Study "Race / Ethnic Studies / Racism" Essays 111-165

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Children's Conceptualization of Race Essay

… All of these factors accounted for negative feelings for both the disabled and that which they perceived from others.

Philip Kretsedemas' article, "Language barriers & perceptions of bias: ethnic differences in immigrant encounters with the welfare system" attests to pronounced differences in the treatment of Hispanic and Haitian immigrants via the welfare system in Miami-Dade county. The author's research, a comparative study to both of these groups, which are largely situated in respective welfare centers within Miami-Dade County, found that this program is significantly more advantageous to Hispanics. Virtually all of the workers at the welfare offices visited by predominantly Hispanic people spoke both Spanish and English; it was rare to find a worker in the Haitian offices that spoke Haitian Creole. Consequently, Hispanics got better services in a more expedient time frame than their Haitian counterparts.

Amy Best's article, "Youth identity formation: contemporary identity work," attempts to elucidate the ways that adolescents form their identity. The author analyzes this phenomenon from a sociological perspective, in which she provides a number of examples of current sociological theory regarding the means by which teenagers form an identity. Ultimately, this article focuses on two such approaches which the author deems the most credible. The first of these is a somewhat reactionary measure to conventional adolescent stages that have been influenced by modern developments such as technology and a plethora of innovations since industrialization. The other approach contends that there are universal models of adolescence that shape identity, involving common factors such as the… [read more]

Race and Media Larson Book Review

… The author also relates her thesis in a controlled and concise manner, and then works systematically to prove her statements. Larson has written a scholarly book that does what she intends, but she does have a few issues also.

The… [read more]

Gordon's Assimilation Theory Social Work Research Paper

… Methodological issues and empirical support for the theory

Given the theory's displacement in contemporary life and given the fact that education, occupation and income are some of the many factors that play a constitutive role in determining assimilation, scholars such as Xie and Greenman (2011) conclude that there is little empirical evidence supporting the theory. The methodology is flawed since it is irrelevant to contemporary living and since, for reasons, mentioned throughout this essay, the theory possesses internal flaws in various areas. The process of assimilation depends on the contextual area of the immigrant; no generalizations can be made. Furthermore, future research should focus on differential processes of assimilation rather than generally determining acculturation followed by assimilation to be a pattern conclusive to all.


Conzen, K et al., (1992). The invention of ethnicity. Joun. Am. Ethnic Hist.12: 3-41

Gans, H (1992) Second generation decline Ethnic and Racial Studies, 15: 173-192

Kivisto, P. (1990) The Transplanted Then and Now: The Reorientation of Immigration Studies from the Chicago School to the New Social History. Ethnic and Racial Studies 13, 455-481.

Neidert, L & Farely, R (1985) Assimilation in the United States. Am. Soc. Review, 50:840-850

Sandberg, N (1973) Ethnic identity and… [read more]

Racism and Society -- Literary Essay

… One of my classmates recalled overhearing a reference to Affirmative Action in connection with his some of college acceptance letters. Another classmate indicated that he has witnessed the exact same phenomenon described by Staples in connection with the quickly-locked car doors as he walked by a motorist waiting for a traffic light to change. Both have been the targets of unprovoked racial epithets on several occasions in their lives. Whether in news reports of racially-motivated bias attacks or in instances of racial epithets that I have personally overheard or witnessed, it is clear that racism still exists in America. In general, black Americans still expect to be treated very differently from their white counterparts in myriad everyday situations. As long as that characterization continues to be accurate, it cannot be said that America is in any way a "post-racial" society, notwithstanding the achievement of sufficient progress to have resulted in the election of a bi-racial American president in 2008.

It is no coincidence that the Republican members of Congress who have worked the hardest to undermine the President since the day of his inauguration happen to represent former Confederate states and also those states that opposed racial desegregation and integration the longest (Edwards, Wattenberg, & Lineberry, 2009). In all likelihood the historians looking back on the early 21st Century will regard this period as the "last stand" of institutionalized racism in the U.S. They will replay the highly-publicized statement of intention by a Senate Minority Leader from Kentucky to ensure that the President of the United States of America is a failure in his first term and they will compare his role and that of his colleague from South Carolina who famously interrupted the President's address to Congress by shouting "You lie!" (Grunwald, 2012) in an unprecedented breach of decorum to the defiance of the Alabama Governor to the desegregation of schools fifty years ago (Goldfield, Abbot, Argersinger, & Argersinger, 2005).


Zora Neal Hurston's heartfelt essay How It Feels to Be Colored Me (1928) and Just Walk on By, by Brent Staples (1986) are both important pieces of 20th Century American literature. Together, they help establish the painfully slow timeline of the progress or racial equality in the U.S. Without question, Hurston was more fortunate than black Americans of her parents' generation, just as Staples was more fortunate than black Americans of Hurston's era. The fact that the nation did elect a biracial black American as its president in 2008 does suggest that America is gradually moving toward becoming a post-racial society. However, any conversation with an adult American who happens to be black and even the most open-minded review of the response of the elected representatives of the former Confederate States is sufficient to dispel any conclusion that the goal has already been reached. Contemporary empirical analyses of objective data relating to the connection between current economic wealth and racial background further support the unfortunate conclusion that America is still, more than a century and a half since… [read more]

Students Will Select a Construct Article Critique

… I will also show image of victim to colleague beforehand in order to ascertain that the image is objective.

Finally, I will attempt to approach participants at a time of day when they would be most likely to be ready and alert in answering the questions.


Dovidio, J.F. (2010). Handbook of prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination. SAGE: NY.

Dunton, B.C., & Fazio, R.H. (1997). An Individual Difference Measure of Motivation to Control Prejudiced Reactions. Personal Social Psychology Bull, 23(3), 316-326.

Gordijn, E.H.,Koomen, W., & Stapel, D.A. (2000) Level of Prejudice in Relation to Knowledge of Cultural Stereotypes, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37, 150 -- 157.

Kline, P (1999). Handbook of Psychological Testing Psychology Press

Kunda, Z. (1999) Social cognition: Making sense of people, MIT Press: NY.

McConahay, J.B. (1986).Modern racism, ambivalence, and the modern racism scale.In Dovidio, John F. (Ed); Gaertner, Samuel L. (Ed), (1986). Prejudice, discrimination, and racism,

(pp. 91-125). San Diego, CA, U.S.: Academic Press

Rubin, M., & Hewstone, M. (2004). Social identity, system justification, and social dominance:

Commentary on Reicher, Jost et al., and Sidanius et… [read more]

Bloodlines and Racism. Discuss Spriro Term Paper

… Today, the former children of the program are stigmatized and many have hidden their pasts. Some did not even know of their origin until recently, since their mothers deliberately tried to conceal their history.

Q3. According to Jackson/Weidman, in what way did Darwin's writings contribute (or not) to scientific racism?

Social Darwinism must be distinguished from Darwinian evolutionary theory, which is not inherently racist. Social Darwinism classified the human species into 'races,' which were viewed as 'species-like' constructions, rather than the cultural constructions we see them as today. Natural selection, according to some interpreters of Darwin, would cause inferior and less advanced races to overtake more advanced civilizations.

It is true Darwin authored a book called the Decent of Man which theorized that certain mental and moral traits were 'selected for,' based upon environmental conditions. Darwin was an abolitionist, but viewed civilizations as existing on a hierarchy. He saw human races as "essentially different and unchangeable." [footnoteRef:3] As the 19th century wore on, the obsession intensified to more precisely calibrate the differences between the different races through measuring physiognomy. Although scientists struggled to find 'pure' racial types, the transposition of Darwinism into anthropology became popular, most notably manifested in Herbert Spencer's notion of the 'survival of the fittest,' which assumed that the best races would triumph over inferior races. This attached a moral calculus to Darwinian natural selection, who merely asserted that the best-adapted species to the environment would survive. [3: John P. Jackson & Nadine Weidman, Race, racism and science, (Rutgers University Press), 2005: 70.]


Crossland, David. "Lebensborn children break silence." Der Spiegel. 7 Nov 2006.

Jackson, John P. & Nadine Weidman. Race, racism and science. New Brunswick: Rutgers

University Press, 2005.

Spiro, Jonathan Peter. Defending the master race. University of… [read more]

Bloodlines and Racism Essay

… Racism and Bloodliness

How does Alden Vaughn contribute to the discussion of racial constructions in colonial America?

Alden Vaughan's book tries to discover the connection between origins of racism and American History. He explains that due to lack of solid evidence from colonial times, the actual meanings of the terms 'slave', 'servant' or any other racial vocabulary are lost. The meanings scholars and historians attach to them don't explain their relevance to early Americans. He quotes the words of an author Wesley Frank Craven to sustain the fact the very few actual recorded cases of the time exist. The author in a way summarizes the main points of the debate, with scholarly evidence and facilitates the reader in understanding both aspects of it very clearly.

He even explains that slavery did not begin in Virginia, because before it came to the province it was already rampant in other parts of the British Empire as far back as in the sixteenth century. He feels that the state has become the focal point of the slavery debate because of its importance in the British Empire.

However, he cites words of historians from both side of the debate. William Goodell in his history of mid nineteenth century states that it began after the British came to America and began bringing in their African slaves. However, as Vaughan points out Goodell doesn't say if it all started here then why the British had African slaves even before they came to America.

In America, the blacks were 'regarded with disgust' as George Bancroft claims. But he fails to explain where this attitude originated from. James C. Ballagh explains that in 16th century there were no slaves in America as there was no law holding blacks in bondage. Instead the blacks were considered servants only. He along with other historians such as Phillips and Russell has talked about the presence of free blacks in the area. His book is a comprehensive study of the topic as he supports his arguments with quotes from a wide variety of literature. He judges the matter very impartially and presents it to the readers with a very fresh and balanced approach. He gives a very thorough analysis of the whole idea and more than reverts the blame from Virginia and Americans proving that racism and slavery are universal concepts that have nothing to do with the history of Virginia.

Who… [read more]

Race and Racial Inequality Essay

… According to Mauer (2010), The police stop people from minority ethnic groups at higher rate than white people. Furthermore, in cities such as New York where the population is comparable, the Blacks and Latinos still rate higher than their white counterparts.

In addition, the United States is witnessing racism of an economic system that values the lives of the poor differently from the lives of the rich. In the United States of America, children of color experience the highest poverty rates, followed by Latino children. This is indicative of the wealth distribution pattern across the races in the country, the wealth disparity is severe. The minority groups including African-Americans, Latino-Americans as well as Native Americans are more likely to live in poverty as compared to their Caucasian counterparts. According to Catholic Charities USA (2008), poverty rates among the African-Americans is at 24.1% and 21.8 among the Hispanics, 23.2 among the Native American as compared to 8 among the Whites. Though all types of racism are interconnected and culminate in economic racism, employment discrimination still stands as one of the major reasons of the wealth disparity, new accounts show that discrimination in the workplace is still common. People from minority ethnic groups must overcome obstacles in pursuit of formal income generating activities.

Martin Luther King, Jr., always claimed that white Americans were not genuinely commited to eradication of racism and associated injustices. The majority would still want to maintain their position of dominance and this is the reason why there should be a renewed commitment to racial equality in the country as a policy.


Catholic Charities USA. (2008). Poverty and Racism: Overlapping Threats to the Common Good. Alexandria: Larry Snyder.

Kuznia, R. (2009, April 8). Racism in Schools: Unintentional But No Less Damaging. Retrieved from

Mauer, M. (2010 ). Statement of Marc Mauer Executive Director The Sentencing Project . Prepared for the House Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Civil Liberties. Washington DC.

Quigley, B. (2010, July 26). Rampant Racism in the Criminal Justice System. Retrieved from… [read more]

Modern Racism in America Essay

… Racism in America is not always obvious. The way African-Americans were treated in the South during the Jim Crow era -- separate drinking fountains (one for "white" and one for "colored"), bans against Blacks at lunch counters and segregated schools… [read more]

Polygenism, Which Posits That Humans Essay

… Today, race in its original context of 'type' and 'descent' as per ideology appear quaint. There are very few credible scientists who still insist in separation of races and books that inoccasionally appear on the subject are considered pseudo-scientific and generally condemned by the larger audience. Race is still used but it is used primarily for government and political purposes such as for creating precise definition of ethnic or racial identification to be used for censuses, legislation and social or academic research that almost always is ultimately applied for civic purposes.

Until comparatively recently, five racial / ethnic categories were used to distinguish people. These were: American Indian or Alaskan Native; Asian or Pacific Islander; Black / Negro; Caucasian / White; and Hispanic. Many of these terms are still used. The term 'non-white' is no longer acceptable, and in the case of an individual being of 'mixed racial and/or ethnic origin', he is categorized by that which "most closely reflects the individual's recognition in his community" (Banton, 64).

The USA sees ethnicity as subdivision of a race, whereas Britain, for instance, (still possessing no definition in regards to 'race') assumes that individuals belong to a race. In short, although perspective of race as 'type' or 'descent' in its traditional sense had been largely abandoned, political pressures keep the idiom of 'race and 'ethnicity' alive.

Banton seems to imply that 'race' assumed various connotations and implications to the people of the era as history and technology developed. In the beginning of time when biological understanding was still immature, people related to race as 'descent'. Later, under the influence of erroenoeus historical ideologies and teachigns, race became reclassifed as 'type', whilst in our current politically infused culture, race is used as instrument to politically identify communities and populations of people.


Banton, M. The Idiom of Race in Black, Les & John Solomos, 2009. Theories of Race and Racism, 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.

Jackson, J., Race, Racism, and Science: Social Impact and Interaction,… [read more]

Race: Personal Educational Experiences Thesis

… Finally, I must note that when I was in high school, I can recall hearing students accuse other students of having an 'easy time' getting into college because of their race. In the future, I think adults need to broach this topic and allow for debate on the subject of affirmative action, so this subject can be discussed in a reasoned and non-inflammatory manner. If I were a teacher and overheard such negative comments, I would use it as a 'teachable moment' to help students more critically evaluate their lives and the history of America, and look outside of the narrow world of the self.

No single teacher, however ambitious, can heal the types of inequalities as detailed by authors such as Jonathan Kozol in his work The shame of the nation, a book about the seismic divides between the best and the worst of the American public education system. But a teacher can make her students more aware of such inequalities, and help them see that it is their responsibility to question them, and to heal the hurt of the past through their critical, reasoned, and thoughtful behavior towards others.


Kozol, Jonathan. (2005). The shame of the nation: the restoration of apartheid schooling in America. New York: Crown.

Tatum, Beverly Daniel. (2003). Why are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?

New York: Basic Books.

Lewis, Amanda E. (2003). Race in the schoolyard: Negotiating the color line in classrooms and communities. New Brunswick:… [read more]

Brazilian Ethnic Issues the Racial Research Paper

… Under sociologist Jon Cruz's theory of "ethnosympathy," whites and folks of color in both Brazil and the U.S. would develop "a greater level of identification with and appreciation of each other's experiences" (Daniel, 297).

Brazil and Whiteness

In Elisa Nascimento's… [read more]

Race? Racial Formation Literature Review

… Hence, it is way too comprehensive to observe and control how difficult it is to be "colorblind" and treat everyone equally despite their origin and physical attributes.

To wrap up this argument, it can be said that the racial formation… [read more]

Racist Beauty Ideals and Racial Term Paper

… Werrlein holds that the Dick and Jane stories equate white privilege with a version of Americanness that occurs outside of history, arguing further that the poverty and suffering of the Breedlove family symbolizes America's brutal history of racial persecution. Through… [read more]

How Race Is Apart of Everyday Life Essay

… ¶ … Narrative Ethnography

The readings on ethnography suggest that when approaching a personal narrative on ethnography one should formulate "an ethnographic topic study" -- and for me that would entail putting my life, my ethnic culture, my employment and… [read more]

Race, Class, and Gender Research Paper

… "Many women, of course, do dare to see and speak the truth, but they are always in danger of being attacked and discredited in order to maintain the silence. Even those who would never call themselves feminists often know there is something terribly wrong with the structures of dominance and control" (page 163). Many people refuse to acknowledge that there is still an issue with gender oppression in the United States. Social and racial differences are considered the preeminent issues of differentiation and separation in the country and any oppression beyond those categories is looked on as less important. "Women are subordinated and treated as inferior because they are culturally defined as inferior as women, just as many racial and ethnic minorities are devalued simply because they aren't considered to be white" (page 164). Subjugation of an individual because of gender is just as harmful as treating someone as if they were inferior due to race or ethnicity. Even the process of gendering is a sociological phenomenon. Although biologically there is a difference between male and female, this sexual difference has little to do with the labels of gender.

The final subject in the book is the discussion of class difference in the United States. In this country, according to Rothenberg, people are unwilling to discuss differences in economic status. People are more likely to define themselves by gender, race, or other classification than by their economic and social standing. "It is not that Americans, rich or poor, aren't keenly aware of class differences…it is that class is not in the domain of public discourse. Class is not discussed or debated in public because class identity has been stripped from popular culture" (page 183). The citizens of the United States are aware that social status and economics separates and stratifies the population, but the acknowledgement of this difference is impeded by our individual desire to see ourselves in the best light possible. People are willing to classify themselves as "middle class" or modify this term with upper or lower. This middle ground serves to unify instead of separate and alleviates people from feeling they have far less or far more than those around them.

In the book, Paula Rothenberg draws the conclusion that the things that separate individuals from one another are both real and sociologically applied. There are terms that correctly describe the differences between individuals on the bases of biology, ethnicity, and economic standing, but people more often use terms of gender, race, and class without realizing the difference. Indeed, most people use gender and sex as interchangeable terms without considering the underlying meaning behind the words they choose.

Works Cited:

Rothenberg, Paula S. (2010). Race, Class, and Gender in the… [read more]

Calcifying Effects of Racism: Othello Essay

… ¶ … calcifying effects of racism: Othello and a Raisin in the Sun

Both Othello and a Raisin in the Sun depict how racism is damaging to the souls and self-esteem of black individuals. Racism does not simply hamper social advancement. It also has a profound psychological effect on the person deemed 'inferior' by society. From the very first scene of Othello, the viewer is immediately alerted to the fact that he or she is witnessing a man living in a racist community. When Othello elopes with Desdemona, who is the daughter of the noble Brabantio, the villain Iago alerts the girl's father by shouting "Even now, now, very now, an old black ram/Is topping your white ewe" (I.1). Iago's crudeness highlights how, despite the fact Othello is a great and distinguished general, in the eyes of much of Venetian society, Othello is still a Moor.

In a Raisin in the Sun, the impact of racism can be seen most starkly in the character of Walter Lee Younger, who works as a chauffer driver. The Younger family lives in a small, cramped apartment because there are few opportunities for them to advance in pre-Civil Rights America. However, just as Othello manages to transcend the effects of racism through his military accomplishments, the family is still capable of moving forward. The youngest daughter, Beneatha Younger, is studying to be a doctor. And Mama's late husband was able to work hard and long enough to buy a life insurance policy. Mama says she will use the policy money as a down payment on a new house and reserve some of it for Beneatha's education.

Othello's ability to rise above prejudice is manifested in the scene in which he defends his marriage to Desdemona, saying that he did not use witchcraft to woo the young woman. "I think this tale would win my daughter too," says the Duke of Venice, when he witnesses Othello's persuasive abilities (I.3). However, because of Othello' sense of social insecurity and vulnerability, Iago is able to turn Othello against his wife. Iago stresses Desdemona's youth, and the… [read more]

Race Relations Essay

… Race Relations

The word racism has different definitions and a variety of connotations, but for the purpose of simplicity it can be described as racial accounts for dissimilarities in human nature or aptitude and that one particular race is better… [read more]

Reaction to the Documentary Race the Power of an Illusion Film Review

… Racism -- Reaction to Documentary

Race -- the Power of an Illusion

The documentary Race -- the Power of an Illusion presents a disturbing account of American society. On one hand, racial equality has been the official law of the land since the Civil Rights era of the 1960s and the landmark Supreme Court decisions on constitutional rights during the 1950s and 1960s. On the other hand, racial inequality persisted in many ways much longer than that and affected people of color tremendously, even into the present day.

The documentary makes clear that much of what we consider to be true about race, as a concept is actually untrue in the first place. Actually, modern genetic screening based on DNA technology has proven that there is practically no such thing as racial purity at all. In fact, all of us share genetic markers that prove that we are of mixed race, at least biologically, regardless of what our ethnic heritage might be.

Second, it illustrates how much of what we believe about race and (especially) the way we treat people based on supposed racial differences is related to superficial differences that are only apparent visually. That is why ethnic races (such as Jews and other European ethnicities) managed to break down ethnic barriers much earlier and more successfully in the U.S. during the 20th century than African-Americans and other ethnic people whose appearance (primarily their skin color) make them much more visually distinctive and identifiable as "minorities."

The documentary also explains that making social distinctions based on "race" is nonsensical. All domestic dogs, for example, are members of the same species (Canis lupus familiaris), regardless of whether selective breeding has produced miniature toy… [read more]

Ethnic Groups and Discrimination Essay

… Ethnic Groups and Discrimination

The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the issue of ethnic discrimination in the U.S.A. The ethnic group that will represent the focus op out attention is represented by the Germans. It is important to mention right from the very beginning that the Germans are one of the largest community who emigrated to the U.S.A., hence the necessity to judge the circumstances through which they manged to develop until nowadays.

Research in the area suggests that the German migration began in the 1700s. The number of German people was so big that some feared they would impact in a highly strong manner the predominant English culture. One of the main causes which led the Germans to move to the U.S. territories was the need for jobs. "Because of the opportunity to own farm lands in the United States, the freedom it offers to practice religion, non-existent military conscription, and better economy, Germans have made the United States of America as the prime country to migrate ." (Mitchell)

It must be mentioned that the immigrants in case were highly skilled and this allowed them not only to find employment opportunities with a certain ease, but also to integrate in the sectors of high-income jobs (Darity, ). Since employment was the most significant reason for which other ethnic groups were coming to the U.S. land, some might wonder whether this did not lead to discrimination due to the existence of dual labor market tendencies. The answer is "no."

Nevertheless, a research conducted by Petra Moser, called "Ethnic Discrimination at the NYSE?" suggests that some types of discrimination existed indeed. Just like the author of the study declares, "The New York Stock Exchange's long life and distinctive mechanisms of admitting new members offers a unique window to the history of ethnic discrimination in the United States. Membership and the right to trade securities, is restricted to the owners of 1,366 seats at the exchange." The period which her paper researches is… [read more]

Black Studies African-Americans Are African-Americans Gaining Ground Essay

… Black Studies


Are African-Americans gaining ground or losing ground in the 21st century? In what areas do you see African-Americans struggling or succeeding? How do you see these issues affecting African-Americans in the future?

In some areas African-Americans are… [read more]

Race and Labor Force Thesis

… Race and Labor Force in the Field of Accounting

This paper reviews statistics in three fields -- accounting, waiter/waitressing and commercial painters. Using the occupations and census report, the percentage of accountants that are White Americans, African-American, American Indian, Asian-American,… [read more]

Race as a Biology Is Fiction Racism as a Social Problem Is Real Research Proposal

… Smedley, a. & Smedley, B. (2005). "Race as biology is fiction, racism as a social problem is real." American psychologist 60(1), pp. 16-26.

Despite what my be perceived in societal attitudes at large, a large debate still persists among certain researchers and theorists in the psychological world regarding the issue of race. As Smedley & Smedley (2005) note, some researchers still insist that there are measurable racial differences in aspects of personality such as intelligence that cannot be explained merely by social circumstances and upbringing, but in fact suggest or even require a genetic explanation. Most researchers do not find such conclusions accurate or scientifically meaningful, but their dismissal of the issues of race is, according to the authors, equally misleading and possibly destructive. As the authors themselves say about their intent in this article, "Our aim is not to review the psychological literature regarding the construction of race but to bring anthropological and historical perspectives to the study of race" (Smedley & Smedley 2005).

The authors begin the main substance of this article by defining culture in anthropological terms, which essentially includes all of the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs of a given people. This understanding of culture negates the idea of biogenetic causes of behavior, placing the culture itself as the source and causal agent for all of these things. This relates to the idea of ethnicity, as well, which should not be confused with a racial difference but instead reflects differences in culture that have grown to the point of ethnic identification. Ethnic conflicts are actually usually between peoples that would identify the same racially, such as the English and the Irish or Indians and Pakistanis. In fact, language and religion were more important factors than perceived race in establishing identity until the 17th century.

Even after the racial criteria of identity had been established, it was still clearly an entity quite apart from ethnicity, as the varying treatment of white American immigrants and minority groups in the United States demonstrates. Ethnic and cultural variations were expected to disappear by assimilation, but racial qualities were quite consciously permanent and impermeable. The nineteenth century saw race becoming a scientific subdivision of humanity, and in the mid-twentieth century genetic evidence for this division was claimed to exist. Subsequent research has shown that humans are 99.9% genetically the same, refuting such claims. The term "race" itself did not acquire the connotations of separation and identifications with geographic origins or the social division that it now implies until the Revolutionary era. Race, then, is an ideology rather than a biological fact,… [read more]

Ethnic Groups and Discrimination Essay

… Ethnic Groups and Discrimination

The United States was originally formed of immigrants that came to the new-found continent and settled along the coast. Immigration is still an overwhelming force today in America, which has become the land with the most widespread multiculturalism.

My own ancestors came from Scotland around the 1770's. Initially, upon their first arrival on the continent many of the Scots were subject to both prejudice and discrimination by the groups of British that had taken control in some parts of the land. Coming from a poor country, the Scots faced exclusion from trading between colonies: "Scottish merchants traded with the English colonies, but were not allowed to bring out the most valuable commodities, were excluded from the carrying trade between colonies, and could bring in only the produce of Scotland. A poor country had little to export save people, but the demand for servants in the colonies could make this a profitable business."(Brock 1982, p.4) Some of the problems that the Scottish immigrants encountered in America were similar to the ethnic and social class discrimination they had dealt with in Scotland, especially in their relations with England. The English wanted complete autonomy of the colonies and especially of the trade with the Spanish or with the Indies. Therefore, in the beginning, the Scots faced segregation and ethnic discrimination as an ethnic group, not being allowed to become proprietor or to hold trade with other countries. Overall, they were treated as a subordinate ethnic group by the English and they were even denied official employment in the colonies at the beginning (Brock 1982, p. 9) Gradually however, the Scots managed to become politically influent and even to establish a colony in Eastern New Jersey before the Act of Union in 1707 when Scotland united with England forming the United Kingdom. After the Union, the influence of the Scots in the United States grew in many fields from politics and religion (the Scots brought their Presbyterian tradition with them, which became very influent) to trade and medicine. Medicine especially in the North America was greatly influenced by the number of doctors that emigrated from Scotland: "Scotland was a poor country and many of her doctors had no prospect of gainful employment in their native land. Some moved to England, others joined the armed forces or emigrated to British possessions overseas, including the American colonies. The chosen destinations in America were those colonies which, through emigration or trade, particularly the tobacco trade, already had Scottish settlements."(Brock 1982, p. 115) the influence of the modern medical methods brought from Europe by the Scots was therefore very great. In the beginning the Scots suffered from discrimination on the part of the English colonists but, with time, things leveled and some of the most successful people had Scottish descending.

However, with the passing of the generations, an ethnic group becomes more and more assimilated in the mainstream culture. As such, the Scots along with the English and many other… [read more]

Race War in America: A Wake Up Book Report

… ¶ … Race War in America: A Wake Up Call by Carl T. Rowan

The main theme of this particular book deals with race relations and how the black person - most specifically the black male - has been treated… [read more]

Race and Ethnicity in Gang Term Paper

… Gang activity has grown substantially throughout the world over the past decade. For the most part the majority of gang activity occurs in densely populated urban areas. Over the years a great deal of research has been conducted as it… [read more]

Richard Wright's Native Son and Spike Lee's Movie Do the Right Thing Term Paper

… ¶ … Buggin' Out tells Mookie to "Stay Black!" In Spike Lee's "Do the Right Thing," he points to the film's central theme. Being Black in America entails struggle and occasionally the struggle against social and economic oppression manifests in… [read more]

Race, Class and Gender / Blacks Term Paper

… Race, Class and Gender / Blacks & Latinos

The impact of issues relative to ethnicity, socioeconomic class and gender on African-Americans and Latinos from WWII through the 1970s was dramatic and socially significant, both in terms of the welfare of… [read more]

Racism in America Term Paper

… Racism in America

The American society is famous for its cultural, racial, and national diversity. It is often argued that the American culture is in itself a culture of immigrants, taking into account the history of the 19th and 20th… [read more]

21 Century Racism and How it Affects Education Term Paper

… ¶ … Racism Affects Education

How 21st Century Racism Affects Education

Racism, no matter what sort it is, or toward who or whom it might be addressed, has always impacted American education in one way or another: in terms of… [read more]

Anti-Racism in American Society Term Paper

… Anti-Racism in America

Racism is clearly one the greatest social conflicts in the United States and has been since prior to its development as a nation. The anti-racism movement has been around nearly as long, attempting to balance and eradicate… [read more]

Race and Class Issues Term Paper

… Streetwise

In his book Streetwise: Race, Class, and Change in an Urban Community,

Elijah Anderson offers an ethnographic comparison of two neighborhoods, both in West Philadelphia. The neighborhoods are side by side, but they have different characters. One is considered… [read more]

Influence of Race as it Relate to My Community Term Paper

… Community Race Relations


In Riverside and many other Southern Californian communities, elements of the same racial tension that erupted in riots in 1991, after the acquittal of the police officers involved in the… [read more]

Racism Is One of the Most Pervasive Term Paper

… RACISM is one of the most pervasive problems in our society. It would be wrong to assume that racism affects our society alone, in fact it exist in various forms in almost every society. Racism is closely connected with stereotyping so any prejudices that exist on these lines are directly connected with racism. In our country, the problem is more severe because of the ugly history of slavery and the long existence of this institution. It is important to create a society that is sensitive to diversity. For this adequate training, education and awareness are required.

Racism is closely linked to social class system in a country. Since most white people in our country enjoy a better social status than minority groups, we see the latter concentrated in higher numbers in poor neighborhoods. By virtue of their low social class, many young blacks and Hispanics may find themselves involved in street fights, gang clashes and other criminal activities. Education in these areas is either not available or is not really worth anyone's time because of low quality and poor attendance. For this reason, people from poor neighborhoods end up more poor and the social disparities created by race keep on increasing.

The every widening social gap is the root cause of frustration and resentment among racially disadvantaged groups. It is sad but true that a black young man has a 29% chance of facing jail term at least once in his youth while the chance for a white man is only 4%. Because of extreme disparities in social status and access to education, black people are more likely to become illegal drug users and of those who are found in possession of illegal drugs, more than 35% are blacks. That is not all. Blacks are also at a significant disadvantage when it comes to employment and usually the unemployment rate among blacks is three times what it is for whites.

But blacks and Hispanics alone do not endure racism. After the 2001 tragedy, racism has escalated beyond reasonable limits and has come to attack every single minority group in America. Muslims have been facing serious trouble simply because those who targeted the WTC happened to follow this religion. It is absurd but true that one group is judged by the actions of very few people from the group. Racism results in stereotyping which can further create social disparities. For example it is impossible to assume that every black person is in possession of illegal drugs or is involved in some criminal activity but when a crime occurs and out of… [read more]

Race and the Community Suburb Term Paper

… race and the community suburb of one of the most ethnically diverse cities in the country if not possibly the world, Joliet exhibits a curious combination of tolerance and tension. Having lived here a number of years, I feel strongly… [read more]

Race Gender Negative Impact on Entry Into or Advancement in the Business World Term Paper

… race.gender

Since my birth in Rochester, NY, I have witnessed the effects of both racism and sexism on employment opportunities and opportunities for advancement. My mother struggled to support her children, and like her I struggle to support mine. As Latina women, we encounter discrimination daily. The types of jobs we are geared for in school, the images we see on television and on film, and the messages people send to us all impact our self-image and our ability to get ahead. Teachers tracked me toward failure and narrowed my ambitions through systematic ridicule and looks of derision because of my race and gender. Eventually I gave up on the public school system, only to return to it later emboldened with a desire to succeed.

After earning a college degree, I could only find work through a temp agency and in a field I did not choose. When I did find work that was personally meaningful, I was not offered opportunities for advancement. I did not see any other Latina women in positions of power in any of the firms I have worked for. We have been cut off… [read more]

Racism Is an Insidious Social Problem Term Paper

… Racism is an insidious social problem that has its roots so far back that defining when such issues came to be would be impossible. Furthermore there is a great deal of idealism surrounding the current state of racism in western… [read more]

Racism Has the Potential to Ruin Term Paper

… Racism has the potential to ruin our relationships as well as our personal integrity. While few people admit to being racist, most if not all people hold racist beliefs in the form of stereotypes and prejudices. Not all stereotypes equal racism but stereotyping can lead to racist attitudes and beliefs. For example, the stereotype that Asians are bad drivers leads directly to prejudicial thoughts about Asian people, to lump all people of Asian descent into a category and not allowing for individual differences. Stereotypes, even seemingly innocent ones, can cause feelings of resentment, anger or even hatred. When those feelings are discussed openly and gossiped about in certain social groups, a combination of psychological and sociological factors can turn simple stereotypes into racism. Needing to fit into with an in-group, an individual may get on board and criticize members of different races without ever having encountered an individual from that race. Stereotypes and prejudices take on a life of their own like a fantasy story and can easily lead to widespread racism within a society.

Moreover, stereotypes create self-fulfilling prophesies that can also perpetuate racism because each time a person notices a… [read more]

Growth and the Social Importance of Ethnic Term Paper

… ¶ … growth and the social importance of ethnic media in the United States. The article provides a clear overview of the growth of ethnic media publications and stresses that many of these publications provide valuable information for immigrants and… [read more]

Beverly Daniel Tatum Term Paper

… Beverly Daniel Tatum

Psychologist and professor Beverly Tatum describes in "Why are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria" the process of racial identity development, arguing that, "racial grouping is a developmental process in response to an environmental… [read more]

Racism Term Paper

… Racism

There are as many ways to think about the issue of race as there are people. Casper Weinberger reportedly stated once that when he looked at Colin Powell he didn't see a black man, he saw a man. Colin Powell replied in response that when he look at Weinberger he did see a whiTe man. The issue in this comment raise the issue of whether humans are capable of completely ignoring race. When we look at a friend, do we see a friend or a blonde? Hair is a very prominent feature, and yet we have never heard anyone say "I don't see a tall man, I see a man," or "I don't see a man with red hair, I see a man." That is because neither being tall nor being a redhead have major societal problems attached to them.

Perhaps it depends on the person's history. People who saw the civil rights struggle of the fifties and sixties, either on TV or in their towns and cities, would have the race of people as major historical fact in their lives (King, M.L.). Of course, many people are not old enough to remember the events of the "Civil… [read more]

Race and Health Term Paper

… Race and Health

In a study published in the August 01, 1994 issue of Health Services Research, David Williams concludes that race is a gross indicator of distinctive histories and specific conditions of life that relate to health services and patterns of medical care (Williams pp). Employed African-Americans are more likely than whites to be exposed to occupational hazards and carcinogens, and according to another study, darker-skinned African-Americans in the United States are twice as likely to experience racial discrimination as their lighter-skinned peers (Williams pp). Darker color appears to be a social characteristic predictive of less access to economic and social resources (Williams pp).

According to G. Beckles, in the June 01, 2003 issue of Diabetes, racial and ethnic minorities and persons of lower socioeconomic position have worse long-term diabetes outcomes (Beckles pp). Conclusions of Beckles' study revealed that there were few ethnicity related disparities in processes of diabetes care, however nonwhites, especially African-Americans, had poorer control of some risk factors (Beckles pp). Yet, Beckles notes that… [read more]

Racial and Ethnic Identity Term Paper

… This leads onto the renegotiation of relationships with people from other ethnic groups including whites.

The last stage, Internalization-Commitment is where the individual replaces the 'I' with a 'we' thus traveling from an egocentric perspective to a group perspective.

Helms' White Identity Development Model

Helms wanted to eliminate racism by moving towards a non-racist white identity. Thus Helms suggested a model which has six statuses spread over a two phases.

The first status of Phase I, is known as Contact and is when an individual comes into contact with the black people. Eventually whites in this status will come to realize that blacks are treated different in the United States and one this realization comes to place, they move onto the next status.

Disintegration is the name given to the second status and includes whites who recognize the moral dilemma associated with being white. There is emotional discomfort when he sees the hypocrisy in what the society teaches and what it actually practices. They then want to believe that racism is not because of the whites.

Reintegration is the last status of the first phase where an individual accepts the supremacy of the whites and inferiority of the black. He then has no feelings of guilt and anger develops within him. Either he would start treating black inferiorly or remove himself from a society where blacks are present.

Status 4 or Pseudo Independence marks the beginning of Phase II. In this feelings regarding racism are sympathetic in nature. Whites seek to interact with blacks in an attempt to change them to act like whites as far as acceptance and success is concerned. Here individuals may not posses either a positive or a negative white identity.

Immersion-Emersion is the next status where individuals tend to ask themselves questions. They do not want to change the blacks anymore and rather want to change the whites. They actually fight forms of racism and oppression.

The last status is called Autonomy. Here race no longer posses a threat and the white people undergo nurturing where they realize the ill-effects of racism. This is an on-going process where whites are being open to and accepting a change in how they think about racism.

Phinney's Model of Ethnic Identity Development

John Phinney proposed a model based on three stages namely, Diffusion-Foreclosure, Moratorium, and Achievement. The first stage comprises of people who are ill-informed about the feelings and attitude regarding their own ethnicity. It is only in the second stage that an individual becomes aware to the ethnic issues and begins an ethnic identity search. A natural anger is seen among individuals against the dominating group. In the last and final stage the individual gains a bicultural identity. As they become secure and confident the anger that was present in the… [read more]

Racism and Prejudice Cause and Effect Term Paper

… Racism Cause Effect

The Invisible Causes of Racism in Higher Learning -- Culture's Divisive Impact Upon Black and White Minds Alike

On first glance, the realities of Blacks depicted by Lawrence Otis Graham seems to belie many of the common assumptions about Black students of America's past. In contrast to the racially fraught environment of Invisible Man, Graham suggests instead a different reality existed in the past of African-American educational history. This reality was not simply Black vs. White, or disempowered vs. empowered, but also was one of community member vs. fellow community member. In other words, Blacks could be torn ethnically and by class, and by their respective educational levels, as well as purely by skin color.

When noted by Lawrence Otis Graham how far the Black community still has 'to go,' one may first say that such a notion of distance could not seem be more contrary to the realities of both today and the world experienced by the 'talented tenth' of aristocratic Black students as depicted in the fiction work of Ellison's -- in contrast to today's far more integrated college life, Ralph Ellison's protagonist dwells in a place that is the province of whites, a white-run educational institution set up for Black students. Today's modern university supposedly stands apart from such racist constructions of the Black self and even Lawrence Otis Graham points out that long before the civil rights movement's push for integration, Blacks were able to rise and empower themselves within historically Black social and educational institutions.

But when Lawrence Otis Graham says how far 'we' have to go, he also means in terms of Black unity as well as Black social and economic advancement within a largely White-dominated society. Blacks must cast off such shackles of "Who I am," notions created by Whites, and create their own cultural terms of what constitutes a Black self, and not judge fellow Blacks by White cultural standards of excellence and class advancement. Only then will they truly have overcome the insidious effects of racism. Community empowerment, as chronicled by Graham has not always fanned out into the reaping of full economic dividends by the entire Black community, and quite often the so-called talented tenth remains simply that, an enclosed and educated tenth,… [read more]

Racial Ethnic Trends for the Millennium Between Arabs and African Americans Term Paper

… Arab- and African-Americans and racial issues in the new millennium

America is the most unique nation in the world, from so many angles. First, of course, it is by far the wealthiest nation in the world: From moral and immoral,… [read more]

Race and Ethnicity Despite Its Many Claims Term Paper

… Race and Ethnicity

Despite its many claims and indeed efforts to the contrary, the United States of America has always been a country of division and segregation. Race, gender and class differences thus even today play an important role in… [read more]

Racial and Ethnic Term Paper

… ¶ … Rabbit in the Moon along with the textbook [...] relationality of racial-ethnic images including context, effects, and resistance. It will answer several questions regarding the readings and class films. The white majority mainly powers racial and ethnic images… [read more]

Blacks or African-American Groups Term Paper

… One concern about society has to do with health issues. The infant mortality rate for blacks in America is one of the highest in the world, higher than any industrialized country, and higher even than some third world countries. Black… [read more]

Empire Building in the Americas Term Paper

… Further, this division was implemented into a schema by which the "real" rights of nationality (economic, political and social power) were distributed through legal and policy decisions. Thus, access to political representation, economic health (employment, asset and land ownership), was largely influenced by the extent to which one could "act white" as well as (later) simply by one's ethnic background in and of itself. Further, through laws such as the "vagrancy" laws of the early 1800's in Mexico, this access could largely be "covered" under the cloak of the effects of this practice (unemployment, despondency, poverty, debt) -- a legacy that many would argue continues to this day.

Whether one chooses to acknowledge this reality of the racial and gender privilege that white male society enjoyed in the early stages of California and modern Mexico may very well determine the extent to which one understands much of the underlying causes of class, race and gender stratification in terms of power, economic health and privilege today. Indeed, the legacy is long and firmly entrenched in the psyche of the American and Mexican societies as a whole -- in the social, as well as the legal realm where it was originally institutionalized -- one has but to look back at the history (as well, perhaps at the racial demographic of any area prison) of the area to glimpse this unfortunate truth.

Works Cited

Castaneda, Antonia I. "Sexual Violence in the Politics and Policies of Conquest: Amerindian Women and the Spanish Conquest of Alta California," Building With Our Hands: New Directions in Chicana Studies, ed. Adela de la Torre and Beatriz M. Pesquera (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 15-33.

Gutierrez, Gabriel. "Affirmative Action of the First Kind: Social and Legal Constructions of Whiteness and White Male Privilege in Nineteenth-Century California." Latino Studies Journal. Vol. 11, No. 3, Fall 2000. 14-48.

Warren, Richard. "Mass Mobilization vs. Social… [read more]

Race Continues to Play Term Paper

… This let the government create a 'need' for lower-income housing, which effectively eliminated the ability of many blacks to secure home-ownership by concentrating them in bad areas of town which were then left to be destroyed by crack cocaine and other drugs unheard of before the second half of the 20th century. Democratic politicians were then left with a powerful voting block, and were given incentives to maintain this group of people's poverty, as middle class voters tend to be more Republican.

Affirmative action is a policy that favors middle class blacks, who argue for it on the basis of 'past discrimination' as a method of invoking the instrumentalist articulation of race. Some political lobbyists that claim to represent the interests of all blacks will threaten to sue corporations for discrimination unless a group of token blacks (whose names are provided by the lobbyists) are appointed to positions of leadership. Race can be used as a weapon by anyone of any race who can achieve a better outcome through invoking race as an issue. This was well illustrated in the case of O.J. Simpson.

Richard Payne. Getting Beyond Race: The Changing American Culture. Westview Press, 1998.

James Baldwin. The Fire Next Time. Vintage Books, 1993.

Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray. The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. Touchstone Press. 1996.

Robert Felgar, Claudia Durst Johnson. Understanding Richard Wright's Black Boy: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical… [read more]

Ethics, Social Justice and Advocacy Case Study

… It is equally essential not to be quick to judge Biko, given that Biko has long faced unfair prejudice due to his race, despite his many accomplishments. Given that Biko has had few acceptable outlets for his anger, and also a perhaps understandable worry that as a black man he cannot seem to 'angry' in a white environment, thus the clinician should take this into consideration when evaluating the client through the lens of multicultural competency. The clinician might not have the same anxieties about being taken 'seriously' as a man, for example, that Biko does. Dealing with race and perceptions of one's self as black is part of the development of African-American cultural identity in a social context.

Q4. For the clinician, it is essential that unacceptable behavior (such as violence against a woman) is not tolerated under the guise of multicultural competency. On the other hand, it is equally essential to understand where Biko's frustrations and outbursts are coming from and not to assume that they are rooted in misogyny. Anger management is a critical component of treating Biko -- Biko must understand where his feelings and impulses are coming from and that his girlfriend's actions are not the root of them. That is how advocacy and social justice can be so useful in therapy -- Biko can contextualize the discrimination and frustration he has felt socially, rather than view it as a personal attack. A white, middle-aged clinician, however, must still remember that Biko is an individual client and not solely view his problems through a racial lens, nor should he use race to excuse unacceptable behavior towards Tanisha

Q5. An approach that is unlikely to work with Biko is psychodynamic therapy. Dredging up Biko's past from long ago is not feasible, given the time-sensitive nature of the therapeutic process for a college student. Also psychodynamic therapy tends to be highly individualistic and eliminates the social components that affect the… [read more]

Children and Prejudice Essay

… 3). It is at the preschool age, according to Derman-Sparks, that children begin to use "racial terms and beliefs" which tend to "exclude and demean classmates of color" (p. 4).

The good news about what Caucasian children become aware of: Derman-Sparks explains on page 4 that even though children during the preschool years learn about "racial hierarchies" (i.e., the janitor at the school is African-American and the principal is white), the Caucasian children often learn to play "…comfortably with cross-race classmates." Moreover, young children that live and attend school where teachers and parents are supportive of and consistently modeling friendships between ethnicities are more apt to be "more accepting of differences" between people (Derman-Sparks, p. 4).

What do we need to know to fully grasp whether or not children will be racially prejudiced and will use racial stereotypes?

The authors conclude their article with a number of important points. First, they note that even though preschoolers have the ability to accept others of different races as "individuals," and can become more accepting of ethnic differences, there is no proof their capacity for acceptance at this age will "automatically result in more open attitudes" later in their adolescence. We need to know this.

Second, two things can happen to a child: one, the child may bond with others of his or her own race, proving "group loyalties" are a strong social force (which does not imply racism albeit the group loyalty could prevent others of different ethnicities from joining in). The second thing that may happen is that young children can develop "strong feelings about justice" and be open minded toward others that are different.

In conclusion, college and university students need to know that early childhood educators hold a tremendous amount of power and influence with very young children -- beyond the specifics of curriculum. Promoting the guidance and modeling necessary when it comes to embracing diversity -- in the classroom and on the playground -- is absolutely one of the most important responsibilities facing educators.

Works Cited

Derman-Sparks, L., and Ramsey, P.G. (2005). What If All the Children in My Class Are White?

Beyond the Journal. Retrieved February 5, 2014,… [read more]

Migration and Racial Formations Research Paper

… ¶ … Migration and Racial Formations among Somali Immigrants in North America by Adbi Kusow (2006) examines how Somali immigrants view their own identity in light of how they are perceived once they have arrived in North America. The author notes that the identity choice for these immigrants is complicated by views in the U.S. Of Somalis as "black," a group with which Somalis do not traditionally identify. This creates identity confusion for many Somali immigrants. While skin colour is one of the primary differentiators of social stratification in North America, in Africa tribal or religious affiliation is more common. In Somalia tribal affiliation is the norm. This is exacerbated by the reality that Somalia as a sovereign state did not exist until 1960 and for most its history since then it would reasonably be categorized as a failed state. There is little national identity for Somalis, when compared with ethnic and tribal identity. That most are Muslim further differentiates them from what most North Americans would consider to be "black" identity.

Somalis tend to view themselves in terms of ethnic or tribal identity. Respondents in the study noted that many had never met a white person, and never known about friction between blacks and whites. The entire concept of defining somebody by their skin colour never occurred to them, partly because nobody knew anyone of a different skin colour. There is in fact some confusion about the entire idea of using skin colour as a means of social stratification as the concept is entirely unknown in Somalia -- the respondents would only have learned of it upon arriving in North America and many still have only rudimentary understanding of the concept or do not accept it.

Race is, however, embedded in the U.S. construction of identity. For centuries, the U.S. was a slave state, and as such one's race was a critical differentiator of the rights that one would have. There was even a "one-drop rule," wherein one drop of black blood would make somebody be considered to be black, even if they… [read more]

Sociology Introducing Alexa Madison Essay

… As Anderson (1994) points out, "Of all the problems besetting the poor inner-city black community, none is more pressing than that of interpersonal violence and aggression," (1). Ethics "on the street" are difficult to navigate, as issues like respect rise… [read more]

Moral Licensing and Morality Term Paper

… Instead, it is an unrelated pro-social behavior. The hypothesis was that the moral licensing would make participants less likely to volunteer, and this hypothesis. What that suggests is that moral licensing has an umbrella effect; so that behavior that is seen as pro-social in one arena can lead to later negative behaviors in other arenas.

This research, like prior research in the field, challenges some of the deeply held assumptions about moral behavior. The general cultural approach has been that requiring people to engage in pro-social behavior would promote more positive behavior. On the contrary, requiring people to engage in pro-social behavior may actually encourage them to engage in negative behavior. The implications of this research could have a significant cultural impact. For example, many criminals are required to engage in community service, partially because of the theory that doing good will make them better people. What this research suggests is that community service may actually encourage them to be worse people.


Aquino, K., & Reed, A. (2002). The self-importance of moral identity. Journal of Personality

and Social Psychology, 83, 1423-1440.

Effron, D. A, Miller, D.T., & Monin, B. (2012). Inventing racist roads not taken: the licensing effect of immoral counterfactual behaviors. Journal of Personality and Social

Psychology, 103, 916-932. doi:10.1037/a0030008

Kouchaki, M. (2011). Vicarious moral licensing: The influence of others' past moral actions on moral behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(4), 702-715. doi: 10.1037/a0024552

Merritt, A.C., Effron, D.A., & Monin, B. (2010). Moral self-licensing: when being good frees us to be bad. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4, 344 -- 357. doi:10.1111/j.17519004.2010.00263.x

Monin, B., & Miller, D.T. (2001). Moral credentials and the expression of prejudice, Journal of Personality and Social psychology, 81(1), 33 -- 43. doi:10.1037//0022-3514.8I.I.33

Perugini, M., & Leone,… [read more]

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