Study "Race / Ethnic Studies / Racism" Essays 881-904

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Disney and Diversity: The Disney Corporation Thesis

… Disney and Diversity: The Disney Corporation and Its Role in the 21st Century Global Marketplace

More than one-third of America belongs to a minority group -- including, of course, the nation's President Obama (Christie 2009). One reason for the rapid increase in individuals who label themselves as minorities is the fact that the nation's Hispanic population increased 1.4 million between 2006 to 2007, according to the most recent U.S. census, or 15.1% of the estimated total U.S. population of 301.6 million. The Asian population rose by 2.9% between 2006 and 2007. The American Indian and Alaska Native population rose by 1% or during the same period. Moreover, the median ages of these groups tend to be younger than that of the composite population, making them a particularly attractive marketing target: "the Hispanic population in 2007 had a median age of 27.6, compared with the population as a whole at 36.6. (Bernstein 2008). Almost 34% of the Hispanic population was younger than 18, compared with 25% of the total population.

The Disney Corporation has tried to create a more diverse face for its company, as manifested in the launch of its Princess product line, which showcased such non-white princesses as Pocahontas, Mulan, and the recent African-American cartoon star of the Princess and the Frog. However, despite the popularity of Hannah Montana/Miley Syrus and the Jonas Brothers, the television and musical incarnations of the Disney brand have not been as diverse in appearance as Disney cartoons. The greater acceptance of diversity in the population, as manifest in the popularity of all of Disney's non-white princesses, suggests that Disney can create a brand with even greater cross-over appeal, provided it increases the diversity of its image in 'real life' movies and television shows. Disney has promoted diversity in the storylines of its cartoon films, especially with non-human actors like the Lion King and the Little Mermaid's calypso-playing crab sidekick. Now it is time to embrace diversity in human form, and in live-action form, so that Disney's future consumers can see an accurate reflection of themselves in all Disney products. The success of its Broadway production of the Lion King, which emphasized the African setting and status of its central characters, supports this idea.

The Lion King's openly African images and sounds also indicate that the new characters developed by Disney must be culturally appropriate, and not simply a generic change in skin tone. For example, in contrast to some sarcastic television programs that pit teens against their family, or show them as smarter than their parents, in Hispanic culture. Said one Hispanic female, of her experience: "Family by far is the most valued part of... [every] Hispanic's life… no matter how busy the parents are, there is always time for the children...No matter what happens in life, one thing most children of Hispanic families grow up with… is the essential knowledge that your parents and all the other adults in the family as well… [read more]

Canarsie Away From Liberalism in His Book Term Paper

… Canarsie

Away From Liberalism

In his book Canarsie: The Jews and Italians of Brooklyn Against Liberalism, author Jonathan Rider provides an impressively simple understanding of the complex issues that drove the Jewish and Italian inhabitants of Canarsie, a neighborhood in Brooklyn, away from liberalism and towards an overtly racist conservativism. According to his explanation, the most important factors in this shift were the strength of the intra-community bonds and a cultural mistrust of outsiders, combined with the increasing presence of African-Americans drawn to the neighborhood. As long as liberalism remained local to the community in terms of people (and not geography), it was an ideal concept, but conservative policies were more in keeping with protecting an established neighborhood from perceived negative or simply altering influences from a group of outsiders.

There were many concrete and abstract threats that the Canarsians perceived in the encroaching color line, including immorality, poverty and crime. What seems to have been the biggest fear, however, was intervention in community affairs by outside agencies in the form of both the African-American community itself and the government agencies whose housing plans and other programs were largely responsible for creating the racial migration into East New York in general and Canarsie in particular. They regarded askance any "formal remedies of strangers, including those of the state" when applied to what were perceived as local community affairs, and a major fear seems to have been a loss of the autonomy that two groups had sought in the establishment of their… [read more]

Hispanic Politics Essay

… Hispanic Politics

The New Wave of Immigrants Brings a New Face to Huston

Huston has a reputation of friendliness and down-to-earth good country living. It is the bridge between the gap of Southern ideals and modern technological society which reeks of industry and consumer capitalism. As we enter further into the new millennium, it is obvious that the largest growing demographic within Huston is not surprisingly the Hispanic population. As seen elsewhere in the nation, this rise in the Hispanic community has given more political clout and community involvement to Hispanics within the area. In order to best present a better future for a modern Huston, the Hispanic community must harness its growing power in order to best fight for the interests of its Hispanic citizens and for the future of Huston itself.

Within the past few decades, the face of Huston itself has changed dramatically. Previous to the 1990s most immigrants entering into the Huston area were of non-Hispanic, or white origins. This went a long with the larger trends seen all over the country in terms of immigrant figures and representations. In fact, the Anglo population of Huston's counties and suburbs was the population which increased most within the 1950s and 1960s. However, modern waves of immigration have placed a much different face to the new immigrant landing on American soil. Since 1990, the Hispanic population has been the demographic to have seen the most growth within Harris county in Texas. This is part because of the close proximity to major Latino nations such as Mexico, along with changing immigrant trends which were also experienced in cities nationwide. By 2000, Hispanics made up 33% of the entire population, making them a powerful demographic within urban and suburban Huston city politics. This is not a surprising number, for local media outlets have created a fervor in the wave of new immigrants which would make the number increase to seem higher than it actually is. However, this is a powerful increase, giving the Hispanic community more clout within urban Huston politics.

In fact Huston does compare well when placed in comparison to other urban areas. Even with such a large influx of Hispanic immigrants in such a small duration of time, most Huston residents still view their city favorably. The citizens of Huston itself believe that the city does fair better than other urban areas of comparable size and urban populations. In fact, over 78% of residents thought that Huston proves a better place to live than other large urban areas scattered all over the country. In spite of the humid weather and low lying land status which opens up the… [read more]

Autobiography of One Self Essay

… Autobiography

My memory from ten years ago is vague. Perhaps this is normal, as I was only eight years old back then. Maybe nobody can really remember all the way back when they were eight. I am 18 now, and… [read more]

Hispanics Turning Back to Democrats for 2008 Essay

… Hispanic Voters in 2008

President George W. Bush had great success in drawing Hispanic voters over to the Republican Party. Susan Page of USA Today notes that 40% of Hispanic voters in 2004 voted for Bush, showing remarkable gains over the past decade, and coming in with twice the number of Hispanic voters that Bob Dole did in his Republican bid for the Presidency on 21996 (Page, 2007). President Bush's success was the result of many things, not the least of which was his choice to speak Spanish at many of his campaign stops, and to make sure to praise traditional Hispanic values in an attempt to illustrate the ways in which the Republican Party and his own personal ideologies were aligned with those of the general Hispanic population.

But even back in 2007, it was clear that Bush's success was wearing off, and that Hispanics were returning to what has been the traditional party of Hispanics and other minorities for most of the twentieth century -- the Democratic Party. In fact, a poll conducted in 2007 showed that Hispanics were more likely to identify as Democrats by a three-to-one ration compared to Republicans (Page, 2007). Part of the reason, it is suspected, is the same reason that President Bush's and the Republican Party's approval ratings fell overall during his second term in the highest office in the land; the continued entanglement in the Iraq war, the abuses of power that became widely reported and the accompanying resignation of many prominent members of President Bush's Cabinet, and other factors not directly related to Hispanic voters in specific had an affect on these voters and citizens across the country (and indeed, around the world). Though his approval ratings had soared at times, President Bush's second term cost him the confidence of a lot of voters, including Hispanics and… [read more]

Discrimination Immigration and Struggle by Latinos Immigrant to USA Essay

… Discrimination, inmigration, and struggle by latinos inmigrant to USA

In spite of the U.S. huge expenses on controlling its border with Mexic, the number of illegal Latino immigrants does not appear to have significantly dropped since 1993.

The Pew Hispanic… [read more]

Alice Walker's Everyday Use Term Paper

… Alice Walker's "Everyday Use"

The Problem of Afro- American Heritage in Alice Walker's Everyday Use

Cultural heritage should be something for "everyday use" and not something that is to be merely stored into a safe place as an emblem for identity. In Alice's Walker's short story entitled Everyday Use the tension between the mother and her eldest daughter is given by their conflicting ideas about identity and cultural heritage: Dee understands identity as the strict preservation of tradition, whereas the mother simply lives her life remembering the past but also observing the present.

Thus, the contrast between the mother or narrator of the story and her oldest daughter is very striking and very symbolic at the same time. The mother describes herself as a rather uncouth and uneducated person, having the strength of a man, both physically and morally. Dee is however educated and very stylish, with a strong personality. The two obviously appreciate their own heritage in a contrasting way. The mother and her younger daughter simply live their lives in the way in which they inherited from their grandmothers. However, they also live in the present American society. Dee, by contrast, rejects the American and engulfs herself in a strictly African style of life which obviously becomes an obsession for her.

For the mother, tradition is something that she remembers but that she does not use as an emblem. Dee, on the other hand changes her name and her appearance to fit her new identity better and to become entirely African. The mother and Maggie, the youngest daughter, are obviously wiser when they put tradition to everyday use. Moreover, they are much more capable to adapt to the present and this is proven when they manage to learn the difficult names that Dee and her partner have taken up: "You don't have to call me by it if you don't want to,' said Wangero. 'Why shouldn't 1?' I asked. 'If that's what you want us to call you, we'll call you.' 'I know it might sound awkward at first,' said Wangero. 'I'll get used to it,' I said. 'Ream it out… [read more]

New Orleans, Post-Katrina Term Paper

… Post-Katrina New Orleans

Two years after Katrina the population of New Orleans is still growing, but only 40% of children in the public schools are previous inhabitants. Homes are for sale everywhere and, though the prices have… [read more]

U.S. vs. Cecil Price Et Al. 1967 Term Paper

… U.S. Vs. Cecil Price

In 1964 three people were killed by members of the Ku Klux Klan in Longdale, Mississippi. The trial that followed the discovery of the three dead bodies represented a crucial milestone in the fight for civil rights. Medical investigations later confirmed the fact that the corpses were those of three men who had been reported missing in the area, James Chaney, Michael Schwerner, and Andrew Goodman, well-known activists preaching equal rights. This was in fact the first trial which resulted in the first convictions in a civil rights case in the state of Mississippi considered the most segregated and resistant to racial integration.

The Ku Klux Klan was widely accepted in the South. This can be explained by looking at the institution of slavery which was based on racial division in society. The defeat of the South and consequently, the abolition of slavery were still considered unjust by a large part of the Southern population which identified with the concept of slavery. Former slave owners were now living side by side with their ex-slaves which also contributed to the rise of extreme racist groups; the most prominent was without a doubt the Ku Klux Klan. The three murders had been predicted due to the rage and hatred that had accumulated in the local community as a result of the Mississippi Summer Project which aimed at gathering hundreds of students in support of civil rights. The first target that was established by the Klan was Michael Schwerner, the first white activist based outside of Jackson who organized boycotts of white-owned businesses and militated for the African-Americans' right to vote.

The first attempt of the Klan to murder Schwerner was on June 16, 1964 when the latter was supposed to visit a black congregation to ask for their permission to use the church as the site of a "Freedom School" whose purpose was to end political disenfranchisement of the African-American population of the South. Outside the church, thirty Klan members had gathered with rifles looking for Schwerner but did not manage to find him because he was in Ohio participating in a conference. Instead, they beat members of the congregation and spread gasoline inside the church and eventually burned it down. As soon as they heard about the beatings, Chaney, Goodman and Schwerner went to Neshoba County, Mississippi to inspect the site of the burnt church and to talk to local fellow activists. The three activists were not murdered by local authorities although their hatred of civil rights movement was well-known throughout the country. In fact, both the sheriff - Lawrence Rainey - and sheriff deputy - Cecil Price - were Klan members. Nonetheless, they were imprisoned for… [read more]

Chicano Latino Community Term Paper

… Chicano/Latino Community

According to the NHLBI Information Center, there has been a great increase in the Latino population of Washington DC over the years from 1980 to 1990. Specifically, the population group doubled in the area, raising from 3 to 6% of the population in the area. Currently the Latino population features as the largest cultural and linguistic minority in the city. The majority of this population originate from Central America, with other large percentages of Mexican origin, an a third percentage identifying themselves as Hispanic, but not from South American or Mexican origin.

In terms of education, a large percentage of the Latino community has not finished high school. Specifically, 36% of adult Latinos residing in Washington have less than a high school education. 19% did pass high school successfully, while 23% have a tertiary education that includes a bachelor's or advanced degree. Concomitantly, the majority of Latinos work in the service industry, and fall in the middle to low level income groups. Forty-four percent of Latinos are in higher-level occupations such as professional, managerial, or technical positions, while only 5% of households fall into the higher than $100,000 income category.

Language is a substantial barrier to providing the Latino population with a high-quality education and subsequent high-income occupations. Most of the Latino population in Washington - 83% - speak a language other than English, with 40% not being very proficient in the language, and 30% living in households where the English proficiency level is so low as to be linguistically isolating from the rest of the population. This has significant consequences for education in the Latino population.

The same is true of the Latino population in Texas. According to leading educators, this population is increasingly segregated into poor school districts. This then creates a cycle of poor schooling, resulting in poor job prospects and further poor schooling prospects for future generations. Exacerbating the problem is the fact that teachers in these poor districts are often new and unprepared for the challenges presented by this particular community. The language barrier offers a further obstacle to quality education for the Latino community.

In response, the "Great City Project" has been launched in order to address problems of economic disadvantage and the low level of teaching quality to the community. The Project is a collaboration between Texas a&M's College of Education and the Houston school system. Teachers are trained specifically to teach in economically disadvantaged schools where the need is the greatest. Satisfactory results have been reported for the project, including the 90% five-year retention rate for teachers in the inner city of Houston.

Certainly the rest of the United States can follow such examples of excellence in providing the Latino community with the education that is the right of every American. It has been seen above that the language barrier, the cycle of poverty, and the lack of teaching resources conspire to the lack of education for the Latino community in… [read more]

Egoism/Ethics an Egoist Looks Out Term Paper

… Egoism/Ethics

An egoist looks out for his or her own self-interests. In fact, an ethical egoist stance assumes that the morally correct choice must be based on self-interest. Maximizing self-interest may or may not benefit others indirectly. However, an egoist knows that selfless service does not always lead to beneficial results and that the only individual whose life we can control is the actor -- the self.

Egoists' stance on affirmative action would therefore depend on self-interest alone. A black woman egoist may support affirmative action knowing that she would benefit personally. Likewise, a white man egoist would likely oppose affirmative action knowing that his self-interest depended on the status quo.

Interestingly, however, the egoist may support that which benefits others is -- and only if -- that action also benefits the self-directly or indirectly. Therefore, an egoist black politician might oppose affirmative action if the stance would earn him support in an upcoming election. An egoist white politician might support affirmative action for similar reasons. In either case, the egoist does not take… [read more]

Never Marry a Mexican Term Paper

… Sandra Cisneros

In the story "Never Marry a Mexican," writer Sandra Cisneros delved into the issue of acculturation of the minority into the mainstream or American culture. The protagonist, Clemencia, was characterized as a woman who was averse to the idea that she would lose her 'Latin identity,' as she witnessed her mother re-marrying to an American. Fleeing her home and establishing her life in a barrio was Clemencia's attempt to re-discover and re-affirm her identity as a 'pure' Latino. However, it was also remarkable how, in her attempt to preserve her cultural identity, she involved herself in a relationship with an American. This action contradicted her feelings of loathing when her mother decided to marry an American: "...she knew as well as I did that there was no home to go home to. Not with out mother. Not with that man she married...When she married the white was as if she stopped being my mother..." Though Clemencia rationalized that involving herself in a relationship… [read more]

Affirmative Action Plan Term Paper

… Due to widespread concern, XYZ is expanding company policy to include male workers for eligibility for paternity leave. It is our belief that fathers should participate fully in every stage of their child's development and therefore XYZ wishes to facilitate this process. Any male employee who seeks paternity leave will be granted a leave of absence equal in length and equal in compensation with their female counterparts.

The lack of diversity evident at upper management levels of XYZ is a growing concern among all employees. XYZ has managed to retain a diverse workforce at every other level of our operation except for upper-level management and therefore we realize the necessity for change as well as the possibility to implement change. This Affirmative Action Plan in part proposes that promotions be made with conscientious attention paid to recruiting management staff who are as of now underrepresented. Under-representation will be defined according to the workforce population as a whole, and secondarily, according to the demographics of our community. We believe that equal representation at upper management levels is of the utmost importance because of the significance of the decisions made at that level.

Finally, XYZ ensures all employees that equal pay for equal work remains a top priority. While XYZ does comply with state and federal regulations regarding equal pay for equal work, we feel that far more can be done to balance out the discrepancies between compensation and benefit rates for male and female employees. Gender in particular remains a major factor determining pay rates. Again, upper-level management is the sector most affected by unequal compensation rates. This Affirmative Action Plan sets forth a guideline for easing XYZ into a salary-equity program that will result in a steady increase of pay for underpaid employees without discrimination against employees who are already earning the target salaries. [read more]

Death Human Beings Term Paper

… In this way, the spectators had actual and vicarious authority over the accused.

Like executions and fights in the gladiator arena, lynchings were done to make a dominant group feel superior. Lynchings, while allegedly done to avenge a particular incident, generally had a broader motive: to reinforce the concept of white superiority. By showing the extra-legal ability of whites to end black lives, without fear of punishment or reprisal, whites could demonstrate their feeling of racial superiority.

It is very clear that publicly sanctioned murders, whatever their setting, serve as society's way of asserting dominance over certain segments of society. The segments that are targeted reflect the values and mores of the dominant society. Therefore, a dominant society that tolerates racial discrimination or other caste-like divides has public murders in the form of the gladiator arena or lynchings. In contrast, dominant societies that claim to be based on equality require something, such as a criminal conviction, to justify relegating someone to the status of "other" and causing the end of… [read more]

White Supremacists in the US Term Paper

… Sociology-Politics

White Supremacy

This is a paper on the Ku Klux Klan. There are four references used for this paper.

There are a number of groups across the country which weld political power. It is important to look at the while supremacy group, the Ku Klux Klan, and determine its political power.

Political Power

The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) was "established in 1867 and its main objective was to maintain white supremacy in the South, which they felt was under threat after their defeat in the Civil War (" When the organization was formed, "their activities served for the Democratic party and attacked Republicans ("

The Klan was a strong political power during the 1920s. They "successfully elected three U.S. senators, eleven governors and half of the 1924 Indiana state legislature. Its focus on Americanism, patriotism and Protestant morality appealed to thousands of mainstream Americans, and it suggested that President Warren G. Harding had been inducted into the Klan. The Klan pushed anti-alien legislation, worked to demand more federal aid to public schools and sought to reform municipalities in order to rid them of vice and corruption ("

Over the years, the Klan has been destroyed a number of times, such as in when white Republicans broke up the Klan in the… [read more]

Mexican American or Latino Civil Rights Term Paper

… Chicano -- Mexican Civil Rights

Chicano! The History of the Mexican-American Civil Rights Movement

The 1960's in America was a time of such tremendous civil unrest, from the African-American civil rights movement, to the beginnings of the modern women's right's… [read more]

Benito Cereno by Herman Melville Term Paper

… .. It is Babo here to whom, under God, I owe not only my own preservation, but likewise to him, chiefly, the merit is due, of pacifying his more ignorant brethren, when at intervals tempted to murmurings."

Apart from Benito's character, Melville also used the setting of the sea as an effective means to convey the issue of social inequality between the blacks and whites. Through the setting, Melville extends the message that in the midst of the wide, open sea, social inequality does not exist, a social norm that had always been the order followed in dominantly white societies. Thus, the black slaves have gained power in the sea for there no longer exists the pressure of society: it is only the blacks against the whites, and the former's large number made it possible for them to declare mutiny against the whites. The declaration of mutiny marks the potential of oppressed people to arrive at violent resolutions to express their disagreement and reaction to the perpetuation of the slavery system and racial discrimination in Western societies.

Lastly, the symbolic representation of the continued dominance of the whites against the blacks is reflected in the fact that Babo, one of the black mutineers, and other black slaves, failed to overpower the whites. Melville depicts this in the last chapter of the novel, wherein Delano hangs the head of Babo atop the ship's pole, symbolic of the white dominance over blacks and the continued prevalence of black slavery system in Western societies. This resolution is presented to illustrate how this situation is the current order of things in Melville's society, and it is up for the readers to decide for themselves what resolution is most acceptable for them, suggesting that social actions must be made to either put a stop to the practice of slavery or participate in the continuing struggle for dominance of the… [read more]

Hispanic-American Culture' Richard Rodriguez' Article Term Paper

… A person like that understands what being Hispanic-American really means, and this is something that cannot completely be shared by people who are from other cultures. By writing in a friendly and easy style, Rodriguez helps people who are not from this culture see a little more of what it is really like and why it is so important to him.

Rodriguez does not so much transition one thought into another, like he would in a story, but instead gives selected bits of information that help to show how the Hispanic-American culture works and the things that are important to people of that culture. By doing this, the article gives a lot more information and insight than it would have otherwise, and his simple ending, asking readers to image what it will be like when the cultures merge and there is no more fighting and disagreement, is very powerful… [read more]

Racial Discrimination and Prejudice Term Paper

… " (p.354) Staples's use of such contrasting imagery between timidity and the physical appearance of a "broad six feet two" man further serves to create an impact on his readers, as the contrasting illustrations succeed in arousing reader sympathy. But perhaps, more than anything else, it is Staples's ability to use his illustrations to draw vivid images, in a mild tone, which results in creating the desired impact on his readers. Take, for instance, his comparison of a mugger warbling Vivaldi's Four Seasons with a hiker wearing a cowbell in bear country! A clever, but subtle, dig at the foolish behavior of society!

Though I have never really experienced the horror of being alienated by racial prejudice, my sympathies are entirely with the black people and other stereotyped minorities. Indeed, if I were ever to experience the type of discrimination described by Staples, I would feel both very sad and angry about being treated like an alien or criminal, and never being given even a chance to prove otherwise.

Works Cited

Staples, B. "Black Men and Public Space." The Rinehart Reader. Wyrick, J. ed. Third

Edition. P. 352-355. [read more]

Alternative Assessment for Latino Students Term Paper

… In other words, even if Latino students are given a different type of test to take they will still not have learned everything that they need to if they go through their school days not being able to understand what is being taught to them. This is the reason behind the whole-school approach and the reason behind the need for more than one assessment test for students who have English as a second language.

It would seem that those that come to this country should learn to speak the language, but for some this is very difficult. Even those that apparently speak the language well often do not understand some of the expressions and terms that are uniquely American. This can make it hard for them to take tests so having a different test for those that speak English only as a second language makes sense. [read more]

Non-Western Societies Tempest Term Paper

… He boldly asserts that in the character of these people, all of "the true, most useful, and natural virtues and properties are alive and vigorous." [2]

Shakespeare however had no such idealized views of the savage natives. Unlike Montaigne, Shakespeare was more fascinated with psychological impact of European influence on the savage man. He firmly maintained that there was no such thing as a Noble savage and through his character, Caliban, he successfully unearthed the negative side of a so-called pure soul. The non-western man of Shakespeare is no saint and neither is he a beast. Shakespeare maintains a completely objective stance on the subject of savagery and therefore presents both sides of non-western society through characters like Caliban and Ariel. The main point was to attack Montaigne's romantic view of the savage and this results in the creation of Caliban. Bartra (1994) writes: "Caliban represents a wildness that threatens Christian civilization from the inside, and, unlike Montaigne's cannibal, Caliban is a dangerous and menacing figure from whom one must be protected, on the one hand, and who must be redeemed, on the other." (p. 176)

While Montaigne's view of the non-western man may not appear biased, it is a little too good to be taken seriously. On the other hand, though Shakespeare's image of the wild man appears to be grounded in racial bigotry, still it is more powerful for it lacks the apparent shallowness of Montaigne's cannibals. In short, the views of the two writers present contrasting images of the wild man and their views on the subject of non-western civilization are anything but similar which made some critics conclude that "wild men" were nothing but "a European invention." (Bartra, 3)


Bartra, Roger (1994) Wild Men in the Looking Glass: The Mythic Origins of European Otherness Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Michael O'Toole, Shakespeare's Natives: Ariel and Caliban in The Tempest [read more]

Martin Luther King Jr.'s "Letter Term Paper

… .. unjust treatment of Negroes in the courts... unsolved bombings of Negro homes and churches... These are the hard, brutal, an unbelievable facts."

In defending his position against the brutality of injustice in Birmingham, King assumes the role of both a moral and political authority in the defense of black American freedom and abolishment of black American slavery and injustice. His persona is divided in the letter: the gentler, more emotional King is used to appeal to his fellow black Americans, while the rational, political and religious activist King is used to defend and argue his position to the white American political and religious community. King's use of emotions to his fellow black American countrymen is used to effectively address the problem of injustice and inequality committed to them: "We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed." This statement resounds of emotion and empathy to the black American society; King uses the element of ethos and pathos to effectively extend his message to his fellowmen. On the other hand, a harsher, more rational tone is used to condemn the injustices the political and religious community of the white American society had done to black Americans: "... I must confess that over the last few years I have been gravely disappointed with the white moderate... who prefers a negative peace which is the absence of tension to a positive peace which is the presence of justice..." And "I have been so greatly disappointed with the white church and its leadership... The contemporary church is so weak, ineffectual voice with an uncertain sound... The arch supporter of the status quo." The preceding statements from King's letter is argued through the use allusions to history, mentioning important events that happened in the world to emphasize his point about freedom, justice, and equality. These allusions to history and references to famous philosophers and well-known individuals in the world give a strong argument to his positions in the letter.

In conclusion, it is apparent that the elements of pathos and ethos were used in King's letter to argue and defend his position about the black American segregation in America. At the initial part of his letter, King uses ethos, or appeals based on King's character and validity as a defender of the black American cause. This is evident in his use of his position and the name is organization and his use of his position as a political and religious activist to effectively argue and make his point to his three main audience: the white American political and religious community, and the black American society. Pathos, or appeals based on emotions, are used to his argument addressed to his fellow black Americans, and also accompanies his logical arguments (logos) about the black American individual rights, freedom, and the equality of every man/individual. Through these three important elements of rhetoric, King was able to make a passionate, and very argumentative position and refutation… [read more]

Martin Luther King's Letter Term Paper

… In fact, the clergymen's argument that King and his group are 'outsiders' is only a mere insult, a questioning of the group's ability to help bring out the Civil Rights Movement. However, King treats this indirect form of skepticism and insult by answering in a matter-of-fact manner that he has had profound experience in dealing with social injustices and prejudice cases among black Americans, stating that he has been "president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization in every Southern state," and is directly involved in the organization of "a nonviolent direct action program... If deemed necessary" (par. 2). This 'intrusion' and involvement of 'outsiders' like King in his protest against racial discrimination can be reflected and is parallel to the present American foreign policy, wherein the American government is involved in helping out poor nations who are currently in strife and in dire need of help because of their own government's oppression, or sometimes, due to a civil war. Take for example the foreign aid America has given to Afghanistan citizens during the war against terrorism between the Taliban regime and American government. The provision of food and other essential needs of the Afghans by the Americans are criticized by other nations as the 'American way' of earning the sympathy and help of the Afghans in tracking down the whereabouts of Osama bin Laden and the Taliban. However, this viewpoint is greatly biased, since an objective person who sees another offering goodwill to others (like King's organization), may view the American help to the Afghans as one of compassion, wherein the American government tries its best, even in small ways, to alleviate the suffering, hunger, and strife of the Afghan people due to the… [read more]

Immigration to the U.S Term Paper

… Following the events of September 11 a growing suspicion of all immigrants caused many Hispanics to lose their construction jobs through layoff choices

. There were 77,000 Hispanics in North Carolina ten years ago. Today the state boasts a Hispanic community of 379,000 and growing. With the rise in numbers comes the rise in crime rates as well. Those who are opposed to the influx insist that the immigrants are more prone to criminal activity while those who advocate for the influx believe the rise can be attributed to any rise in any population number. Immigrants in Charlotte North Carolina are feeling the current economic pinch just as they are in other cities. The original reasons for coming to Charlotte are slowly fading. The booming job market was a big draw. However, another reason that Charlotte attracts immigrants is because the aging immigrants can survive in the area financially as well as health wise. In colder more expensive areas the elderly immigrants and middle aged immigrants suffer many more hardships than they do in a warm thriving area like Charlotte.

The total percentage in North Carolina of rising immigrant status is 400%. Charlotte takes more than its share of those numbers according ot latest statistics. North Carolina has boosted itself to the number one spot in the nation for attracting and keeping immigrants

. "North Carolina's booming Hispanic population fueled a 21.4% growth rate the past decade as the state grew to more than 8 million residents, according to Census 2000 data

In light of the terrorist attacks last summer the INS has stepped up the policing efforts of the past regarding immigrants. In North Carolina as well as other places there are much tighter restrictions on visa requirements and immigration processes. Whereas in the past many illegal immigrants lived in the open without fear of the INS those days are coming to a close as INS gears up for more stringent hunt and find methods for illegal and undocumented workers living in this country

Arthur.C. "Hispanics Feel Economy Pinch ." AP Online; (2002): January.

DOUG JOHNSON, Associated Press Writer, N.C. Hispanics Feel Economy Pinch., AP Online, 01-03-2002.

Larry Copeland, Hispanics up 400% in a state that's 'making its move'., USA Today, 03-22-2001, pp 08A.

DOUG JOHNSON, Associated Press Writer, Many Hispanics Leave After Sept. 11., AP Online, 01-03-2002.

Author not available, Hispanic influx leads to tensions in N.C.; Newcomers drawn by abundant jobs., The Washington Times, 02-28-2000, pp A2.

Marian L. Smith, Historian

Originally published in A Historical Guide to the U.S. Government, edited by George T. Kurian.

New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Reprinted with permission.

Marian L. Smith, Historian

Originally published in A Historical Guide to the U.S. Government, edited by George T. Kurian.

New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Marian L. Smith, Historian

Originally published in A Historical Guide to the U.S. Government, edited by George T. Kurian.

New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Hispanic influx leads to tensions in N.C.; Newcomers drawn… [read more]

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