"Race / Ethnic Studies / Racism" Essays

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Ethics, Social Justice &amp Advocacy Case Study

Case Study  |  2 pages (661 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


It is equally essential not to be quick to judge Biko, given that Biko has long faced unfair prejudice due to his race, despite his many accomplishments. Given that Biko has had few acceptable outlets for his anger, and also a perhaps understandable worry that as a black man he cannot seem to 'angry' in a white environment, thus the clinician should take this into consideration when evaluating the client through the lens of multicultural competency. The clinician might not have the same anxieties about being taken 'seriously' as a man, for example, that Biko does. Dealing with race and perceptions of one's self as black is part of the development of African-American cultural identity in a social context.

Q4. For the clinician, it is essential that unacceptable behavior (such as violence against a woman) is not tolerated under the guise of multicultural competency. On the other hand, it is equally essential to understand where Biko's frustrations and outbursts are coming from and not to assume that they are rooted in misogyny. Anger management is a critical component of treating Biko -- Biko must understand where his feelings and impulses are coming from and that his girlfriend's actions are not the root of them. That is how advocacy and social justice can be so useful in therapy -- Biko can contextualize the discrimination and frustration he has felt socially, rather than view it as a personal attack. A white, middle-aged clinician, however, must still remember that Biko is an individual client and not solely view his problems through a racial lens, nor should he use race to excuse unacceptable behavior towards Tanisha

Q5. An approach that is unlikely to work with Biko is psychodynamic therapy. Dredging up Biko's past from long ago is not feasible, given the time-sensitive nature of the therapeutic process for a college student. Also psychodynamic therapy tends to be highly individualistic and eliminates the social components that affect the…… [read more]

Children and Prejudice Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (729 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


3). It is at the preschool age, according to Derman-Sparks, that children begin to use "racial terms and beliefs" which tend to "exclude and demean classmates of color" (p. 4).

The good news about what Caucasian children become aware of: Derman-Sparks explains on page 4 that even though children during the preschool years learn about "racial hierarchies" (i.e., the janitor at the school is African-American and the principal is white), the Caucasian children often learn to play "…comfortably with cross-race classmates." Moreover, young children that live and attend school where teachers and parents are supportive of and consistently modeling friendships between ethnicities are more apt to be "more accepting of differences" between people (Derman-Sparks, p. 4).

What do we need to know to fully grasp whether or not children will be racially prejudiced and will use racial stereotypes?

The authors conclude their article with a number of important points. First, they note that even though preschoolers have the ability to accept others of different races as "individuals," and can become more accepting of ethnic differences, there is no proof their capacity for acceptance at this age will "automatically result in more open attitudes" later in their adolescence. We need to know this.

Second, two things can happen to a child: one, the child may bond with others of his or her own race, proving "group loyalties" are a strong social force (which does not imply racism albeit the group loyalty could prevent others of different ethnicities from joining in). The second thing that may happen is that young children can develop "strong feelings about justice" and be open minded toward others that are different.

In conclusion, college and university students need to know that early childhood educators hold a tremendous amount of power and influence with very young children -- beyond the specifics of curriculum. Promoting the guidance and modeling necessary when it comes to embracing diversity -- in the classroom and on the playground -- is absolutely one of the most important responsibilities facing educators.

Works Cited

Derman-Sparks, L., and Ramsey, P.G. (2005). What If All the Children in My Class Are White?

Beyond the Journal. Retrieved February 5, 2014,…… [read more]

Migration and Racial Formations Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (688 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Migration and Racial Formations among Somali Immigrants in North America by Adbi Kusow (2006) examines how Somali immigrants view their own identity in light of how they are perceived once they have arrived in North America. The author notes that the identity choice for these immigrants is complicated by views in the U.S. Of Somalis as "black," a group with which Somalis do not traditionally identify. This creates identity confusion for many Somali immigrants. While skin colour is one of the primary differentiators of social stratification in North America, in Africa tribal or religious affiliation is more common. In Somalia tribal affiliation is the norm. This is exacerbated by the reality that Somalia as a sovereign state did not exist until 1960 and for most its history since then it would reasonably be categorized as a failed state. There is little national identity for Somalis, when compared with ethnic and tribal identity. That most are Muslim further differentiates them from what most North Americans would consider to be "black" identity.

Somalis tend to view themselves in terms of ethnic or tribal identity. Respondents in the study noted that many had never met a white person, and never known about friction between blacks and whites. The entire concept of defining somebody by their skin colour never occurred to them, partly because nobody knew anyone of a different skin colour. There is in fact some confusion about the entire idea of using skin colour as a means of social stratification as the concept is entirely unknown in Somalia -- the respondents would only have learned of it upon arriving in North America and many still have only rudimentary understanding of the concept or do not accept it.

Race is, however, embedded in the U.S. construction of identity. For centuries, the U.S. was a slave state, and as such one's race was a critical differentiator of the rights that one would have. There was even a "one-drop rule," wherein one drop of black blood would make somebody be considered to be black, even if they…… [read more]

Sociology Introducing Alexa Madison Essay

Essay  |  9 pages (2,576 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


As Anderson (1994) points out, "Of all the problems besetting the poor inner-city black community, none is more pressing than that of interpersonal violence and aggression," (1). Ethics "on the street" are difficult to navigate, as issues like respect rise to the surface among a community that has been systematically subjugated and oppressed. When African-Americans continue to experience obstacles to… [read more]

Moral Licensing and Morality Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,800 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Instead, it is an unrelated pro-social behavior. The hypothesis was that the moral licensing would make participants less likely to volunteer, and this hypothesis. What that suggests is that moral licensing has an umbrella effect; so that behavior that is seen as pro-social in one arena can lead to later negative behaviors in other arenas.

This research, like prior research in the field, challenges some of the deeply held assumptions about moral behavior. The general cultural approach has been that requiring people to engage in pro-social behavior would promote more positive behavior. On the contrary, requiring people to engage in pro-social behavior may actually encourage them to engage in negative behavior. The implications of this research could have a significant cultural impact. For example, many criminals are required to engage in community service, partially because of the theory that doing good will make them better people. What this research suggests is that community service may actually encourage them to be worse people.


Aquino, K., & Reed, A. (2002). The self-importance of moral identity. Journal of Personality

and Social Psychology, 83, 1423-1440.

Effron, D. A, Miller, D.T., & Monin, B. (2012). Inventing racist roads not taken: the licensing effect of immoral counterfactual behaviors. Journal of Personality and Social

Psychology, 103, 916-932. doi:10.1037/a0030008

Kouchaki, M. (2011). Vicarious moral licensing: The influence of others' past moral actions on moral behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(4), 702-715. doi: 10.1037/a0024552

Merritt, A.C., Effron, D.A., & Monin, B. (2010). Moral self-licensing: when being good frees us to be bad. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4, 344 -- 357. doi:10.1111/j.17519004.2010.00263.x

Monin, B., & Miller, D.T. (2001). Moral credentials and the expression of prejudice, Journal of Personality and Social psychology, 81(1), 33 -- 43. doi:10.1037//0022-3514.8I.I.33

Perugini, M., & Leone,…… [read more]

Interrelated, Goes a Saying in Contemporary Spiritualist Case Study

Case Study  |  7 pages (2,425 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … interrelated, goes a saying in contemporary spiritualist movements. Everything we do, our thoughts, our behavior reflects outside of us and vice versa. The world is the mirror we look into, it is the place where our projections materialize, the same spiritualists argue. Social psychologists too are interested in such connections, although their approach is less spiritual and more… [read more]

Social Geography of the Los Angeles Region Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,242 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Social Geography of the Los Angeles Region

There are a variety of different reasons that different social groups may group themselves together geographically. In the greater Los Angeles region there are significant divisions to be found that are drawn on economic status, culture, and ethnicity. Some of these individuals are attracted to the cultural norms that one group offers while others are divided by their financial means or by proximity to their employment; some groups are formed by their perceptions of different areas and their inherent qualities. This analysis will look at different factors that have contributed to the current geographical development of social groups in the region.

Los Angeles Overview

The growth of Los Angeles into one of the world's largest cities has primarily been due to the thriving economy in the region. Los Angeles is widely known as a global city and one of the command-and-control centers for the global economy (Maher, 2004, p. 781). The greater Los Angeles consists of its urban core that is often perceived as being a haven for crime and drug use while the suburban areas are characterized different defining factors. Some of the suburban settings are defined by various immigrant groups or socio-economic status. For example, Orange County in particular has become known as one of the main "technopoles" where a high-tech industrial employee base resides and has created a cosmopolitan space (Maher, 2004, p. 781).

Some other areas can be described along the lines of traditional assimilation theories in which different ethnically distinct new immigration hubs will emerge as these groups assimilate to the domestic culture (Zhou, Tseng, & Kim, 2008, p. 55). These are thought to be a place in which immigrants can slowly adjust to the dominant culture and subsequent generations can be fully integrated. Although this was once a popular model for these ethnic regions, the mobility model in which the assimilation process was thought to occur and new patterns have emerged. One of these developments has been clusters of what is referred to as "ethnoburbs" which attract people to assimilate based on broader cultural similarities while there are many divisions on origin. For example, Chinese immigrants have congregated along levels of education, occupation, and incomes as well as more expansive social networks that branch out to tap financial resources overseas (Zhou, Tseng, & Kim, 2008, p. 56).

Development Mechanisms

One of the primary mechanisms that constitute different segregations in populations is undoubtedly immigration. When new immigrants arrive without adequate funds or without adequate support services they often seek those who can relate to them culturally as well as find support. Sometimes language barriers persists that make this trend even more pronounced. Other cultural factors such as traditional diets may also contribute to the congregation around certain cultural resources such as businesses that provide ethnic cuisines. However, probably one of the most significant driving factors will be the economic opportunities that they seek which will often create dividing lines through geographic proximity to these opportunities.

While this is… [read more]

Prejudice Discrimination Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (997 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Prejudice / Discrimination

White privilege is a reality in the United States society. White privilege (based on skin color) sets Caucasians of European ancestry apart from African-Americans, Latinos, Asian-Americans, Native Americans and other minorities. What are the ramifications of that elite status among the various cultures and subcultures in the U.S. In the article by Peggy McIntosh, she explains that white privilege is not necessarily wide open for everyone to see -- as a contrast between races -- and understand. Instead, white privilege is a "…invisible weightless knapsack of special provisions, maps, passports, codebooks, visas, clothes, tools and blank checks."

Privilege Doesn't Necessarily Imply Blatant Racism

However, when McIntosh takes the extraordinary step of listing twenty-six "conditions" that a white person can establish that perhaps minorities cannot establish, as least not with the same ease as McIntosh does in her essay. She makes an important distinction as she launches into her essay, beginning with the 26 conditions. These conditions have more to do with McIntosh's skin color -- white juxtaposed with a Latino's brown skin or of an African-American's darker skin -- than contrasts between her socioeconomic situation and that of the other two cultures.

In other words there may be Latinos (or Blacks) in her work environment who have more money saved or who have a nicer house than she does; but nevertheless her white skin confers dominance over other skin colors. McIntosh openly acknowledges that her white skin is an unearned entitlement which offers her an unearned advantage over others of different skin colors. In other words, having white skin is the same as going into a football game a touchdown ahead before the first kickoff.

Racism and Prejudice -- Deeper Levels of Discrimination

Prejudice, meanwhile, is a far deeper form of racial differentiation than simply having assumed dominance because of having white skin. Author Jeremy Ossman explains that cognitive levels of prejudice are based on ethnocentrism, which is the belief that one's particular culture or racial group better than all other groups and hence they are all inferior. When a person is taking action based on his or her ethnocentrism -- that means being openly and actively doing things and having feelings that are biased against persons of other races. White settlers from Europe killed thousands of Native Americans because they were "heathen savages" (Chapter 4, p. 82).

Ossman explains that when people are treated brutally by their parents while growing up, later in life they may demonstrate displaced aggression -- in other words, they may take out their anger and frustrations (based on "subconscious childhood tensions") on others of different skin colors in the form of scapegoating (84). The brutalized child now needs to be cruel to someone else to take out his rage and a convenient scapegoat is found in the African-American neighbor who plays rap music in the evenings; the racist hates rap music and hates those who enjoy it.

Another possible reason for racism is when a person isn't able to…… [read more]

Female Hero in New York City Novels Term Paper

Term Paper  |  18 pages (6,659 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Female Identity Formation in New York

The city of New York is well-known for its ethnic and cultural diversity, and for good reason. As the eastern gateway to America, New York received many of the country's earliest immigrants, and its sheer size ensures that it will attract people from all backgrounds and regions. However, much like America, the city itself… [read more]

Race Relations in Media Sources Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (824 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Race, Ethnicity, And the Media

Race Ethnicity Article Review

Race, Ethnicity and the Media

When the Boston Marathon was bombed last week, race and ethnicity quickly became an issue in the media. Many felt that it was Islamic terrorists who placed the bombs because this type of Improvised Explosive Device (IED) had been used by that group in the past. When it was discovered that the perpetrators were Russian, specifically from the Caucasus region, many wondered what impact this information would have. I chose an article about the racial/ethnic controversy that is being debated in regard to the two young men who placed the bombs. The article is titled "Are the Tsarnaevs White?" And I found it on the Daily Beast website. Because I wanted an article that involved the recent bombings and a racial/ethnic component, I "googled" the words race and ethnicity in the news section and scrolled down until I found an article that involved the recent attacks in Boston. With a title like "Are the Tsarnaevs White?" I looked into the article, and when I read it, I found my article.

Shortly after the bombings a writer for Salon wrote an article which argued that if the bomber was white then the resulting civil liberties crackdown could be minimized. Soon after it was revealed who the bombers were, many claimed that the Tsarnaev brothers were not white because they were followers of Islam. This article is an attempt to explain the folly of assigning racial terms to religious groups as the two brothers were from the Caucasus region of Russia, the origin of the term "Caucasian," or white. In America, there have been many instances of people committing racial crimes against those they believed were Muslim, when in fact they were a completely different religion completely. It was the fact that people could not identify a person's religion which led them to mistakenly attack those they believed looked Muslim. And this invariably led them to commit crimes against those of darker complexion and dark skin. In fact, the author of the article claims that "Americans still link Islam with dark skin." (Beinart)

If there is one thing that the article's author seems to want to get across to the reader it is the fact that those who follow Islam come from a variety of racial, and ethnic backgrounds. In the past many believe that all Muslims are Middle Eastern, and vice versa, all Middle Easterners were Islamic. It actually…… [read more]

Gangs of New York Film Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,721 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The weak and underprivileged in the society encounters numerous social problems from those with strong muscles in the society, in terms of economical and political phenomenon.

In my opinion, this film is effective in addressing racism and ethnicity issues because the setting of the movie and the period is similar to the periods when such evils occurred. In addition, the director employs the element of realism, in that, every activity going on in Five Point reflects the real thing happening in societies suffering from ethnicity and racism. Living in a society where there is no peace, equality and all the other human qualities is risky since it is difficult to determine your destiny.

Everyone has freedom to exercise his rights without any restrictions, as long he/she does not affect the other person. Killing another person in order to feel secure or enjoy the privileges or rights propagates continuity of evil rather than preventing it. In this town, killing or rather murdering was acceptable as a way to repay for bad deeds committed. This is why Amsterdam returns in order to carry out vengeance of his dead father. This film does not offer a solution to the social problems, rather contributes to the continuity of the same problems. The solution provided by the society is…… [read more]

Media Engagement With the Television Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,905 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Aside from some of his physical features and voice, what truly marks Pamuk as another "race" is the fact that his character is almost entirely made up of racist stereotypes relating to the supposed sexual promiscuity and aggression of non-white men. While in the United States these stereotypes are most frequently associated with black men, in Europe and elsewhere, these… [read more]

Ethical Issue in the Criminal Justice Field Journal

Journal  |  7 pages (2,221 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Criminal Justice


Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System

The criminal justice system aims at maintaining social control, enforce laws and administering justice, primarily through law enforcement or police forces, the courts and corrections, in the pursuit of the ideal of justice and fairness (Sentencing Project, 2008). Police work, in particular, is aimed at crime prevention, crime control… [read more]

Life Experience of Personal Care Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,495 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


Diabetes is reported as "twice as common in American Indian and Alaska Native communities as in the general population (15.3% compared with 7.3%), and it is steadily increasing." (NIAMS, 2006 in: National Association of Chronic Disease Directors, 2012, p.3)


The study conducted is to be a qualitative phenomenological study. Lester (2009) states "The purpose of the phenomenological approach is… [read more]

English Literature Race, Regionalism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,806 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


This bigotry was obvious in many aspects of human interaction, including in the legal system, particularly if a member of the minority culture was involved in or even suspected of an action against or with a member of the majority culture. According to sociologist Richard Brislan, there can be a danger when a stereotype becomes so ingrained that the population… [read more]

Representative System of Government Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  10 pages (3,360 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Arrest Rates. In 1990, more than 10 million criminal counts were logged. Although only comprising 12% of the general population, arrest rates for blacks were disproportionate for every offense except drunken driving. Blacks, for instance, accounted for 61.2% of all robbery arrests, 54.7% of the suspects arrested for murder and manslaughter, and 43.2% in cases of rape. (Interestingly enough, the… [read more]

Whiteness an Illusory Correlation Occurs Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,633 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


This state of affairs, where one group has technological advantages over another group and subjugates them to their will, is the basis for imperialism. Tannoch -- Bland's sentiment is probably in the right place, but her designation that "white privilege" is invisible and unearned leaves her other assumptions vulnerable. In fact, whites were very straightforward regarding their right to be… [read more]

Search for Ethnic Heritage Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Search for Ethnic Heritage

Howe has a number of distinct opinions regarding ethnicity, particularly as it appeared in the latter portion of the 20th century. In "The Limits of Ethnicity," it is crucial to remember that this essay was written during the bi-centennial of the United States, and many of the notions of ethnicity that the author was responding to themselves were undoubtedly influenced by the celebrations of things American and of the 'forced' melting pot that such a historic occasion inevitably brings. Therefore, it is not surprising that Howe's view of the search for ethnicity is far from a positive one. In fact, the author spends the vast majority of the essay with his tongue firmly in cheek gently mocking the actions of the various ethnic groups he chronicles within this work.

It appears that the author is definitely skeptical about returning to one's ethnicity because he does not believe that doing so is even necessarily possible. The author's point on this subject is fairly clear -- the lineage of many Americans who are attempting to reclaim their roots has been so firmly entrenched in the U.S. For so long that many of those roots have simply dried out. or, as the author himself puts it, people attempting to reclaim their ethnicity by means of silly "customs" are merely grasping for "scraps" (Howe 3) of a once proud tradition -- which they themselves have little knowledge about, and therefore cannot access.

What is of particular interest is the author's view about the necessity for attempting to reclaim one's ethnic heritage. Howe believes this is largely unnecessary due to the "provincial" (Howe 3) nature of such a heritage. In the general scheme of life and the importance one is able to achieve through it, the author posits that ethnicity is just an origination -- a starting point -- with which it is essential to get beyond in able…… [read more]

Standpoint Theory Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,302 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


¶ … Theory

The history of race relations in the United States has always evinced a degree of difficulty that more than likely exceeds that of other countries. This is due in large part to the fact that there is a multitude of ethnicities and diversities celebrated here, with more coming in daily. As such, it greatly behooves people of this country to learn to deal with one another in a cordial fashion in which inherent differences between cultures are recognized, yet are not the most definable aspect of a particular race or ethnicity. Still, initial perceptions and misconceptions are hard to abandon, and many people demonstrate an inability to see beyond the obvious physical characteristics of someone's ethnicity, and choose to stereotype them based on those physical attributes. However, a prudent examination of a number of sources including the Color of Fear, Ethnic Groups in the United States: A Short History, Privilege Power and Difference, and How Nice People Are Corrupted indicates that the only way to make any degree of progress between people of different ethnicities is to recognize the differences between them yet not allow such differences to be the sole basis of perception of those of different ethnicities.

Albert Johnson actually alludes to this concept in the first two chapters of his manuscript. It is actually fairly important to realize that the author spends the duration of these pages talking about himself and his experiences as a white male. It is extremely prudent for him to do so, for the simple fact that as a white male he represents an esteemed position of privilege within the U.S. that allows him to view firsthand the biased, if not outright prejudicial treatment that other social classes of people -- including minorities and women -- endure on a daily basis. There is a degree of power that Johnson is able to exercise in ways both large and small that people from traditional historical minority groups typically do not have access to in this country. Johnson is not bragging about this fact in the first two chapters; rather he is providing the important point that there is a difference in treatment between people in this country based on their gender and ethnicity, and that to actually improve race relations it is necessary to not treat people based on those factors which they themselves (or anybody else) cannot control.

Another extremely important notion about the point-of-view that Johnson spends the first two chapters discussing is that this viewpoint is well represented in the film the Color of Fear. In this documentary, which features men of different ethnicities talking about their personal experiences with interracial relations in America, both David and Gordon are white males who enjoy many of the same aspects of privilege and the power that Johnson details within his manuscript. As such, this pair's social location and situated knowledge is intrinsically different from that of the other men, all of whom belong to historical minority groups. Socially, the aforementioned… [read more]

Racism and Society -- Literature Creative Writing

Creative Writing  |  3 pages (988 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2



I would categorically deny that the election of an African-American to the presidency necessarily means that we live in a "post-racial" America today. My black classmates all confirmed the degree to which many of the same fundamental experiences shared by Hurston and Staples still hold just as true for them today as they did for those writers almost a century ago and nearly three decades ago, respectively. Hurston (1928) describes how being black in America in her time meant that "… for any act of mine, I shall get twice as much praise or twice as much blame." Eighty-five years later, my African-American classmates describe being subjected to assumptions that some of their achievements are typically devalued because of their race. One of my classmates recalled overhearing a reference to Affirmative Action in connection with his some of college acceptance letters. Another classmate indicated that he has witnessed the exact same phenomenon described by Staples in connection with the quickly-locked car doors as he walked by a motorist waiting for a traffic light to change. Both have been the targets of unprovoked racial epithets on several occasions in their lives.

I believe that when the history of America in the 21st Century is written, your continued opposition to President Obama throughout his second term in office will firmly establish you and the other like-minded members of your caucus to the wrong side of history, as the last obstacles to achieving a genuinely "post-racial" America. I would, therefore, like to urge you to take the time, notwithstanding your very busy Congressional schedule, of reading the enclosed literature. Please ask yourself whether you can honestly justify your stated position to purposely undermine a newly elected U.S. President for any justifiable reason, especially in early 2009 before he could possibly have done anything to earn your disdain, besides having been elected while black.

As a supporter of former President George W. Bush, you demonstrated your willingness to overlook what was clearly a degree of ineptitude, overstepping, mismanagement, and an inability to communicate presidentially in any real respect on his part. By contrast, President Obama has demonstrated patience, leadership, efficiency, commitment to goals, and both substantive and communicative brilliance. Unless you can justify your position objectively, I would urge you, very respectfully, to reconsider your opposition to the Obama administration so that you can be remembered on the right side of American history as pertains to the evolution of a genuinely post-racial America sometime later this century. Thank you most sincerely.



How It Feels to Be Colored Me (Hurston, 1928)

Just Walk on By (Staples, 1986)


Edwards, G., Wattenberg, M., and Lineberry, R. (2009). Government in America: People,

Politics, and Policy. New York, NY: Longman.

Goldfield, D., Abbot, C., Argersinger, J., and Argersinger, P. (2005). Twentieth-Century

America: A Social and Political History. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-

Prentice Hall.

Grunwald,…… [read more]

Comstock Bloodlines and Race Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (653 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Clearly, such discussions upon race and ethnicity broaden our views and open new horizons for the research purposes. There are too many races in the world, and as included in this article, the most familiar or traditional categories are Whites (86.8%), Blacks (76.5%), Hispanic (44.1%) and Asians (22.4%). Other races (38%) emerge from these as a mixture or we divide these four into their sub-categories by which the heterogeneity gets broader. Just as we have Hispanics as Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Spanish etc. Therefore, by doing such a kind of research, we come to know about many such races in the entire world by which we are non-familiar earlier. Although there are some other kinds of races too which we name as mixed or other races, the main four races and their divisions are usually reported and only a small number of mixed race or ethnicity are seemed to be known. In earlier researches, it was reported that the researchers used mixed terms for the same races and did not define them explicitly. However, in this research, it was observed that researchers are now become aware of this and now there is an enormous diversity in describing race or ethnicity, which has expanded with the passage of time. It indicates that there have been some serious efforts in describing the authentic information about a particular race and also there is an increasing trend to be correct in this regard. On the whole, in our culture, there is much discussion upon the Whites and Blacks than any other race or ethnicity. As the demographics of our country are continuously changing, there is a need of a broader discussion in this field so as to have accurate and comprehensive details about all the races and categories existing in this area.


Comstock, R. Dawn, Edward M. Castillo, and Suzanne P. Lindsay. 2004. "Four-Year Review of the Use of Race and Ethnicity in…… [read more]

Multiple Kinds of Prejudice Research Paper

Research Paper  |  6 pages (1,879 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6



Human beings engage in a wide variety of prejudicial thoughts and behaviors, but perhaps the most pernicious form of prejudice is that based on ethnic and racial stereotypes, because these appeal to individuals' most basic notions of in-group identity. Throughout history this prejudice has been both explicit and subtle, and in general the movement has been from the former… [read more]

White People Are Called Caucasian Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (716 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


The concept of "black" as a metaphor for race was used at the end the 17th century when F. Francois Bernier (1625-1688) divide up humanity basing on facial appearances and body type. He came up with four categories; Europeans, Far Easterners, Lapps, and blacks (Mamdani & Mahmoud, 2001). Scientific racism was applied during the new imperialism period (1880-1914)and was used in justifying white European imperialism it aided in supporting the classification of human population into physically discrete human race claimed to be either superior or inferior more so, in historical context of 1880 to 1930,after the second world war (1939-1945)scientific racism was officially dealt with in theory and action majorly in UNESCO antiracist statement "the race question"1950 this statement acknowledged the existence of different human races.

Blumenbach the founding father of racial science and classification of races opposed the stressed racial hierarchies that had been emphasized by other scientists; he insisted that there existed only one race of people (Mayall & David, 2004). Blumenbach long career as a teacher at the University of Gottingen was a driving force towards his enlightens emphasis on measurement and classification. Blumenbach used color terminology to label races. He wanted to challenge other scientists who cautioned about such categorization for example Charles Darwin who argued that the number of different colors is completely arbitrary and subjective (Mamdani & Mahmoud, 2001). Johann Fredrick Blumenbach came up with five color typology for humans;

White people (Caucasian)

Black people (Ethiopian)

Yellow people (Mongolian)

Cinnamon-brown people (American)

Brown people (Malay)

Blumenbach listed the races in hierarchical order starting from Caucasian to fucoid peoples placed at the bottom (Mayall & David, 2004). His classification had a lasting influence in part simply because his categorization neatly broke into familiar tones and colors; white, black, yellow, red, and brown (Mamdani & Mahmoud, 2001).


1. Malik, Kenan. 2006. The Meaning of Race: Race, History and Culture in Western Society. London: Macmillan.

2. Mamdani, Mahmoud. 2001. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism And the Genocide in Rwanda. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

3.…… [read more]

Bloodlines and Race George Zimmerman Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (790 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The graphic shows seven stick figures with large heads. Inside each head are sixteen "smiley faces." The first has all white faces, the second has one black face, the third has two black faces, the fourth has four, the fifth has eight, the sixth has twelve, and in the seventh, all sixteen faces are black. The graphic represents how much European and/or African blood is in each person.

The figures that are all-white and all-black are easy to classify. The other figures are not easy to classify. The answer depends somewhat on one's one race. It also depends on the culture in which one lives. Davis (1991) points out that the South's "one-drop rule" (meaning that a single crop of "black blood" makes a person black) was used for a long time to justify slavery, then later Jim Crow segregation laws. The "one-drop rule," Davis further points out, does not apply to any other group besides American blacks. It is not used outside the United States. "In fact, defnitions of who is black very quite sharply from country to country, and for this reason people in other countries often express consternation about our definition" (Davis, 1991). In 1957, writer James Baldwin explained the being black (or "Negro," in the term of the times) was a choice based on "depth of involvement -- by experience, in fact" (Davis.)

Personally, I do not think much about race. I notice physical appearance and I would consider someone black if his/her skin was darker than mine and he/she had features that were distinctly African. I do not know anything about a person's bloodline unless the person wants to reveal that information to me. I would respect the wishes of the individual. If he or she wanted to be considered black or white, I would respect their choice, no matter what basis or bloodline they used to make it.


1. F. James Davis, "Who is Black? One Nation's Definition." Frontline. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/jefferson/mixed/onedrop.html

2. Suzanne Gamboa, "Trayvon Martin Case: George Zimmerman's Race is a Complicated Matter.The Huffington Post 3/29/12. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012


3. 'The curse of Ham': Slavery and the Old Testament. (2003). NPR. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1548811… [read more]

Racism Does it Still Exist Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography  |  3 pages (870 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Racism: Does it still exist?

Don Albrecht et.al (2005). Minority Concentration, Disadvantage, and Inequality in the Nonmetropolitan United States. Midwest Sociological Quarterly, 46:503

The writer portrays racism as a product of the clash of classes within the society. He takes the Marxist perspective on the issue of racism. He depicts the view of conflict theory by Karl Marx views the elites as continually suppressing the poor. The society is engaged in a series of conflicts and disagreements, tension and clashes. He says this tension is evident in the relationships between the majority group and the minority. This then solicits the protective response where the minority groups will do anything, including marrying among themselves to protect the race and their own population. Ironically, as Don Albrecht indicates, as the minority increases in population so shall they suffer more discrimination from the majority. This may perpetuate the cosmic cycle that may never ends as the minority continues to marry among themselves in a bid to overcome racism and discrimination. The source also indicates that this is a trend in the U.S.A. that is fast picking up.

Maurianne Adams (2000). Readings for Diversity and Social Justice. New York: Routledge. (p417). http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=_7oq23wsASgC&pg=PR4&lpg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false

The notion of the minority being the subjugated socially, economically and academically has been the notion that carried the day and is clearly depicted in this source. It is the overriding feeling and assumption in the American society where there is a general discontent in the system due to the imbalance in the social and economic sectors. The minority groups are generally known to contribute less to the American economy in relation to the majority population. This is widely true and has been propagated and maintained by the fact that the means of production and the resources have, from the historical time, been controlled by the majority white population as shown by Maurianne Adams. This source acts to further emphasize the fact that racism is still alive in the U.S.A. And other parts of the world, manifesting itself in such subtle manner like in the employment structures, remuneration diversity and control of the economic resources.

Nurse Together, (2011). Cultural Competence in Nursing. http://www.nursetogether.com/Career/Career-Article/itemid/1422/Cultural-Competence-in-Nursing.aspx

This source highlights the major barriers to achieving the cultural competence within the nursing fraternity which include discrimination, stereotyping, prejudice and racism. It highlights how in some instances the caregiver may portray insensitivity to the cultural differences even without their knowledge or a prior intention to offend because of what the society has made them imbibe. This is a clear indication that racism still exists within the U.S.A. There are simple gestures that may…… [read more]

Differences in the Classes Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,583 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Social Class and Race-Based Differences:

A Study in Communication, Diversity and Class Structures

There is no better example than that found in the American society to show the world how a people can accept and take advantage of the richness to be found within a diverse social structure. Indeed, it's in this country that diversity is most prevalent, most rich,… [read more]

Institutionalized Racism Solid Ground Research Paper

Research Paper  |  2 pages (698 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Gender, race, social class, and abilities are some of the dimensions of personal identity. Intersectionality refers to the ways these dimensions simultaneously contribute to social inequality. Based on race, one group of people is not offered the same educational opportunities as others. With less education, their employment options are reduced. When they are relegated to low-paying, unskilled jobs, they may have to work more than one in order to make ends meet. This precludes seeking any training or schooling that might be a way out and into a better position. It is difficult for an unskilled worker to be a role model to his/her children with respect to education and good jobs. The unskilled worker may not have the means to send children to college. Even with a scholarship, there are many expenses that may exceed the family budget. The cycle is thus perpetuated.

Kunzia profiles Kadhir Raja, a twenty-something teacher in one of the most crime-ridden neighborhoods of Sacramento. Raja effectively puts into practice the strategies that are taught in Just Communities' educator workshops on unintentional racism -- even though he has never attended a workshop. Raja has helped all his students, regardless of color, be more successful. Staff at Just Communities believe Raja exemplifies "the three R's" essential to improving relations with students of color: relationships, relevance and rigor (Kunzia, 2009).

Most teachers want the best for their students. They would be dismayed to realize they were guilty of unintentional racism. Public schools have made considerable progress in eliminating bias and providing equal opportunities for all, but institutionalized racism is subtle. Just Communities' educator workshops provide a means to help teachers and schools recognize policies, practices and behaviors that still discriminate against students of color.


Kuznia, R. (2009). Racism in schools: Unintentional but no less damaging. Miller-McCune Online Magazine. 8 April 2009. Retrieved from http://www.miller-mccune.com/culture-society/racism-in-schools-unintentional-3821/

Solid ground. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.solid-ground.org/Programs/Legal

/AntiRacism/Documents/ARI_Definitions-Accountability_Standards_ONLINE_7-09.pdf… [read more]

Theory Issues of Race Essay

Essay  |  7 pages (2,260 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


It is logical that the situated knowledge of the Caucasian characters has a lot to do with their position of privilege in the U.S. (Johnson 6). It is also noteworthy to mention that their situated knowledge is influenced by a complacent ignorance on their part, in which they do not want to consider the conditions of non-whites due to their… [read more]

Represent the Human Race Before Answering Admission Essay

Admission Essay  |  2 pages (696 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Represent the Human Race

Before answering the question of what I would send it I were able to send one thing to intelligent life existing elsewhere in the universe, I feel like I must be honest and acknowledge that I would not sent anything to intelligent life anywhere else in the universe. If the history of man has taught one thing, it is that more advanced civilizations that take an interest in less interested civilizations take over them with extreme prejudice and cause tremendous destruction when they do so. If intelligent life exists elsewhere in the universe and has the capability of traveling to Earth, I think it would be naive and unrealistic to assume that they would come in peace. Therefore, if we found intelligent life elsewhere in the universe, I think that the smartest course of action would be to hide from them and do as little as possible to draw attention to the Earth.

However, if I were required to send one thing to life somewhere else in the universe, I would choose to send an electronic book with the collection of Elvis Cole / Joe Pike novels written by author Robert Crais, available in several different languages. I would simply assume that an intelligent civilization with the capability of sending us signals that it existed would have mastered some type of written communication. Therefore, if they received an electronic reader with several different languages, I would assume that they would possess the ability synthesize all of those languages and somehow translate them to their native language, if they did not already have a means of translating human communications to their language.

I would choose that particular series of novels for several reasons. First, the novels do a fantastic job of explaining that Earth is already populated by a race of violent, greedy, and mean people. The novels are based on the lives of two private detectives and a series of cases that they encounter. Throughout those cases, they encounter human traffickers, drug gangs, murderers, kidnappers, and blackmailers. The novels touch on issues…… [read more]

Prejudice Origins Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (866 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Racism is generally defined as "the belief that races exist, that physical characteristics determine cultural traits and that racial characteristics make some groups superior (Blackwell, Smith, & Sorenson, 2003, p. 37). Sexism is generally defined as being linked to negative associations or sentiments regarding females that derive from the belief that females are inherently less capable and thereby worth less than males (Dovdio, Glick, & Rudman, 2005). Additionally and in general, classism is defined as "a biased or discriminatory attitude on distinctions made between social or economic classes (Blackwell, Smith, & Sorenson, 2003, p. 32). What seems to be consistent within these general parameters ascribed to these isms or other terminology used to describe specific prejudices is that they are based on belief. A belief is defined as something one accepts as real or true, a firmly held conviction or opinion, an acceptance that a statement is true or that something exists. What is common between these definitions and those posited by sociologists as the origins of prejudice is the fact that beliefs do not require irrefutable facts or information, whether true or false. Beliefs are simply that; and it is these kinds of belief in the absence of information regarded or considered that manifest as sexism, racism, classism, nationalism and so on.


It would seem that many would accept without question what has been purported by sociologists regarding prejudice, its origins, what it means, and how it is manifested; however, what has been asserted is simply the newest version of the origins of prejudice. It is difficult to believe that a group of scholars, historians, experts or whomever derived such a contrived notion of prejudice would posit this argument in such a blanketed manner, and expect wide acceptance. It is possible that because individuals, many individuals, sociologists included, do not want to consider themselves as ascribing to any of the targeted definitions of prejudice ( racism, sexism, classism, etc.) this blanket statement has been made. Although the origins asserted are intellectually understood, this argument is considered invalid, and leaves many questions as to the motivation for conjuring up such an ideology.


Blackwell, J., Smith, M., & Sorenson, J. (2003). Culture of prejudice: arguments in critical social science. Toronto: Broadview.

Dovidio, J., Glick, P., & Rudman, L. (2005). On the nature of prejudice. Malden:

Blackwell Publishing Company.

Garth, T. (1925). A review of racial psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 22, 342-364.

Plous, S. (2011). The psychology of prejudice. Retrieved 1 December 2011…… [read more]

New Campus Racism, Noel Kent Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (564 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The author outlines the manner in which white Americans in general often perceive blacks and other minorities as having the benefit of advantages of racial minority, such as in the form of affirmative action. That promotes a more subtle type of racism that undermines legitimate achievements by blacks and it perpetuates antagonism and resentment in connection with pejorative assumptions about the relative merit of various achievements in terms of admission to exclusive educational institutions and preferential consideration in the job market. As a result, many white people develop racist resentments with regard to the erosion of what used to be a privileged position enjoyed by whites. The author cites a survey in which a majority of white people believe that racial equality has "gone too far."

In some ways, the essay is prescient in that it was written more than a decade before the historic inauguration of the nation's first black president because the nation's response to President Obama seems to exemplify the writer's main thesis. On one hand, American society has evolved sufficiently to elect a black man to the highest office; on the other hand, most objective observers have little doubt that the incredibly intense antagonism toward the President and the unprecedented level of political vitriol witnessed since his election reflects resentment over the fact that the president is black. In that regard, it should be no surprise that the bulk of the worst political rhetoric from the public as well as from elected political representatives in Washington originates from the former southern…… [read more]

South Africa Throughout Its History Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (2,484 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


As a result, the United States maintains instances of structural racism even as it celebrates the election of its first black president. This is seen most obviously in the sentencing disparity between cocaine and the more cheaply accessible crack, the likelihood of dramatically harsher sentences for black perpetrators of crimes in which the victim was white, and the wildly disproportionate… [read more]

Sexual Disorders the Film Crash Reaction Paper

Reaction Paper  |  6 pages (1,973 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Sexual Disorders

The film Crash, written and directed by Paul Haggis, considers a number of varieties of prejudice and racism. What is interesting is that all the persons in the film regardless of ethnic background or race, are both victims and perpetrators of some form of prejudice. To consider these themes, four chapters will be applied to some of the… [read more]

Ethnic/Minority Humor Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (679 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Any damage that is caused by perpetuating these stereotypes is either disregarded completely or seen as justified because the target of the humor is inferior and not worthy of respect.

As human beings we should all be trying to uplift one another. Life is difficult enough as it is and we should, to paraphrase Dr. Martin Luther King, judge each other on the content of our character, not on the color of our skin. Yet for many it is easier to not think about nor question the prejudice and hate this type of humor perpetuates. After all "it's just a joke."


This excerpt from a letter to the editor of the Columbia University Daily Spectator tries to reframe this issue in a politically correct light:

"We strongly object to this misrepresentation of the rally and further, we take issue with the word 'minority.' In our opinion, and that of many others, 'minority' is a derogatory term that connotes inferiority and wrongly identifies people of color as a sub-unit within this society. How about "differently-numbered?" ("PC to the Rescue").

Unfortunately, just as a rose by any other name still smells the same, so does a skunk. Humor based in how we are different is not inherently bad, but humor intended to belittle or disparage the character of an entire ethnic group for in order to foster hate, misunderstanding and prejudice is not acceptable.

This type of humor is not likely to disappear easily. Prejudice is often ingrained in children from parents and other care givers they respect. Many are unwilling to question the origins of their feelings about others. There is a long history of individuals being ostracized from society or even killed for teaching love and tolerance. Unfortunately, it is easier to hate than love. It requires less thought.

Works Cited

"PC to the Rescue." Joke Budda. Columbia University Daily Spectator. (NDI). 22 July 2011.

"Mexican Jokes."Mexican Jokes.net. (NDI). 22 July 2011. [read more]

Minority Groups Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (1,137 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Racial segregation is always about the color of the individual; therefore as long as the issue of racial profiling occurs in the country, the African-Americans will always remain behind in terms of ownership of property and other sociological activities like education housing and governance. This is as according to the U.N's special report on racism in 2008, which in the investigations observed that racism is still an issue in the United States as was extrapolated using the socio economic indicators. The special rapporteur while presenting the report linked the current prejudice to the heritage that was left by their fore father sin terms of slavery and segregation. He attributed the Native Americans segregation from the social strata as a result of the forceful resettlement by the U.S. In the early years of the civil rights movement. Therefore this made it very clear that they were a secluded lot and hence the legacy was carried on to the latter years (CERD, 2009 p. 44).

In the recent years, the U.S. has seen a few immigrants apart from the Native Americans and the African-Americans. There is the Arab world, the Asian-Americans, and the Latin Americans. However the type of racism depicted in this category is a whole different scene although they too face prejudice. This is because most of these people are almost recognized as white like in the case of the Arabs; studies have shown that they are widely accepted as a part of the white race although they (Arabs) dispute that fact. However the recent terrorist attacks on the U.S. especially 11/11 changed that picture. After the attacks, the U.S. changed the treatment of the Arab citizens in what is now termed as Islamphobia. This is as indicated by Netton, Ian Richard; Evelyn Alsultany (2006) in their book "from ambiguity to abjection: Iraqi-Americans negotiating race in the United States."

As we progress on we see that a lot of African-Americans and Native Americans will still not be able to secure a place in the high recognition seats as racism has hindered the mobility. They will always be prejudiced against because of the legacy that has been set by the early activities. However the recent immigrants will continue to enjoy the fruits of the hard labor of the former since they represent the new generation of immigrants who had nothing to do with the uprising. Their mobility is easier in the United States social stratification and acceptance though they still face some form of racism.


CERD, Task Force of the U.S. Human Rights Network. (2010-08). "From Civil Rights to Human Rights: Implementing U.S. Obligations under the International Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD)." Universal Periodic Review Joint Reports: United States of America, p. 44.

Fegin, J.R. (1984). Racial and Ethnic Relations: Universal Periodic Review Joint Reports: United States of America. Prentice Hall, pp. 10

Netton, Ian, R., Evelyn A. (2006). "From ambiguity to abjection: Iraqi-Americans negotiating race in the United States," pp. 140-143.

Leonard, Karen,… [read more]

Strange Enigma of Race in Contemporary America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (631 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Strange Enigma of Race in Contemporary America by Eduardo Bonilla Silva is a compelling and revelatory essay about the nature of modern America. However inflammatory Silva's statements may sound about the pervasiveness of racism in modern American society, Silva's essay is actually quite helpful in the manner in which it detaches racism from skin color. An individual may be Caucasian and not be prejudiced against minorities but may still enjoy 'white privilege' when he or she is able to pass through a neighborhood unmolested by the police or gets a favorable performance review because he or she subliminally seems to 'fit in' to the office culture. Racism is woven into the fabric of American cultural assumptions and the denial "but I'm not a racist" is not enough to eradicate racism from modern America. Racism is part of a social structure that must be changed, and ending racism requires more than becoming 'color blind' on a personal level.

"Our society is structured so that certain groups and segments of the population are set up to fail and these same groups are inherently placed at a disadvantage." Racism, even casual racism on the street as is sometimes shown to young black teens, especially men, can have a calcifying effect upon the self-esteem and upon the soul. Furthermore, the economic impact of previous racism is very real, and cannot be undone with a few years of affirmative action, much less 'color blind' treatment. An African-American child who grows up with inadequate food, within a failing education system, and with all of the physical stressors of urban poverty (a lack of safe places to play, poor role models, and fear of both criminals and the police) will not find the same ease of self-empowerment as a white child from a more affluent neighborhood. And when members of the privileged elite go to the nation's top schools, and…… [read more]

Race and Class Are Inextricably Entwined Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (617 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Race and class are inextricably entwined, making the two issues inseparable. Especially in the United States, and throughout Western Europe as well, poverty and race and linked. Therefore, neither one plays a more important role in the evident societal inequalities and discrimination. Race has been the root cause of discrimination, leading to reduced access to jobs, positions of power, and upward social mobility. This in turn has created a vast underclass of non-whites. As the author claims, blacks are three times as likely to be poor than whites in the United States.

Racism still does exist, albeit in a subtle way. In many cases, racism is denied or ignored, such as in the ways people bolster their stereotyping about other ethnic and racial groups. The nature of racism has changed. As the author points out, it is not considered socially acceptable to be an overt racist. Thus, racism has been pushed deep into the psyches of individuals. "The maintenance of white privilege is done in a way that defies racial readings," (p. 3).

It is impossible to indicate the absolute causes of contemporary racial inequalities and discrimination. Still, we can trace the current race relations in America to the perpetuation of overt racism that existed well up until the Civil Rights movement. Although the United States now proudly boasts a President who is a man of color, the racist attitudes of Americans are still evident in the harsh reactions to President Obama. Similarly, many Americans deny the need for affirmative action programs, which are still needed to minimize the income disparity between blacks and whites and help black communities revive and revitalize. Inequalities continue to exist because they are handed down from generation to generation in the form of stereotypes, beliefs, and sheer ignorance.

Being successful means enjoying inner peace and the freedom that goes along with it.…… [read more]

Science, History, and Advances Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (761 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Spiritually whites thought that they were favored by God and that it was their job to control, convert and dominate this breed of animalistic pagans from Africa. Whites contended that the tribal spiritual and religious rituals native to the lands of Africa were associated with evil. Whites especially Christians believed that they were favored by God due to their white skin color, which for a long time has been associated with goodness of purity. By the same token they despised the Blacks for their color of skin. In the eyes of western culture, the color black has always been associated darkness, death, evil and the unknown.

With the advent of science, technology and current political affairs Whites are no longer encouraged to or able to show outright forms of racisms and prejudice. Most have come to understand that Blacks are equal biologically, mentally and spiritually. This however does not stop symbolic or modern racism from occurring. Although formal laws and policies prevent racisms and prejudices from occurring, socially and economically blacks are not on par with their white counterparts. This has prompted supporters of Black movements to support social programs such as affirmative action and welfare. This is when symbolic racism tends to occur, whites who are conservative and uphold individualism tend to vigorously oppose such policies. They contend that the social inequalities between Blacks and Whites occur mainly because blacks do not work hard enough and because they refuse to accept traditional American values. According to Sniderman, Crosby and Lowell 2000, whites hold racial resentment towards Blacks because the perceive Blacks to "violate traditional American values like hard work, individualism, punctuality, sexual repression, and delay of gratification as opposed to laziness, and seeking of favoritism and handouts" (Crosby, Sniderman, Lowell 72).

Judging from the readings it appears that negative stereotypes regarding Blacks, and a general dislike of Black still persists. Although it is not manifested with violence prejudice and outright racism, if one reads between the lines it appears as though a modern form known as Symbolic racism does exist.

Works Cited

Sears, David O., and P.J. Henry. "The Origins of Symbolic Racism." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85.2 (2003): 259-75. Print.

Sniderman, P.M., G.C. Crosby, and W.G. Howell. The Politics of Racism. Chicago: University…… [read more]

Race, Class, Gender Journal Word Journal

Journal  |  3 pages (1,072 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


The idea is that sameness means equality. If we wear the same clothes and listen to the same music then we are equal in society. In this, Gallagher made some keen observations. Ultimately, he recognizes the attitude that if cultural symbols are shared, then that becomes a sign of equality and he challenges the reader to think beyond the surface and see what is happening at more basic levels such as housing and education.

One article that I truly enjoyed was "From A Native Daughter" by Dr. Haunani-Kay Trask. Though her experience of family and culture and my own are vastly different, the underline principles and understanding of the meaning of family and culture are believe are universal. The heart of her message is to promote the value and encourage the preservation of culturally rich stories and traditions. This concept rings true with me. As an Irish-American, who lives a radically American lifestyle, I always know that I am Irish first. I know my family history and I find strength in that. My mother taught me how to make a bed and fold a towel. Her mother taught her. These little and seemingly unimportant traditions connect me to my past. I think this is what Dr. Trask was getting at. The way we do things, the songs we sing, the stories we tell connect us to our past and to one another. In this way, her article is vastly different than some of the others.

Dr. Trask's article was also very helpful in that she proposes concrete strategies to implement her ideas. She does not merely complain and put together data to support her theories but she speaks in a way that is organic and comprehensive. She says, "If it is truly our history Western historians desire to know, they must put down their books, and take up our practices: first of course, the language, but later, the people, the aina, the stories, and above all" Trask continues, "the stories." The commercialism that is prevalent in our society, as noted above, hides this kind of deep rooted meaning of race, culture, and gender.

Anyone who reads this book will find parts that are disturbing, shocking, of surprising. This is due to the vast range of topics and points-of-views offered. No one could agree with all the views presented at North and South, and East to West extremes. However, the prevailing thread of goodness that these writers see through authentic person-to-person contact would be equally appreciated by any reader of this extensive anthology.

White Potatoes

I am white, plain, ordinary, uneventful

No more fights to fights, Chica

No political unrest, no poverty

My grandparents crossed the ocean on a Wooden ship

Leaving rotten potatoes behind

I eat French fries at McDonalds


Gen Y they call us. Why? We have

No drive

No one knows where we are headed

Identity lost in the mall

Plugged in, but deaf

Drink a Frappuccino, listen to some

Tunes, girl

Text me


L., M,… [read more]

Eliminating Racial Categories Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (802 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


Eliminating Racial Categories

The concept of race has played a role in society for hundreds of years so much so that it appears a naturally understood concept despite its ambiguity. It is important for educators to look at the role that race has played throughout history and the purposes that it has served for human beings. Although race has become deeply embedded in our social and political ideals, there has been much false information that has led us to this point, including the establishment of racial categories.

Racial categories may not have always been intended to have a negative emphasis but overtime with the development of racism this has unfortunately been the case. While individuals who are of the same racial category have some similarities that put them into this grouping, they are also very unique members of the human species. At various points throughout our history, as well as presently in some cases, race has been identified through physical characteristics such as skin tone, facial features and hair type. However, these traits alone offer little insight into the notion of race or the person's genetic makeup. Further, there is no genetic identifier for race and no genetic differences that have been found between races. There are genetic variations in persons but they themselves do not combine to create a race.

Racial categories are a social construct that has allowed for not only discrimination, but also restricted access to many opportunities and resources (Fredrickson, 2003). Wade (1997) describes race as a societal concept that evolved through history as a manner in which one group of persons can claim superiority over another group. This social hierarchy is based upon observable, physical differences and has allowed for the social ranking of persons considered to be of a superior physical makeup.

What appeared to start out as a way to classify persons, possibly out of mere curiosity, has evolved into a societal construct that can have negative connotations and take away from a person's right to self-identify with their own culture, even if society would not place them in that grouping. Further, the expectations that can be set based upon racial categories can be detrimental to the individual even if they are not necessarily negative. For example, an individual of Asian descent is often expected to be of superior intelligence particularly in the areas of mathematics and science. Living up to these expectations can…… [read more]

Impact of Persistence on Academic Success for Latino a College Students Dissertation

Dissertation  |  28 pages (8,953 words)
Bibliography Sources: 19


¶ … Latinos -- Introduction

It is widely understood that that Latino community is the fastest growing ethnic / cultural group in the United States. According to the U.S. Census data, California is among the states with fast rising numbers of Hispanics (most often alluded to in this paper as Latinos). As of 2006 in Los Angeles County Latinos comprise… [read more]

Korean American Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (1,043 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Korean-American Immigrants: Part of the Great American Mosaic and Melting Pot

Early prejudice

After Japan occupied the neighboring nation of Korea, Korean natives fled their homeland in search of a better life in America. In this, they were no different than countless other immigrants seeking to better themselves on American soil. However, these immigrants' aspirations were often hampered by racism and discrimination, almost as soon as the S.S. Gaelic first docked in Honolulu Harbor on January 13, 1903. 120 men, women, and children were on board. Most came seeking employment as laborers on Hawaii's sugar plantations. The work was backbreaking and arduous, Over 7,000 Korean immigrants made up this first wave of Korean immigration (Korean-American History, 2010, Curriculum Guide: Unit 1).

These laborers were part of a clear 'dual labor market' in Hawaii -- Korean-Americans, regardless of their level of skill or vocational identity in Korea were relegated to a manual labor class with few opportunities for promotion. Yet despite such segregation and the benefits the immigrants performed for the local economy, the Immigration Act of 1924 ended this first wave of Korean immigration, by effectively ending all immigration from the Far East. Koreans could not come to the United States seeking citizenship for the next twenty-five years (Korean-American History, 2010, Curriculum Guide: Unit 1).

Even naturalized Koreans were victims of a kind of dual prejudice during this time period. In Japanese-dominated Korea, the Japanese relegated Koreans to the status of second-class citizens. In fleeing oppression, Koreans found themselves once again in such a position in America. Even worse, many were separated from their families after the passage of the Immigration Act, which did not allow for families to be reunited. In another irony, Koreans on American soil experienced anti-Asian and job-related discrimination during the war with Japan, given that many Caucasians grouped all individuals of East Asian ancestry into the same category.

The second and third waves of Korean immigrants

However, after the Korean-American war, perceptions began to change. War brides, skilled professionals, and more immigrants from Korea were permitted into the U.S. (Korean-American History, 2010, Curriculum Guide: Unit 1). Koreans strove to find new opportunities, and South Koreans, because of the history of their homeland, were often vehemently anti-communist in a manner that many native Americans approved of: however, ethnically-based discrimination remained. Also, there was to some degree a certain amount of self-segregation based on the jobs chosen by Korean-Americans, many of whom began "Korean-owned greengrocers, restaurants, and dry cleaners can be seen throughout the country. From the outside, Korean-Americans appear to have found easy success -- but they have done so by working grueling 18-hour days, 7 days a week, and sacrificing many comforts for the sake of their families, especially the children" (Korean-American History,2010, Curriculum Guide: Unit 1).

Koreans success has often given rise to claims that Koreans are a so-called 'model minority' group. However, this high level of achievement has not come without some costs -- there have been tensions between Korean-Americans and other immigrant… [read more]

Color of Water Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (969 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Color of Water

Racism and discrimination have been two of the most important topics in history and especially in the history of the United States, given the fact that its culture resembles a human mixture of races, cultural backgrounds, and different personal histories. Racial prejudice is rooted in the annals of history particularly because it left a lot of scars on the personal identities of the families and the communities which suffered from this kind of behavior. It focuses on the clear differentiation between people in terms of race, which, nowadays, is considered illegal, but back in history, it was a state of fact. An important book on the issue of racial prejudice is "The color of water" by James Mc'Bride because it offers a personal perspective on the issue of race and community in inter-racial affairs.

The main character, even if the book should be an autobiography, is the mother of the writer, Ruth, who, through her experiences, shares a way of life in a racial and prejudice society. Despite the fact that James Mc Bride sometimes makes reference to his own experiences, the book may be seen as a teaching on how to deal with racial prejudice. Even so, the two characters chose to deal with racism differently. Still, the perspective of the two is important as it offers an insight on the hardships of the 60s, of the Harlem, of the immigrant community, of the Jewish community with its traditions, cultures, and own prejudice.

Ruth's experience is traced back to an abusive family, an over conservative background of Jewish immigrants who had suffered in their turn a lot of prejudices when arriving in the United States. From this abusive background, Ruth's behavior chances slowly to an acceptance of who she is and a limitation of her aspirations for respect and self-respect. Despite the hard times she experienced both as a young woman and as a mother, she always desired the best education for her children which can be interpreted as a way of dealing with the inferior status she believed she had. Education is an inspiration and a way of growing both as an individual and as a member of the community. In this sense, for her it was important that her children benefit from this opportunity and always made sure to focus on this. It was the way she dealt with society and with discrimination.

Racial discrimination affected her children as they were forced to live in a community which refused to accept them because they were a mix of races and religions. Ruth dealt with this aspect by encouraging her children to attend school and at the same time by offering a tender family environment. The loving family environment can be interpreted as her offering something she never had in her childhood and early adulthood, and, at the same time, as a way of ensuring, at least in the…… [read more]

Ethnic Diversity and Attributions for Peer Victimization Peer Reviewed Journal

Peer Reviewed Journal  |  2 pages (801 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Ethnic Diversity and Attributions for Peer Victimization in Middle School

According to this article, the American Medical Association has designated peer victimization as a public health concern. (Graham, Bellmore, Nishina and Juvonen, 2009) This type of harassment includes a variety of behaviors including calling names, assault, social attacks and excessive teasing. (Graham, 2009) the purpose of this study by the authors was to examine the role of self-blame on peer victimization/maladjustment relations in middle school and the role of classroom diversity. The participants were 6th grade students of Latino or African-American ethnicity or one of several other ethnic groups. The researchers also devised a method of study using numerical minority and numerical majority of an ethnic group within each classroom. In addition, rather than have teachers select students they viewed as victims for the study, the students themselves each nominated 3 students they viewed as victims. This was done in the Fall and approximately 6 months later the researchers applied the theory of self-blame and the victim's placement as either a member of the ethnic majority or minority to evaluate maladjustment.

The most debilitating result of peer victimization is the effects on the victim. This study attempted to use student nomination of the victims, self-reporting of subsequent self-blame and the adjustments problems within ethnically diverse groups to identify potential areas of insight. The study findings concluded that the clearest evidence of links between victim reputation, self-blame and psychological maladjustment were within the majority group members. Minority group members had the weakest evidence for the links.

The researchers concluded that their analysis implied that victims of peer harassment might be more likely to engage in self-blame when their perpetrators are members of their own ethnic group. (Graham, 2009) the implication is that membership of the victim and his/her abuser in the same ethnic group results in greater instances of self-blame.

This article was interesting and the ethnic diversity approach was evidently unique. While the question of ethnicity and numerical majority or minority may give answers to research psychologists, it seems that the most important analysis was related only to members of the numerical majority. The research is probably useful but the fact that the American Medical Association deems peer harassment a public health concern, the study seemed misdirected, particularly since the researchers themselves highlighted the American Medical Association's concern.

With the number of children being excessively victimized by their…… [read more]

Racism a Long History of Racial Preferences Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (652 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0



A Long History of Racial Preferences for Whites by Larry Adelman.

Many middle-class white people prefer to think that it is through hard work, intelligence and luck that have been the reasons they have the life they have today. They find difficulty in acknowledging racial preferences. This author describes some ways in which white people have derived wealth and opportunities at the expense of others.

Affirmative Action began in the late 17th century. The European indentured servants who were brought to U.S. To work on the tobacco plantations in Virginia and Maryland were replaced by African slaves. The whites gained new rights and opportunities as a result. Several Acts allowed the whites to claim and own land that was originally owned by the Indians. One act in 1830- The Indian Removal Act displaced Cherokee and other Indian tribes to the west of the Mississippi to give whites the space and the land. Later in 1862 the Homestead Act gave whites land originally owned by the Indians. Earlier in 1790 the Naturalization Act prevented everyone but free white people to become naturalized- to be able to vote and own property. This restricted all other immigrants, e.g. Asians, from becoming citizens and owning land. This was not reversed until 1952 by the Mc Carran-Walter Act.

In the South the freed slaves were not given the '40 acres and a mule' nor the monetary compensation that they were promised. When slavery ended Black people remained poor while the white slave-owners profited not only in wealth and property but by having the best jobs, schools, and hospitals etc., reserved for them. More recent government preferences continued to direct the wealth to the white people. One example is the Social Security Act of 1935. This Act guaranteed a retirement income but this did not include agricultural and domestic workers most of whom were African-American, Mexican and Asian.

Further, the 1935 Wagner Act allowed unions bargaining power which helped millions of…… [read more]

Color Conscious: The Political Morality of Race Research Paper

Research Paper  |  4 pages (1,260 words)
Bibliography Sources: 2


¶ … Color Conscious: The political Morality of Race" by K. Anthony Appiah and Amy Gutmann

Define the following concepts and show their interrelationship: Social Purposes for a job and qualifications for a job

A candidate possesses the basic qualifications for a job if he or she satisfies the standard educational and experiential requirements to do the job properly. For example, a doctor must have a degree in medicine, and the necessary qualifications and experiences to function as a specialist in a particular position. The social purposes of a job as a doctor, such as promoting health and wellness, and administering medical treatment in the most beneficial way to the sick are less clearly defined but are also essential, although the doctor cannot perform such roles without a medical degree and experience (Gutmann 119). The social purpose might also demand certain other personal attributes of a candidate, like the ability to communicate well to patients and to have a good bedside manner.

II: Using as a case study the hiring decision to retain Williams over Taxman, describe the similarities and differences between a "normal" hiring decision, and a "preferential" hiring decision.

When deciding whom to fire, Williams or Taxman, the teachers' qualifications and seniority would be the first factors taken under consideration. This would be the case under both 'normal' and 'preferential' circumstances. A teacher needs a degree to teach, and tenure is always a factor in teacher hiring and firing. However, in a preferential hiring situation, once the merits of the two candidates were established as relatively equal, the social benefits accrued by considering race and other demographic characteristics of the candidates would also be taken into consideration. These factors would be 'considerations' rather than absolutes. In other words, it would not be a pre-established fact that the African-American woman would be retained, until both candidates' qualifications were reviewed; although the fact Williams was the only African-American on the staff would be given some weight, in contrast to a 'normal' situation. The benefits for society, rather than the benefits of retention specifically for Williams, would be the additional issue considered in a preferential hiring decision.

III: Under the conceptual framework sketched out by Amy Gutmann, the retention of Williams, the only Black instructor in the Dept. Of Business Education, by the Piscataway School Board, might be justified two ways:

a) That, this is a normal hiring decision where her race/ethnicity was a legitimate qualification for the job -- a qualification that Taxman did not have -- given the social purposes for the job at the Department of Business Education at Piscataway High School.

The social mission of a school is to teach students. This at least partially requires teachers to serve as role models for students. Thus Williams possesses an additional social qualification that Taxman does not, particularly due to the lack of representation of Black instructors at the school as a whole. Acting as a role model for students is critical for instructors, and Williams can provide additional… [read more]

Controlling Images Representations of Women Thesis

Thesis  |  7 pages (2,352 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


Controlling Images: Representations of Women

Women have been portrayed in various ways throughout time. How race, class, and gender stereotypes impact the representation of women is a very important consideration, and it has changed over the course of history. One thing has not changed, however, and that is the concern that these generalizations inevitably involve false assumptions that reflect and… [read more]

Racial and Ethnic Groups Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,234 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


It probably does not go on today, but gerrymandering still takes place in the nation when political boundaries change for the benefit of the politicians and the votes they will receive. In that respect, Americans could use affirmative action laws regarding gerrymandering and its affect on the political landscape of the country.

3. Why do you think the borderlands of the U.S.-Mexico border region have been the subject of such close scrutiny, while there is little attention to similar areas along the U.S.-Canada border?

The borderlands between the U.S. And Mexico have been the subject of close scrutiny because they pose much more of a threat to the United States than the borderlands between the U.S. And Canada do. It is not just that the people coming across the border are Mexicans and another race; it is that so many are coming across the border illegally, entering our country illegally, and remaining here illegally. Many people believe that they take jobs away from U.S. citizens, they do not pay taxes, and they make a huge drain on the social services in the country, because they often work at low paying jobs and have to use health, medical, and social services like welfare to survive.

However, many of the Mexicans that come across the border legally are productive citizens who provide goods and services that many residents would never do. They pay taxes, they support their communities, and they and productive citizens. This is not the concern of the Border Patrol and other agencies that patrol the border between the two countries. They scrutinize the border for illegal activities. Many of the illegal aliens come across the border to engage in criminal activities, such as drug trafficking, and they are a danger to society. While there can certainly be criminal activity across the U.S.-Canadian border, it occurs with far less frequency than in does along the Mexican border. Another border concern is that so many Mexican nationals come across the border in states like Texas, with liberal gun laws, and buy weapons for use in criminal activities in Mexico. This is another reason there is closer scrutiny on the Mexican border. More criminal activity takes place there, so it demands closer scrutiny. We simply do not have all these problems with the Canadian border.

There is concern, however, at least in some areas, that the Canadian border does not get enough scrutiny. There are many areas of the border where a person could just walk across unnoticed, and that is a security concern. It would be very simple for a terrorist or criminal to come across the border undetected, and then commit crimes or terrorist activities against the United States. For that reason, there needs to be more scrutiny of the Canadian border, but still, it does not need as much as the Mexican border, because the situation is entirely different.

Of course, there are some that would say we monitor the borders differently because one country is made up of… [read more]

Latinos and Whiteness Thesis

Thesis  |  6 pages (2,036 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Latinos and Whiteness

Whiteness is a concept that is thought to consist of a body of knowledge, ideologies, norms, and particular practices that have been developed throughout the history of the American colonies and the U.S.(Helfand, 2009). Even before Latinos managed to achieve any legal protection for discrimination, many courts considered them white. As a result of this, during the… [read more]

Does Racism Still Exist? Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  1 pages (328 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Racism in Today's Society

Some people claim that racism is no longer a problem in the United States, citing the election of an African-American president and growing numbers of affluent and powerful minority individuals. Larger social issues such as homelessness, unemployment, and poverty all clearly show a racial division in this country, however, and show that racism is still an institutional and personal problem in this country (Marshall 2009).

There are other more specific instances of racism beyond the large demographic evidence. Racial profiling is still routinely practiced openly by many law enforcement agencies and officers, and by even more on an implicit level (Shah 2004). There are some who argue that, though counter-productive to modern society, racism is a natural outgrowth fo the human need for collectivism, which causes individuals to group together and generally includes exclusionary rules that are used to strengthen the group (Rand 1963). This was certainly the root of racism here, where various ethnicities and immigrant groups were used…… [read more]

Dreams: Racism of Another Color Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (916 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Dreams: Racism of Another Color

Much of the debate concerning race in this country and indeed around the world has for centuries consisted of listing and extrapolating on the perceived differences from one race to another. Different theorists, politicians, scientists, and social philosophers, great thinkers and small minds alike, have pointed to various perceived differences between races as reasons that they reasonably could or should be separated, treated differently, or even simply understood differently. The differences between races perceived and asserted by these individuals have ranged from those that have a biological or genetic basis, which have been proven largely if not entirely unfounded by today's researchers, to social and cultural differences that certainly exist, though they cannot be said to have a racial basis. In short, many people -- perhaps nearly everyone -- have insisted on real and persistent differences in racial identity and/or worldview that affect the interrelationships among races in a diverse society.

This background is what makes the fourth chapter of Barak Obama's autobiography Dreams from My Father: A story of Race and Inheritance both so compelling and so ironic. In this chapter, Obama reflects on his adolescent years, growing up as one of the very few black students at his Hawaiian high school wile living with his white grandparents. His observations of the behaviors exhibited by the other black men around him, particularly his friend Ray, made a strong impression on the now-President during is time as a teenager, and caused him to examine the nature of the racial divide not only as it applied to his own identity but also in its relationship to the general power structure in American society. The main thrust of this chapter however, is not concerned with the differences between black and white, but the similar racist attitudes that existed amongst both groups.

Obama is certainly not the first person, or even the first African-American, to suggest that the African-American community in general holds many racist beliefs and attitudes toward white and people of other ethnic backgrounds and skin colors. But the personal telling of this realization on his part as well as the conclusions he seems to draw from this rather starling epiphany -- not to mention his current status as one of the most powerful men in the world -- makes his comments at once more controversial and more profound. There is an immediate sense of irony in the chapter, as Obama remembers a comment of Ray's concerning girls at their high school: "These girls are a-1, USDA-certified racists. All of 'em. White girls. Asian girls -- shoot, these Asians worse than the whites" (Obama 73). Ray's inability to see the inherent racism in his classification and gradation of women based on their…… [read more]

Racism in Australia: Past, Present, and Future Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,635 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Racism in Australia: Past, Present, And Future

According to the group Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation, residents of Townsville, Australia are so filled with racism that they claim they would even be unable to give racist defendants a fair trial. The group states that a recent survey found residents of the area would allow their racist biases to affect… [read more]

Sociology in Indigenous Populations Essay

Essay  |  6 pages (1,953 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


While Australia passed a referendum in 1967 that removed discriminatory clauses against Aborigines in the Australian Constitution, it took longer for the rights to actually take effect, and even longer for them to gain back lands that were stripped from them during colonial rule.

Studies show that modern Indigenous people still routinely suffer from racism and prejudice, and it affects their lives in a number of ways. The group of writers continue, "Also, a preliminary report of a 2003 research project conducted in an isolated Western Australian rural town showed that 35 per cent of Aboriginal respondents said they were both emotionally upset and experienced physical stress due to an experience of 'being treated differently on the basis of race'" (Carson, et al. 2007). In addition, racism plays a part in the success and education of many Indigenous people, because they tend to live in poorer areas of the country, where educational and career opportunities are limited. Even the Australian government notes this at their Web site on Indigenous people. They note, "They [Indigenous people] experienced lower incomes than the non-Indigenous population, higher rates of unemployment, poorer educational outcomes and lower rates of home ownership - all of which can impact upon a person's health and well-being" (Author not Available 2006). This is a societal problem affecting nearly all of Australia, and even the government acknowledges something must be done to address it.

In conclusion, racism and ethnicity issues form the basis of the Indigenous peoples experience in Australia. They have been persecuted by whites for centuries, and they have only recently received an apology for that persecution. While things are a bit better in the country today, Indigenous people still suffer more from a variety of societal issues, from healthcare to living conditions, and at the heart of this suffering is long held racism and societal persecution. In addition, their ethnic history has suffered under the same persecution, and it is only in recent decades that a renewed interest in Aboriginal culture has given them some pride and honor in their ethnicity. These terms apply to Indigenous Australians because they have been living with them and their consequences since the British first arrived, and it is about time that persecution, racism, and ethnic struggles stop for the Aborigines.


Adams, M. (2006). Raising the profile of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men's health: An Indigenous man's perspective. Australian Aboriginal Studies, 2006(2), 68+.

Author not Available. (2006). Indigenous Australians. [Online] Available at: http://www.aihw.gov.au/indigenous/index.cfm.

Clarke, F.G. (2002). The history of Australia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Editors. (2008). Australian Indigenous cultural heritage. [Online]. Available at: http://www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au/articles/indigenous / [Accessed 17 June 2009].

O'Donoghue, L. (1999). Towards a culture of improving indigenous health in Australia. Australian…… [read more]

Racism in the United States: Racism Continues Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (847 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Racism in the United States:

Racism continues to be a powerful social issue throughout contemporary American society. In the United States, the two principal original sources of racism were (1) the typical atavistic xenophobia that generally exists within every human society where a dominant social culture confronts increasing foreign immigration; and (2) the lasting legacy of the shameful era of American Slavery that existed from the early 17th century in the original Colonies until the Emancipation Proclamation in the aftermath of the Civil War. Slavery in particular shaped much of modern American society, at least from the perspective of African-Americans generations in between their formal emancipation in 1865 and the adoption of meaningful civil rights reforms a century or more later. Others might argue that religious orientation also provided another significant source of racist sentiments in the U.S.

In some respects, African-Americans may have had less success as a group overcoming the consequences of racism. This might naturally be attributable to the degree to which racism that originated in the pre-Civil War era still presents institutionalized racism faced by contemporary African-Americans. Shelby Steele offers a completely different analysis and suggests that the issue of racism has evolved into a form of self-sabotage among African-Americans, such as in the form of black-on-black crime and negative role models within urban communities, for example. To Steele, there is no connection between the high comparative drop-out rates among African-American college students and any type of racism on the part of any other racial group.

According to Steele, charges of racism have been used as excuses by many in the African-American community, as well as to give credence to complaints that, in reality, are not functions of racism. In addition to diluting the impact of legitimate complaints about racism, Steele believes that many African-Americans are more psychologically dependent on the impact of racism on their lives that,

"To admit this fully would cause us to lose the innocence we derive from our victimiza-tion. And we would jeopardize the entitlement we've always had to chal-lenge society. We are in the odd and self-defeating position in which taking responsibility for bettering ourselves feels like a surrender to white power."

(Steele, p538). "...we see racism everywhere and miss opportunity even as we stumble over it. About 70% of black students at my university drop out before graduation -- a flight from opportunity that racism cannot explain."

(Steele, p539).

Understanding Cultural Dynamics:

Fredrickson suggests that the coexistence of multiple-race cultural communities generally takes on one of four characteristic models:

"Four basic conceptions…… [read more]

Crash Movie Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,616 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Crash Movie

Crash -- a crash case in cinematic racism?

The 2005 Academy Award-winning movie Crash was widely praised for its groundbreaking condemnation of American urban racism. The film portrays a series of interracial conflicts and interactions, some of which are literal car crashes (a frequent occurrence in urban Los Angeles where the film is set) the other of which… [read more]

Race and Ethnicity There Is No Doubt Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (785 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 2


Race and Ethnicity

There is no doubt that issues of race and ethnicity have had a tremendous impact on American history and have helped shape the face of American society. In fact, the impact of race on society is so tremendous that it has literally been the source of more than one war, and has, at times, brought the country so much turmoil that another civil war seemed likely. Even today, various segments of society continue to address the impact that race has had on American society, whether those people are white supremacists advocating violence against minorities or minority groups stressing the continuing inequality in American society. However, for anyone to believe that this American perspective on race, which places whites in a superior position over non-whites, is unique, is for that person to believe that the United States is the only place where Europeans were able to establish successful colonies that exploited native workers and/or required the import of slave labor in order to prove financially successful. That is not the case. Therefore, there is no unique American attitude towards race; the same racial superiority and horrible consequences of those attitudes show up repeatedly whenever one looks at a former colony.

As Jordan makes clear, the American attitudes about race have a lengthy history. These attitudes developed as English contact with Africans increased. In fact, while the English initially recognized Africans as different and emphasized the role that color played in that difference, they did not initially establish themselves as superior to the Africans (Jordan, p.4-6). However, they came to this introduction with pre-conceived notions about the idea of the color black itself, having associated it with both filth and evil (Jordan, p.6). Later, the color came to be associated with God's curse and linked to slavery (Jordan, p.9). In fact, although Europeans had enslaved sub-Saharan Africans for a long time, pervasive racial attitudes only really began to play a large role in society when the slave trade began to thrive. Coming to America, Englishmen encountered a level of personal freedom that they had not previously known, but they were also confronted with the realities of an untamed wilderness, which caused them to cling to English social norms (Jordan, p. 28). While land was plentiful in America, labor was not, and the first settlers brought indentured servants over to work for…… [read more]

Comparison Between South Africa and the United States Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,852 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


African Studies

Racial Policy:

The United States and South Africa

There are many points of comparison between the United States of America and the Republic of South Africa. Both countries were settled by European colonists who established control over a native population. Both nations today contain a large Black population. In the case of the United States, it was the… [read more]

Race &amp Community Race Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,272 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Race & Community

Race and Community

One of the reasons that I chose to live in my suburban neighborhood was because my neighborhood includes people of all races. I am fortunate to live in a relatively affluent area, and many of the upper-middle class neighborhoods surrounding ours seem to contain clusters of racial and ethnic groupings. I wanted to avoid living in such a cluster, because I wanted my children exposed to people of all cultures; I believe that segregation, whether de jure or de facto, is harmful to the souls of all people involved, and I simply would not have chosen to live in a neighborhood that was not race-inclusive. Therefore, I cannot look at the physical appearance of my neighbors and say that people resemble me, but I also cannot look at them and say that they do not resemble me. My neighbors come in every shade of the rainbow and from every ethnic background. However, there are overt physical similarities, which suggest that a certain amount of assimilation is important. People dress in similar clothes, and, despite the fact that there are many ethnic groups represented, no one in my neighborhood wears ethnically identifiable clothing on a regular basis. My local government is also relatively diverse; it is populated by people from various ethnic groups. However, the local government is disproportionately populated by whites. Depending on the service group, they appear racially homogenous as well; for example, two local service groups of mothers, MOPS and MOMS, are composed entirely of white women, which does not reflect the racial makeup of the population. This racial isolationism is reflected in most of the "mainstream" service groups, and smaller service groups; many of them even specify an ethnicity in their titles. However, when viewed as a whole, it is fair to say that every ethnic group is represented in service groups that help my community.

The leaders in my community appear to show the same benign indifference to members of all racial groups. However, they seem to fall prey to the same racial stereotypes that plague people everywhere. Blacks and Hispanics are arrested at rates that are disproportionate to their actual rates in society. Furthermore, while high prestige positions may be ethnically diverse, mid-level positions tend to be filled mostly with white people, while minorities seem to fill most of the lower-level positions. For example, when looking at the schools in my community, many of the administrators are from minority groups, but the teachers are disproportionately white, and the support staff, like janitors and lunch ladies, tends to be either black or Hispanic. Therefore, it appears that there is some type of discrimination. However, it really is difficult to tell how much of that discrimination is unintentional. There is no question that minorities have traditionally had poorer access to educational resources, which makes them less competitive for higher-paid, higher-prestige jobs. Furthermore, my community is largely composed of people who have moved to the area; it's an area that has experienced… [read more]

Leisure Preferences the Hypothesis of the Study Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (313 words)
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Leisure Preferences

The hypothesis of the study revolves around the extent to which leisure preferences are connected with a person's personality, affective style, and motivational orientation. Specifically, the research question asks to what extent leisure preferences are connected to the internal characteristics of an individual, and also how these are affected by gender and ethnicity.

II the population consisted of eight groups of male and female college students, including African-American, Asian-American, European-American, and Hispanic-American students.

III the sample was selected by giving undergraduate students from three Midwestern universities the opportunity to volunteer for participation, with the incentive of extra credit. The sample size came to 999 students, who were representative of lower- and upper-division classes, with some involved in leisure studies, with others studying general education courses. Of the total sample, 57% were male, 43% female, 27% African-American, 10% Asian-American, 54% European-American, and 9% Hispanic-American.

IV Data were collected via questionnaire instruments provided to participants in…… [read more]

Race Critical Theories Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,043 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


Race Critical Theories

Book Response: Chapters 1-7

Buck, Pem Davidson. Worked to the Bone: Race, Class, Power, & Privilege in Kentucky.

New York: Monthly Review Press, 2001.

Worked to the Bone by Pem Davidson Buck is subtitled Race, Class, Power, & Privilege in Kentucky and this neatly sums up the focus of her work. Buck, by training an anthropologist, embarks upon a critical examination of the construction of social and economic privilege in Kentucky in racial terms. Buck resides and works in the two counties she studies, thus she provides a personal and intimate as well as a scholarly overview of what she calls the false lie of 'trickle up' economics in the region. Instead, Kentucky is a world where the rich get richer and the poor get poorer as the elite work the poor to the bone, poor blacks and poor whites alike.

For Buck, the exploitation of poor whites is inexorably tied to the racial oppression of blacks that has long characterized the Southern states. But for Buck, race is clearly a social construction, not a pre-existing fact. The construction of race is based upon the class system of the South, and blackness and whiteness was created to justify both slavery and the oppression of poor whites. Buck is white, and moved back to Kentucky to 'live off of the land' but she admits that even though she and her husband struggled, she still was insulated with benefits of being middle rather than working class, as well as enjoyed the cultural benefits of white privilege (1). This also underscores how even people like Buck who reject racial oppression still benefit from their class and the fact they are physically 'read' as white, although race is a social construction.

Buck writes that she penned her work not to encourage a fixation on the past, but to shape the present and the future in a more positive fashion. She wishes to create greater unity between the poor peoples of Kentucky, black and white, in a state where even the official song "My Old Kentucky Home," still celebrates slavery (11). Although in Kentucky the privileged classes are white, not all whites are privileged. This is what is particularly noxious about how white class privilege is constructed. When the South was settled in the 1600s, the poorest white colonists were persuaded by the elites that it was also in their interests to create a system of slavery defining blacks as inferior. Rebellions like Bacon's Rebellion in the 1670s were put down through a false system of granting minor privileges to the poor because of their whiteness, like the ownership of small plots of land and greater access to voting rights.

Because blacks were so oppressed white upon white class oppression seemed as bad, relatively speaking, because at least poor whites had the benefits of whiteness, and more rights than slaves. This system of racial injustice created a state of false consciousness amongst poor, free whites, as poor whites identified with aristocratic individuals… [read more]

Bell Hooks Omi and Winant Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,277 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Bell Hooks

The scholar bell hooks Killing Rage: Ending Racism begins with the shocking defense of a severely psychologically disturbed black man who unleashed a killing spree on the New York subway. While by no means defending murder, hooks engages in a kind of tacit endorsement of the man's motivation, or his sophisticated understanding that both blacks and whites can perpetuate institutionalized racism, by supporting institutions that foster racist attitudes. America is a nation founded upon a racial divide between blacks and whites, founded upon the economic, political, and social legacy of slavery. The notion of institutionalized, rather than personalized racism demarcated by hooks stresses that although the effects of institutionalized racism may disproportionately affect blacks, both black and white 'bodies' can and do enforce the prejudices and stereotypes.

A bell hook's own ideology, thus although it is 'about' race is not a 'racist' ideology, in that she agrees with the fact that racism can be perpetuated by individuals of all colors of skin. This is not to equate anti-white attitudes with anti-black attitudes, because of the historical and intellectual legacy that makes violence against blacks far easier and socially damaging, merely that she acknowledges that racism is an ideology tied to a society, it is not something that people simply 'feel' and can be healed on an individual level.

This affirms what Michael Omi and Howard Winant speak of in their book Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1980s. They call the process of constructing racial ideology a historical and ideological process, with no real basis in biological fact. If race seems self-evident, it is because it has become such a part of our cultural worldview, that we take it for granted and do not see it clearly. Even the Founding Fathers like Jefferson used scientific racism to justify class division and oppression (Omni & Winant 63).

While reporting on the subway incident, hooks argues, the greater violence that had been perpetuated upon black bodies through institutionalized racism was erased in the media coverage. Instead, the man's action was racialized with what Toni Morrison calls 'race talk,' a reductionist tendency to see all black actions as motivated by race alone, not by class, gender, nationality or even personal angst (hooks 23). In striking contrast, a Klansman's deathbed revelation about how he drowned a black man, one of countless such incidents that occurred up until the 1960s, went unreported (hooks 22). The juxtaposition is striking.

Additionally, the fact that the man on the subway was not an African-American, but a Jamaican-American from a well-to-do family is also ignored. This reinforces what Winant and Omni speak of in their text when they note who it is the United States' unique history with black Americans that has effectively created blackness. Before the institution of slavery, there were no blacks rather there were merely individuals from different areas in Africa. But to explain and morally justify the existence of slavery, America created a color divide (Omni… [read more]

Racism an Examination of Riverside, California Term Paper

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An Examination of Riverside, California and its Treatment of Various Cultures and Races

While I live in California, which is known throughout the nation for its progressive, innovative attitudes, the fact remains that racism still exists, even in the golden state.

A grew up in Riverside, California in a family of five. I have two brothers, a mother and a father. My parents were both teachers and it was important to them that we grow up in a diversified environment. When I was a small child I remember my mother trying to explain racism to us. Our family is white and my best friend was black. I remember another child refusing to play with me because my best friend was black. I went home in tears and asked my mother why it had happened. She said it was ignorance and eventually if we all worked together we would be able to rid the world of racism.

In our family we were taught to judge people based on their character, morals and strengths, and not notice their color, religion or culture other than to embrace the learning experience that it would provide for us, however, in my community others did not always feel the way we did about it.

In our community we have an almost equal division between whites and Hispanics with about eight percent of the remaining residents being African-American (http://www.helloriverside.com/Census.Cfm).

The members of the community who look like me are not all of the same culture. Many people who initially appear to be white are actually of Middle Eastern or Eastern European descent. About 38% of the city's population is Hispanic and they look different than I do in that they are primarily darker skinned with dark hair and dark eyes.

The leaders within the Riverside community are also mixed when it comes to race, culture and other aspects of life. The leaders of the community of Riverside for the most part treat Whites, Hispanics and African-Americans about the same, though I will say that it has been my observation that African-Americans do not get quite the same amount of respect as the Hispanics and the Whites received. As I got older I realized that part of this has to do with the very demographic make up of the city and where most of the voters are. Along the way the city endured some issues of racism in the police department (http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1355/is_25_95/ai_54757750).

It was evident to many who lived in Riverside that the African-American status of a resident often garnered an attitude of disrespect from many city leaders, whereas Whites were treated well and Hispanics were treated almost as well as Whites.

When it comes to how residents of the community treat each other I have mixed feelings. While I would like to report that everyone treats everyone else equally it is not always the case. In some cases, such as the group I grew up in and socialize with currently. In my immediate family and friend… [read more]

Problem of Environmental Racism Term Paper

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Environmental Racism

Unequal Distribution of Pollution

The Environmental Justice Movement believes that minorities living in poor neighborhoods are exposed more frequently to environmental toxins. Because minorities are basically marginalized people in our society, nobody notices or cares. The Environmental Justice Movement tries to go beyond traditional concerns about cleaning up the environment and to include addressing social inequality. Many of the people involved are women, working-class people, and people of color who have never been activists before, but they are concerned about their children's health (Warriner, McSpurren & Nabalamba, 2001). If it is true that minorities are at greater risk from hazardous substances (and the 1987 report of the United Church of Christ commission for Racial Justice clearly stated in their analysis that it is true), the question to be answered is, "How do pollutants get distributed so unequally and what can be done about the problem?" In this essay, I will attempt to address these question by discussing explanations for distribution inequity and suggesting how more justice could come about.

Although some writers such as David Friedman (1998) claim that no such hazard exists and that businesses are being unduly oppressed by prohibitions against development for "unreasonable environmental reasons"(p. 75), in general, there is not much disagreement that minorities and poor people are disproportionately affected by poor environmental quality. Studies show that when poor people bring lawsuits, they collect fewer damages and smaller settlements than people who live in richer neighborhoods. It takes longer to clean up a contaminated site in a poor neighborhood than it does in a wealthier community. Poor people die more frequently from pollution-connected diseases, and a higher percentage of minority children have elevated levels of lead in their bloodstreams (Warriner, McSpurren, & Nabalamba, 2001). How does it happen?

One explanation is that industry wants to spend as little money as possible, and land in poorer areas is cheaper. Industry selects a site on the basis of where they can make the most profit. Industrial areas with low property values are likely to be near areas where residential property values are also low. Thus, industrial pollution becomes concentrated near low-income populations. A study in Michigan, for example, revealed industrial and waste disposal facilities, contaminated sites and leaking underground storage tanks were 30% more likely in Wayne County, which includes Detroit, where the population is low-income, black, and urban (Warriner, McSpurren, & Nabalamba, 2001).

Another explanation is that low-income people and minorities lack political clout. They are not generally well-organized for social action in their neighborhoods. When the government and industry leaders make decisions that affect the environment, they don't consider what objections could come up because usually there aren't any. Perhaps these officials have no intention of polluting low-income neighborhoods (as opposed to polluting affluent neighborhoods), but their policies of risk management may be flawed so that minorities are disproportionately impacted. Groups that do organize to resist industrial polluters are generally plagued by lack of funding, while the industries they want to fight have enormous… [read more]

Race What Is the Difference Term Paper

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What is the difference between a biological and social view of race?

The biological view of race suggests that the human race is genetically subdivided into categories known as races, all with distinctly different characteristics. The argument in favor of the biological view is rooted in physical appearance, the predisposition of certain diseases and physical qualities amongst certain groups of human beings, and genetic patterns amongst certain groups of human beings not present in other groups of human beings. The social view of race states that race is based upon culture, not upon real, significant genetic differences. In fact, no one, single characteristic, trait or gene distinguishes any human so-called race from another race. There is greater genetic variety between individuals within so-called racial populations than between different categories of human beings.

Different statuses for what constitutes a race have existed throughout human history, as once an ethnic group like the Irish was called a race in the past. Ancient societies divided humanity according to religion, class, language, and status, and subjugation and slavery were based upon military conquests, not a sense of racial superiority. The only reason that race exists is that we as a culture have been taught to notice race, and classify people according to their supposed racial status. Human beings have not been isolated into specific groups for long enough to establish 'pure' races and every person on some level is mixed race, if they go far back enough in their history.

Genes for physical racial differences are actually isolated from one another within every person's DNA, like skin color and hair typed. Race is not even always visible to the eye, although human society has attempted to legislate it into existence, as once upon a time in America, anyone with African-American blood was considered Black, even if they had…… [read more]

Autobiographical Influence of Race in My Community Term Paper

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Race in Lawton, Oklahoma

The Influence of Race in Lawton, Oklahoma: Introduction

The city of Lawton, in Oklahoma, is an amazingly diverse place to live. There is a great variety of people that represent the greater diversity in the United States as a country. As such, I like to think of the city as a prototype representing the way in… [read more]

Effects of the Expansion of Race and Ethnicity on United States Society Term Paper

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¶ … Race and Ethnicity Upon American Society

The impact of race and ethnicity upon American society is a much-debated topic. The one fact that cannot be denied is that the rapidly increasing minority populations will have a cumulative effect in changing the broad demographic patterns manifest in the United States today. Projecting to the year 2015, the United States Census Bureau suggests that America will still remain predominantly 'white' but that other groups will continue to "increase disproportionately," creating a more diverse and multiethnic and racial 'face' of the 'typical' American. (O'Neil, 2006)

The greater influx of Asian and particularly Latino immigrants means that even traditional conceptions of understanding racial conflicts must come into question. "Perhaps the most dramatic result of these changing population trends during the last few years has been that African-Americans were replaced by Hispanics as the largest minority group. This change is a result of large numbers of immigrants entering the country from Latin America and high birth rates among Hispanics." (O'Neil, 2006) America is not simply more populated by non-whites; it is also growing more diverse in its nonwhite populations.

The growing statistical prominence of American minority group is not always reflected in greater political or economic power for historically disenfranchised groups. True, African-Americans, for example, have rose to prominence in the persons of the Secretary of State and amongst leading presidential candidates. But of the 1.7 million people living below the poverty line in 2002, according to one report by the Children's Defense Fund, the percentage of poor Black Americans rose from 22.7% to 24.1% in one year, and of the 400,000 children who crossed the line into poverty in the year 2000, more than half were Latino. (Darden, 2003) The contributions of minorities to creating a more rich and multifaceted cultural fabric, evidenced in everything from salsa music to jazz to the proliferation of Thai take-out in the Midwest is testimony to the lasting and continuing positive impact of immigrant groups upon American life, but America has not always rewarded minority groups with equal access to civil rights, housing, education, and other critical aspects of life necessary to secure the American dream.

Indeed, Affirmative Action…… [read more]

Sexism and Racism Term Paper

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Sexism and Racism

Problems in Comparing Racism and Sexism

In my response to the essay by Mr. Laurence Thomas ("Sexism and Racism: Some Conceptual Differences") I will first say that while "sexism" and "racism" are each serious social issues, his is an entirely impractical argument, an exercise in rhetoric and semantics. I say that not just because there is no "right" and no "wrong" way of comparing the two forms of antisocial, ugly behavior, but because all that can be accomplished in an essay like his is the polishing of one's skills in persuasive writing. Because it is all based on subjective analysis. Secondly, in my essay, I will point to the numerous flaws in the specific points he tries to make. In many instances his arguments are based on his own archaic views of the man-woman issue; he takes the position of a chauvinist which is flawed to begin with. In other cases, he makes comparisons between sexism and racism that are based on vague assumptions and out-of-date stereotypes. Of course, his essay was written twenty-six years ago and in that time the world has changed drastically, and people's attitudes have changed too, so one has to take that into consideration.

Let me begin by questioning the limits of his racism scenario; he uses the prejudice a Caucasian person may feel towards an African-American, and by doing so he is relating to a tiny drop of water when the real problem in America is like Niagara Falls. He fails to touch on the real social problem that is alive and well in America, which culturally-based bias and bigotry. There is, after all, a mistaken view among many Americans that Asians, Native Americans, African-Americans, Latinos and "whites" (Caucasians) make up biological entities called "races." But any beginning anthropology student will explain that "race" is really just a word, a way to identify people. What we should be talking about is cultures and cultural bias, which is prejudice based on the hatred for or fear of another culture.

It is really based in many instances on ignorance, but it isn't just "racism" it is cultural bias based on certain values that are different between the two cultures, or based strictly on environmental factors (if a person is raised by parents who dislike Catholics, that person is likely to be negative and biased against Roman Catholics, for example). So "racist" is too narrow and hurts Thomas' argument.

He fails also to mention this point, and it would have helped his argument to point out that there are "racist" things said about illegal immigrants coming across the border into the United States; saying that they are "wetbacks" is almost as serious as using the "N" word about blacks. Racism is not limited to blacks and whites, is my point.

And how does any of this cultural bias match up to a man's feelings toward a woman, whether or not he feels superior to a woman or whether he feels all women should stay… [read more]

Theories of Social Justice Term Paper

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¶ … Justice in Social Work


The objective of this work is to discuss Liberal Individualism, Market Individualism and the theory of Social Democracy and drawing from the Afrocentric paradigm, personal own experience, or other readings to discuss possible alternative views of justice not captured by the three theoretical frameworks of any of the… [read more]

Adoption Is a Social Phenomenon Term Paper

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Another investigation, which studies African-American and Latino adopted children, reveals that 'those who identified strongly with white culture fared no worse than those who identified with their birth culture' (Bashir 3). This finding resonates with another study, whose results state 'almost without exception ... [there is] no significant difference in overall well-being between inracially and transracially adopted children' (Courtney 1).

This leads to another reason to endorse interracial adoption, albeit it somewhat removed from the concrete needs of individual children. In the United States, there is much talk about the negative affects of racism. To overcome this debilitating phenomenon, many promote multi-cultural awareness and acceptance. In fact, this is evident in nearly all aspects of society. Educators increasingly teach multicultural curricula. Companies claim to be equal opportunity employers. Non-profit organizations strive to bridge diverse communities and individuals. Such efforts and goals are noble and many times produce the intended effects. If there exists a general and pervasive desire for multicultural harmony, then it logically follows that adoption should reflect these societal principles. This statement means that a sincere movement towards societal racial integration correspondingly signals racially diverse adoptive families.

Through meaningful exchange between races and cultures, humans are better able to understand and accept the differences among them. Moreover, profound interracial experiences allow diverse individuals to recognize commonalities that exist among all human beings. Many in the United States acknowledge such wisdom and attempt to embody it. As a result, the racial climate in this country is gradually evolving. However, until the United States becomes a racially peaceful society, cross-racial adoptive families, most of which are productive and positive, serve as brilliant examples that such social goals are indeed realistic and worthy. In fact, 'some people see transracial adoption as a harbinger of hope: if the different races can live together and love each other as members of the same family, surely there must be hope for the relationship between the races in the larger society' (Perry 1). Although not an immediate goal, positive societal influence is nonetheless inherent in interracial adoption practices.

In conclusion, there are numerous reasons to promote cross-racial adoption. The most obvious and important is the urgent needs and human rights of abandoned children. Minority children are at greater risk of remaining in foster care (DellaCava 4) than their white counterparts. In order to eliminate this injustice, social service professionals should promote interracial adoption. The notion that interracial adoption equates to cultural genocide is absurd as it completely ignores children's rights to loving and stable relationships. What's more, through family support and encouragement, minority children may still develop their racial identities. In a more abstract but nonetheless important sense, interracial adoptive families model the purported American ideal of racial harmony; they serve as reference points for others who wish to personify this value. By witnessing functioning interracial intimate relationships and familial units, American society at large is better able to realize that cross-cultural understanding and tolerance is possible and probable. Furthermore, since many adoption agencies are… [read more]

Liberal Racism Racial Division Term Paper

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The author rightly condemns Hacker's attempts to see things from one narrow perspective. And even though at times, you might find him being very harsh towards Hacker's Two Nations, the truth of the matter is that everyone, white or black, understands that when a white person goes on to speak in favor of blacks, there is usually a hidden agenda. And when there is none, there is simply an overzealousness to patronize blacks which results in lop-sided vision and complete absence of objectivity. Hacker also exonerates blacks of all responsibility towards improving themselves. He treats them as non-thinking machines who cannot improve their lot unless whites change their attitude. This in turn constitutes another kind of racism where you try to reduce a human being to the status of a brainless rat who relies on the mercy of white people.


1. What is Andrew Hacker's explanation for lower number of blacks in dentistry?

2. What does Hacker think is the reason behind poor performance of black kids on standardized tests?

3. Why do whites need to reform themselves?

4. What is the crux his argument and where does Hacker falters the most.

The answer to the last question is that Hacker is trying to clear black so all wrongdoings on the grounds of racism. This is an abolsutely wrong approach where on the one hand you let go of all moral and ethical codes just to patronize one section of the society and on the other you are engaging in racism of another kind. Hacker wants his readers to believe that black are so helpless that they cannot do anything to improve their situation less whites change their mindset. Do we need to remind him of people like Oprah, Bill Cosby, Toni Morrison and many others who have gone on to carve a name for themselves even though…… [read more]

Minority Women and Employment Term Paper

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Minority Women and Employment

Although the media has come a long way during the past few decades, there is still inequity among television programming and ethnic stereotyping within the media in general, and many feel that ethnic women, in particular, are feeling the effects as it concerns employment and other opportunities.

According to former Discovery Networks President Johnathan Rodgers, there… [read more]

Race in Your Community My Hometown, Yonkers Term Paper

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¶ … Race in Your Community

My hometown, Yonkers, New York, is one of the more ethnically diverse areas of the country, however, it is as fairly represented in as the population and community allows.

Yonkers, New York has a population of around 200,000, and is home to Yonkers Raceway. Several celebrities grew up here, such as Sid Caesar, James… [read more]

Racial Dynamics and Change in Educational Organization Term Paper

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Racial Dynamics and Change in Educational Organization

Racial dynamics in My Educational Organization

Racial discrimination exists in almost every sphere of a colored individual. Even the educational institutions are not aloof of this. We grow up, learn, work and teach in an environment where this one aspect or fact, race, has a clear existence and it shows itself in ways that are not very commendable for the colored race.

It is surprising how we actually question the fact of the existence of race in an educated society. Just because a clown doesn't usually acquire the same appearance every night at the circus show doesn't mean that the clown or his performance does not exist!

It will be amazing to actually notice that the web of racial discrimination is more intricate at the educational institutions as opposed to any other sphere where two communities interact.

The ones that suffer form racial discrimination are usually the ones that are surviving in extremely poverty-stricken areas under really financially and socially instable environments. Most of these are even deprived of thriving in a good institution where they can learn and know all that is out there. Most of them can't even think about pursuing anything further then basic studies in a good institution. This is common in almost every other place as Jeannie Oakes, Amy Stuart Wells, Susan Yonezawa and Karen Ray write, "Currently, educators are under enormous pressure to make systematic reforms and restructure schools so that all the students will reach high academic standards."

The current policy of education does not say much about these unfortunate students. They tend to concentrate on those that actually do make it to good institutions and then feel the bite of racism. It seems that these are the ones that face much of the storm head on.

From my own environment, I can distinguish the first thing that is an outright practice: segregation. Immediately, one is reminded of the fact that one is different; that one is not quite the same. There are groups that look down on you, if they look at you at all.

And yet there are some groups that have no concept of race, color and culture in their minds i.e. there are those groups of students that don't honestly care if you're black or Jew, they treat you like just another person from the human race.

The peers aren't the only ones that practice some form of racial actions. The educators have a low potential status set in their heads for all those that are either African-Americans, Latino students or even Jews. Irrespective of whatever ability that can be analyzed of the students from the previous records and credentials, the educators usually rate them below average for which they have to suffer throughout their academic careers and after.

Jeannie Oakes, Amy Stuart Wells, Susan Yonezawa and Karen Ray too express this by…… [read more]

Race Crime and the Law Term Paper

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Race, Crime, And the Law by Randall Kennedy

In Race, Crime, and the Law, Harvard law professor Randall Kennedy takes an in depth look at how issues of race link with crime and law enforcement. Kennedy investigates the system from the viewpoint that race is a significant issue in criminal justice, but also an overlooked one. Kennedy then delves into… [read more]

Race the First Three Sources Term Paper

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Fish does not believe that this is a valid claim. He gives an example of 1950s southern segregated life, where often times black people thought poorly of the white people and vice versa. However, a distinction is clear between the "hate" the white people feel towards the black, based on ideologies, versus the "hate" the black people feel towards the white, which is based on the experiences they've actually had of white people being hostile and often violent. Because of the social injustices that blacks have experienced, however, this is not reverse racism, it is a move towards equality in a society where blacks and other minorities are still at an unfair disadvantage in life.

Applebome, Peter. "English Unique to Blacks in Officially Recognized." New York Times. 2 December 1996. http://www.nytimes.com/library/national/1220ca-black-english.html

Applebome's article is about the decision by a California school board to recognize Ebonics, or a distinct language spoken by American blacks, as the native language of many of the district's students. This was the first school board to make this decision. The school board hoped that students would receive better instruction in standard English and other subjects if the teachers understood they were teaching students who spoke a separate language. Critics accused the school district of making this move in order to get funding only available to bilingual schools, and some say that recognizing Ebonics will simply reinforce poor grammar. Linguists argue, however, that it is in fact a distinct dialect, and that many of the elements of Ebonics are reflections of African language structure.

Times Wire Reports. "Activists March, Seek Leads in 1946 Lynching." Los Angeles Times. 3 April 2005.

In recent news, people in Georgia remembered four black people who were victims of hate crimes in the 1940s. In 1946, a white hate mob attacked two men and two women in their car, then dragged them into the woods and shot them. This activist group that marched is trying to both raise awareness of hate crimes today, as well as encouraging anyone with information about this lynching many decades ago to come forward so that the killers can be prosecuted.… [read more]

Cultural Diversity as an African-American Female Growing Term Paper

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Cultural Diversity

As an African-American female growing up in Meadowbrook in Chesterfield County, Virginia, people from outside of Virginia sometimes assume that I experienced discomfort as part of a minority group. While I cannot deny that there have been certain experiences when I felt as if I was being treated in a discriminatory manner, for the most part I have… [read more]

Cultural Diversity as it Relates to African Americans Term Paper

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Race and Oppression

African-Americans have a long and very painful history of oppression and discrimination in the U.S. First it was slavery that oppressed them and kept them in a position of subordination and extreme poverty. Once slavery was abolished, race relations took on another turn as racial discrimination was used as a tool of oppression. Blacks who should have… [read more]

Affirmative Action - Should Race Term Paper

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Whether or not affirmative action programs should remain a factor in college admissions remains unclear. Those in favor of affirmative action point out that minorities are terribly underrepresented in many of the nation's top level universities, and that action must be taken to correct this under presentations. Supporters also point out that favoritism is showed many different types of… [read more]

Race in Social Services Term Paper

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Of course, like most other organizations in the United States today, CII, too, has to necessarily take cognizance of racial issues related to affirmative action. This implies that CII does take a stand on racial issues as and when they arise since in today's climate, it is critical for any organization to ensure that there are no discriminatory nuances or practices in its human resources management or in the services it renders. Thus, CII takes a great deal of care to ensure that its members treat all population segments equally. In fact, CII's policy vis-a-vis racial diversity has assured that there are no stereotypical comments made regarding race or ethnic groups, even if such comments are not negative.

One important point to note, however, is that CII's work sometimes necessarily involves dealing with issues specific to race. For instance, CII's service providers have to inevitably take into account certain cultural considerations when addressing issues related to family violence and child abuse. Indeed, the understanding of various cultural perspectives, attitudes, and behaviors is vital in providing effective child and family welfare services or intervention programs.

Thus, the only role that race plays in CII is in terms of enhancing the organization's understanding of various diverse cultures and their possible impact on family life and child upbringing. In all other respects, CII does not lend any special consideration to either race or ethnicity factors and, in fact, encourages a racially diverse staff composition in all its offices and locations.


Children's Institute International Web site. (2004). An Overview of CII; Employment;

Cultural Considerations in Relation to Child Abuse & Family Violence. Retrieved Oct. 25, 2004: http://www.childrensinstitute.org/index.html… [read more]

Racism Social Science Literature Term Paper

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115). Despite such improvements, the black community in America continued to suffer, even in the more liberal North, at the hands of racial prejudices and bigotry that manifested itself in practices such as lower wages and social rebuffs in places such as restaurants. Finally, the increasing activism of the blacks, under the leadership of men such as Martin Luther King, Jr., led to desegregation and the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Indeed, King's "I Have a Dream" speech, on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, is perhaps the most moving expression of the plight of the blacks in America: "...the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty...still languishing in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land." (King, 1963)

Government legislation and progressively improving racial attitudes of whites did much to improve the historical plight of the African-American community in recent decades. This is apparent in, for instance, the size and growing influence of the black middle class. Yet, the black-white gap in socioeconomic status remains enormous in terms of both unemployment, underemployment, and the fact that young, well-educated blacks who are matched in work experience with whites still earn 11% less annually. Such trends indicate that perhaps modern racial inequality relies on the market and Laissez-faire racial bias to re-create structured racial inequality. But perhaps, the more disturbing fact is that these racial inequalities exist in a social climate of widespread acceptance of notions of black cultural inferiority: "The tendency to deny the modern potency of discrimination and to see a lack of striving and effort on the part of blacks...has been confirmed in a number of investigations...." (Martin & Tuch, p. 15-20)

Thus, a chronological review of racism in America reveals that racial inequalities caused by an ideology of inherent black inferiority continues to persist. However, since this ideology currently manifests itself in subtler, socially palatable ways i.e. By ascribing the race problem as flowing from the freely chosen cultural behavior of the blacks themselves, the persistence of racism is that much harder to establish and redress.

Works Cited

Fredrickson, G.M. "Racism: A Short History." Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002.

King, Martin Luther, Jr. "I Have a Dream." The U.S. Constitution Online. Accessed Aug 8, 2004: http://www.usconstitution.net/dream.html

Martin, J.K., & Tuch, S.A. "Racial Attitudes in the 1990s: Continuity and Change." Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1997.… [read more]

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