"Race / Ethnic Studies / Racism" Essays

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Role of Inequality to Our Understanding of Racial and Ethnic Group Relationships Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,535 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Inequality in Ethnic and Racial Relationships

Race has been described as a plague of civilization so that chief U.S. representative to the United Nations in 1977 commented that a race war in South Africa would induce racial conflict in the U.S. (Kearl 2005). Some countries, like Great Britain and Australia, prevent this kind of conflict by severely restricting entry. But… [read more]


History of Racism & Its Impact on Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (3,824 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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History Of Racism and the Impact of Racism on Society

Racism and its impact have been felt all over the world and the innate struggles and tussles that racism involves are being felt not only in the United States of America but also across the entire world. In the United States of America, racism has been in a particularly virulent… [read more]


Bias Based on Gender, Race Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,455 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Whites control the media, the local government, and most of the local organizations; Blauner would say that this is because, as immigrants, Caucasians were able to adapt their cultural identity to their new world and new communities, and that whites, due to this adaptation and control of the culture, have possibly lost their cultural identity altogether (Healey 2003 p. 501).… [read more]


Race and Cultural Minorities Two Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (2,053 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

As she damned his choices of politically incorrect racial challenges to the black 'race' of America, social activists on both sides of the aisle stepped up. Cosby's speech itself was received with some laughter and applause, and some wonder if he might have in fact been right. (Dyson, 4.) Nevertheles, Ehrenreich's fast retort with factual solidification proves the supporting evidence to Cosby's claims unsubstantiated, making his arguments invalid de facto. A year after the public debate, the facts at hand are no longer what is important though, but that the conversation existed at all.

The summer of 2005 brought with it another early 1990s full-frontal exposure to the beast that is the actualized version of race in America. Hurricane Katrina and the ensuing flood of New Orleans left white escapees in their SUVs on highways out of the Crescent City, where poor blacks flocked to rooftops and civil gathering halls to escape the torrential currents running the conversation of race back into the political core of the country. While the presidential response was damned for its lack of acceptance of a "race" problem, the other side of the congressional aisle stepped up its campaign for a decisive treatment of race in American life: it's still here, they cry. (Pogrebin, B7.)

The idea of "race" is one that is socially constructed; it is formed of biologically inaccuracies, historical definitions, and concepts of identity. It is denied by biology but maintained by its place in the modern sociopolitical power struggle and perpetuated by those employing its tool for their own means as well as larger social conversation where more academically correct and socially accepted words fall short. "Race" consummates an intangible idea hidden under the farce of visible difference, and it remains an ever-important part of today's society. Despite a hundred years of progress and a few more years for practice, the conversation in which Washington and DuBois engaged so long ago remains true, manifested in the modern debate between Cosby and Ehrenreich. DuBois argued that "the problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color-line;" the same is true for the twenty-first.

Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 1997. "Rethinking Racism." American Sociological Review. 62: 465-79.

Brown, W.O. 1931. "The Nature of Race Consciousness." Social Forces. Vol. 10, No. 1. p. 90-97.

Davis, FJ. 2001. Who Is Black? One Man's Definition. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Dyson, Michael Eric. 2005. Is Bill Cosby Right? (Or Has the Black Middle Class Lots ItsMind?) New York: Basic Civitas Books.

Ehrenreich, Barbara. 2004. "The New Cosby Kids." New York Times. July 8.

Goldstien, Joshua R. 2000. "The Multiple-Race Population in the United States." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Vol. 97, No. 11. p . 6230- 6235.

House, Floyd N. 1935. "Viewponits and Methods in the Study of Race Relations." The American Journal of Sociology." Vol. 40, No. 4. p. 440.

Hunt, Matthew O. 2000. "Color-Blind: The Treatment of Race and Ethnicity in Social Psychology." Social Psychology Quarterly.… [read more]


Race: British America, Early U.S., French Saint Domingue, & Haiti Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,431 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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Race

Social and Political Contexts of Race: British North American, Early U.S., French St. Dominique and Haiti.

Race and racism had multiple affects on society and politics in early history. Race and racism functioned primarily as a mechanism for turbulent social and political relationships and served to segregate members of society even when members shared a common cultural and ethnic… [read more]


Overrepresentation of Minorities in Special Education Thesis

Thesis  |  15 pages (4,423 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 25

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Overrepresentation of Minorities in Special Education

This research explores the fact that many minority groups are overrepresented in populations of students enrolled in special education programs. Unfortunately, racial categories continue to impact how students are place din special education programs, and minorities including African-Americans are often penalized by the current system of categorization and enrollment. The research examines previous research… [read more]


Impact of Globalization on Racism in the U.S Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (795 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Globalization & Race in the U.S.

The Emergence of Ethnic Tension in America: Globalization and its Effect on Racial Diversity in Contemporary American Society

Since the influx of immigrants in the United States in the late 20th century, the social landscape has radically changed. The once-predominantly white American society have become a "melting pot" for all cultures, societies, and races of the world. At present, American society is no longer dominated by the white American society, for its population is mix of Asian, African, Caucasian, and Latino races and cultures, forming a hybrid form of society wherein predictably, white American influence no longer dominates this 'hybrid society.'

This is the issue explicitly discussed in the works of Andrew Barlow and Dale Maharidge, authors of the texts "Between Fear and Hope" and "The Coming White Minority," respectively. In these texts, the issue of racial diversity in the context of the emerging globalization in American society today is contemplated, wherein both authors came up with their interpretations to describe the social phenomenon and dynamics occurring in the country at present.

Looking into each author's arguments in their respective texts, one dominant theme emerges: that increased racism results from the increased diversity and multiculturalism of America, intensified by the country's subsistence to globalization as the new form of economic system in the world today. That is, globalization allowed white culture to "mix" with other ethnic cultures, creating great proximity that resulted to a racial tension due to the cultures' need to assert themselves in one common ground -- the American nation and society.

Dale Maharidge introduced the phenomenon of racial or ethnic tension as the result of the years of increased entry of immigrants in America, as exemplified in the example of the state of California. Maharidge uses California as the example of the "melting pot" model that best describes American society today: a hybrid mix of white American, black American, Asian, Latin, and Middle Eastern races. The case of California demonstrates the racial tension between white Americans and the ethnic minorities that are gradually dominating American society today. As a response to feelings of "invasion" felt by the white Americans, they are putting "walls" distinguishing themselves from the ethnic minorities, which inevitably translates to animosity between the two groups (i.e., white Americans and ethnic minorities). What results from this animosity between the two groups is a "push and pull"…… [read more]


Unconscious Racism in Psychology Unconsciousness Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,185 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6

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According to claims put forward by Blanton & Jaccard (2008), the concept of automatic racial attitudes rest on exceedingly aggressive interpretations of IATs. The IAT has been criticized for having methodological issues as it focuses on the time a participant takes to classify stimuli into categorize after being explicitly exposed to black stereotypical terms (Gawronski, 2002). While Dr. Greenwald and his colleagues conclude that scores obtain through IAT are reliable and better assess racial bias, critics have rejected the findings ore scores of the studies by re-taking and reanalyzing the test results which demonstrate inconsistency and, in some cases totally opposite of the original scores (Tierney, 2008).

To prove the influence of unambiguous exposure to stereotypical terms on the responses of IAT participants, Fazio et al., 1995 (as cited in Blanton & Jaccard, 2008) formed a method known as affective priming. This method uses stimulating race primes to analyze the level to which race-based apexes facilitate the positive or negative responses. Studies have shown that individuals identify a word quickly if they are exposed to the pinnacle of the same valence instead of a contrasting valence. Hence, every individual has a psychological tendency to be influenced by a stimuli experience in full consciousness which raises question about the legitimacy of IAT test procedure. Devine's investigation and many other similar researches that are presented as an evidence for the existence of unconscious prejudice in a common man are all based on assessing racial attitudes after participants are given bias clues. If this logic is followed, the unconscious bias in a white man can easily be activated by interaction with black man which in turn may cause them to have more negative perceptions about blacks as compared to their perception about whites.

Conclusion

Even though it is reasonable to conclude that people at times are unaware of the consequences of their attitudes, this argument alone is not sufficient to provide basis for proving that the racial attitudes of people are a result of their unconscious bias on which they are not accountable or guilty for. but, to reject the fact that all stereotypical attitudes are works of the conscious self is not feasible either. It is an established fact that unconscious bias do exist with its roots connecting to cultural and communal beliefs and perceptions, no research or assessment method has been successful in providing evidence that everyday racial actions are a result of unconscious bias. IATs and self- reporting method does not provide reliable results that could draw a line between implicit racial behavior and conscious racism. Even the slightest variation in the use of reaction time data can have significant effect on an individual's IAT score which highlights IAT's unreliability. Hence there is a strong need to develop an empirical measurement system in which the chief methodological issues highlighted above are removed.

References

Blanton, H. & Jaccard, J. (2008). Unconscious racism: A concept in pursuit of measure. The Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 34, pp. 277-97.

Delgado, R. (1997). Critical… [read more]


Is Race for Real? Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,754 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

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¶ … Race for Real?

Race is a modern idea. Ancient societies did not divide people according to physical differences, but according to religion, status, class, even language.

The term "race" gained popularity during the 1920s and 1930s, but the concept existed long before that. Greeks, Romans and Jews people did not divide their society according to race, but according… [read more]


Racism in BC Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,160 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Racism British Columbia Focusing on Japanese

Racism is certainly not a new or exclusive phenomenon to contemporary world. Psychologically, humans seem to feel far more comfortable categorizing "the other" in order to subjugate or find reasons or justifications of control. For example, in the 19th century, power structures were driven by supposed scientific endeavors such as "standardizing" measurement of skin color and hair texture. The psychological community implicitly (sometimes explicitly) supported the notion that certain races were "mentally inferior." Possibly the most striking offense was the movement towards Eugenics, a form of Social Darwinism which was the view that the "unfit" be systematically removed from society via sterilization. "The field of psychology, in particular, was hostile towards the involvement of African-Americans." In fact, non-White scholars were totally excluded from any academic experience, denied matriculation into institutions of higher learning, and blatantly absent from any scholarly publications. This placed race at the core of the bottom of social status (Guthrie, 2003).

The very core of what sociology helps to unravel is the ideal of a group's privilege over another and the idea of the "invisible knapsack" in which there are tools for living in society available to some, and not to others, simply based on skin tone. This is the very core of what social work seeks to unravel. The invisibility of the tool-kit, however, is what makes it a racially based argument, "What privilege is like an invisible weightless knapsack of special provisions, maps, passports, codebooks, visas, clothes, tools, and blank checks" (McIntosh, 1988). Further, racism is not always a conscious activity -- not all Whites have the same understanding or overt psychological reaction towards other races. Ethnocentrism is universal in its notion that one's group has a mode of living, values, and patterns of adaptation that are superior to others. One group feels contempt for another, manifesting in attitudes of superiority and hostility. Ethnocentrism is expressed, typically, in discrimination, proselytizing, and verbal aggression against the "other," the outside group with the sole belief that one's way of life and culture is not only superior to the "other," but of intrinsically more moral value (Webber and Iezanson, eds., 2008). One culture may critically evaluate the other, one race; one ethnicity may be superior to all others simply based on its own hegemony. "Whites are taught to think of their lives as morally neutral, normative, and also idea so that when we work to benefit others, this is seen as work which will allow 'them' to be more like 'us'" (McIntosh).

There is certainly controversy about whether skin tone or other ethnic characteristics produce an innate organizational behavior in humans -- a recent study found that babies do tend to "differentiate" color at an early age (Bronson and Merryman). Indeed, for Canadians, there were two different historical times in which overt prejudice against Japanese immigrants became rampant -- at the turn of the century, finally causing riots and looting in Vancouver's Japanese and China towns, and then after the bombing of… [read more]


Racism Unfortunately Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (872 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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In situations like the 2008 presidential election, Barack Obama blasted many people's stereotypes about African-Americans. The violent reaction at Ole Miss reflects the cognitive dissonance that many of the students felt when their stereotypes and deeply held beliefs were shattered right before their eyes.

Structural elements in the society that cause and perpetuate racism are commonly referred to as institutionalized racism. Institutionalized racism are the structural elements that practically prevent upward social mobility or self-improvement among the underclass, such as the situation in which many African-American communities remain impoverished and have underfunded schools. Institutionalized racism is not as apparent as it was in the days of Jim Crow, when institutions like banks were able to openly discriminate against African-American loan requests. Yet even today, there are many examples of institutionalized racism.

The book Lies My Teacher Told Me is essentially about institutionalized racism, because it reveals the hidden curricula in public schools. Textbooks have the power to construct reality, or at least to construct history. In this way, racist beliefs and attitudes become institutionalized. They become part of the public consciousness, influencing the malleable attitudes and beliefs of young people.

The effects of personal and institutionalized racism are tremendous and debilitating. Obama's opponents have compared him with Hitler, and have made other comments that are similarly outlandish. These over-reactions, which have no basis at all in fact, reveal what Loewen talks about in Lies My Teacher Told Me, that "race is the sharpest and deepest division in American life," (p. 136). Because racism is institutionalized in the form of hidden curricula in public schools, it often goes unnoticed. Many teachers do not think critically about the books they use in class, and many parents do not think critically about the films and television shows their children watch. The effects of racism in America are creating an ignorant society, which refuses to take responsibility for its past. Americans continue to profess being the "greatest nation on earth," but the track record for the United States does not live up to the myth. African-American communities and individuals were stymied by a failed Reconstruction after the Civil War, because so few Americans were able to embrace "liberty and justice for all." Women in the United States have suffered a similar fate, as they continue to struggle for equality. Americans have a long way to go before the culture becomes one that is truly tolerant, able to recognize its own flawed past and make meaningful amends to alter the future course of…… [read more]


Race on Aggression Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  7 pages (2,351 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

(1996), the aggressiveness of the bump, angry expression, and mumbled statement will be assessed by the observers.

Statistical Analysis -- Analysis of variance (ANOVA) will be used to determine if there is an interaction between race and setting (public/private); between race and the three categories of annoyed, verbal, and verbal + bump; race and gender; and gender and setting. For… [read more]


Education and Race Sociological Perspective Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,202 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Theory

Three theories can be used to take a more in depth look at these concepts and how they relate in the sociological realm. Symbolic interactionism is how a person "acts toward things on the basis of the meanings that the things have for them" (Storrs & Clott). The second theoretical stance is social conflict which looks at structural factors… [read more]


Race: Hazards and Benefits Corporeal Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,789 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

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Based on recent trends and the findings of the above studies, the life expectancy of African-American males should continue to increase due to increasing incarceration rates. The Bureau of Justice Statistics predicts that 1 in 3 African-American males born in 2007 are expected to spend time in prison during their lifetime (Bonczar, 2003). By comparison, only 1 in 17 White… [read more]


Race and Ethnic Relations Dimensions Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (553 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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To look at Civic Assimilation, the authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding Alcohol Use.

Overall, they ended up with a sample consisting of 17 useable countries of origin, made up of 1,484 respondents. They analyzed their data using a factor analysis. They found that there were only three orthogonal factors: Structural Assimilation, Cultural Assimilation, and Receptional Assimilation. The larger Sutructural Assimilation factor had large loadings for structural and marital assimilation variables. Cultural assimilation had large loadings for cultural, identification, and civic assimilation. Receptional assimilation had large loadings for attitude and behavior variables (as well as marital).

These orthogonal factors were then used to create assimilation scales for the 17 ethnic groups. They found that structural and receptional and structural factors were significantly correlated, but neither was correlated with cultural assimilation. The further found that some groups were ranked consistently across types of assimilation (e.g., people of Russian German and Czechoslovakian decent), while, for many, there was an inconsistent pattern, with, e.g., high cultural assimilation and low structural assimilation or vice versa.

They concluded, then, that a unidimentional approach to studying assimilation is problematic and that at least the three components (structural, cultural, and recoeptional) should be taken into consideration when assessing ethnic assimilation. Further, they say the results of the study "indicate that different ethnic groups have substantially different pattern of assimilation" (707), which directly counters Gordon's assumption that cultural assimilation is the first type to occur. They suggest that both the process and pattern of assimilation is different between groups, and both should be considered as part of a multidimientional approach to analyzing ethnic assimilation…… [read more]


Perception of Racism and Colour Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  8 pages (2,840 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

However, this was far from the truth. The popularization of Jim Crow laws which permitted racial segregation was approved in many local and state governments in 1865; the same year slavery was abolished. Furthermore, even with the ratification of the fourteenth and fifteenth amendment, Black/African-Americans and other minorities were still treated as second class citizens and oftentimes refused the right… [read more]


Interview and Analysis Jerome X Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,440 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

He also pointed to his parent's background, stressing that this was a problem not only in the United States, but in all white-dominated countries all over the world. In the United Kingdom, the police, in a much-publicized incident killed a young Black man named Steven Lawrence in a racially motivated incident.

The interviewer was inclined to credit Jerome's attribution of… [read more]


Whiteness as a Non-Race Paradoxes Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,688 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Only by recognizing Whiteness privileges and acknowledging the white people's contribution to its hegemony over every facet of life, can we all hope to institute more of a level playing field in the world we live in.

References

Clark, Kendall. (January 8, 2001) My White Problem -- And Ours. http://monkeyfist.com/articles/734/plain

Clark, Kendall. (June 28, 2001) The Global Privileges of Whiteness. http://monkeyfist.com/articles/764/plain

Jensen, Robert. (July 19, 1998) "White Privilege Shapes the U.S.," in Baltimore Sun. http://racerelations.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://uts.cc.utexas.edu/%7Erjensen/freelance/whiteprivilege.htm

Kuchta, Tod M. (1998) The Dyer Straits of Whiteness. http://www.press.jhu.edu/journals/postmodern_culture/current/9.1r_kuchta.html

McIntosh, Peggy. (1988) White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack. http://racerelations.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://seas.stanford.edu/diso/articles/whiteprivilege.html

Rodriguez, Roberto. (May 13, 1999) "The Study of Whiteness," in Black Issues in Higher Education 16. http://www.virginia.edu/~woodson/courses/aas102/articles/rodriguez.html

ENDNOTES

Analysis of Whiteness as a Social Construction

Clark, Kendall. (June 28, 2001) The Global Privileges of Whiteness. http://monkeyfist.com/articles/764/plain

McIntosh, Peggy. (1988) White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack. http://racerelations.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://seas.stanford.edu/diso/articles/whiteprivilege.html

Kuchta, Tod M. (1998) The Dyer Straits of Whiteness. http://www.press.jhu.edu/journals/postmodern_culture/current/9.1r_kuchta.html

Jensen, Robert. (July 19, 1998) "White Privilege Shapes the U.S.," in Baltimore Sun. http://racerelations.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://uts.cc.utexas.edu/%7Erjensen/freelance/whiteprivilege.htm

Kuchta, Tod M. (1998) The Dyer Straits of Whiteness. http://www.press.jhu.edu/journals/postmodern_culture/current/9.1r_kuchta.html

Clark, Kendall. (June 28, 2001) The Global Privileges of Whiteness. http://monkeyfist.com/articles/764/plain

McIntosh, Peggy. (1988) White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack. http://racerelations.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://seas.stanford.edu/diso/articles/whiteprivilege.html

Kuchta, Tod M. (1998) The Dyer Straits of Whiteness. http://www.press.jhu.edu/journals/postmodern_culture/current/9.1r_kuchta.html… [read more]


Racism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,782 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

It is quite apparent, when considering the human resource related implications of academic racism 'that racism and racial discrimination threaten human development because of the obstacles which they pose to the fulfillment to basic human rights to survival, security, development, and social participation' (The American Psychological Association, 2003).

How racism leads to a socio-psychological ideology that supports poverty

It is… [read more]


Race, Ethnicity, and Utopia Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,212 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

The Klingons, of course, had very Africanized features, with dark skin, dreadlocks, and oddly exaggerated prominent brows and lips. At the same time, the highly intelligent but unemotional Vulcans were shown with slightly Asiatic features. While in later shows Klingons were politically removed from their position as archenemies (and replaced with robot-human hybrids), the stereotypes from these earlier shows remain… [read more]


Governing Race: Politics, Process Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,287 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

She writes, "Specifically, current trends in voter registration, education, income, and housing all suggest a shift in the locus of the race problem" (Moore 113). Therefore, Blacks may have made some progress in some areas, but overall, racial minorities in America are still far less successful and empowered as their white neighbors, coworkers, and counterparts. Perhaps the most contentious legislation… [read more]


Human Resources the Connection Workplace Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,669 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3

SAMPLE TEXT:

These factors are particularly important when they enter the labor market (Mays et al.).

Recommendations

The study conducted by Danty Jr. (2003) recommended further study on the effects of race and socio-economic status on health for confirmation. Other researchers should also formulate a new longitudinal database, which will speed up the accurate identification of the link between racism and its negative health effects in the workplace (Danty Jr.). Hammond et al. (2010) suggested that reducing workplace discrimination may improve the overall performance and behavior of racial or ethnic minority hospital employees who are at the greatest risk of exposure to discrimination (Hammond et al.). Mistry and Latoo (2009) see education as the most important part of an overall solution to the persistence of racism in the workplace in any organization. It should be infused into the curriculum. It should stress the need to recognize personal prejudices at an early age so as to challenge these prejudices within ourselves (Mistry and Latoo). Research showed that group-based discussions among Black women of similar work status on racism and sexism in the workplace may reduced feelings of job-related stress (Mays et al., 2013). These may also serve to form problem communication and problem-solving skills, which may, as a consequence, prevent or reduce race-based discrimination from creating too great an impact on their health and overall well-being (Mays et al.). #

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Danty, W.A., Jr. (2003). Employment discrimination, segregation and health. Vol. 93

# 2, American Journal of Public Health: American Public Health Association.

Retrieved on February 18, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1447721

Hammond, W.P., et al. (2010). Workplace discrimination and depressive symptoms:

a study of multi-ethnic hospital employees. Vol. 2 # 1, Race and Social Problems:

PubMed Central. Retrieved on February 18, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2867471

Mays, V.M., et al. (2013). Perceived race-based discrimination, employment status and job stress in a national sample of Black women: implications for health outcomes. Vol.

1 # 3, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology: PubMed Central. Retrieved on February 18, 2014 from http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3681822

Mistry, M. And Latoo, J. (2009). Uncovering the face of racism in the workplace. Vol. 2 #

2, British Journal of Medical Practitioners: JMN Medical Education…… [read more]


Race Relations Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,361 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Race Relations

The word racism has different definitions and a variety of connotations, but for the purpose of simplicity it can be described as racial accounts for dissimilarities in human nature or aptitude and that one particular race is better than another. Yes, racism exists, but it is not there in every person or in every comment. Dismissively branding someone a racist because you disagree with their view is not an effort to recognize deficits in order to recommend corrective measures. It is an assault, a bully approach projected to threaten someone who is perhaps trying to utilize logic and reasoning (Lester, 2010).

Playing the racist card often attains the desired effect of conformity but it comes with a cost. That cost is dislike. In America, people do not like bullies. They get fired, abandoned, chastised, ridiculed, and voted out of office. People prefer to spend time with people who lead certain lifestyles and display conventional behavior. If one is a member of a college sorority, a lodge, book club or forum they possibly feel the same way all the while condemning others for comparable actions and stances. If one doesn't like a person because they are predominantly white that makes them a racist. On the other hand if one prefers to not spend time with a person because one is quiet, keeps to themselves and is a lousy conversationalist then they are merely holding that person accountable for their unsociable behavior. The words that people use and the way they treat each other will form the lives and attitudes of the young children and to a lesser degree, their offspring. It is important for people to think before they speak (Lester, 2010).

In 2008, Americans selected a black man as President. The election was just as momentous as when in 1954; Roger Bannister broke the four-minute mile. It was up to that time established that running one mile in less than four minutes was physically not possible. Doctors around the world categorically stated that the human heart would blow up before it could be completed. And then one day Roger by accident did the unfeasible and lived to tell about it. Once runners recognized that breaking the four-minute mile was achievable they began trying. All it took was for one person to do what was thought couldn't be done (Lester, 2010).

Anyone who grew up south of the Mason-Dixon Line in the period that lead up to the Civil Rights legislation that was put into law in the 1960's can confirm to the societal and political progresses of all races since that time, especially Blacks. The disparities among then and now are plainly distinguished by the extremely discernible existence of blacks, Chicanos and Asian people in office, the academic world and pop society (Woodgate, 2010). Forced multiculturalism drives people away from each other, not the other way around. When one hears the race card being used arbitrarily chances are pretty good that they are being influenced, not educated. Political… [read more]


Ethnic Groups and Discrimination Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4

SAMPLE TEXT:

Ethnic Groups and Discrimination

The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the issue of ethnic discrimination in the U.S.A. The ethnic group that will represent the focus op out attention is represented by the Germans. It is important to mention right from the very beginning that the Germans are one of the largest community who emigrated to the U.S.A., hence the necessity to judge the circumstances through which they manged to develop until nowadays.

Research in the area suggests that the German migration began in the 1700s. The number of German people was so big that some feared they would impact in a highly strong manner the predominant English culture. One of the main causes which led the Germans to move to the U.S. territories was the need for jobs. "Because of the opportunity to own farm lands in the United States, the freedom it offers to practice religion, non-existent military conscription, and better economy, Germans have made the United States of America as the prime country to migrate ." (Mitchell)

It must be mentioned that the immigrants in case were highly skilled and this allowed them not only to find employment opportunities with a certain ease, but also to integrate in the sectors of high-income jobs (Darity, ). Since employment was the most significant reason for which other ethnic groups were coming to the U.S. land, some might wonder whether this did not lead to discrimination due to the existence of dual labor market tendencies. The answer is "no."

Nevertheless, a research conducted by Petra Moser, called "Ethnic Discrimination at the NYSE?" suggests that some types of discrimination existed indeed. Just like the author of the study declares, "The New York Stock Exchange's long life and distinctive mechanisms of admitting new members offers a unique window to the history of ethnic discrimination in the United States. Membership and the right to trade securities, is restricted to the owners of 1,366 seats at the exchange." The period which her paper researches is…… [read more]


How Race Is Apart of Everyday Life Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,762 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Narrative Ethnography

The readings on ethnography suggest that when approaching a personal narrative on ethnography one should formulate "an ethnographic topic study" -- and for me that would entail putting my life, my ethnic culture, my employment and my socially-related culture into some perspective. Ethnography involves embracing "Patterns of cultural thought…" that my work associates, my neighbors, my… [read more]


Calcifying Effects of Racism: Othello Essay

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¶ … calcifying effects of racism: Othello and a Raisin in the Sun

Both Othello and a Raisin in the Sun depict how racism is damaging to the souls and self-esteem of black individuals. Racism does not simply hamper social advancement. It also has a profound psychological effect on the person deemed 'inferior' by society. From the very first scene of Othello, the viewer is immediately alerted to the fact that he or she is witnessing a man living in a racist community. When Othello elopes with Desdemona, who is the daughter of the noble Brabantio, the villain Iago alerts the girl's father by shouting "Even now, now, very now, an old black ram/Is topping your white ewe" (I.1). Iago's crudeness highlights how, despite the fact Othello is a great and distinguished general, in the eyes of much of Venetian society, Othello is still a Moor.

In a Raisin in the Sun, the impact of racism can be seen most starkly in the character of Walter Lee Younger, who works as a chauffer driver. The Younger family lives in a small, cramped apartment because there are few opportunities for them to advance in pre-Civil Rights America. However, just as Othello manages to transcend the effects of racism through his military accomplishments, the family is still capable of moving forward. The youngest daughter, Beneatha Younger, is studying to be a doctor. And Mama's late husband was able to work hard and long enough to buy a life insurance policy. Mama says she will use the policy money as a down payment on a new house and reserve some of it for Beneatha's education.

Othello's ability to rise above prejudice is manifested in the scene in which he defends his marriage to Desdemona, saying that he did not use witchcraft to woo the young woman. "I think this tale would win my daughter too," says the Duke of Venice, when he witnesses Othello's persuasive abilities (I.3). However, because of Othello' sense of social insecurity and vulnerability, Iago is able to turn Othello against his wife. Iago stresses Desdemona's youth, and the…… [read more]


Reaction to the Documentary Race the Power of an Illusion Film Review

Film Review  |  2 pages (566 words)
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Racism -- Reaction to Documentary

Race -- the Power of an Illusion

The documentary Race -- the Power of an Illusion presents a disturbing account of American society. On one hand, racial equality has been the official law of the land since the Civil Rights era of the 1960s and the landmark Supreme Court decisions on constitutional rights during the 1950s and 1960s. On the other hand, racial inequality persisted in many ways much longer than that and affected people of color tremendously, even into the present day.

The documentary makes clear that much of what we consider to be true about race, as a concept is actually untrue in the first place. Actually, modern genetic screening based on DNA technology has proven that there is practically no such thing as racial purity at all. In fact, all of us share genetic markers that prove that we are of mixed race, at least biologically, regardless of what our ethnic heritage might be.

Second, it illustrates how much of what we believe about race and (especially) the way we treat people based on supposed racial differences is related to superficial differences that are only apparent visually. That is why ethnic races (such as Jews and other European ethnicities) managed to break down ethnic barriers much earlier and more successfully in the U.S. during the 20th century than African-Americans and other ethnic people whose appearance (primarily their skin color) make them much more visually distinctive and identifiable as "minorities."

The documentary also explains that making social distinctions based on "race" is nonsensical. All domestic dogs, for example, are members of the same species (Canis lupus familiaris), regardless of whether selective breeding has produced miniature toy…… [read more]


Black Studies African-Americans Are African-Americans Gaining Ground Essay

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Black Studies

African-Americans

Are African-Americans gaining ground or losing ground in the 21st century? In what areas do you see African-Americans struggling or succeeding? How do you see these issues affecting African-Americans in the future?

In some areas African-Americans are gaining ground in the 21st century but in the majority of areas there are losing grounds to the Latino's. While social scientists continue to question the effect of large-scale immigration on low-skilled Americans, these people believe that high levels of immigration are threatening their economic well-being. Recent research shows that these fears are present in both African-Americans and Caucasians. Conflict between African-Americans and Latino's for group position, status, and political power is steadily going up as most immigrants of Hispanic ancestry are settling in areas that are adjacent to African-American populations in the nation's largest cities (Morris and Gimpel, 2007).

African-Americans have gained in the area of office-holding with the election of Barack Obama to the office of President of the United States. In other high offices though, their leadership appears to have leveled off as Latino's gain ground. These gains are coming at the cost of non-Hispanic white office-holders and African-Americans. It is thought that African-Americans are more threatened given their smaller overall numbers. Because of this rising of immigrant populations it is thought that there will be a change in the racial complexion of the representation in the U.S. House in a number of California, Texas, and New York congressional districts. Some experts feel that after the 2010 census there will be redistricting that might result in as many as six seats currently held by members of the Congressional Black Caucus could be given up to Latino candidates (Morris and Gimpel, 2007).

Over the past 40 years as the immigrant population has increased, the idea that these new arrivals may compete with African-Americans for jobs, housing, positional status, and political representation has become a reality. Recent studies have found that a tension that has emerged between immigrant groups and lower-skilled African-American (Morris and Gimpel, 2007).

Up until very recently, it has been considered politically incorrect; to suggest that minority groups within American society may not get along well or actually wind up in not-so-friendly competition for scarce resources. The thoughts of those who imagine a happy coalition have begun to discuss the problems of interethnic relations. They have started talking about the overcrowding that is taking place on the lower rungs of the nation's socioeconomic ladder (Morris and Gimpel, 2007).

This disregard for public discussion of a now painfully evident reality seems odd given that interethnic conflict has had such a ubiquitous presence throughout U.S. history. A person need not have taken a college history course to recognize that immigration and immigrant-native conflict are not merely 21st century phenomena. A body of academic research has suggested that periods of peaceful interethnic relations in the United States may stand out as exceptions rather than the rule. The consequences of the ongoing demographic transformation cannot be ignored forever, and a… [read more]


Race and Labor Force Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,067 words)
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Race and Labor Force in the Field of Accounting

This paper reviews statistics in three fields -- accounting, waiter/waitressing and commercial painters. Using the occupations and census report, the percentage of accountants that are White Americans, African-American, American Indian, Asian-American, and Hispanic-Americans will be determined. The gender division of this career field will also be denoted. These numbers will then be compared and contrasted to occupations from the service field and operators, fabricators and laborers fields -- waiter/waitressing and painters, respectively. These findings will be further analyzed in light of the articles written on race/ethnicity by Kirschenman and Neckerman, Newman and Ellis, and Kandel and Parrado.

Statistical Information for Accountants:

According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 1990 census report detailing occupations by race and gender, there are significant differences in involvement in the accounting industry by ethnicity; however, gender was more evenly distributed. According to the report, 751,840 (approximately 47%) males and 838,338 (approximately 53%) females were in the accounting field. Of these 1,590,178 workers, 86% reported being White. Only 6.7% of those in the accounting field reported being African-American, 3/10% reported being American Indian, 5.4% reported to be Asian-American, and 4.2% were reported to be of Hispanic-American ethnicity. These findings are significantly different from those in the waiter/waitressing fields and commercial painting fields.

Comparison of Waiters/Waitressing and Painters to Accounting Ethnic and Gender Statistics:

In the field of waiters/waitressing, the total number of employees was about the same as those who were accountants. In 1990, the U.S. Census Bureau reported 1,488,253 waiters and waitresses. However, the difference in gender spread across this occupation is significantly different from that of accountants. Where accountants were fairly evenly divided between men and women, waiting tables is clearly skewed towards female employees. Eighty percent of waiters/waitresses were female, according to the U.S. Census Bureau's report. Racially, the percentages were more in line with those found in the field of accounting.

Eighty-eight percent of those in the waiter/waitressing field reported being White. This is in comparison to 86% of accountants reporting to be White. Just over 5.4% of waiters/waitresses reported themselves as African-American, compared to 6.7% of Black accountants. Seven-tenths of a percent of waiters/waitresses reported American Indian ethnicity, 4.3% reported being Asian-American, and 7.9% reported being Hispanic-American. These figures are compared to 3/10%, 5.4% and 4.2% of accountants reporting being American Indian, Asian-American and Hispanic-American respectively. These ethnicity breakdowns are incredibly similar to those found in the field of accounting and continue to be found in the field of commercial painting. Although, again, there is a significant difference in the gender breakdown in this field, when compared to the previous two.

The U.S. Census Bureau's report on the painting field reveals dramatic differences in the quantity of males vs. females in the occupation. However, unlike waiters/waitressing, this occupation is skewed in favor of male workers. Eighty-five percent of painters are male, close to the same number of female waitresses. Yet, ethnicity breakdowns are very similar to those of the accounting and waiter/waitressing fields.… [read more]


Race as a Biology Is Fiction Racism as a Social Problem Is Real Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (861 words)
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Smedley, a. & Smedley, B. (2005). "Race as biology is fiction, racism as a social problem is real." American psychologist 60(1), pp. 16-26.

Despite what my be perceived in societal attitudes at large, a large debate still persists among certain researchers and theorists in the psychological world regarding the issue of race. As Smedley & Smedley (2005) note, some researchers still insist that there are measurable racial differences in aspects of personality such as intelligence that cannot be explained merely by social circumstances and upbringing, but in fact suggest or even require a genetic explanation. Most researchers do not find such conclusions accurate or scientifically meaningful, but their dismissal of the issues of race is, according to the authors, equally misleading and possibly destructive. As the authors themselves say about their intent in this article, "Our aim is not to review the psychological literature regarding the construction of race but to bring anthropological and historical perspectives to the study of race" (Smedley & Smedley 2005).

The authors begin the main substance of this article by defining culture in anthropological terms, which essentially includes all of the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs of a given people. This understanding of culture negates the idea of biogenetic causes of behavior, placing the culture itself as the source and causal agent for all of these things. This relates to the idea of ethnicity, as well, which should not be confused with a racial difference but instead reflects differences in culture that have grown to the point of ethnic identification. Ethnic conflicts are actually usually between peoples that would identify the same racially, such as the English and the Irish or Indians and Pakistanis. In fact, language and religion were more important factors than perceived race in establishing identity until the 17th century.

Even after the racial criteria of identity had been established, it was still clearly an entity quite apart from ethnicity, as the varying treatment of white American immigrants and minority groups in the United States demonstrates. Ethnic and cultural variations were expected to disappear by assimilation, but racial qualities were quite consciously permanent and impermeable. The nineteenth century saw race becoming a scientific subdivision of humanity, and in the mid-twentieth century genetic evidence for this division was claimed to exist. Subsequent research has shown that humans are 99.9% genetically the same, refuting such claims. The term "race" itself did not acquire the connotations of separation and identifications with geographic origins or the social division that it now implies until the Revolutionary era. Race, then, is an ideology rather than a biological fact,…… [read more]


Ethnic Groups and Discrimination Essay

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Ethnic Groups and Discrimination

The United States was originally formed of immigrants that came to the new-found continent and settled along the coast. Immigration is still an overwhelming force today in America, which has become the land with the most widespread multiculturalism.

My own ancestors came from Scotland around the 1770's. Initially, upon their first arrival on the continent many of the Scots were subject to both prejudice and discrimination by the groups of British that had taken control in some parts of the land. Coming from a poor country, the Scots faced exclusion from trading between colonies: "Scottish merchants traded with the English colonies, but were not allowed to bring out the most valuable commodities, were excluded from the carrying trade between colonies, and could bring in only the produce of Scotland. A poor country had little to export save people, but the demand for servants in the colonies could make this a profitable business."(Brock 1982, p.4) Some of the problems that the Scottish immigrants encountered in America were similar to the ethnic and social class discrimination they had dealt with in Scotland, especially in their relations with England. The English wanted complete autonomy of the colonies and especially of the trade with the Spanish or with the Indies. Therefore, in the beginning, the Scots faced segregation and ethnic discrimination as an ethnic group, not being allowed to become proprietor or to hold trade with other countries. Overall, they were treated as a subordinate ethnic group by the English and they were even denied official employment in the colonies at the beginning (Brock 1982, p. 9) Gradually however, the Scots managed to become politically influent and even to establish a colony in Eastern New Jersey before the Act of Union in 1707 when Scotland united with England forming the United Kingdom. After the Union, the influence of the Scots in the United States grew in many fields from politics and religion (the Scots brought their Presbyterian tradition with them, which became very influent) to trade and medicine. Medicine especially in the North America was greatly influenced by the number of doctors that emigrated from Scotland: "Scotland was a poor country and many of her doctors had no prospect of gainful employment in their native land. Some moved to England, others joined the armed forces or emigrated to British possessions overseas, including the American colonies. The chosen destinations in America were those colonies which, through emigration or trade, particularly the tobacco trade, already had Scottish settlements."(Brock 1982, p. 115) the influence of the modern medical methods brought from Europe by the Scots was therefore very great. In the beginning the Scots suffered from discrimination on the part of the English colonists but, with time, things leveled and some of the most successful people had Scottish descending.

However, with the passing of the generations, an ethnic group becomes more and more assimilated in the mainstream culture. As such, the Scots along with the English and many other…… [read more]


Race War in America: A Wake Up Book Report

Book Report  |  4 pages (1,329 words)
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¶ … Race War in America: A Wake Up Call by Carl T. Rowan

The main theme of this particular book deals with race relations and how the black person - most specifically the black male - has been treated and is still being treated today. The issues of slavery and racism are alive and well in the mind of the author of the book, making this book somewhat unexpected to most people who read it. They are generally looking for a book that is addressing the serious issue with clarity as opposed to a book which appears angry and upsetting based on information that may or may not be deemed accurate by most people. The book itself is about how affirmative action has affected this country and how there have been serious concerns about whether it actually works and if it has been taken too far by some individuals who are behind it. The backlash against affirmative action is something that Rowan is very interested in discussing, but he is also interested in whether white people are treating black people fairly (Rowan says they are not) and what can be done about this so that the racism in this country can disappear.

The book does not really answer any questions, because it appears to mostly be targeted at addressing the problems, or perceived problems, that are seen in society today when it comes to race relations. Instead of taking the time to look clearly at the issues and how they could be addressed, the author of the book seems to take interest in making issues where none really exist and creating his own issues - or putting a more complicated spin on some of the problems that are actually out there in society from a racial standpoint. By doing this, the author shows that he is not addressing questions that belong to the rest of society, but only issues that he perceives as having value.

Section II.

In the first chapter of this book, Rowan looks at what he calls the violent decline of America. The lack of morality and the lack of caring about one's fellow man are at the forefront of the concerns that he addresses. This is mostly discussed based on the differences between - and treatment of - blacks and whites in this country today. The unfortunate thing about this book is that there is really no need to discuss each chapter individually because they are all based on the same thing. They all have a lot of hate and strong opinions toward white people today and in the past, and they all point toward the 'fact' that America is headed downhill very rapidly from a moral standpoint. With this being the case, Rowan's book mostly goes back and forth in each chapter between lamenting the plight of the black man and blaming the white man for putting him there.

Section III.

Rowan's book is very hate-filled from the standpoint that he is constantly throughout… [read more]


Race and Ethnicity in Gang Term Paper

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Gang activity has grown substantially throughout the world over the past decade. For the most part the majority of gang activity occurs in densely populated urban areas. Over the years a great deal of research has been conducted as it pertains to the reasons for gang activity and the individuals that are most likely to join gangs. The purpose of… [read more]


Richard Wright's Native Son and Spike Lee's Movie Do the Right Thing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,573 words)
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¶ … Buggin' Out tells Mookie to "Stay Black!" In Spike Lee's "Do the Right Thing," he points to the film's central theme. Being Black in America entails struggle and occasionally the struggle against social and economic oppression manifests in unfortunate acts of violence. Like Mookie, Bigger in Richard Wright's novel Native Son is a victim of social, political and… [read more]


Race, Class and Gender / Blacks Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,458 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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Race, Class and Gender / Blacks & Latinos

The impact of issues relative to ethnicity, socioeconomic class and gender on African-Americans and Latinos from WWII through the 1970s was dramatic and socially significant, both in terms of the welfare of Blacks and Latinos, and in terms of the overall well-being of the nation. The social change activism of Blacks and… [read more]


Racism in America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,470 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

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Racism in America

The American society is famous for its cultural, racial, and national diversity. It is often argued that the American culture is in itself a culture of immigrants, taking into account the history of the 19th and 20th century in particular. However, as the diversity continues to widen as more and more people from all the corners of… [read more]


21 Century Racism and How it Affects Education Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,207 words)
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¶ … Racism Affects Education

How 21st Century Racism Affects Education

Racism, no matter what sort it is, or toward who or whom it might be addressed, has always impacted American education in one way or another: in terms of (for example) classroom practices; access; admissions policies and results; quotas, and more generally how students; graduates, and non-graduates are treated… [read more]


Anti-Racism in American Society Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (3,157 words)
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Anti-Racism in America

Racism is clearly one the greatest social conflicts in the United States and has been since prior to its development as a nation. The anti-racism movement has been around nearly as long, attempting to balance and eradicate the strain that racism places on progress and social peace, not to mention individual determinism. The majority of scholars give… [read more]


Race and Class Issues Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,362 words)
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Streetwise

In his book Streetwise: Race, Class, and Change in an Urban Community,

Elijah Anderson offers an ethnographic comparison of two neighborhoods, both in West Philadelphia. The neighborhoods are side by side, but they have different characters. One is considered a slum and the other is a region changed by gentrification, which means it was a decaying neighborhood until developers put money into reviving the area and attracting a more up-scale population. Elijah Anderson is a black sociologist at the University of Pennsylvania, and he uses his perspective to illuminate interactions between the races and among people of the same race in both neighborhoods.

What he finds is an urban landscape in which people interact in a patterned way showing distrust and even fear. Whites traversing the area scrupulously avoid eye contact with blacks they do not know. The black workers in the area chafe at being treated in this manner and can feel the distrust when they walk down the street. What these workers express is the belief that they are being mistaken for street blacks instead of middle-class citizens of color, showing their own distrust of young black males who might victimize them if given the chance.

Anderson does not see these differing neighborhoods in terms of stark contrasts, with one good and the other bad. Instead, he finds ways in which each area has both elements in some measure, including in the way each reacts to the other neighborhood. His analysis does a good job of bringing out the fears of the people in each neighborhood, notably fears of the people in the other neighborhood, meaning fears of people of a different race, for the most part.

The earlier history of the two neighborhoods is discussed and shows more overt racism and anger about racial matters than exist there today. Part of the gentrification effort started with racist groups and groups trying to keep out certain people, like the Village Development Assocaition that made an effort "buying up properties, renovating them, and selling them or renting them to desirable tenants, black or white" (11). Other groups developed to "save the Village from the hands of 'the racists'" (11).

The lower income neighborhood people harbor some resentment, seeing themselves as the sort of people the other neighborhood has sought actively to keep out of the renovated area. The whites in the gentrified neighborhood do not see themselves as racist and indeed decry racism and seek in some ways to reach out as a way of overcoming perceptions of racism, but they then behave as noted above when faced with unknown blacks on the sidewalk. As Anderson shows, the stereotype of the urban black as predator is not true when applied as widely as it usually is, but he also shows that middle-class blacks also have that stereotype in mind when faced with some younger blacks in their path. The problem is that youth gangs have created an image that is emulated by young blacks who are not in… [read more]


Influence of Race as it Relate to My Community Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,568 words)
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Community Race Relations

OBSERVATIONS of RACE RELATIONS in MY COMMUNITY

In Riverside and many other Southern Californian communities, elements of the same racial tension that erupted in riots in 1991, after the acquittal of the police officers involved in the infamous Rodney King beating, still prevail. In some respects, passive racism is more prevalent among minorities than among non- minorities.… [read more]


Racism Is One of the Most Pervasive Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (861 words)
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RACISM is one of the most pervasive problems in our society. It would be wrong to assume that racism affects our society alone, in fact it exist in various forms in almost every society. Racism is closely connected with stereotyping so any prejudices that exist on these lines are directly connected with racism. In our country, the problem is more severe because of the ugly history of slavery and the long existence of this institution. It is important to create a society that is sensitive to diversity. For this adequate training, education and awareness are required.

Racism is closely linked to social class system in a country. Since most white people in our country enjoy a better social status than minority groups, we see the latter concentrated in higher numbers in poor neighborhoods. By virtue of their low social class, many young blacks and Hispanics may find themselves involved in street fights, gang clashes and other criminal activities. Education in these areas is either not available or is not really worth anyone's time because of low quality and poor attendance. For this reason, people from poor neighborhoods end up more poor and the social disparities created by race keep on increasing.

The every widening social gap is the root cause of frustration and resentment among racially disadvantaged groups. It is sad but true that a black young man has a 29% chance of facing jail term at least once in his youth while the chance for a white man is only 4%. Because of extreme disparities in social status and access to education, black people are more likely to become illegal drug users and of those who are found in possession of illegal drugs, more than 35% are blacks. That is not all. Blacks are also at a significant disadvantage when it comes to employment and usually the unemployment rate among blacks is three times what it is for whites.

But blacks and Hispanics alone do not endure racism. After the 2001 tragedy, racism has escalated beyond reasonable limits and has come to attack every single minority group in America. Muslims have been facing serious trouble simply because those who targeted the WTC happened to follow this religion. It is absurd but true that one group is judged by the actions of very few people from the group. Racism results in stereotyping which can further create social disparities. For example it is impossible to assume that every black person is in possession of illegal drugs or is involved in some criminal activity but when a crime occurs and out of…… [read more]


Race and the Community Suburb Term Paper

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race and the community suburb of one of the most ethnically diverse cities in the country if not possibly the world, Joliet exhibits a curious combination of tolerance and tension. Having lived here a number of years, I feel strongly that most social conflict stems more from economic and class issues than due to race or ethnicity. Having experienced a… [read more]


Race Gender Negative Impact on Entry Into or Advancement in the Business World Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (378 words)
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race.gender

Since my birth in Rochester, NY, I have witnessed the effects of both racism and sexism on employment opportunities and opportunities for advancement. My mother struggled to support her children, and like her I struggle to support mine. As Latina women, we encounter discrimination daily. The types of jobs we are geared for in school, the images we see on television and on film, and the messages people send to us all impact our self-image and our ability to get ahead. Teachers tracked me toward failure and narrowed my ambitions through systematic ridicule and looks of derision because of my race and gender. Eventually I gave up on the public school system, only to return to it later emboldened with a desire to succeed.

After earning a college degree, I could only find work through a temp agency and in a field I did not choose. When I did find work that was personally meaningful, I was not offered opportunities for advancement. I did not see any other Latina women in positions of power in any of the firms I have worked for. We have been cut off…… [read more]


Racism Is an Insidious Social Problem Term Paper

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Racism is an insidious social problem that has its roots so far back that defining when such issues came to be would be impossible. Furthermore there is a great deal of idealism surrounding the current state of racism in western society. Many people are under the mistaken impression that it does not occur any longer, or when it does uneducated… [read more]


Race: Personal Educational Experiences Thesis

Thesis  |  5 pages (1,770 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3

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Finally, I must note that when I was in high school, I can recall hearing students accuse other students of having an 'easy time' getting into college because of their race. In the future, I think adults need to broach this topic and allow for debate on the subject of affirmative action, so this subject can be discussed in a reasoned and non-inflammatory manner. If I were a teacher and overheard such negative comments, I would use it as a 'teachable moment' to help students more critically evaluate their lives and the history of America, and look outside of the narrow world of the self.

No single teacher, however ambitious, can heal the types of inequalities as detailed by authors such as Jonathan Kozol in his work The shame of the nation, a book about the seismic divides between the best and the worst of the American public education system. But a teacher can make her students more aware of such inequalities, and help them see that it is their responsibility to question them, and to heal the hurt of the past through their critical, reasoned, and thoughtful behavior towards others.

References

Kozol, Jonathan. (2005). The shame of the nation: the restoration of apartheid schooling in America. New York: Crown.

Tatum, Beverly Daniel. (2003). Why are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?

New York: Basic Books.

Lewis, Amanda E. (2003). Race in the schoolyard: Negotiating the color line in classrooms and communities. New Brunswick:…… [read more]


Brazilian Ethnic Issues the Racial Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,371 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8

SAMPLE TEXT:

Under sociologist Jon Cruz's theory of "ethnosympathy," whites and folks of color in both Brazil and the U.S. would develop "a greater level of identification with and appreciation of each other's experiences" (Daniel, 297).

Brazil and Whiteness

In Elisa Nascimento's book The Sorcery of Color: Identity, Race, and Gender in Brazil, the author goes into great detail to explain to… [read more]


Polygenism, Which Posits That Humans Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (669 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

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Today, race in its original context of 'type' and 'descent' as per ideology appear quaint. There are very few credible scientists who still insist in separation of races and books that inoccasionally appear on the subject are considered pseudo-scientific and generally condemned by the larger audience. Race is still used but it is used primarily for government and political purposes such as for creating precise definition of ethnic or racial identification to be used for censuses, legislation and social or academic research that almost always is ultimately applied for civic purposes.

Until comparatively recently, five racial / ethnic categories were used to distinguish people. These were: American Indian or Alaskan Native; Asian or Pacific Islander; Black / Negro; Caucasian / White; and Hispanic. Many of these terms are still used. The term 'non-white' is no longer acceptable, and in the case of an individual being of 'mixed racial and/or ethnic origin', he is categorized by that which "most closely reflects the individual's recognition in his community" (Banton, 64).

The USA sees ethnicity as subdivision of a race, whereas Britain, for instance, (still possessing no definition in regards to 'race') assumes that individuals belong to a race. In short, although perspective of race as 'type' or 'descent' in its traditional sense had been largely abandoned, political pressures keep the idiom of 'race and 'ethnicity' alive.

Banton seems to imply that 'race' assumed various connotations and implications to the people of the era as history and technology developed. In the beginning of time when biological understanding was still immature, people related to race as 'descent'. Later, under the influence of erroenoeus historical ideologies and teachigns, race became reclassifed as 'type', whilst in our current politically infused culture, race is used as instrument to politically identify communities and populations of people.

References

Banton, M. The Idiom of Race in Black, Les & John Solomos, 2009. Theories of Race and Racism, 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.

Jackson, J., Race, Racism, and Science: Social Impact and Interaction,…… [read more]


Modern Racism in America Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,621 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5

SAMPLE TEXT:

Racism in America is not always obvious. The way African-Americans were treated in the South during the Jim Crow era -- separate drinking fountains (one for "white" and one for "colored"), bans against Blacks at lunch counters and segregated schools -- is just, for most people, a bad memory. But there are new kinds of racism -- institutional racism, rejection… [read more]


Empire Building in the Americas Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,646 words)
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Further, this division was implemented into a schema by which the "real" rights of nationality (economic, political and social power) were distributed through legal and policy decisions. Thus, access to political representation, economic health (employment, asset and land ownership), was largely influenced by the extent to which one could "act white" as well as (later) simply by one's ethnic background in and of itself. Further, through laws such as the "vagrancy" laws of the early 1800's in Mexico, this access could largely be "covered" under the cloak of the effects of this practice (unemployment, despondency, poverty, debt) -- a legacy that many would argue continues to this day.

Whether one chooses to acknowledge this reality of the racial and gender privilege that white male society enjoyed in the early stages of California and modern Mexico may very well determine the extent to which one understands much of the underlying causes of class, race and gender stratification in terms of power, economic health and privilege today. Indeed, the legacy is long and firmly entrenched in the psyche of the American and Mexican societies as a whole -- in the social, as well as the legal realm where it was originally institutionalized -- one has but to look back at the history (as well, perhaps at the racial demographic of any area prison) of the area to glimpse this unfortunate truth.

Works Cited

Castaneda, Antonia I. "Sexual Violence in the Politics and Policies of Conquest: Amerindian Women and the Spanish Conquest of Alta California," Building With Our Hands: New Directions in Chicana Studies, ed. Adela de la Torre and Beatriz M. Pesquera (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 15-33.

Gutierrez, Gabriel. "Affirmative Action of the First Kind: Social and Legal Constructions of Whiteness and White Male Privilege in Nineteenth-Century California." Latino Studies Journal. Vol. 11, No. 3, Fall 2000. 14-48.

Warren, Richard. "Mass Mobilization vs. Social…… [read more]


Blacks or African-American Groups Term Paper

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One concern about society has to do with health issues. The infant mortality rate for blacks in America is one of the highest in the world, higher than any industrialized country, and higher even than some third world countries. Black children in the 1-4 age range have mortality rates twice that of white children. Black teenagers have mortality rates 10… [read more]


Racial and Ethnic Term Paper

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¶ … Rabbit in the Moon along with the textbook [...] relationality of racial-ethnic images including context, effects, and resistance. It will answer several questions regarding the readings and class films. The white majority mainly powers racial and ethnic images in America. These readings and films show how difficult is was, and still is to be Asian in America, and… [read more]


Race and Ethnicity Despite Its Many Claims Term Paper

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Race and Ethnicity

Despite its many claims and indeed efforts to the contrary, the United States of America has always been a country of division and segregation. Race, gender and class differences thus even today play an important role in the construction of society, ethnicity and indeed the social construction of prejudicial views. This means that these prejudicial views regarding… [read more]


Racial Ethnic Trends for the Millennium Between Arabs and African Americans Term Paper

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Arab- and African-Americans and racial issues in the new millennium

America is the most unique nation in the world, from so many angles. First, of course, it is by far the wealthiest nation in the world: From moral and immoral, violent and nonviolent, justified and unjustified means, America has acquired massive quantities of wealth

However, amidst that wealth exists the… [read more]


Racism and Prejudice Cause and Effect Term Paper

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Racism Cause Effect

The Invisible Causes of Racism in Higher Learning -- Culture's Divisive Impact Upon Black and White Minds Alike

On first glance, the realities of Blacks depicted by Lawrence Otis Graham seems to belie many of the common assumptions about Black students of America's past. In contrast to the racially fraught environment of Invisible Man, Graham suggests instead a different reality existed in the past of African-American educational history. This reality was not simply Black vs. White, or disempowered vs. empowered, but also was one of community member vs. fellow community member. In other words, Blacks could be torn ethnically and by class, and by their respective educational levels, as well as purely by skin color.

When noted by Lawrence Otis Graham how far the Black community still has 'to go,' one may first say that such a notion of distance could not seem be more contrary to the realities of both today and the world experienced by the 'talented tenth' of aristocratic Black students as depicted in the fiction work of Ellison's -- in contrast to today's far more integrated college life, Ralph Ellison's protagonist dwells in a place that is the province of whites, a white-run educational institution set up for Black students. Today's modern university supposedly stands apart from such racist constructions of the Black self and even Lawrence Otis Graham points out that long before the civil rights movement's push for integration, Blacks were able to rise and empower themselves within historically Black social and educational institutions.

But when Lawrence Otis Graham says how far 'we' have to go, he also means in terms of Black unity as well as Black social and economic advancement within a largely White-dominated society. Blacks must cast off such shackles of "Who I am," notions created by Whites, and create their own cultural terms of what constitutes a Black self, and not judge fellow Blacks by White cultural standards of excellence and class advancement. Only then will they truly have overcome the insidious effects of racism. Community empowerment, as chronicled by Graham has not always fanned out into the reaping of full economic dividends by the entire Black community, and quite often the so-called talented tenth remains simply that, an enclosed and educated tenth,…… [read more]


Bloodlines and Racism Essay

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Racism and Bloodliness

How does Alden Vaughn contribute to the discussion of racial constructions in colonial America?

Alden Vaughan's book tries to discover the connection between origins of racism and American History. He explains that due to lack of solid evidence from colonial times, the actual meanings of the terms 'slave', 'servant' or any other racial vocabulary are lost. The meanings scholars and historians attach to them don't explain their relevance to early Americans. He quotes the words of an author Wesley Frank Craven to sustain the fact the very few actual recorded cases of the time exist. The author in a way summarizes the main points of the debate, with scholarly evidence and facilitates the reader in understanding both aspects of it very clearly.

He even explains that slavery did not begin in Virginia, because before it came to the province it was already rampant in other parts of the British Empire as far back as in the sixteenth century. He feels that the state has become the focal point of the slavery debate because of its importance in the British Empire.

However, he cites words of historians from both side of the debate. William Goodell in his history of mid nineteenth century states that it began after the British came to America and began bringing in their African slaves. However, as Vaughan points out Goodell doesn't say if it all started here then why the British had African slaves even before they came to America.

In America, the blacks were 'regarded with disgust' as George Bancroft claims. But he fails to explain where this attitude originated from. James C. Ballagh explains that in 16th century there were no slaves in America as there was no law holding blacks in bondage. Instead the blacks were considered servants only. He along with other historians such as Phillips and Russell has talked about the presence of free blacks in the area. His book is a comprehensive study of the topic as he supports his arguments with quotes from a wide variety of literature. He judges the matter very impartially and presents it to the readers with a very fresh and balanced approach. He gives a very thorough analysis of the whole idea and more than reverts the blame from Virginia and Americans proving that racism and slavery are universal concepts that have nothing to do with the history of Virginia.

Who…… [read more]


Racial and Ethnic Identity Term Paper

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This leads onto the renegotiation of relationships with people from other ethnic groups including whites.

The last stage, Internalization-Commitment is where the individual replaces the 'I' with a 'we' thus traveling from an egocentric perspective to a group perspective.

Helms' White Identity Development Model

Helms wanted to eliminate racism by moving towards a non-racist white identity. Thus Helms suggested a model which has six statuses spread over a two phases.

The first status of Phase I, is known as Contact and is when an individual comes into contact with the black people. Eventually whites in this status will come to realize that blacks are treated different in the United States and one this realization comes to place, they move onto the next status.

Disintegration is the name given to the second status and includes whites who recognize the moral dilemma associated with being white. There is emotional discomfort when he sees the hypocrisy in what the society teaches and what it actually practices. They then want to believe that racism is not because of the whites.

Reintegration is the last status of the first phase where an individual accepts the supremacy of the whites and inferiority of the black. He then has no feelings of guilt and anger develops within him. Either he would start treating black inferiorly or remove himself from a society where blacks are present.

Status 4 or Pseudo Independence marks the beginning of Phase II. In this feelings regarding racism are sympathetic in nature. Whites seek to interact with blacks in an attempt to change them to act like whites as far as acceptance and success is concerned. Here individuals may not posses either a positive or a negative white identity.

Immersion-Emersion is the next status where individuals tend to ask themselves questions. They do not want to change the blacks anymore and rather want to change the whites. They actually fight forms of racism and oppression.

The last status is called Autonomy. Here race no longer posses a threat and the white people undergo nurturing where they realize the ill-effects of racism. This is an on-going process where whites are being open to and accepting a change in how they think about racism.

Phinney's Model of Ethnic Identity Development

John Phinney proposed a model based on three stages namely, Diffusion-Foreclosure, Moratorium, and Achievement. The first stage comprises of people who are ill-informed about the feelings and attitude regarding their own ethnicity. It is only in the second stage that an individual becomes aware to the ethnic issues and begins an ethnic identity search. A natural anger is seen among individuals against the dominating group. In the last and final stage the individual gains a bicultural identity. As they become secure and confident the anger that was present in the…… [read more]


Race and Health Term Paper

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Race and Health

In a study published in the August 01, 1994 issue of Health Services Research, David Williams concludes that race is a gross indicator of distinctive histories and specific conditions of life that relate to health services and patterns of medical care (Williams pp). Employed African-Americans are more likely than whites to be exposed to occupational hazards and carcinogens, and according to another study, darker-skinned African-Americans in the United States are twice as likely to experience racial discrimination as their lighter-skinned peers (Williams pp). Darker color appears to be a social characteristic predictive of less access to economic and social resources (Williams pp).

According to G. Beckles, in the June 01, 2003 issue of Diabetes, racial and ethnic minorities and persons of lower socioeconomic position have worse long-term diabetes outcomes (Beckles pp). Conclusions of Beckles' study revealed that there were few ethnicity related disparities in processes of diabetes care, however nonwhites, especially African-Americans, had poorer control of some risk factors (Beckles pp). Yet, Beckles notes that…… [read more]


Racism Term Paper

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Racism

There are as many ways to think about the issue of race as there are people. Casper Weinberger reportedly stated once that when he looked at Colin Powell he didn't see a black man, he saw a man. Colin Powell replied in response that when he look at Weinberger he did see a whiTe man. The issue in this comment raise the issue of whether humans are capable of completely ignoring race. When we look at a friend, do we see a friend or a blonde? Hair is a very prominent feature, and yet we have never heard anyone say "I don't see a tall man, I see a man," or "I don't see a man with red hair, I see a man." That is because neither being tall nor being a redhead have major societal problems attached to them.

Perhaps it depends on the person's history. People who saw the civil rights struggle of the fifties and sixties, either on TV or in their towns and cities, would have the race of people as major historical fact in their lives (King, M.L.). Of course, many people are not old enough to remember the events of the "Civil…… [read more]


Beverly Daniel Tatum Term Paper

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Beverly Daniel Tatum

Psychologist and professor Beverly Tatum describes in "Why are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria" the process of racial identity development, arguing that, "racial grouping is a developmental process in response to an environmental stressor, racism. Joining with one's peers for support in the face of stress is a positive coping strategy." "Access to new, less stereotypical information about other people of African descent allows the individual to expand the definition of what it means to be black, and results in a newly defined and affirmed sense of self." By the same token, she stresses that "at times, self-segregation is even necessary for black adolescents," as this process of interacting with their own culture helps develop the sense of belonging to a certain cultural area.

Living in a multiracial environment, as a young adult, one has the possibility to develop his own identity by standing up to various influences. Following through the stages of psychologist William Cross who presented the process of racial identity development as a five-stage process, it can be said that the school environment plays a crucial role in triggering the first questions about one's own identity. Although racial identity is present in every mind, it is more of an issue for black people, as they are faced with the status of being a minority group. Still, from an early age, as Cross suggests in his study, the child is exposed to different influences, each of whom will have am impact on his later development as a grown up individual living in a cosmopolite society. From personal experience, I can say that a multicultural environment can help develop a better understanding of cultural, racial and gender differences. Furthermore, it plays a crucial role in teaching tolerance and appreciation for those of different origins or skin color. Both during my early childhood years and later on when growing up, close friendships and permanent contact with people of color, have made me resent racial behavior, gender bias hints or even allusions to being part of a majority.

Supporting the idea of Beverly Tatum that self-perception is based, in fact, on the other's perception on us, I believe that normal, free of racial stereotypes relationships can be built as long as there is small, effort coming from those constituting that environment, setting in mind to avoid using phrases which could be, at one point, misinterpreted, showing support and compassion for problems which affect another person from your environment, refraining from jokes with allusive racial or bias meaning, all this can contribute to preventing the fostering of feelings of invisibility or marginality that can, especially in young adults, undermine success.

Since the early '60, after the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education outlawed the "separate but equal" doctrine of school segregation, gradual efforts have been in order to deal with racial issues. The progress is notable. Yet, even today it is still considered an uphill battle. In a recent poll conducted by… [read more]


Growth and the Social Importance of Ethnic Term Paper

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¶ … growth and the social importance of ethnic media in the United States. The article provides a clear overview of the growth of ethnic media publications and stresses that many of these publications provide valuable information for immigrants and ethnic groups. The article also stresses that many of the publications, while not always presented in a "professional" manner, provide… [read more]


Racism Has the Potential to Ruin Term Paper

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Racism has the potential to ruin our relationships as well as our personal integrity. While few people admit to being racist, most if not all people hold racist beliefs in the form of stereotypes and prejudices. Not all stereotypes equal racism but stereotyping can lead to racist attitudes and beliefs. For example, the stereotype that Asians are bad drivers leads directly to prejudicial thoughts about Asian people, to lump all people of Asian descent into a category and not allowing for individual differences. Stereotypes, even seemingly innocent ones, can cause feelings of resentment, anger or even hatred. When those feelings are discussed openly and gossiped about in certain social groups, a combination of psychological and sociological factors can turn simple stereotypes into racism. Needing to fit into with an in-group, an individual may get on board and criticize members of different races without ever having encountered an individual from that race. Stereotypes and prejudices take on a life of their own like a fantasy story and can easily lead to widespread racism within a society.

Moreover, stereotypes create self-fulfilling prophesies that can also perpetuate racism because each time a person notices a…… [read more]


Racism and Society -- Literary Essay

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One of my classmates recalled overhearing a reference to Affirmative Action in connection with his some of college acceptance letters. Another classmate indicated that he has witnessed the exact same phenomenon described by Staples in connection with the quickly-locked car doors as he walked by a motorist waiting for a traffic light to change. Both have been the targets of unprovoked racial epithets on several occasions in their lives. Whether in news reports of racially-motivated bias attacks or in instances of racial epithets that I have personally overheard or witnessed, it is clear that racism still exists in America. In general, black Americans still expect to be treated very differently from their white counterparts in myriad everyday situations. As long as that characterization continues to be accurate, it cannot be said that America is in any way a "post-racial" society, notwithstanding the achievement of sufficient progress to have resulted in the election of a bi-racial American president in 2008.

It is no coincidence that the Republican members of Congress who have worked the hardest to undermine the President since the day of his inauguration happen to represent former Confederate states and also those states that opposed racial desegregation and integration the longest (Edwards, Wattenberg, & Lineberry, 2009). In all likelihood the historians looking back on the early 21st Century will regard this period as the "last stand" of institutionalized racism in the U.S. They will replay the highly-publicized statement of intention by a Senate Minority Leader from Kentucky to ensure that the President of the United States of America is a failure in his first term and they will compare his role and that of his colleague from South Carolina who famously interrupted the President's address to Congress by shouting "You lie!" (Grunwald, 2012) in an unprecedented breach of decorum to the defiance of the Alabama Governor to the desegregation of schools fifty years ago (Goldfield, Abbot, Argersinger, & Argersinger, 2005).

Conclusion

Zora Neal Hurston's heartfelt essay How It Feels to Be Colored Me (1928) and Just Walk on By, by Brent Staples (1986) are both important pieces of 20th Century American literature. Together, they help establish the painfully slow timeline of the progress or racial equality in the U.S. Without question, Hurston was more fortunate than black Americans of her parents' generation, just as Staples was more fortunate than black Americans of Hurston's era. The fact that the nation did elect a biracial black American as its president in 2008 does suggest that America is gradually moving toward becoming a post-racial society. However, any conversation with an adult American who happens to be black and even the most open-minded review of the response of the elected representatives of the former Confederate States is sufficient to dispel any conclusion that the goal has already been reached. Contemporary empirical analyses of objective data relating to the connection between current economic wealth and racial background further support the unfortunate conclusion that America is still, more than a century and a half since… [read more]


Canoes Racism and Film: An Examination Term Paper

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¶ … Canoes

Racism and Film: An Examination of the Film Ten Canoes

We like to think of ourselves as a society that has grown past the limitations of racism. However, this is unfortunately not yet true. Racist stereotypes still find a way to present even within modern society. Yet, modern technologies are providing ways for these ethnic minorities to… [read more]


Children's Conceptualization of Race Essay

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All of these factors accounted for negative feelings for both the disabled and that which they perceived from others.

Philip Kretsedemas' article, "Language barriers & perceptions of bias: ethnic differences in immigrant encounters with the welfare system" attests to pronounced differences in the treatment of Hispanic and Haitian immigrants via the welfare system in Miami-Dade county. The author's research, a comparative study to both of these groups, which are largely situated in respective welfare centers within Miami-Dade County, found that this program is significantly more advantageous to Hispanics. Virtually all of the workers at the welfare offices visited by predominantly Hispanic people spoke both Spanish and English; it was rare to find a worker in the Haitian offices that spoke Haitian Creole. Consequently, Hispanics got better services in a more expedient time frame than their Haitian counterparts.

Amy Best's article, "Youth identity formation: contemporary identity work," attempts to elucidate the ways that adolescents form their identity. The author analyzes this phenomenon from a sociological perspective, in which she provides a number of examples of current sociological theory regarding the means by which teenagers form an identity. Ultimately, this article focuses on two such approaches which the author deems the most credible. The first of these is a somewhat reactionary measure to conventional adolescent stages that have been influenced by modern developments such as technology and a plethora of innovations since industrialization. The other approach contends that there are universal models of adolescence that shape identity, involving common factors such as the…… [read more]


Ethnic Future of America Essay

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In this way, race often becomes a lens through which people negotiate their self identities.

What is required is some give and take between the old and the new. Sacrifices must be made on both sides if some kind of an agreement can be made at this societal level. Personal sacrifice is also necessary. Citizens of the future need to open up their minds to new ideas and accept that everyone is entitled to free expression and free religious practices. This is easier said than done in today's world, where condemnation follows every unpopular or controversial idea. Rarely are ideas discussed with discourse, depth or tact.

The idea for this changing landscape is for people to transcend race and become trans-racial thinkers. This new mindset allows for diversity and is not concerned with equal treatment because equality is something that can never be accomplished. Not until we truly celebrate diversity, as opposed to fearing it, can we be a free society.

Racial identities are already becoming obsolete as many minorities are now majorities and vice versa. The answer to successful trans-cultural blending is a personal and internal struggle that must happen at an individual level first before manifesting itself into a community behavior. This all begins when we begin to take responsibility for our own actions and thoughts and stop blaming others for our faults. America holds the key to unlock unlimited opportunity which can push the rest of the globe towards a truly free, multi-ethnic, trans-racial society.… [read more]


Racism in Euro Soccer Essay

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Some big worries" (Baxter, p. 1). Part of the disappointment of the Euro matches is that this was designed to be "the East Bloc's coming-out party, one that burnished its image and welcomed it into the community of nations as a full partner," Baxter writes. Instead of a coming out party, it has turned out to be a "costly embarrassment" for the East Bloc (Baxter, p. 2).

The New York Times reported in May, 2012, that a "…complicated racial issue has arisen" because the families of two black players from England announced they do not plan to attend the tournament. Why are they staying away? They fear "…abuse or violence in Ukraine"; and the reason for their fear was played out recently in a BBC documentary, which "…has further inflamed emotions" in England (Longman, 2012). Along with the BBC documentary, one of England's best players, John Terry, is facing a criminal charge of being racially abusive to an opponent who was a man of color (during a club match in 2011); this has also stirred emotions in England, Longman explains.

There was good reason for people in Great Britain to be concerned about racial abuse in Ukraine because one third of England's team is black. There has "long been a strain of xenophobia in the Slavic cultures of the former Soviet Union," Longman continues. And while there is apparently less hatred towards people of the Jewish faith, attacks on black people remains a big problem, Longman explained.

Looking at the problem from a worldview that is more general than specifically soccer, University of Michigan professor of German studies, Andrei Markovits, said this problem is not exclusive to Eastern Europe. "It's ubiquitous in Europe," professor Markovits explained to the Times' reporter. "Somehow the soccer stadium has remained the last bastion of unmitigated maleness," Markovits pointed out. A male soccer fan can behave badly and "be proud of it," he said, "the way you can't in virtually any other venue in Europe" (Longman, p. 2).

In conclusion, it is fair to say that while the recent reports of racism and hatefulness towards people of other cultures and religious beliefs are disturbing, racism and violence are not new concepts in European soccer matches. For years the video reports from numerous soccer venues have shown drunken hooligans creating chaos and disturbing what otherwise should be a good competitive soccer match on the field. If violence and racism becomes a common theme in soccer matches in Europe, one can easily see that many fans will prefer to watch the matches on television than risk their safety in stadiums where security and safety cannot be guaranteed.

Bibliography

Baxter, Kevin. 'Racism charges detract from Euro 2012 soccer in Poland, Ukraine.' Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 27, 2013, from http://articles.latimes.com. 2012.

Bernstein, Dan. 'Bernstein: Euro Soccer Racism Shocking.' CBS Chicago. Retrieved February 27, 2013, from http://chicago.cbslocal.com. 2012.

Longman, Jere. 'Racism and Soccer Are in Play at a Big Event in East Europe.' The…… [read more]


Race and Media Larson Book Review

Book Review  |  5 pages (1,427 words)
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The author also relates her thesis in a controlled and concise manner, and then works systematically to prove her statements. Larson has written a scholarly book that does what she intends, but she does have a few issues also.

The problems in the book do not actually refute all that she has to say, but they do detract from her… [read more]


Gordon's Assimilation Theory Social Work Research Paper

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Methodological issues and empirical support for the theory

Given the theory's displacement in contemporary life and given the fact that education, occupation and income are some of the many factors that play a constitutive role in determining assimilation, scholars such as Xie and Greenman (2011) conclude that there is little empirical evidence supporting the theory. The methodology is flawed since it is irrelevant to contemporary living and since, for reasons, mentioned throughout this essay, the theory possesses internal flaws in various areas. The process of assimilation depends on the contextual area of the immigrant; no generalizations can be made. Furthermore, future research should focus on differential processes of assimilation rather than generally determining acculturation followed by assimilation to be a pattern conclusive to all.

Sources

Conzen, K et al., (1992). The invention of ethnicity. Joun. Am. Ethnic Hist.12: 3-41

Gans, H (1992) Second generation decline Ethnic and Racial Studies, 15: 173-192

Kivisto, P. (1990) The Transplanted Then and Now: The Reorientation of Immigration Studies from the Chicago School to the New Social History. Ethnic and Racial Studies 13, 455-481.

Neidert, L & Farely, R (1985) Assimilation in the United States. Am. Soc. Review, 50:840-850

Sandberg, N (1973) Ethnic identity and…… [read more]


Students Will Select a Construct Article Critique

Article Critique  |  6 pages (1,703 words)
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I will also show image of victim to colleague beforehand in order to ascertain that the image is objective.

Finally, I will attempt to approach participants at a time of day when they would be most likely to be ready and alert in answering the questions.

Reference

Dovidio, J.F. (2010). Handbook of prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination. SAGE: NY.

Dunton, B.C., & Fazio, R.H. (1997). An Individual Difference Measure of Motivation to Control Prejudiced Reactions. Personal Social Psychology Bull, 23(3), 316-326.

Gordijn, E.H.,Koomen, W., & Stapel, D.A. (2000) Level of Prejudice in Relation to Knowledge of Cultural Stereotypes, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37, 150 -- 157.

Kline, P (1999). Handbook of Psychological Testing Psychology Press

Kunda, Z. (1999) Social cognition: Making sense of people, MIT Press: NY.

McConahay, J.B. (1986).Modern racism, ambivalence, and the modern racism scale.In Dovidio, John F. (Ed); Gaertner, Samuel L. (Ed), (1986). Prejudice, discrimination, and racism,

(pp. 91-125). San Diego, CA, U.S.: Academic Press

Rubin, M., & Hewstone, M. (2004). Social identity, system justification, and social dominance:

Commentary on Reicher, Jost et al., and Sidanius et…… [read more]


Bloodlines and Racism. Discuss Spriro Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (639 words)
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Today, the former children of the program are stigmatized and many have hidden their pasts. Some did not even know of their origin until recently, since their mothers deliberately tried to conceal their history.

Q3. According to Jackson/Weidman, in what way did Darwin's writings contribute (or not) to scientific racism?

Social Darwinism must be distinguished from Darwinian evolutionary theory, which is not inherently racist. Social Darwinism classified the human species into 'races,' which were viewed as 'species-like' constructions, rather than the cultural constructions we see them as today. Natural selection, according to some interpreters of Darwin, would cause inferior and less advanced races to overtake more advanced civilizations.

It is true Darwin authored a book called the Decent of Man which theorized that certain mental and moral traits were 'selected for,' based upon environmental conditions. Darwin was an abolitionist, but viewed civilizations as existing on a hierarchy. He saw human races as "essentially different and unchangeable." [footnoteRef:3] As the 19th century wore on, the obsession intensified to more precisely calibrate the differences between the different races through measuring physiognomy. Although scientists struggled to find 'pure' racial types, the transposition of Darwinism into anthropology became popular, most notably manifested in Herbert Spencer's notion of the 'survival of the fittest,' which assumed that the best races would triumph over inferior races. This attached a moral calculus to Darwinian natural selection, who merely asserted that the best-adapted species to the environment would survive. [3: John P. Jackson & Nadine Weidman, Race, racism and science, (Rutgers University Press), 2005: 70.]

Bibliography

Crossland, David. "Lebensborn children break silence." Der Spiegel. 7 Nov 2006.

Jackson, John P. & Nadine Weidman. Race, racism and science. New Brunswick: Rutgers

University Press, 2005.

Spiro, Jonathan Peter. Defending the master race. University of…… [read more]


Race and Racial Inequality Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (731 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2

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According to Mauer (2010), The police stop people from minority ethnic groups at higher rate than white people. Furthermore, in cities such as New York where the population is comparable, the Blacks and Latinos still rate higher than their white counterparts.

In addition, the United States is witnessing racism of an economic system that values the lives of the poor differently from the lives of the rich. In the United States of America, children of color experience the highest poverty rates, followed by Latino children. This is indicative of the wealth distribution pattern across the races in the country, the wealth disparity is severe. The minority groups including African-Americans, Latino-Americans as well as Native Americans are more likely to live in poverty as compared to their Caucasian counterparts. According to Catholic Charities USA (2008), poverty rates among the African-Americans is at 24.1% and 21.8 among the Hispanics, 23.2 among the Native American as compared to 8 among the Whites. Though all types of racism are interconnected and culminate in economic racism, employment discrimination still stands as one of the major reasons of the wealth disparity, new accounts show that discrimination in the workplace is still common. People from minority ethnic groups must overcome obstacles in pursuit of formal income generating activities.

Martin Luther King, Jr., always claimed that white Americans were not genuinely commited to eradication of racism and associated injustices. The majority would still want to maintain their position of dominance and this is the reason why there should be a renewed commitment to racial equality in the country as a policy.

References

Catholic Charities USA. (2008). Poverty and Racism: Overlapping Threats to the Common Good. Alexandria: Larry Snyder.

Kuznia, R. (2009, April 8). Racism in Schools: Unintentional But No Less Damaging. Retrieved from www.miller-mccune.com: http://www.miller-mccune.com/culture-society/racism-in-schools-unintentional-3821/

Mauer, M. (2010 ). Statement of Marc Mauer Executive Director The Sentencing Project . Prepared for the House Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Civil Liberties. Washington DC.

Quigley, B. (2010, July 26). Rampant Racism in the Criminal Justice System. Retrieved from…… [read more]


Race? Racial Formation Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  15 pages (4,535 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15

SAMPLE TEXT:

Hence, it is way too comprehensive to observe and control how difficult it is to be "colorblind" and treat everyone equally despite their origin and physical attributes.

To wrap up this argument, it can be said that the racial formation theory states that the society is encompassed with racial projects and discrimination. This concept of racial discrimination is purely ideological… [read more]


Racist Beauty Ideals and Racial Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,722 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10

SAMPLE TEXT:

Werrlein holds that the Dick and Jane stories equate white privilege with a version of Americanness that occurs outside of history, arguing further that the poverty and suffering of the Breedlove family symbolizes America's brutal history of racial persecution. Through her portrayal of Pauline and Cholly, Morrison suggests that parents who emerge from histories of oppression might reproduce that degradation… [read more]


Race, Class, and Gender Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (947 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

"Many women, of course, do dare to see and speak the truth, but they are always in danger of being attacked and discredited in order to maintain the silence. Even those who would never call themselves feminists often know there is something terribly wrong with the structures of dominance and control" (page 163). Many people refuse to acknowledge that there is still an issue with gender oppression in the United States. Social and racial differences are considered the preeminent issues of differentiation and separation in the country and any oppression beyond those categories is looked on as less important. "Women are subordinated and treated as inferior because they are culturally defined as inferior as women, just as many racial and ethnic minorities are devalued simply because they aren't considered to be white" (page 164). Subjugation of an individual because of gender is just as harmful as treating someone as if they were inferior due to race or ethnicity. Even the process of gendering is a sociological phenomenon. Although biologically there is a difference between male and female, this sexual difference has little to do with the labels of gender.

The final subject in the book is the discussion of class difference in the United States. In this country, according to Rothenberg, people are unwilling to discuss differences in economic status. People are more likely to define themselves by gender, race, or other classification than by their economic and social standing. "It is not that Americans, rich or poor, aren't keenly aware of class differences…it is that class is not in the domain of public discourse. Class is not discussed or debated in public because class identity has been stripped from popular culture" (page 183). The citizens of the United States are aware that social status and economics separates and stratifies the population, but the acknowledgement of this difference is impeded by our individual desire to see ourselves in the best light possible. People are willing to classify themselves as "middle class" or modify this term with upper or lower. This middle ground serves to unify instead of separate and alleviates people from feeling they have far less or far more than those around them.

In the book, Paula Rothenberg draws the conclusion that the things that separate individuals from one another are both real and sociologically applied. There are terms that correctly describe the differences between individuals on the bases of biology, ethnicity, and economic standing, but people more often use terms of gender, race, and class without realizing the difference. Indeed, most people use gender and sex as interchangeable terms without considering the underlying meaning behind the words they choose.

Works Cited:

Rothenberg, Paula S. (2010). Race, Class, and Gender in the…… [read more]


Race Continues to Play Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,562 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

This let the government create a 'need' for lower-income housing, which effectively eliminated the ability of many blacks to secure home-ownership by concentrating them in bad areas of town which were then left to be destroyed by crack cocaine and other drugs unheard of before the second half of the 20th century. Democratic politicians were then left with a powerful voting block, and were given incentives to maintain this group of people's poverty, as middle class voters tend to be more Republican.

Affirmative action is a policy that favors middle class blacks, who argue for it on the basis of 'past discrimination' as a method of invoking the instrumentalist articulation of race. Some political lobbyists that claim to represent the interests of all blacks will threaten to sue corporations for discrimination unless a group of token blacks (whose names are provided by the lobbyists) are appointed to positions of leadership. Race can be used as a weapon by anyone of any race who can achieve a better outcome through invoking race as an issue. This was well illustrated in the case of O.J. Simpson.

Richard Payne. Getting Beyond Race: The Changing American Culture. Westview Press, 1998.

James Baldwin. The Fire Next Time. Vintage Books, 1993.

Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray. The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. Touchstone Press. 1996.

Robert Felgar, Claudia Durst Johnson. Understanding Richard Wright's Black Boy: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical…… [read more]


Racism Violence, Morality, and Responsibility Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (1,858 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2

SAMPLE TEXT:

Racism

Violence, Morality, and Responsibility

An examination of institutionalized racism and its ethical consequences.

The presence of institutionalized racism is often hard to deny in many circumstances. However, the solutions to prohibiting this type of violence are far from clear. Much of the debate that surrounds this issue deals with the level of the individual and the motivations for personal… [read more]


Race Personally Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (849 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

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It was not necessarily slavery, but rather the notion that "all men are created equal" that was a huge contradiction, morally, within colonial U.S. It was quite obvious that the people who created the words from the aforementioned quotation did not view all men as equal. The fact that slaves were treated as 3/5 of a man for taxation purposes and for the purposes of representation within the senate and the house illustrates the disparity between the previous quotation, and the reality within colonial America. Race, however, was ultimately able to solve this contradiction by illustrating the fact that just because some is of a different color or skin hue, that person was actually still a human with the same processes and functions as any other man.

Those who were allowed to become a natural citizen before 1954 include whites, African-Americans, and Native Americans. Asians could not become citizens until 1954. Denied citizenship meant that individuals could not vote file lawsuits, own property, or even testify in court.

There were a couple of different changes that took place that made European "ethnics" become white. One of these had to do with the changing tides of immigration. Once the majority of immigrants to the U.S. came to be non-white peoples, the feelings of nativism shifted from immigration country to color. Additionally, the liberation of slaves and the ensuing Civil Rights movement factored into a 'whites vs. non-whites' mentality.

Federal housing policies institutionalized segregation and wealth disparities by reinforcing the trend in which the wealthy and Caucasians lived in the suburbs, while the minorities and the destitute were given cheap housing within urban environments. Facilitating federal housing in such neighborhoods only made them crammed and packed with poor minorities, providing more of an incentive for wealthier non-minorities to move elsewhere.

The whites who leave a neighborhood play the major role in the decline of property values when non-whites move in. The whites inevitably leave, and in doing so they frequently take the business and the services that were provided there with them. The lower the property values the more people move in who do not respect and care for the neighborhood, and the cycle continues.

A wonderful thing takes place when measures of racial disparities in place like education and welfare rates when groups of similar income and wealth are compared -- these standard measures of race largely disappear and are no longer relevant.… [read more]


Ethnic Diversity and Attributions for Peer Victimization Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  2 pages (801 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

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¶ … Ethnic Diversity and Attributions for Peer Victimization in Middle School

According to this article, the American Medical Association has designated peer victimization as a public health concern. (Graham, Bellmore, Nishina and Juvonen, 2009) This type of harassment includes a variety of behaviors including calling names, assault, social attacks and excessive teasing. (Graham, 2009) the purpose of this study by the authors was to examine the role of self-blame on peer victimization/maladjustment relations in middle school and the role of classroom diversity. The participants were 6th grade students of Latino or African-American ethnicity or one of several other ethnic groups. The researchers also devised a method of study using numerical minority and numerical majority of an ethnic group within each classroom. In addition, rather than have teachers select students they viewed as victims for the study, the students themselves each nominated 3 students they viewed as victims. This was done in the Fall and approximately 6 months later the researchers applied the theory of self-blame and the victim's placement as either a member of the ethnic majority or minority to evaluate maladjustment.

The most debilitating result of peer victimization is the effects on the victim. This study attempted to use student nomination of the victims, self-reporting of subsequent self-blame and the adjustments problems within ethnically diverse groups to identify potential areas of insight. The study findings concluded that the clearest evidence of links between victim reputation, self-blame and psychological maladjustment were within the majority group members. Minority group members had the weakest evidence for the links.

The researchers concluded that their analysis implied that victims of peer harassment might be more likely to engage in self-blame when their perpetrators are members of their own ethnic group. (Graham, 2009) the implication is that membership of the victim and his/her abuser in the same ethnic group results in greater instances of self-blame.

This article was interesting and the ethnic diversity approach was evidently unique. While the question of ethnicity and numerical majority or minority may give answers to research psychologists, it seems that the most important analysis was related only to members of the numerical majority. The research is probably useful but the fact that the American Medical Association deems peer harassment a public health concern, the study seemed misdirected, particularly since the researchers themselves highlighted the American Medical Association's concern.

With the number of children being excessively victimized by their…… [read more]


Race and Class Are Inextricably Entwined Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (617 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Race and class are inextricably entwined, making the two issues inseparable. Especially in the United States, and throughout Western Europe as well, poverty and race and linked. Therefore, neither one plays a more important role in the evident societal inequalities and discrimination. Race has been the root cause of discrimination, leading to reduced access to jobs, positions of power, and upward social mobility. This in turn has created a vast underclass of non-whites. As the author claims, blacks are three times as likely to be poor than whites in the United States.

Racism still does exist, albeit in a subtle way. In many cases, racism is denied or ignored, such as in the ways people bolster their stereotyping about other ethnic and racial groups. The nature of racism has changed. As the author points out, it is not considered socially acceptable to be an overt racist. Thus, racism has been pushed deep into the psyches of individuals. "The maintenance of white privilege is done in a way that defies racial readings," (p. 3).

It is impossible to indicate the absolute causes of contemporary racial inequalities and discrimination. Still, we can trace the current race relations in America to the perpetuation of overt racism that existed well up until the Civil Rights movement. Although the United States now proudly boasts a President who is a man of color, the racist attitudes of Americans are still evident in the harsh reactions to President Obama. Similarly, many Americans deny the need for affirmative action programs, which are still needed to minimize the income disparity between blacks and whites and help black communities revive and revitalize. Inequalities continue to exist because they are handed down from generation to generation in the form of stereotypes, beliefs, and sheer ignorance.

Being successful means enjoying inner peace and the freedom that goes along with it.…… [read more]

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