a heterogeneous one.

The courts have had a summarily difficult time with each of these issues, especially in the realm of education law and admissions procedures. Affirmative action presents an especially difficult problem for legal analysts because affirmative action is based on the presumption that inequality exists and yet proposes inequality as a remedy. The meaning of equality can be conceived of on an ideal level, but such an ideal is impractical if not impossible. Equality should be conceived of both as a goal and as a method of ensuring social justice. Equal access to information, and equal access to social institutions, are generally guaranteed by the law whereas absolute equality is impossible to enforce.

2.What criteria should be used… [read more]


When Affirmative Action Was White Research Paper

… ¶ … Affirmative Action Was White: Review

It is not unusual in the least for individuals in the U.S. today to think of affirmative action and other "equalizing" programs as color blind. In part due o the fact that the… [read more]


Latino Opportunities in America: Is Discrimination Hindering Thesis

… Latino Opportunities in America: Is Discrimination Hindering Latino Success

The recent election of America's first black American president, Barack H. Obama, comes less than a decade short of 150 years after the Civil War, which, for many Americans, symbolizes the… [read more]


Implicit Norms Research Proposal

… Implicit Norms

Violating a social norm was going out to eat with my family at a relatively nice restaurant. The implied social norm I decided to violate was one of etiquette. I decided to wear jeans and a t-shirt, instead of formal attire. The first social censuring I experienced was confronting the disapproving eyes and the attitude of my family. They first asked if I might feel comfortable if I changed my outfit, and when I refused, they used other forms of pressure, such as silence. However, when they realized I was not going to change my clothes, eventually they decided to ignore my ripped denim.

Before we were seated at the restaurant, I noticed that the hostess looked me over with a slightly frosty gaze. She did talk more to my parents than she did to me although that could partially be due to my age. I also think that my age may have been the reason that the waiter did not offer me a wine list. He asked if I wanted a soda, with a slightly patronizing tone. When he was reading the specials, which were fairly 'un-teen' friendly, such as red snapper and lamb,… [read more]


Northern Newspapers Letters to the Defender Life Up North Chicago Riot Labor Essay

… ¶ … slavery from the books "Journal of Negro History." Specifically it will critically analyze and evaluate the texts while keeping the time period in mind. This is a collection of numerous texts relating to the black experience in the… [read more]


Disabled Veterans Affirmative Action Program DVAAP Research Proposal

… Disabled veterans affirmative action program (DVAAP)

Affirmative action is an actually a reasonably new development when looking at the long history of the United States. Basically, it is designed to ensure that anyone who was treated unfairly in the past… [read more]


Social Psychology - Prejudice Research Proposal

… Social Psychology - Prejudice

PREJUDICE and the ROLE of AGGRESSION in ITS EXPRESSION

Prejudice is a predictable human tendency that exists in myriad forms in virtually all social cultures. Typically, prejudice derives from some of the same atavistic and xenophobic… [read more]


Affirmative Action Is a Temporary Solution Term Paper

… Affirmative Action is a temporary solution to the problem of discrimination. Women and people of color have been systematically excluded from positions of power, their candidacy in education and the workplace undervalued. Because prejudices are often deeply rooted and subconsciously acted on, affirmative action is often necessary as a remedial solution.

However, affirmative action is not an ideal practice. Its use has led to accusations of "reverse racism." Affirmative action seems to mean that an individual gains entry to an academic institution or place of employment because of ethnicity, which would indeed wrong in principle. In practice, affirmative action almost never means that gender or ethnicity ensures success. Opponents of affirmative action also claim that less qualified individuals are given preference over more qualified individuals because of gender or racial background. In fact, most institutions practice a type of affirmative action that guarantees that all successful applicants are equally qualified even when preference is later offered to minorities. Affirmative action also does not necessarily mean that a quota system is used. The main drawback with affirmative action… [read more]


Hispanic Culture in America Term Paper

… Hispanic Culture in America

The Bronze Screen" (2002), "Mi Familia" (1995), and "Real Women Have Curves" all look at Hispanic culture in America. How do these films address culture, identity and assimilation? How important are images in the media in portraying not only minorities but also gender images?

The Bronze Screen" (2002) is a documentary that depicts the often frustrating attempts of Latinos to show 'their' culture to supposedly mainstream America. Despite the fact that America's Latino population is growing, the representation of Latinos in film has been dominated until recently by white stereotypes, from early images of "Zorro" to contemporary urban gang movies. The documentary uses archival footage to examine stereotypes such as the lazy Mexican, the 'Greaser,' the Latin Lover and the Dark Lady, and shows how they came to define Latino identity in the media as hyper-sexualized. Latinos embodied the physical pleasures of the body and romance rather than hard work and other, more 'American' values. Latinos were portrayed as being motivated by violence and lust, not intelligence and drive. Latino culture was seen as anathema to American identity, thus to become a respected American, a Latino must assimilate and cast off his or her Hispanic heritage, or remain forever an outsider.

Only in the last fifteen years or so have films like "Mi Familia" (1995) treated the Hispanic experience with respect and dignity. The strength of a film like "Mi Familia" is that because of its sweeping breadth, it shows that Latinos can have many identities, not just one, and also pays respect and dignity to the uniqueness of the Hispanic-American experience. The film shows horrific scenes, like the historical attempt during the 1930s by the American government to drive Mexican-American citizens out of the nation by rounding them up and sending them across the border, as well as images of hope, as families realize their dreams of gaining an inroad into the American middle class.

In the film, there are scenes of violence, such as when the first generation of Jose and Maria have their wedding disrupted by gangs, but these scenes do not seem stereotypical, because they are also paired with scenes like when one of their daughters, Toni, becomes a nun and urges her brother to marry a woman who is about to be deported back to El Salvador. This shows the sense of unity and connection that has developed amongst Latinos all over, because of the prejudices that Latinos have overcome within… [read more]


Moral Values Subjective Term Paper

… ¶ … moral values subjective or can one make the case that some moral values are objectively valid for all people? Moral values of course differ with different people but moral values are subjective, because moral values are learned, taught, and acquired, rather that obtained objectively or without bias and prejudice. Moral values are subjective because they are learned and acquired, and they are prejudiced because everyone, no matter who they are, has some inherent prejudices about something, there is no other way for humans to function.

Moral values are learned, taught, and acquired as we make our way through life. One philosopher notes, "Moral values are the standards of good and evil, which govern an individual's behavior and choices. Individual's morals may derive from society and government, religion, or self" (Editor). Thus, a person must learn to discern between good and evil, and they base their moral values on those judgments. This is why moral values are not subjective, because what might be good and moral for one person may be quite the opposite for another. For example, one person may believe in a woman's right to choose, while another may not. For each of these people, their moral values are different over the same issue, and that indicates that moral values are not subjective. If they were, they would all be the same for everyone, and of course, that is not the case. Indeed, moral values are a type of comment on who we are, how we were raised, and what we believe, and as such, they are highly learned and taught. Moral values may change throughout life, as well. We might not feel the same way about an issue as we grow older; another indication these values are highly subjective, rather than objective.

In addition, moral values are subjective, because everyone is prejudiced about something, no one is perfectly balanced and objective about everything in life, that is impossible. Prejudice may not be only about race or culture. It can be about anything, from a prejudice against fat people to a prejudice against… [read more]


Secrecy and Titles in the KKK Term Paper

… Secrecy and Titles in the KKK

One of the most important elements of drawing recruitments to the Ku Klux Klan was the element of secrecy. Another draw into the secret circle of the Klan was the opportunity to achieve a "grand title." That is, a title of importance, accompanied by ritual ceremony, that distinguished the person receiving the title as an honored member, who met and achieved the organization's goals and mission such that they were deserving of a title. Both secrecy and grand titles serve to entice otherwise socially disassociated individuals into its brotherhood.

Secrecy, like grand titles, helps the new member gain a sense of importance. That the process and group that he or she is becoming a member of, has a knowledge or other secret or purpose that would cause others, particularly those opposed to that secret or purpose; to want to either have it, or destroy it. In the case of the KKK, it is the purpose to protect and defend the rights of the citizens of the United States and to uphold its Constitutional Laws. Their need to be a group separate and apart from the institutional apparatus of the country which are officially designated with that same responsibility, suggests that the apparatus in place is deceptive in fulfilling its purpose, and will not protect the Constitution or uphold Constitutional Law. Therefore, especially in approaching the day when the public at large might see that the powers that be have indeed failed them; then the KKK must act on behalf of the public - or at least on behalf of the states identified as constituting the "empire" of the KKK.

The areas or states participating in the KKK are administered by a KKK hierarchy. The hierarchy… [read more]


Hate Crime Laws Give Certain People Special Reaction Paper

… ¶ … hate crime laws give certain people special rights and protection over others and are they, therefore, divisive and unfair?

Do these laws value the rights of some people over the rights of others?

It has been suggested that hate crime laws are unfair because they benefit only the minorities they protect. According to this view, individuals of minority racial persuasions and untraditional sexual orientation are protected by hate crime legislation, but individuals not of a minority racial background and whose gender orientation is traditional rather than non-traditional do not benefit from these types of protective legislation. Similarly, it has also been suggested that the protections afforded under hate crime legislation value the rights of those who benefit from their protections over the respective rights of everybody else.

In both cases, the perception is that hate crime laws benefit and protect only the rights and sensibilities of minorities without benefiting or protecting the rights and sensibilities of others the same way, and therefore, that legislation of this type violates the Equal Protection Clause of the United States Constitution (Friedman 2005). The inference, aside from the legal issues of constitutional protections, is that protecting the rights and sensibilities of some people while ignoring the corresponding rights and sensibilities of others is socially divisive and only increases the tensions that may already exist between various races and other differences between people in society.

A fundamental misconception about protections under hate crime legislation is that they apply only to certain classes of individuals in the same manner that Affirmative

Action legislation applies only to some minority classifications to the exclusion of others.

In the case of the latter, it is true that their benefits are available only to members of certain racial classes and other minorities, but that is because the purpose of those programs is to compensate those individuals for past inequities, some of which are still felt by those who experienced unequal treatment in the recent past, as well as by their families, even today (Miller 1990).

However, the crucial difference between those types of programs and legislation designed to redress past harm against specific minorities is that hate crime legislation applies equally to all Americans, regardless of their race, background, or any other differences (Dershowitz 2002). Legislation that prohibits discrimination and that specifically criminalizes crimes motivated by race, for example, protect the rights of all non-minorities just as much as they protect the rights of minorities. The purpose of legislation against hate crimes is not to compensate any particular class of persons, but rather, to protect all people equally. It is no less a crime for a criminal with a minority background… [read more]


Stereotypes of White Men and Hawaiians Term Paper

… ¶ … Function of Stereotypes in 50 First Dates

The Hollywood film 50 First Dates stars Adam Sandler as Henry Roth, a marine life veterinarian based in Hawaii. Roth is obsessed with sex, a "nympho," as one of the Hawaiian… [read more]


Eugenics Movement Term Paper

… Eugenics Movement

THE CURRENT EUGENICS MOVEMENT

It would come as a great surprise to most Americans that the so-called "pseudo-science" of eugenics is still being discussed at many levels in the United States. According to Tony Platt during a speech to the California Senate Judiciary Committee on June 24, 2003, the modern eugenics movement, based on a similar entity that emerged in Europe and the U.S. around 1900, is rooted in "assumptions about the existence of distinct biological races with Anglo-Saxon (i.e., white Anglo-Saxon Protestant) societies as the civilizing bedrock of modernity" ("The Frightening Agenda," Internet). Those who support and encourage the present eugenics movement, not only in the U.S. But elsewhere is the world, advocates "policies of segregation and apartheid in order to protect the 'well-born' from contamination," while its leaders, some of whom belong to a number of the most influential and powerful scientific bodies in existence, believe that "a variety of social successes," such as wealth, political leadership and intellectual discoveries, along with social problems linked to poverty, crime, illegitimacy and mental illness, "can be traced to inherited (and) biological attributes associated with 'racial temperament" (the Frightening Agenda," Internet).

From a medical standpoint, these views on eugenics may appear to be solidly based on current and widely-accepted scientific fact, but with a closer look, these opinions are founded solely on race, bigotry and pure ignorance. However, the inherent power behind these views has managed to convince a very large number of people that eugenics and the current movement that fosters its ideals and principles is the surest and most effective way to not only control how human beings act and live but also population growth around the globe in such places as Africa, Asia and India. A very important aspect of this movement has much to do with sterilization and the "evil of crossbreeding," a reference to inter-racial unions and marriages.

For many eugenicists or those who support eugenics as a medical practice, sterilization serves as "a way to… [read more]


Afrocentrism and Egyptology Western Civilization Term Paper

… Afrocentrism and Egyptology

Western Civilization

According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, Afrocentrism is a term first used in the 1980s by Molefi Asante, an African-American scholar and political activist. Its proponents believe that European and other Western colonists dominated Africans through enslavement and (later) political oppression, and that modern European and other

Western societies are either indifferent toward, or specifically opposed to, any efforts of self-determination on the part of displaced Africans (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2007).

Today, Afrocentrism is a field purportedly supported by scholarly research and literature. According to Ann Macy Roth, Visiting Assistant Professor of Egyptology at Howard University, as it is practiced in the United States, Afrocentrism, and specifically,

Afrocentric Egyptology, is "less a scholarly field than a political and educational movement, aimed at increasing the self- esteem and confidence of African-Americans by stressing the achievements of African civilizations, principally ancient Egypt." (1995)

She goes on to describe Afrocentric Egyptology as a philosophy and set of beliefs promoted to students as early as grade school and continuing through the University level, presented in everything from popular books, academic textbooks, educational posters, and even by major breweries.

Building Bridges to Afrocentrism: A Letter to My Egyptological Colleagues outlines four particular tenets: the belief that ancient Egyptians were black; that ancient

Egyptian culture was more advanced, and therefore, superior to other lauded ancient civilizations; that Greek civilizations co-opted much of their advances directly from black

Egyptians; that more modern African and European cultures owe much of their intellectual and cultural heritage to ancient Egyptian influences; and that a wide-ranging conspiracy rooted in racism is responsible for undermining the wider dissemination and appreciation of Afrocentric philosophy and historical knowledge.

While the author disputes the historical accuracy and factual correctness of those contentions, she maintains that a more delicate and academically sound response is required to avoid perpetuating unnecessary antagonism toward Egyptology on the part… [read more]


Drivers License to Illegal Immigrants Term Paper

… Driver's License To Illegal Immigrants

Senate Bill 1160. There are more than 2.2 undocumented illegal immigrant drivers in California (Bender 2004). They rallied with law enforcers, insurance companies and the religious sector in support of Senate Bill 1160 or the… [read more]


Vaqueros in Some Sense Vaqueros Embodied Term Paper

… Vaqueros

In some sense Vaqueros embodied both the cowboy and the Indian. What do I mean by this, and given their multicultural roots, how do you think cowboy identity transformed into what it is today?

Vaquero culture fused Spanish, Mexican, Indian, and finally Anglo influences. Franciscan missionaries had trained mission Indians and half-Indians in Spanish herding tactics (Iber, 2000). Many of these Indians used their knowledge to operate outside the law and "preyed upon unbranded cattle that roamed the vast estates of northern Mexico" (Jackson, 2000). According to historian Jorge Iber, by the 16th century in the Southwest, the proliferation of livestock enabled these horsemen, now known as Vaqueros to make considerable profits from these unbranded animals, legally and illegally. Thus, the legend of the Vaquero was born.

Because they were usually mestizo or half-Hispanic, half-Indians, the socially and culturally undefined Vaqueros occupied some of the lowest rungs of the social ladder on a ranch, "but they were invariably noted for their horsemanship and stock-tending skills," as the Anglo cowboy would later be romanticized as a skilled horseman who had little use for social graces (Jackson, 2000). The Indian desire to live in defiance of White property rules combined with Spanish equestrian knowledge made the Vaqueros skilled cow rustlers of the highest order, and eventually Anglo ranchers sought to learn from their example.

As ranching made its way north… [read more]


Her First American by Segal Term Paper

… ¶ … American

Reflections on what it means to be Her First American

My first real American.."... "Of the second class." "What means second class, please?"

Lore Segal's novel Her First American is a novel about American attitudes towards race and ethnicity. It is a re-telling of the classical American tale of a positive experience of immigrant assimilation and learning about America shaded with a far darker theme of how America has been unable to embrace a permanent outsider class of unwilling immigrants in the form of African-Americans. The immigrant Austrian woman Ilka Weissnix comes to America, not fluent in the language of the land or in the language of American racial relations. Ilka comes to America to escape persecution, only to find that America is full of its own prejudices. The man who becomes her lover, Carter Bayoux, is unfortunately all too well versed in the prejudices of his native land. Ilka sees America as a place of possibilities; Carter has become jaded, inevitably, as a result of his own experiences as a Black man in a prejudiced White land, where even respectable citizens, men with wives and children, could become his killers after dark.

Ironically, because of his status as an 'other' Carter is not considered a true American by most Whites, much like Ilka was not considered a true Austrian by her fellow countrymen. Ilka, because Carter is not like the refugees she knows in New York, seems like a "real American." She hopes he will function as her introduction to the nation she now calls home. He does, but not in the way she initially expects. Ilka leaves Vienna, thinking that America has no class system. She has come out West to Utah (and mistakenly gets off in Nevada, where she meets Carter) in search of the real America, not a New York filled with foreign refugees much like herself. If she can find the real America, she believes that she will lose her outsider status. The novel shows that it is easier, in many… [read more]


Dark Present and the Possibility Term Paper

… dark present and the possibility of a brighter future, when there will finally be peace among the people: "And it came ta me: 'Twi,' abbreviation of the word 'twice' ... 'Light' is a word that symbolizes knowledge, knowing....So twilight is that time between day and night. Limbo. I call it limbo....So a lot of times when I've brought up ideas to my homeboys, they say, 'Twilight, that's before your time, that's something you can't do now.' When I talked about the truce back in 1988, that was something they considered before its time, yet in 1992 we made it realistic. So to me it's like I'm stuck in limbo, like the sun is stuck between night and day in the twilight hours. (Smith, 253-4) Twilight is ahead of his time because he believes that a change is possible and that the conflict can be some day attenuated. This is why he interprets his name as "twice more light," that is, twice more wisdom. He is thus one of the very few who can actually do more than just notice the violence and the conflict and who actually tries to take action. In spite of the fact that he himself is black and he has seen and experienced himself oppression and discrimination, Twilight Bay tries to make a difference socially, even in the middle of the chaos created by the killings and attacks after the verdict in the King case. He has ideas and he shares them with his gang and the fact that these ideas seem unfit for his time makes him feel as if he were living in the twilight permanently: "Twilight is that time of day between day & #8230;and night….limbo, I call it limbo, ...and sometimes when I take my ideas to my & #8230;homeboys & #8230;they say, well Twilight, that's something you & #8230;.can't do right now, & #8230;.that's an idea before its time.….So sometimes I feel as thought I'm stuck in limbo & #8230;the way the sun is stuck between night and & #8230;day & #8230;in the twilight hours."(Smith, 254) His philosophy is also very symbolic: he is black and so, in a way, he feels he belongs to darkness. At the same time however, he tries to mediate the conflict between races, and therefore he is symbolically between the white and the black color: "Nighttime to me is like a lack of sun, & #8230;but I don't affiliate darkness with anything negative. I affiliate darkness with what came first, & #8230;because… [read more]


Affirmative Action Recommendation Term Paper

… Affirmative Action Recommendation for Affirmative Action

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, and further legislative acts have also prohibited discrimination based upon gender, age, and disability status. To remain in strict compliance with these laws, it would behoove this organization to instate a policy of affirmative action, to create both the appearance and the reality of a diverse organization. It is also worth remembering that the Civil Rights Act of 1991 provides monetary damages to wronged defendants in cases of intentional employment discrimination ("Federal Equal Opportunity Laws," 2007, the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity). An organization even perceived to be discriminatory can be the subject of damaging lawsuits, and the organization can also find itself on the 'wrong end' of damaging publicity, which can even become a greater drain upon the firm's finite resources.

This does not mean that the organization needs to institute a rigid quota system, however, to become compliant with the specifics and the intent of federal EEOC legislation. A quota system, as you may know, earmarks certain jobs or a certain percentage of positions for persons of disadvantaged status, or persons who are of historically underrepresented minority groups. In fact, quotas are illegal in the United States, and universities such as the University of Michigan that have used quota systems have been forced by the U.S. Supreme Court to discontinue their practices (Kangas, 2006). But affirmative action, in contrast, is legal, and merely gives employers the right to take a successful and qualified applicant's status as a member of historically discriminated against group into consideration when evaluating his or her success.

Of course, this causes opponents of the practice to scream: 'shouldn't merit alone be the determinant of a person's qualifications?' But even if race, gender, disability status, age, etcetera were not taken into consideration, the idea of merit is always a subjective concept. Whether an applicant is a team player, or has… [read more]


Asian-American Literature? What Constitutes the Category Term Paper

… ¶ … Asian-American literature?

What constitutes the category of Asian-American literature is by definition problematic. It is a constructed category, based upon the vague sense of geography, and perhaps culture, shared by persons from the region of the world, defined… [read more]


Creative Film Project Term Paper

… Film Project: "Othello" Modernized

Shakespeare is a universal playwright. He deals with common, human themes in all of his tragedies and comedies, whether the setting is Italy, Scotland, a forest in Athens, or a fictional kingdom. But while "The Taming… [read more]


History of Civil Society in America Term Paper

… ¶ … Gathering Storm: America's Militia Threat by Morris Dees and James Corcoran. The writer explores the main thesis of the book and provides insight as to how the authors proved their thesis. There was one source used to complete… [read more]


Boy the Novel No-No Boy by John Book Report

… ¶ … Boy

The novel No-no Boy by John Okada tells about the life of Japanese-Americans in America after the World War II. The novel's main protagonist was Ichiro, a Japanese-American who was of a Japanese blood but was born… [read more]


Demographic Trends in the Chicano a Population Term Paper

… Demographics in Chicana/O Population

The United States is considered the third most populous country in the world with roughly 4.6% of the world's population (Shrestra 2006). Its current population of 299 million is estimated to double its 1950 level of growth of 152 million within the next few years and to modify its characteristics. The U.S. Population Reference Bureau reported that the American population has not only been getting bigger but also older and more diverse. This has been the observation of demographers since 1950 and the consensus is that these characteristics and future trends would alter the shape of the nation in the coming decades till 2050. Underlying factors, such as increased survival from declining mortality rates, fertility levels and international migration, have contributed to its rapid growth. It has also been aging in that there has been more people aged 65 and older and those in the median age. Lastly, the American population has been becoming more racially and ethnically diverse, with the Hispanic or Latino people as a major racial group. They are Mexican-Americans called Chicano or Chicana. Recent trends have exerted influence over or relate to essential societal domains, such as work, retirement, pension, private wealth and income security, the health and well-being of the aging population of the U.S. (Shrestha).

Statistics showed that the Chicano population has grown from 4.7 million in 1980 to 13.4 million in 1990 at a 54% intercensal increase and constituted 8% of the American population (Baker). At the turn of the century, Chicanos accounted for more than 10% of the national population. The Chicanos' growth since 1980 has been due to childbirth as compared with that of African-Americans by natural increase and Asian-Americans by international migration. The issues confronted by immigration policy center on eligibility for public services, mainly health, education and welfare. Those who support immigration restrictions contend that immigrants drain public funds and reduce wages and working conditions in places or communities where they settle in large numbers. Local governments, where these communities are located, have incurred increased health and education costs. Another consequence is that either legal or undocumented immigrants tend to be more exploited in work places than American citizens. Furthermore, most of the violations committed in the workplace are violations of U.S. wage and hour laws. The wage-depressing effects of immigration could be contained by ensuring that employers do not exploit workers who are desperate for work (Baker).

Public education and welfare are the other major issues for policy-making in the 21st century (Baker). Realistic allocations can be made only when based on true population composition. This is… [read more]


Linda Villarosa Addresses the Issue of Affirmative Term Paper

… ¶ … Linda Villarosa addresses the issue of affirmative action, discrimination, and the role of the Supreme Court in promoting equality. The point of the article is that the Supreme Court generally discriminates against minority groups in their rulings. In… [read more]


Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry and the Dutchman by Amiri Baraka Term Paper

… Dutchman and a Raisin in the Sun

African-American Manhood and Social/Economic Obstacles in Two Plays by African-American Authors: Amiri Baraka's Dutchman and Lorraine Hansberry's a Raisin in the Sun

Within two 20th century plays by two respective African-American authors: Dutchman… [read more]


System of Castas/Latin American History Term Paper

… The matrimonial relations between Spaniards and Indians biologically generated the Mestizos, considered superior in the social stratum than that of the Indians and more inclined towards European patterns. Equivalent structure of social hierarchy occurred from Europeans sexual exploitation of African slaves in Brazil. In all of the Latin America social status indicated racial origins. The elite class consists of whites and blacks or Indians were considered to be at the bottom and in between there remained castas suffering from various social limitations. Irrespective of such social confinements the castas still constitute a considerable proportion of Latin American populations. Irrespective of racial origin, household continues to be patriarchal and women did have rights in dowry, inheritance and some reach to commerce. (Early Latin America)

The system of castas was based on the concept of 'purity of blood' indicating that bloodlines were infallible determinants of physical beauty and psychic character. From this it is inferred that those of 'unclean' origins were carriers of biological imperfections and were not suitable to held positions of moral and political authority. As a symbol of Old World of debauchery and profligate sexual behavior of in the New, a completely new classes children were born out of the arrival of European Women and their union with Spaniards. Such children who were not either slave or white were indicated to be the castas. The colonial society earmarked for them and their offspring, a complicated hierarchical system, not rigid but a flexible one, that is described and categorized in terms of the percentage of Indian and/or black blood. (Poverty alleviation program for minority communities in Latin America: Communities of African Ancestry in Latin America history, Population, Contributions and social attitudes social and economic conditions)

References

Early Latin America. Retrieved from http://occawlonline.pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/stearns_awl/chapter25/objectives/deluxe-content.html Accessed 7 November, 2005

Fulopp, Tomas J. Latin America and the Concept of Social Race. Retrieved from http://www.vacilando.org/index.php?x=810 Accessed 7 November, 2005

Montalvo, Frank. Danzon and Mexico's Caste System. Retrieved from http://www.webcom.com/~intvoice/montalvo3.html Accessed 7 November, 2005

Poverty alleviation program for minority communities in Latin America: Communities of African Ancestry in Latin America history, Population, Contributions and social attitudes social and economic conditions. Retrieved from http://enet.iadb.org/idbdocswebservices/idbdocsInternet/IADBPublicDoc.aspx?docnum=479869 Accessed 7 November, 2005

Rodriguez, Gregory. An Unsettling Racial Score Card. Times Magazine. 18 July, 2004.

Retrieved from http://www.newamerica.net/index.cfm?pg=article& DocID=1893 Accessed 7 November, 2005 [read more]


One Supreme Court Case Term Paper

… ¶ … 1978, the aftermath of the civil rights movement still tore at seams of the status quo of the American social fabric. As the nation came to reckoning with the vast differences in racial progress, perception, and treatment, it… [read more]


Affirmative Action? Just Term Paper

… It continued to be controversial, but it also allowed many women and minorities to gain a foothold in the educational and business communities. Many people who companies and schools might have overlooked got good educations and decent jobs because of affirmative action. However, that did not stop other people from saying it was preferential and kept qualified men and whites out of jobs they were highly qualified for. Even President Clinton acknowledged the dilemma of how to choose between a white and a black using affirmative action procedures. He said, "Imagine a college admissions committee trying to decide between the white [son] of an Appalachian coal miner's family and the African-American son of a successful Pittsburgh neurosurgeon. Why should the black applicant get preference over the white applicant?" ("Affirmative Action"). Many people came to hate the idea of affirmative action, and challenge it in the court system.

In 2003, for example, affirmative action made headline news when students at the University of Michigan's Law School finally had their day in the U.S. Supreme Court. They had initilly filed a suit in 1997 that challenged the University's affirmative action admissions process. The two white students alleged that the university used race as a major factor in admissions to the Law School, and that it actually acted as "reverse discrimination" against more qualified white students. Eventually, the case made its' way to the Supreme Court -- the first such affirmative action case heard in 25 years, and the Court supported the Univeristy's admissions procedures. This opened up the topic for current debate and made it even more controversial.

One thing is sure, affirmative action can be defined differently by different people. Some see it as a postive step for women and minorities, and others see it as a way to discriminate against white people. It is an emotional and debated subject that will not disappear in the future.

References

"Affirmative Action." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 4 March 2005.… [read more]


Modern Civil Rights Legislation Term Paper

… ¶ … Civil Rights Legislation

Due to events and developments, such as police-dog attacks, cattle prods, high-pressure water hoses, beatings, bombings, the March on Washington, and the emergence of the black militancy, Congress acted on behalf of the African-Americans, resulting in the second era of civil rights acts, generally referred to as the second Reconstruction (Modern 156).

The Civil Rights Act of 1957 established a Civil Rights Commission and a new Civil Rights Division within the Justice Department, while the Civil Rights Act of 1960 provided legal protection against the documented practice of discrimination, and enabled the Justice Department to bring suit event against a state (Modern 156). The 1960 act also established penalties for obstructing a federal court order by threat of force and for illegally using and transporting explosives Modern 156). However, overall, neither the 1957 or the 1960 acts had substantive impact (Modern 156).

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, which forbade discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, and national origin, was the most far-reaching bill on civil rights of the modern era (Modern 156). The major provisions of this act outlawed arbitrary discrimination in voter registration, barred discrimination in public accommodations, such as hotels and restaurants, authorized federal prosecution to desegregate public schools and facilities and the withholding of federal funds, established the right to equality of opportunity in employment, and expanded the power of the Civil Rights Commission and extended it life (Modern 156).

Violence perpetrated against protesting African-Americans and whites in the South led to a dramatic change in the climate of public opinion, thus spurring the passage of the 1964 act (Modern 156). Moreover, many believe that the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963 had a significant effect on the national conscience, thus the act served as a tribute by Congress to the martyred President (Modern 156). However, the act was passed only after an eighty-three day filibuster, the longest in the history of the Senate, and cloture was imposed for the first time to cut off a civil rights filibuster (Modern 157).

Title VII of the 1964 act is the cornerstone of employment discrimination law, by prohibiting discrimination in employment based on race, color, religion, gender, or national origin, and under which banned employment discrimination by firms that received any federal funding (Modern 157). The 1964 act also created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, a five member commission to administer Title VII (Modern 157). The EEOC can issue interpretive guidelines and regulations, and has investigating powers, and has broad authority to require the production of documentary evidence, to hold hearings, and to subpoena and examine witnesses under oath (Modern 157).

In 1960, less than 30% of African-Americans of voting age were registered in the southern states, compared to over 60% of whites, leading Martin Luther King, jr. In 1965 to organize a 50-mile march from Selma, Alabama… [read more]


Ku Klux Klan Was Founded Term Paper

… The intent of this second Klan was to maintain the dominance of white Protestants over blacks, as well as Roman Catholics, Jews, Asians, and other immigrants (Ku pp). Although this group preached racism and was known for lynching and other violent acts, it operated openly, and by the 1920's had over 4 million members, many of whom were politicians at all levels of government (Ku pp).

By 1949, the Klan was fractured by internal disputes and hounded by investigations in response to violence in the South, and many Klansmen went to jail (Hundred pp). By the early 1950's, membership was low, and although the Klan has peaked and waned over the years, it has never vanished (Hundred pp).

Work Cited

A Hundred Years of Terror. Retrieved August 18, 2005 from:

http://www.iupui.edu/~aao/kkk.html

Ku Klux Klan. Retrieved August 18, 2005 from:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ku_Klux_Klan [read more]


Right Thing" Constitute a Response Term Paper

… My state, my land, says Griffith's plantation owners -- they are even willing to sever family ties to defend they way of life. The Italian-Americans of "Do the Right Thing" see themselves as righteous enough in their ownership of the neighborhood and economic stability in Brooklyn to enshrine only Italian-Americans in a place of special honor in the hallowed halls of their restaurant space.

Both groups, Southern and Italian, defend their right to affirm their identity as such Americans and as property owners in a capitalist America. Yet to do so affirms their separateness as well as their social and economic status through marginalizing other groups. In the case of Griffith's film, "Birth of a Nation" celebrates such affirmation of identity through the use of the bodies of enslaved African-Americas. Lee's film acts as a response to Griffith as he shows that such affirmations of American white identity through marginalizing blacks merely makes the African-American patrons of the store, who make up the majority of the pizza parlor's customers and provide the majority of its economic sustenance, feel less a part of life at what should be a local community hang-out.

Lee implies that it is only natural that one would like to see representatives of one's own America on the walls. The pizza parlor owner's Danny's refusal to do so may not actually and actively enslave the bodies of his clients, but it does make them feel less a part of the neighborhood, and thus less a part of the America both the pizza parlor's owner and Danny should commonly share. As African-Americans could not look at "Birth of a Nation" and see true pictures of their identity on the screen, so the patrons of the Brooklyn parlor cannot look at themselves upon the walls and find themselves in accurate forms -- or find themselves at all, for that matter.

Works Cited

"The Birth of a Nation." Directed by D.W. Griffith. 1915.

'Do the Right Thing." Directed by Spike… [read more]


Psychology of the Bigot Term Paper

… Sartre added to his analysis that the forms anti-Semitism took provided a kind of secret delight in the hearts of haters, given its quality of linguistic discourse. It takes, he suggested, the form of taunts rather than anything remotely approaching rational political dialogue. The irrational delight of anti-Semitism provides the core of its pleasure -- its pleasure came from its lack of real, rational political debate and structure such as when the Nazi party gained power in Germany and one of the first steps it took was to prohibit Jews from using the same swimming pools as gentile. Baldwin similarly stresses the anti-rational nature of racism, however he suggests that the level of outwardly directed hatred onto such things as the 'Red Menace' were in fact a way of Americans dealing with the blatant injustices woven into their own society and constitution.

Thus, Sartre sees bigotry as hatred of one's own society directed outward, while Baldwin sees bigotry as the crux of the matter of societal injustice, a hatred that becomes directed to other, political channels as a means to avoidance. The two texts also take slightly different forms. Sartre's essays in "Anti-Semite and Jew" take the form of monologues written in the form of Sartre speaking in the projected voices of others, including an anti-Semite, a Jew, a self-hating Jew, a democrat, and a Jew who is self-accepting, while Baldwin favors more straightforward polemics. Sartre attempts to specifically discredit anti-Semitic arguments, such as the supposed racial clannishness of Jews and the popular claim at the time, w that Jewish people encourage the subordination of non-Jewish people to Jews in the work place, while Baldwin is equally concerned in addressing the souls of his Black readership's psychology with a rehabilitative aim. Still, the stress upon hatred in the hearts of bigots of the self as well as the supposed object of hatred runs through both texts in a persuasive and pervasive fashion.

Works Cited

Baldwin, James. "The Fire Next Time." 1965.

Sartre, Jean-Paul. Anti-Semite and Jew: An Exploration of the Etiology of Hate.… [read more]


Malcolm X Term Paper

… He favored an independent black state, rather than integration or de-segregation. His message to white people was that blacks would fight back. He did not believe in a policy of non-violence. If violence was necessary for self-protection, he would endorse it. Human rights became a central issue because it wasn't just a matter of riding in the front of the bus and getting rid of separate drinking fountains. The white attitude toward blacks was that they weren't human beings with the same hopes and fears as any other human being. Blacks were not just denied their civil rights. They were beaten, abused, lynched, and wrongfully imprisoned, all violations of human rights. His final spiritual teachings had to do with the possibility of world brotherhood. After he left The Nation of Islam, he converted to orthodox Islam and learned to be a real Muslim. He renounced his previous hatred for whites and declared that all people are the children of Allah. He had developed a broader vision of the problem of race and called for international cooperation: "This is a world problem, a problem of humanity."

6. What can Malcolm tell us about the value of education? Malcolm was self-educated. He learned first from his life on the streets as a drug dealer, a numbers runner, a hustler, and a small-time burglar. After he went to prison, his sister was instrumental in getting him transferred to an experimental prison, where prisoners were treated more humanely, and where there was a library with a heavy concentration of history and religion books. His education in prison, combined with his conversion to the Nation of Islam transformed him. When he got out, he went to Detroit and met his spiritual leader, Elijah Muhammud. He began preaching, teaching, and giving speeches. He recruited black youth into the Nation. Education had given him a mission.

9. How do racial and other group identifications shape our sense of who we are? The society we are born into teaches us to see ourselves in a certain way. If we are not allowed to speak out about our concerns, for example, and if we are prevented from expressing dissent, this sends a message that we are not as "worthy" as other people. If we are prevented from entering the profession of our choice, or prevented from obtaining an education, this tells us we are inferior, incompetent, and incapable of improvement. If we internalize these negative concepts, we tend to become what society tells us we are, as Michael became a hustler, a pimp, and a numbers runner. Likewise, his image of himself was transformed while he was in prison as a result of joining the Nation of Islam where he found acceptance and people who appreciated and needed… [read more]


Hurston and Wright Richard Wright and Zora Term Paper

… Hurston and Wright

Richard Wright and Zora Neale Hurston: Experiences of Color

When comparing Richard Wright's essay with Zora Neale Hurston's, significant differences are evident. The most prominent of these is the general attitude of each writer towards the injustices leveled at people of color during their childhood and early adulthood. These differences may be attributed to a number of elements, such as location and gender, as well as the attitude and effect of others on their lives.

Wright's attitude for example is somewhat submissive. He appears at first puzzled, and then to accept the cruel and unjust treatment he receives. It is only later that he finds ways to assert himself and retain a degree of self-respect. He does all this in a very quiet way. Throughout his essay, the author stresses that the events in his life played an educational role for him. It is then these that most influence his thinking and actions as a grown man.

The most significant event in his life is then probably what he refers to as his "first lesson in how to live as a Negro." From the white boys and the fight he has with them he learns that whites have the best tools and skills to survive in the world. His mother reinforces the lesson with a beating and the assertion that a Negro can only survive by being obliged to white people. These lessons carry the young man throughout his growing years and early adulthood, when he makes a success of his life by working for a fairly affluent optical company. Wright's success ensues from being indebted to white people and submitting to them.

The author levels a gentle protest against oppression, which in the end gains for him a measure of self-respect. This occurs in very gradual measures, with Wright always playing a submissive role and gaining what he wants in this way. It appears to work, as in the end he is employed with a prestigious company, and finally learns that self-respect an essential ingredient of respect for others. This elevates him above his oppressors, even when they are unaware of it.

Zora Neale Hurston on the other hand refuses to be either silent or accepting of oppression. On the other hand, she refuses to… [read more]


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