Study "Race / Ethnic Studies / Racism" Essays 56-107

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Race and Culture Albert Camus Essay

… Race and Culture

Albert Camus, in an interview, once noted "If one lives in a country where racism is held valid and practiced in all ways of life, eventually, no matter whether one is a racist or a victim, one comes to feel the absurdity of life."

Beyond historical facts lies the way humans tend to interact towards one another, in particular, their overall justification for racism. Practices in psychology, for instance, reflected the curious fascination Europeans and European-Americans had with race and skin color. The institutional oppression that existed within the field of psychology was perpetuated by applications of pseudoscience, politics, and propaganda. All this presupposition trapped society in the very grip of Camus' view of institutional racism -- supporting the notion that one race or another was "mentally inferior," most typically to the White races. This idea was formed based on speculative (and racist) theories about racial differences and was tested using culturally-biased measurements (See: Guthrie, 2003; Hawkins, 1999).

Institutional racism generally refers to the way that the institutional arrangements and the distribution of resources in our society serve to reinforce the advantages of the white majority. Institutional racism also involves the way many white people abuse the political structure and policies within the public schools. Students of color, along with other ethnic groups are often seen as flawed in some way, which continue to stand in the way of their progress. Therefore, institutional racism within the public school system has been and still is being portrayed through Caucasians privileges and power. This is a reflection of discrimination through prejudice, and power with disadvantages towards the marginal people of color. Institutional racism consists of collective failures of organizations to provide equal and professional service to people mainly because…… [read more]

Many Costs of Racism Essay

… Racism is presently a much discussed matter, and because of the conditions in the U.S., people there constantly go through great efforts in an attempt to ameliorate the situation. Racism is present in almost any environment in the country due… [read more]

Obama N. Racism Term Paper

… By acting together, we can overcome the obstacles that for too long have prevented real change on the critical issues that Americans face day in and day out. Now is the time to leave behind the status quo and build… [read more]

Race Critical Theories: Text and Context Response Term Paper

… Race Critical Theories: Text And Context Response

Although black and white are often thought of as the opposing 'camps' that define discussions of race in America today, the essay "Defining Black Feminist Thought" by Patricia Hill Collins suggests that the 'problem' of black womanhood acts as a profound challenge to conventional binary thinking about race. Collins calls upon scholars to accept more fluidity and overlap between black feminist thought and theories of race. She begins her essay noting that black feminist writings are "widely used" as slogans, yet are rarely defined, even though black women's narratives of struggle offer a rich source for all individuals to seeking overcome dichotomous thinking about racial and gender-based issues and tensions in society (152).

Collins notes that black women may not feel as if they 'fit' into conventional discussions of either race or gender, yet their language and conceptual framework can offer powerful insight to the feminist and sociological rubrics of study that have often overlooked black women's contribution. One powerful example of Collins' is that a black lesbian woman who describes her experience at a heterosexual wedding as a kind of bondage. She uses the language to slavery to show how gay people feel they must conceal their true feelings, even amongst members of a family during a joyous celebration (158). Although Collins wishes to stress inclusion of various black women's perspectives, she is also careful to note that too easy an inclusion of all writers under the idea that 'everyone' can write from a Black feminist critical perspective is too easy (154). To speak of the singularity of such a perspective is itself marginalizing, and falls prey to the trap of seeing black women as offering the same voice and range of ideas, a concept that is anathema to Collins. Collins endorses the point-of-view that race and gender are social constructions, but because they have wielded such divisive and cultural power, one cannot assume that we are all 'the same' beneath the skin. Her essay strikes an empowering balance of showing the contribution that the diversity of black women voices has made to critical theory, even while she is writing about the sad fact that writers have attempted to appropriate or ignore black women's voices.

Everyday Racism: A New Approach to the Study of Racism" by Philomena Essed discusses the inherently contradictory notion of "individual racism." For Essed, racism is always an institutional issue. Power pertains to the ability of individual groups to act in consort. This is why African-American collective power is often so frightening and threatening to members of the white majority (182).Defining certain forms of racism as interpersonal and other forms as institutional is another example of the false nature of binary thinking about race in America, which Collins is also writing against in her essay about gender. Instead, Essed feels that while it is still problematic, the concept of systemic racism, or the day-to-day interaction of individuals and institutions is a more effective clarification of this term (179).… [read more]

Race Critical Theory Race Critical Theories Term Paper

… Race Critical Theory

Race Critical Theories

In "The Problems with Racism," Martin Barker takes on British separatist political attitudes, challenging the assumption that separatist attitudes are less harmful than outright prejudice. He believes that, by reassuring people that nationalism and separatisms are natural phenomenon, these theories essentially reassure people that it is permissible to want to hold oneself apart from others deemed different. Furthermore, he also discusses how different studies, including science and philosophy, have impact on race issues. Barker believes that ethology's correspondence with sociobiology is significant and that the different approaches the two studies take to the natural role of aggression in society is significant. Barker also emphasizes the interrelationship between philosophy and Darwinian evolution, and suggests that, when discussing evolution, it is important to distinguish between adaptiveness and adaptability. In addition, Barker talks about the politics of philosophy, and the implications that occur when a philosophy becomes politicized.

It is really difficult to determine whether or not Barker's position on race is tenable. He offers some support for the idea that how a particular ethnic theory practically impacts race relations can be partially determined by the racial attitudes of the theory's creator. For example, he discusses the philosopher David Hume, and states that Hume was "a racist, both in his personal attitudes and also in the content of his philosophy." (Barker, p. 87). However, he also discusses Wittgenstein's "concept of a 'form of life'" and how its self-validating features fit into the idea of racism as a way of life, but acknowledges that there is no evidence that Wittgenstein was a racist. (Barker, p. 89). As a result, Barker appears to conclude that the ideas themselves are more important than the personal beliefs of their authors. However, Barker does not elaborate enough on these underlying theories to enable the reader to determine whether the philosophers and scientists in question have simply elaborated on the concept that stereotyping and racism exist, or have gone so far as to posit that stereotyping and racism are inevitable. Lacking that additional information, the reader really cannot agree or disagree with Barker's statements.

In contrast, Cornel West takes a very scientific approach to one facet of racism; a genealogical approach to white supremacy in the West. He concludes that "the emergence of the idea of white supremacy in the modern West can [not] be fully accounted for in terms of the psychological needs of white individuals and groups or the political and economic interests of the ruling class." (West, p. 92). Instead, West believes that the powers within the structure of modern discourse "set perimeters and draw boundaries for the intelligibility, availability, and legitimacy of certain ideas." (West, p. 92). By suggesting that these powers are subjectless, West suggests that the discourse itself may be relatively autonomous for the subject matter of the discourse, and the goals and aims of humans involved in the subjects. Even more interesting, West believes that "there is no direct correspondence between nondiscursive structures, such as a… [read more]

Racism Among Students in Home Economic Classes Seen Through Teachers Eyes Term Paper

… Racism and Home Economics

Author's Purpose

When one gets conjoined with the task of writing any account there is a basic need for that individual to have his or her own point-of-view. This point-of-view, in the true sense happens to… [read more]

Race and Ethnic Relations Term Paper

… Race and Ethnic Relations

History and location play a pivotal role in defining race and ethnic relations. Through the course of man's history, it has been made clear that there were already differences and seemingly unresolved disputes between some countries.… [read more]

Racism 'Latinos Are Drug Addicts Term Paper

… For example, we were never once invited to one of the dorm parties, even though most of the other students in class were. Once, my friends and I were playing a casual game of football after school. Some of the white students also came onto the field, but instead of asking if they could play with us they just started their own game. They ignored us and acted as if we weren't even there.

The unfair treatment I have experienced is nothing compared to what my mother endured. As a single mom from Puerto Rico, she arrived in a country that was hostile in many ways. Forced to rapidly learn English and adapt to unfamiliar social customs, my mother overcome a wide range of problems related to her being perceived as inferior. I believe that many people living in poverty in the United States suffer because getting a good job or finishing school is tough for people of color.

I don't believe I have ever consciously treated anyone unfairly because of their ethnic or racial characteristics. However, unconsciously I may have prejudged a person based on what they looked like. For example, I once went to a job interview in which all the staff members were white. I felt instantly threatened and on the defensive, assuming that the people who interviewed me would be prejudiced. I prejudged them because they were white. They hired me and that ended up being one of the best jobs I ever had; people on the staff treated me well and honored my heritage by asking me questions about my background. Similarly, I have unconsciously drawn conclusions about people at parties based on what they wore or how they spoke, and I have occasionally avoided making eye contact or small talk with people from other ethnic backgrounds. I have made a conscious effort to change my behavior, however. Becoming more proud of my own ethnic heritage has allowed me to become more interested in the backgrounds of other people too.

As an aspiring social worker, I believe it will be imperative that I examine my self-concept and my identity because my improved self-awareness will positively impact the way I relate to clients. Furthermore, because of my personal experiences with prejudice and bias, I will be better able to understand the needs and experiences of clients in similar social positions. Coming from a position of understanding and compassion, I will be able to address the best modes of treatment for clients whose experiences are indelibly colored by their ethnicity or race. Reflecting on my culture of origin has been one of the most challenging and worthwhile endeavors I have undertaken as a graduate student and I fully intend to continue developing awareness with the goal of reducing prejudice in…… [read more]

Racism and Children Term Paper

… "

Role Models

Children learn racism from society and their home environment earlier than many people realize. It is important for adults to understand this and provide positive role models as a means to live together harmoniously. While children are taught both moral and conventional rules, the moral rules are often perceived differently by each race, creating further racial tension.


Racism is still prevalent throughout the United States, despite many efforts to end it. Children are developing racist attitudes at a young age, which leads to a continuation of the racism cycle. Adults at home and in society need to be aware of the influence they have on children if racism is ever going to end.


Van Ausdale, D. What and How Children Learn About Racial and Ethnic Matters. The First R.…… [read more]

Conceptualizations of Racism in Contemporary Term Paper

… Britain thus appears to be very much focused on the past in its political and class systems. In fact, the practice of classifying people according to occupation and income began as early as 1851. And this also is only focused on the class system as it is known today. The class system has begun much earlier in British history, with servants and royalty being the opposite sides of the scale. Today racism is closely bound up with this system. It is unfortunate that theories such as racial inferiority should be combined with practices such as marginalization in order to ensure an unfair social structure.

Britain is however moving into a century where equality issues are of major importance. Thus by means of protests and continuous effort, racial and other minorities can work together to achieve positive social change.


Ben-Tovim, G., J. Gabriel, I. Law, and K. Stredder. "A Political Analysis of Local Struggles for Racial Equality." In Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations. Edited by John Rex and David Mason. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Jenkins, R. "Social Anthropological Models of Inter-ethnic Relations." Ben-Tovim, G., J. Gabriel, I. Law, and K. Stredder. "A Political Analysis of Local Struggles for Racial Equality." In Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations. Edited by John Rex and David Mason. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Mason, D. "Controversies and Continuities in Race and Ethnic Relations Theory." In Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations. Edited by John Rex and David Mason. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Mason, D. Race and Ethnicity in Modern Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Rex, J. "The Role of Class Analysis in the Study of Race Relations - A Weberian Perspective." In Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations. Edited by John Rex and David Mason. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Rose, D. "Official Social Classification in the UK." In Social Research Update, Issue 9, July 1995.

Solomos, J. "Varieties of Marxist Conceptions of 'Race', Class and the State: a Critical Analysis." In Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations. Edited by John Rex and David Mason. Cambridge: Cambridge University…… [read more]

Human Resources the Connection Workplace Term Paper

… These factors are particularly important when they enter the labor market (Mays et al.).


The study conducted by Danty Jr. (2003) recommended further study on the effects of race and socio-economic status on health for confirmation. Other researchers should also formulate a new longitudinal database, which will speed up the accurate identification of the link between racism and its negative health effects in the workplace (Danty Jr.). Hammond et al. (2010) suggested that reducing workplace discrimination may improve the overall performance and behavior of racial or ethnic minority hospital employees who are at the greatest risk of exposure to discrimination (Hammond et al.). Mistry and Latoo (2009) see education as the most important part of an overall solution to the persistence of racism in the workplace in any organization. It should be infused into the curriculum. It should stress the need to recognize personal prejudices at an early age so as to challenge these prejudices within ourselves (Mistry and Latoo). Research showed that group-based discussions among Black women of similar work status on racism and sexism in the workplace may reduced feelings of job-related stress (Mays et al., 2013). These may also serve to form problem communication and problem-solving skills, which may, as a consequence, prevent or reduce race-based discrimination from creating too great an impact on their health and overall well-being (Mays et al.). #


Danty, W.A., Jr. (2003). Employment discrimination, segregation and health. Vol. 93

# 2, American Journal of Public Health: American Public Health Association.

Retrieved on February 18, 2014 from

Hammond, W.P., et al. (2010). Workplace discrimination and depressive symptoms:

a study of multi-ethnic hospital employees. Vol. 2 # 1, Race and Social Problems:

PubMed Central. Retrieved on February 18, 2014 from

Mays, V.M., et al. (2013). Perceived race-based discrimination, employment status and job stress in a national sample of Black women: implications for health outcomes. Vol.

1 # 3, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology: PubMed Central. Retrieved on February 18, 2014 from

Mistry, M. And Latoo, J. (2009). Uncovering the face of racism in the workplace. Vol. 2 #

2, British Journal of Medical Practitioners: JMN Medical Education…… [read more]

Racism Unfortunately Essay

… In situations like the 2008 presidential election, Barack Obama blasted many people's stereotypes about African-Americans. The violent reaction at Ole Miss reflects the cognitive dissonance that many of the students felt when their stereotypes and deeply held beliefs were shattered right before their eyes.

Structural elements in the society that cause and perpetuate racism are commonly referred to as institutionalized racism. Institutionalized racism are the structural elements that practically prevent upward social mobility or self-improvement among the underclass, such as the situation in which many African-American communities remain impoverished and have underfunded schools. Institutionalized racism is not as apparent as it was in the days of Jim Crow, when institutions like banks were able to openly discriminate against African-American loan requests. Yet even today, there are many examples of institutionalized racism.

The book Lies My Teacher Told Me is essentially about institutionalized racism, because it reveals the hidden curricula in public schools. Textbooks have the power to construct reality, or at least to construct history. In this way, racist beliefs and attitudes become institutionalized. They become part of the public consciousness, influencing the malleable attitudes and beliefs of young people.

The effects of personal and institutionalized racism are tremendous and debilitating. Obama's opponents have compared him with Hitler, and have made other comments that are similarly outlandish. These over-reactions, which have no basis at all in fact, reveal what Loewen talks about in Lies My Teacher Told Me, that "race is the sharpest and deepest division in American life," (p. 136). Because racism is institutionalized in the form of hidden curricula in public schools, it often goes unnoticed. Many teachers do not think critically about the books they use in class, and many parents do not think critically about the films and television shows their children watch. The effects of racism in America are creating an ignorant society, which refuses to take responsibility for its past. Americans continue to profess being the "greatest nation on earth," but the track record for the United States does not live up to the myth. African-American communities and individuals were stymied by a failed Reconstruction after the Civil War, because so few Americans were able to embrace "liberty and justice for all." Women in the United States have suffered a similar fate, as they continue to struggle for equality. Americans have a long way to go before the culture becomes one that is truly tolerant, able to recognize its own flawed past and make meaningful amends to alter the future course of…… [read more]

Racism in BC Essay

… Racism British Columbia Focusing on Japanese

Racism is certainly not a new or exclusive phenomenon to contemporary world. Psychologically, humans seem to feel far more comfortable categorizing "the other" in order to subjugate or find reasons or justifications of control. For example, in the 19th century, power structures were driven by supposed scientific endeavors such as "standardizing" measurement of skin color and hair texture. The psychological community implicitly (sometimes explicitly) supported the notion that certain races were "mentally inferior." Possibly the most striking offense was the movement towards Eugenics, a form of Social Darwinism which was the view that the "unfit" be systematically removed from society via sterilization. "The field of psychology, in particular, was hostile towards the involvement of African-Americans." In fact, non-White scholars were totally excluded from any academic experience, denied matriculation into institutions of higher learning, and blatantly absent from any scholarly publications. This placed race at the core of the bottom of social status (Guthrie, 2003).

The very core of what sociology helps to unravel is the ideal of a group's privilege over another and the idea of the "invisible knapsack" in which there are tools for living in society available to some, and not to others, simply based on skin tone. This is the very core of what social work seeks to unravel. The invisibility of the tool-kit, however, is what makes it a racially based argument, "What privilege is like an invisible weightless knapsack of special provisions, maps, passports, codebooks, visas, clothes, tools, and blank checks" (McIntosh, 1988). Further, racism is not always a conscious activity -- not all Whites have the same understanding or overt psychological reaction towards other races. Ethnocentrism is universal in its notion that one's group has a mode of living, values, and patterns of adaptation that are superior to others. One group feels contempt for another, manifesting in attitudes of superiority and hostility. Ethnocentrism is expressed, typically, in discrimination, proselytizing, and verbal aggression against the "other," the outside group with the sole belief that one's way of life and culture is not only superior to the "other," but of intrinsically more moral value (Webber and Iezanson, eds., 2008). One culture may critically evaluate the other, one race; one ethnicity may be superior to all others simply based on its own hegemony. "Whites are taught to think of their lives as morally neutral, normative, and also idea so that when we work to benefit others, this is seen as work which will allow 'them' to be more like 'us'" (McIntosh).

There is certainly controversy about whether skin tone or other ethnic characteristics produce an innate organizational behavior in humans -- a recent study found that babies do tend to "differentiate" color at an early age (Bronson and Merryman). Indeed, for Canadians, there were two different historical times in which overt prejudice against Japanese immigrants became rampant -- at the turn of the century, finally causing riots and looting in Vancouver's Japanese and China towns, and then after the bombing of… [read more]

Race on Aggression Research Proposal

… (1996), the aggressiveness of the bump, angry expression, and mumbled statement will be assessed by the observers.

Statistical Analysis -- Analysis of variance (ANOVA) will be used to determine if there is an interaction between race and setting (public/private); between… [read more]

Education and Race Sociological Perspective Research Paper

… Theory

Three theories can be used to take a more in depth look at these concepts and how they relate in the sociological realm. Symbolic interactionism is how a person "acts toward things on the basis of the meanings that… [read more]

Is Race for Real? Term Paper

… ¶ … Race for Real?

Race is a modern idea. Ancient societies did not divide people according to physical differences, but according to religion, status, class, even language.

The term "race" gained popularity during the 1920s and 1930s, but the… [read more]

Race: Hazards and Benefits Corporeal Term Paper

… Based on recent trends and the findings of the above studies, the life expectancy of African-American males should continue to increase due to increasing incarceration rates. The Bureau of Justice Statistics predicts that 1 in 3 African-American males born in… [read more]

Unconscious Racism in Psychology Unconsciousness Essay

… According to claims put forward by Blanton & Jaccard (2008), the concept of automatic racial attitudes rest on exceedingly aggressive interpretations of IATs. The IAT has been criticized for having methodological issues as it focuses on the time a participant takes to classify stimuli into categorize after being explicitly exposed to black stereotypical terms (Gawronski, 2002). While Dr. Greenwald and his colleagues conclude that scores obtain through IAT are reliable and better assess racial bias, critics have rejected the findings ore scores of the studies by re-taking and reanalyzing the test results which demonstrate inconsistency and, in some cases totally opposite of the original scores (Tierney, 2008).

To prove the influence of unambiguous exposure to stereotypical terms on the responses of IAT participants, Fazio et al., 1995 (as cited in Blanton & Jaccard, 2008) formed a method known as affective priming. This method uses stimulating race primes to analyze the level to which race-based apexes facilitate the positive or negative responses. Studies have shown that individuals identify a word quickly if they are exposed to the pinnacle of the same valence instead of a contrasting valence. Hence, every individual has a psychological tendency to be influenced by a stimuli experience in full consciousness which raises question about the legitimacy of IAT test procedure. Devine's investigation and many other similar researches that are presented as an evidence for the existence of unconscious prejudice in a common man are all based on assessing racial attitudes after participants are given bias clues. If this logic is followed, the unconscious bias in a white man can easily be activated by interaction with black man which in turn may cause them to have more negative perceptions about blacks as compared to their perception about whites.


Even though it is reasonable to conclude that people at times are unaware of the consequences of their attitudes, this argument alone is not sufficient to provide basis for proving that the racial attitudes of people are a result of their unconscious bias on which they are not accountable or guilty for. but, to reject the fact that all stereotypical attitudes are works of the conscious self is not feasible either. It is an established fact that unconscious bias do exist with its roots connecting to cultural and communal beliefs and perceptions, no research or assessment method has been successful in providing evidence that everyday racial actions are a result of unconscious bias. IATs and self- reporting method does not provide reliable results that could draw a line between implicit racial behavior and conscious racism. Even the slightest variation in the use of reaction time data can have significant effect on an individual's IAT score which highlights IAT's unreliability. Hence there is a strong need to develop an empirical measurement system in which the chief methodological issues highlighted above are removed.


Blanton, H. & Jaccard, J. (2008). Unconscious racism: A concept in pursuit of measure. The Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 34, pp. 277-97.

Delgado, R. (1997). Critical… [read more]

Overrepresentation of Minorities in Special Education Thesis

… Overrepresentation of Minorities in Special Education

This research explores the fact that many minority groups are overrepresented in populations of students enrolled in special education programs. Unfortunately, racial categories continue to impact how students are place din special education programs,… [read more]

Ethnic Groups and Minorities Research Paper

… Ethnic Groups and Minorities

Though occurring seventy three years apart, the Chicago Race Riot of 1919 and the 1992 Los Angeles Riot are disturbingly similar. Not only did they have the same impact on their immediate communities, but they could… [read more]

Race and Ethnic Relations Dimensions Essay

… To look at Civic Assimilation, the authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding Alcohol Use.

Overall, they ended up with a sample consisting of 17 useable countries of origin, made up of 1,484 respondents. They analyzed their data using a factor analysis. They found that there were only three orthogonal factors: Structural Assimilation, Cultural Assimilation, and Receptional Assimilation. The larger Sutructural Assimilation factor had large loadings for structural and marital assimilation variables. Cultural assimilation had large loadings for cultural, identification, and civic assimilation. Receptional assimilation had large loadings for attitude and behavior variables (as well as marital).

These orthogonal factors were then used to create assimilation scales for the 17 ethnic groups. They found that structural and receptional and structural factors were significantly correlated, but neither was correlated with cultural assimilation. The further found that some groups were ranked consistently across types of assimilation (e.g., people of Russian German and Czechoslovakian decent), while, for many, there was an inconsistent pattern, with, e.g., high cultural assimilation and low structural assimilation or vice versa.

They concluded, then, that a unidimentional approach to studying assimilation is problematic and that at least the three components (structural, cultural, and recoeptional) should be taken into consideration when assessing ethnic assimilation. Further, they say the results of the study "indicate that different ethnic groups have substantially different pattern of assimilation" (707), which directly counters Gordon's assumption that cultural assimilation is the first type to occur. They suggest that both the process and pattern of assimilation is different between groups, and both should be considered as part of a multidimientional approach to analyzing ethnic assimilation…… [read more]

Race, Crime, and Punishment Has Been Highly Reaction Paper

… ¶ … race, crime, and punishment has been highly acrimonious and contentious since the establishment of the republic. Although there has never been any widely held consensus as to whether or not sanctions against certain races and minorities are more severe than against white members of society, there have been a number of studies conducted that attempt to measure the perceptions of different groups in society regarding the perception that blacks and other minorities are treated differently by the legal system than whites are and that this perception is that the system is both biased and unfair toward blacks and other minorities. The studies that have been conducted, however, have suffered from two major problems First, the studies largely fail to consider both criminal and non-criminal punishment and, secondly, they have failed to consider other factors such as demographic variables and other discriminatory and legitimacy attitudes. A study by three University of Texas at Dallas criminology professors, Dr. Alex Piquero, Dr. Nicole Leeper Piquero, and Dr. J.C. Barnes, however, have published a study that attempted to close these loopholes from prior studies (Piquero, 2011).

In the study it was found that non-whites believe that NFL football player Michael Vick was punished too harshly for his role in a dog-fighting case and that whites, when viewing the results in the same case, believe that Vick was treated too lightly. The researchers involved in the study elected to use the Vick case as the backdrop for their research because of the inherent interest in the case and the fact that it was the source of so much public outcry. The results of the study were based not only what the public felt about his criminal punishment but also on the sanctions that were imposed by the NFL prior to his being reinstated by the league. Interestingly, there was no change in attitude by the public. Whites felt that Vick should not have been reinstated by the league while non-whites held a contrary view.

The methodology used by the researchers was to conduct a phone survey of 400 adults spread across the full expanse of the United States. In the survey the responders were asked a variety of questions regarding their attitudes toward Vick, the NFL, race, taxes, and animal cruelty. The analysis of the researchers suggests that there are important divides between how the legal system metes out punishment and how society reintegrates criminal offenders into society. Not surprisingly, the results highlight the fact that white and non-whites perceive the law and its administration in remarkably different ways (Peffley, 2002).

The study certainly answers the broader issue of how whites and non-whites view the legal system in general and how the two different groups view how the sanctions are administered but the study still fails to answer why these perceptions have developed. Michael Vick was used as the lightening rod because of his notoriety and his popularity as a player. It was felt by the researchers that this would help them obtain… [read more]

Perception of Racism and Colour Research Proposal

… However, this was far from the truth. The popularization of Jim Crow laws which permitted racial segregation was approved in many local and state governments in 1865; the same year slavery was abolished. Furthermore, even with the ratification of the… [read more]

Race, Ethnicity and Cultural Diversity Research Paper

… Race, Ethnicity and Cultural Diversity

I am a Caucasian and I live in Coos Bay, Oregon, a coastal community of about 16,660 people. In our rural county, we have about 62,795 people. The lure of the Pacific Ocean brings many… [read more]

Racism Throughout American History Race Relations Essay

… Racism

Throughout American history race relations have been a constant challenge, as there is the struggle between the dominate White Anglo Saxon Protestant (WASP) class and other racial groups. As the WASP's will demand that they hold a higher social and economic status in comparison with other racial groups. However, the extent of this self proclaimed superiority is delusional, as there are often various distinctions between the ways WASP's will interact with other ethnic groups. Yet, over the last several decades, this has been changing, with various laws and regulations challenging the status quo. As result, a state of negation and classification will occur, with the political / social establishment constantly negotiating spheres of power and influence. An area where this can be seen is with Jean Kim's theory on racial relations. Where, she argues that the various levels of racial relations will be based upon a constant state of negotiation, between different power brokers in society and culture. This will create two different standards that will occur for the political world and popular culture. A good example of this occurred during the 1980's and 1990's, where various political / cultural institutions began to question the motives of the Japanese economic success. As many people were comparing what is happening to an economic Pearl Harbor and calling them the yellow peril. In this case, many popular publications in the media and legal circles would attempt to paint an alarmist view of the threat. At which point, the economic influence of the Japanese would decline, as the Asian financial crisis and the negative backlash, would cause them to cut back on investing in America. In this case, one could argue that various political and social institutions, were calling for a renegotiation the between the Japanese along with other racial groups (as the political / social establishment felt that they were becoming too powerful). (Kim 105 -- 138)

A second point that Kim discusses is racial traingulaization. This is where one racial group will use another racial group, to make a third one feel inferior. At the same time, they are using the process to make both racial groups to see the first one as superior. Part of this is from…… [read more]

Race Critical Theories Modernity, Race and Morality Term Paper

… Race Critical Theories

Modernity, Race and Morality by David Theo Goldberg

Goldberg looks at how racial exclusion has been justified by a society's prevailing moral standards. Goldberg looks historically at race, and determines that in classical Greece and in medieval times, there was no conception of race. While both societies did exclude people, those exclusions were not race-based. As a matter of fact, "the concept of race enters European social consciousness more or less explicitly in the fifteenth century...It is only from this point on that social differentiation begins increasingly to take on a specifically racial sense." (Goldberg p. 284). Goldberg proves this assertion by examining historical texts for the use of race, and indicates that earlier societies demonstrated a feeling of cultural superiority, but not of racial superiority. By the Middle Ages, people began to be classified in terms of rational capabilities, and these classifications showed the origins of racial classification; for example, Pygmies were seen as less capable of rational thought than other men. (Goldberg, p. 285). By the late 1600's, the concept of racial exclusion was so entrenched that there was no apparent inconsistency in John Locke writing about slavery being incompatible with a free society, but also supporting the concept of African slaves. (Goldberg, p. 288). Furthermore, as society became more racialized, the concept of beauty became synonymous with race, and Africans and their slave descendants began to be viewed as naturally subservient and impoverished, because of their forced subservience and poverty. (Goldberg, p. 291).

Goldberg's concept of race, rationality, and morality seems very plausible. Many of the arguments today about white superiority continue to talk about racial superiority in terms of rational thought. Some of the arguments talk about the greater intellectual capabilities of whites, while others suggest that non-whites have poorer impulse control. While such arguments already appear patently ridiculous to an educated audience, they become even more ridiculous when confronted by the relative newness of race-based exclusion.

Whiteness and Ethnicity in the History of "White Ethnics in the U.S.A." By David Roediger

When one discusses racial issues in the United States, the conversation frequently turns to issues of black and white, and how to define people who were white. However, the history of racism in the United States is much greater than simply a black-white issue; any people categorized as non-white have been subject to racial oppression. However, as society has evolved, so has the definition of white or Caucasian, such that race-based discrimination and white privilege have impacted different groups in different ways, depending upon these definitions. The reality is that classification as white or non-white has impacted the treatment of different ethnicities, and Roediger's essay helps explain how and why those different classifications arose.

The identification of certain ethnic groups as non-white seems so ingrained in American society that many may be unaware that they were not always so identified. For example, "Asian Indians and Mexican-Americans were at least partly identified as white before becoming nonwhite." (Roediger, p.326). In fact, even… [read more]

Race and Access to Healthcare Term Paper

… Race and Access to Healthcare

Access to quality health care is a social talking point, and yet the real disparities that occur often have to do with race and other indicators of disenfranchisement. There are many discussions and debates regarding the reasons why there is a disparity in access to health care, yet there is very little research evidence to support circumstantial associations. For the most part the thesis of the sciences has been that racial disparities that occur in access to health care are often associated with conditions of other than minority racial status, but are intrinsically linked to race because those of racial minority backgrounds are more likely to live within the confines of these social stigmas, mainly poverty and poor living conditions. This information is backed up by a great deal of scientific research and conjecture. Stone and Dula stress this point in a review of new findings.

Authorities agree that people of color and in ethnic minorities have much worse health than whites. Killers such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancers take a far greater toll on minorities than on whites. These health disparities between whites and non-whites have multiple causes: poverty, inadequate education, inferior housing and living conditions, lack of health insurance, and both access to and quality of health care. (Stone & Dula, 2002, p.48)

This work will briefly discuss the issue specifically of access to healthcare as it pertains to racial minorities in the forms of a review of literature.

After examining numerous studies from the last ten years, the IOM concluded that "racial and ethnic minorities.., are less likely to receive even routine medical procedures [like coronary artery bypass surgery and kidney dialysis] than are white Americans." As the New York Times editorized on 22 March, racism may contribute to such disparities. (Stone & Dula, 2002, p. 48)

Access to health care is a marker among international organizations attempting to eliminate social disparity, and therefore it can be assumed to be a good indicator of racism in general, and it is clear that even in the richest country in the world the dominant race has superior opportunity and access to healthcare. (Stone & Dula, 2002, p.48) it must also be made clear that this is not only a global problem but it is clearly a U.S. problem.

Despite remarkable improvements in the overall health of our nation during the past two decades, compelling evidence suggests that our nation's racial and ethnic minority Americans suffer increasing disparities in the incidence, prevalence, mortality, and burden of diseases and adverse health outcomes compared with white Americans. Sources of these disparities are multivariate, complex, and rooted in an inequitable health care system. Contributing factors include lack of access…… [read more]

Psychology - Counseling Race and Ethnicity Term Paper

… Psychology - Counseling; Race & Ethnicity

Psychology - Counseling;

Race and Ethnicity

The Cost of Whiteness" (Thandeka)

Thandeka exudes a level of conceptive development in "The Cost of Whiteness," regarding the progression of racial perception as it pertains to the Caucasian ethnicity. In detailing the allowance of assumptions that sustain such bigotry, the teachings that maintain ignorance and the subtle teachings that promote racism, Thandeka describes the inner-workings of society among whites that distinguishes in cost; the many attributing factors that subject the level of thinking that surrounds racially biased consideration.

The concepts of "whiteness," as they appear to me in 'The Cost of Whiteness,' are poorly labeled and derive an understanding that is misleading. The term 'whiteness' that is used throughout the authors dissertation on what appears to be simple ignorance, bigotry and racism, is fair and accurate in terms of the distinguishing of racial and ethnical regard. However, placing the term 'whiteness' adheres with the judgments and classifications, despite the accuracy of the content, in such a way that we are led to believe that color is the overarching factor and influence behind such naive ignorance as is depicted among the subjects of the research that deploy the provided degrees of racism - a quintessential mistake angrily and passionately noted on the opposite end of these racial divides when the opposing parallel of the subject term is expressed in the same context back toward the other direction.

Everybody's Ethnic Enigma" (Jelita McCleod)

Miss McCleod provides a very insightful and somewhat humorously cynical view into the circumstances of presumptuousness, lost-grace, unmelodic interaction with strangers and the struggles of outward and inward impression as it impacts ourselves and those we come into contact with. With a somewhat inspirational take on what it feels like to be fed up with forward, ill-courteous communication or interaction, McCleod expresses the true nature of naivety in the realm of racial defines. Being of mixed ethnicity, McCleods particular experience and insight into such topics is fully nurtured by an obvious degree of intelligence that so greatly surpasses mediocrity that her way of describing the absurdity of people's uncouthness is almost ridiculously hilarious, yet to the T. In terms of their illogicality and ignorance.

Why are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?" (Beverly Daniel Tatum)

Beverly Daniel Tatum's book - Why are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria? - is an exceptional source of direct imminence into the world of segregations, especially in consideration of its manifestation in childhood. Touching base on such topics as unrecognized separation and the adaptations of the decline of a child's perception of segregation as a simple, necessitated occurrence of coincidence or preference unsupported by outward and deeply rooted influence over racial factors is superiorly described through Tatum's own experiences and forthright opinions. The development of racial segregation is perhaps the most important phase of its…… [read more]

Racism and the Rise of Multiculturalism Term Paper

… Racism and the Rise of Multiculturalism: Progress or Pitfall?

The one absolute certain way of bringing this nation to ruin, or preventing all possibility of its continuing to be a nation at all, would be to permit it to become… [read more]

Ethnic Minorities and Inequalities in UK Term Paper

… Ethnic Minorities and Inequalities in UK

Ethnic minorities in Britain have been subjected to the kind of hardships, discrimination and inequalities that minorities face everywhere in the world, in every country. With heavy immigration to Britain in four distinct periods:… [read more]

Diversity in Schooling Term Paper

… Diversity & Racism in Schooling

Any place where number of people of different culture, language or color, live that society usually generates prejudices among people. Societies where people live with full of prejudices affects the way in which a society… [read more]

Ethics and Race in My Community Term Paper

… Racism in America today is much different from racism in the traditional sense. The intensity of anti-racism and political correct dialogue lobbyists within the past decade has made it taboo to be or even appear racist. As a result, racialized… [read more]

Racism Without Racists Term Paper

… Racism Without Racists

There is a marked contradiction in the perceptions on racism in American society. In his book Racism Without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States, Eduardo Bonilla-Silva investigates how such detailed system of inequity continues to exist, even as many Caucasians insist that society has progressed, to an extent that racism is no longer an issue. The author further investigates how Caucasians are able to both assert their social dominance, even as they create a facade highlighting their own supposed color-blindedness. The effect of this fake color-blindedness, says the author, is to actually dismiss.

Bonilla-Silva builds his study on two surveys, one with 627 college students from different areas of the country and the second with 400 Detroit area residents. Bonilla-Silva then conducted follow-up interviews with the survey participants. The respondents in Racism Without Racists are limited to Caucasians and African-Americans, a limitation that the author himself acknowledges. Perhaps the silver lining to this limitation, however, is that the reader is able to focus more readily on the animosity that many African-Americans harbor against whites. Conversely, white respondents to Bonilla-Silva's writings also show that many whites exhibit distance, misunderstanding and sometimes hostility against black people.

According to Racism Without Racists, white people are able to create such "color-blind racism" by re-articulating key values of traditional liberalism -- such as individualism, meritocracy and a strong work ethic. However, these values are employed towards goals that are far from liberal in nature. Bonilla-Silva asserts that it is useless to evaluate racism in American society based on the intents and affective disposition of the players. Instead, the author argues that a person's material interests should be the basis for understanding a person's attitudes towards race.

To shore up this argument, Bonilla-Silva points to survey results and interviews showing that the people located towards the bottom of the racial hierarchy -- meaning African-Americans -- tended to be the most opposed to racism. On the other hand, the people who benefit from the "wages of whiteness" are the ones who defend or simply passively accept that society is now colorblind, or that white people rightfully hold privilege. Furthermore, there is a schism in how people view racism's roots. For many white people, racism is an expression of an individual's racial hostility. Many minorities, however, view racism as being systemic or embedded in social institutions.

This dichotomy makes it even more difficult to come to an understanding regarding the roots of racism.

The author argues that color-blind racism is articulated through four interpretive frameworks. White people who employ the framework of abstract liberalism attempt to seem reasonable, only to turn around and argue against programs that are aimed at addressing the de facto racism that continues to pervade society. A person falling under this category, for example, could oppose bilingual education, on the grounds that children should learn to communicate in English. This argument ignores, however, that many children need language resources and additional tutorial in order… [read more]

Racism Term Paper

… Racism Now and Then the 1500s were an era of exploration, conquest and colonization. The conquest of the Americas marked the foundation and rise of capitalism and native mining required the use of African slaves (Institute for the Study of… [read more]

Impact of Globalization on Racism in the U.S Term Paper

… Globalization & Race in the U.S.

The Emergence of Ethnic Tension in America: Globalization and its Effect on Racial Diversity in Contemporary American Society

Since the influx of immigrants in the United States in the late 20th century, the social landscape has radically changed. The once-predominantly white American society have become a "melting pot" for all cultures, societies, and races of the world. At present, American society is no longer dominated by the white American society, for its population is mix of Asian, African, Caucasian, and Latino races and cultures, forming a hybrid form of society wherein predictably, white American influence no longer dominates this 'hybrid society.'

This is the issue explicitly discussed in the works of Andrew Barlow and Dale Maharidge, authors of the texts "Between Fear and Hope" and "The Coming White Minority," respectively. In these texts, the issue of racial diversity in the context of the emerging globalization in American society today is contemplated, wherein both authors came up with their interpretations to describe the social phenomenon and dynamics occurring in the country at present.

Looking into each author's arguments in their respective texts, one dominant theme emerges: that increased racism results from the increased diversity and multiculturalism of America, intensified by the country's subsistence to globalization as the new form of economic system in the world today. That is, globalization allowed white culture to "mix" with other ethnic cultures, creating great proximity that resulted to a racial tension due to the cultures' need to assert themselves in one common ground -- the American nation and society.

Dale Maharidge introduced the phenomenon of racial or ethnic tension as the result of the years of increased entry of immigrants in America, as exemplified in the example of the state of California. Maharidge uses California as the example of the "melting pot" model that best describes American society today: a hybrid mix of white American, black American, Asian, Latin, and Middle Eastern races. The case of California demonstrates the racial tension between white Americans and the ethnic minorities that are gradually dominating American society today. As a response to feelings of "invasion" felt by the white Americans, they are putting "walls" distinguishing themselves from the ethnic minorities, which inevitably translates to animosity between the two groups (i.e., white Americans and ethnic minorities). What results from this animosity between the two groups is a "push and pull"…… [read more]

Race: British America, Early U.S., French Saint Domingue, and Haiti Term Paper

… Race

Social and Political Contexts of Race: British North American, Early U.S., French St. Dominique and Haiti.

Race and racism had multiple affects on society and politics in early history. Race and racism functioned primarily as a mechanism for turbulent… [read more]

Race and Cultural Minorities Two Term Paper

… As she damned his choices of politically incorrect racial challenges to the black 'race' of America, social activists on both sides of the aisle stepped up. Cosby's speech itself was received with some laughter and applause, and some wonder if he might have in fact been right. (Dyson, 4.) Nevertheles, Ehrenreich's fast retort with factual solidification proves the supporting evidence to Cosby's claims unsubstantiated, making his arguments invalid de facto. A year after the public debate, the facts at hand are no longer what is important though, but that the conversation existed at all.

The summer of 2005 brought with it another early 1990s full-frontal exposure to the beast that is the actualized version of race in America. Hurricane Katrina and the ensuing flood of New Orleans left white escapees in their SUVs on highways out of the Crescent City, where poor blacks flocked to rooftops and civil gathering halls to escape the torrential currents running the conversation of race back into the political core of the country. While the presidential response was damned for its lack of acceptance of a "race" problem, the other side of the congressional aisle stepped up its campaign for a decisive treatment of race in American life: it's still here, they cry. (Pogrebin, B7.)

The idea of "race" is one that is socially constructed; it is formed of biologically inaccuracies, historical definitions, and concepts of identity. It is denied by biology but maintained by its place in the modern sociopolitical power struggle and perpetuated by those employing its tool for their own means as well as larger social conversation where more academically correct and socially accepted words fall short. "Race" consummates an intangible idea hidden under the farce of visible difference, and it remains an ever-important part of today's society. Despite a hundred years of progress and a few more years for practice, the conversation in which Washington and DuBois engaged so long ago remains true, manifested in the modern debate between Cosby and Ehrenreich. DuBois argued that "the problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color-line;" the same is true for the twenty-first.

Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 1997. "Rethinking Racism." American Sociological Review. 62: 465-79.

Brown, W.O. 1931. "The Nature of Race Consciousness." Social Forces. Vol. 10, No. 1. p. 90-97.

Davis, FJ. 2001. Who Is Black? One Man's Definition. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Dyson, Michael Eric. 2005. Is Bill Cosby Right? (Or Has the Black Middle Class Lots ItsMind?) New York: Basic Civitas Books.

Ehrenreich, Barbara. 2004. "The New Cosby Kids." New York Times. July 8.

Goldstien, Joshua R. 2000. "The Multiple-Race Population in the United States." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Vol. 97, No. 11. p . 6230- 6235.

House, Floyd N. 1935. "Viewponits and Methods in the Study of Race Relations." The American Journal of Sociology." Vol. 40, No. 4. p. 440.

Hunt, Matthew O. 2000. "Color-Blind: The Treatment of Race and Ethnicity in Social Psychology." Social Psychology Quarterly.… [read more]

Bias Based on Gender, Race Term Paper

… Whites control the media, the local government, and most of the local organizations; Blauner would say that this is because, as immigrants, Caucasians were able to adapt their cultural identity to their new world and new communities, and that whites,… [read more]

History of Racism and Its Impact on Society Term Paper

… History Of Racism and the Impact of Racism on Society

Racism and its impact have been felt all over the world and the innate struggles and tussles that racism involves are being felt not only in the United States of… [read more]

Race and Ethnicity a Methodological Term Paper

… Gillborn observed that the interaction between African Caribbean students and their teachers was of a major qualitative concern, as ethnographers have attempted to previously chart the ways in which black students respond to and react on their school experiences in… [read more]

Role of Inequality to Our Understanding of Racial and Ethnic Group Relationships Term Paper

… Inequality in Ethnic and Racial Relationships

Race has been described as a plague of civilization so that chief U.S. representative to the United Nations in 1977 commented that a race war in South Africa would induce racial conflict in the… [read more]

Education and Racism Term Paper

… Racism in the classroom can result in poor student achievement, sense of self-worth, and result in needless misunderstandings and confusion in an environment that should be safe and encouraging above all else.

Though there is not one method that has been identified and agreed upon for overcoming racism in the classroom, most researchers and educators are starting to acknowledge the important of acquiring multicultural competencies to combat racism. This involves evaluating ones personal biases and values in order to better relate to people that are ethnically and culturally diverse.

The only way that racism can be beat in schools is through educational programs that foster diversity and encourage understanding in a warm and embracing environment. This includes programs that encourage multicultural competence and communication among staff, teachers and students alike. Students and educators must work together to understand and meet the needs of diverse students, parents and staff. Doing so will result in a more cohesive and accomplished student body, and will decrease the likelihood that racism remains at the forefront of subjects with regard to education. The fight to end racism hasn't yet ended, in fact it has only just begun.


Constantine, M.G. (2002). Racism attitudes, white racial identity attitudes and multicultural counseling competence in school counselor trainees. Counselor Education and Supervision, 41(3)162.

Donaldson, K.B. (1996). Through students' eyes: Combating racism in United States schools. Westport: Praeger.

Sue, D.W., Arrendondo, P. &…… [read more]

Governing Race: Politics, Process Term Paper

… She writes, "Specifically, current trends in voter registration, education, income, and housing all suggest a shift in the locus of the race problem" (Moore 113). Therefore, Blacks may have made some progress in some areas, but overall, racial minorities in… [read more]

Race, Ethnicity, and Utopia Term Paper

… The Klingons, of course, had very Africanized features, with dark skin, dreadlocks, and oddly exaggerated prominent brows and lips. At the same time, the highly intelligent but unemotional Vulcans were shown with slightly Asiatic features. While in later shows Klingons… [read more]

Racism Term Paper

… It is quite apparent, when considering the human resource related implications of academic racism 'that racism and racial discrimination threaten human development because of the obstacles which they pose to the fulfillment to basic human rights to survival, security, development,… [read more]

Whiteness as a Non-Race Paradoxes Term Paper

… Only by recognizing Whiteness privileges and acknowledging the white people's contribution to its hegemony over every facet of life, can we all hope to institute more of a level playing field in the world we live in.


Clark, Kendall. (January 8, 2001) My White Problem -- And Ours.

Clark, Kendall. (June 28, 2001) The Global Privileges of Whiteness.

Jensen, Robert. (July 19, 1998) "White Privilege Shapes the U.S.," in Baltimore Sun.

Kuchta, Tod M. (1998) The Dyer Straits of Whiteness.

McIntosh, Peggy. (1988) White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack.

Rodriguez, Roberto. (May 13, 1999) "The Study of Whiteness," in Black Issues in Higher Education 16.


Analysis of Whiteness as a Social Construction

Clark, Kendall. (June 28, 2001) The Global Privileges of Whiteness.

McIntosh, Peggy. (1988) White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack.

Kuchta, Tod M. (1998) The Dyer Straits of Whiteness.

Jensen, Robert. (July 19, 1998) "White Privilege Shapes the U.S.," in Baltimore Sun.

Kuchta, Tod M. (1998) The Dyer Straits of Whiteness.

Clark, Kendall. (June 28, 2001) The Global Privileges of Whiteness.

McIntosh, Peggy. (1988) White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack.

Kuchta, Tod M. (1998) The Dyer Straits of Whiteness.… [read more]

Interview and Analysis Jerome X Term Paper

… He also pointed to his parent's background, stressing that this was a problem not only in the United States, but in all white-dominated countries all over the world. In the United Kingdom, the police, in a much-publicized incident killed a… [read more]

Race Personally Essay

… It was not necessarily slavery, but rather the notion that "all men are created equal" that was a huge contradiction, morally, within colonial U.S. It was quite obvious that the people who created the words from the aforementioned quotation did not view all men as equal. The fact that slaves were treated as 3/5 of a man for taxation purposes and for the purposes of representation within the senate and the house illustrates the disparity between the previous quotation, and the reality within colonial America. Race, however, was ultimately able to solve this contradiction by illustrating the fact that just because some is of a different color or skin hue, that person was actually still a human with the same processes and functions as any other man.

Those who were allowed to become a natural citizen before 1954 include whites, African-Americans, and Native Americans. Asians could not become citizens until 1954. Denied citizenship meant that individuals could not vote file lawsuits, own property, or even testify in court.

There were a couple of different changes that took place that made European "ethnics" become white. One of these had to do with the changing tides of immigration. Once the majority of immigrants to the U.S. came to be non-white peoples, the feelings of nativism shifted from immigration country to color. Additionally, the liberation of slaves and the ensuing Civil Rights movement factored into a 'whites vs. non-whites' mentality.

Federal housing policies institutionalized segregation and wealth disparities by reinforcing the trend in which the wealthy and Caucasians lived in the suburbs, while the minorities and the destitute were given cheap housing within urban environments. Facilitating federal housing in such neighborhoods only made them crammed and packed with poor minorities, providing more of an incentive for wealthier non-minorities to move elsewhere.

The whites who leave a neighborhood play the major role in the decline of property values when non-whites move in. The whites inevitably leave, and in doing so they frequently take the business and the services that were provided there with them. The lower the property values the more people move in who do not respect and care for the neighborhood, and the cycle continues.

A wonderful thing takes place when measures of racial disparities in place like education and welfare rates when groups of similar income and wealth are compared -- these standard measures of race largely disappear and are no longer relevant.… [read more]

Racism Violence, Morality, and Responsibility Research Paper

… Racism

Violence, Morality, and Responsibility

An examination of institutionalized racism and its ethical consequences.

The presence of institutionalized racism is often hard to deny in many circumstances. However, the solutions to prohibiting this type of violence are far from clear.… [read more]

Racism in Euro Soccer Essay

… Some big worries" (Baxter, p. 1). Part of the disappointment of the Euro matches is that this was designed to be "the East Bloc's coming-out party, one that burnished its image and welcomed it into the community of nations as a full partner," Baxter writes. Instead of a coming out party, it has turned out to be a "costly embarrassment" for the East Bloc (Baxter, p. 2).

The New York Times reported in May, 2012, that a "…complicated racial issue has arisen" because the families of two black players from England announced they do not plan to attend the tournament. Why are they staying away? They fear "…abuse or violence in Ukraine"; and the reason for their fear was played out recently in a BBC documentary, which "…has further inflamed emotions" in England (Longman, 2012). Along with the BBC documentary, one of England's best players, John Terry, is facing a criminal charge of being racially abusive to an opponent who was a man of color (during a club match in 2011); this has also stirred emotions in England, Longman explains.

There was good reason for people in Great Britain to be concerned about racial abuse in Ukraine because one third of England's team is black. There has "long been a strain of xenophobia in the Slavic cultures of the former Soviet Union," Longman continues. And while there is apparently less hatred towards people of the Jewish faith, attacks on black people remains a big problem, Longman explained.

Looking at the problem from a worldview that is more general than specifically soccer, University of Michigan professor of German studies, Andrei Markovits, said this problem is not exclusive to Eastern Europe. "It's ubiquitous in Europe," professor Markovits explained to the Times' reporter. "Somehow the soccer stadium has remained the last bastion of unmitigated maleness," Markovits pointed out. A male soccer fan can behave badly and "be proud of it," he said, "the way you can't in virtually any other venue in Europe" (Longman, p. 2).

In conclusion, it is fair to say that while the recent reports of racism and hatefulness towards people of other cultures and religious beliefs are disturbing, racism and violence are not new concepts in European soccer matches. For years the video reports from numerous soccer venues have shown drunken hooligans creating chaos and disturbing what otherwise should be a good competitive soccer match on the field. If violence and racism becomes a common theme in soccer matches in Europe, one can easily see that many fans will prefer to watch the matches on television than risk their safety in stadiums where security and safety cannot be guaranteed.


Baxter, Kevin. 'Racism charges detract from Euro 2012 soccer in Poland, Ukraine.' Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 27, 2013, from 2012.

Bernstein, Dan. 'Bernstein: Euro Soccer Racism Shocking.' CBS Chicago. Retrieved February 27, 2013, from 2012.

Longman, Jere. 'Racism and Soccer Are in Play at a Big Event in East Europe.' The…… [read more]

Ethnic Future of America Essay

… In this way, race often becomes a lens through which people negotiate their self identities.

What is required is some give and take between the old and the new. Sacrifices must be made on both sides if some kind of an agreement can be made at this societal level. Personal sacrifice is also necessary. Citizens of the future need to open up their minds to new ideas and accept that everyone is entitled to free expression and free religious practices. This is easier said than done in today's world, where condemnation follows every unpopular or controversial idea. Rarely are ideas discussed with discourse, depth or tact.

The idea for this changing landscape is for people to transcend race and become trans-racial thinkers. This new mindset allows for diversity and is not concerned with equal treatment because equality is something that can never be accomplished. Not until we truly celebrate diversity, as opposed to fearing it, can we be a free society.

Racial identities are already becoming obsolete as many minorities are now majorities and vice versa. The answer to successful trans-cultural blending is a personal and internal struggle that must happen at an individual level first before manifesting itself into a community behavior. This all begins when we begin to take responsibility for our own actions and thoughts and stop blaming others for our faults. America holds the key to unlock unlimited opportunity which can push the rest of the globe towards a truly free, multi-ethnic, trans-racial society.… [read more]

Canoes Racism and Film: An Examination Term Paper

… ¶ … Canoes

Racism and Film: An Examination of the Film Ten Canoes

We like to think of ourselves as a society that has grown past the limitations of racism. However, this is unfortunately not yet true. Racist stereotypes still… [read more]

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