"Recreation / Leisure / Tourism" Essays

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Travel and Tourism Investments Essay

Essay  |  3 pages (874 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Travel and Tourism Investments in Rural Regions of Turkey: Opportunities and Threats

As the crossroads between Asia and Europe, Turkey has long been the destination for travelers seeking adventure, and it is not surprising that this geographic proximity has helped grow the country's travel and tourism industry in recent years. In fact, over the past three decades, the Turkish travel and tourism industry has experienced explosive growth, and current projections indicate this growth will continue at least until mid-century. Indeed, Turkey has much to offer international tourists of all types, including medical tourism, cultural-heritage tourism, wildlife tourism and adventure tourism, among many others. In order to take advantage of these trends, it is important to identify opportunities to expand existing offerings to include other potential destinations that are "off the beaten track." To this end, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning travel and tourism in Turkey in general and how investments in rural regions of the country represent a timely and valuable enterprise in particular, followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.

Review and Analysis

Founded in 1923 by "The Father of the Turks," Mustafa Kemal or Ataturk, Turkey has emerged in the 21st century as an important Western ally and valuable trading partner (Turkey, 2014). The country's geographic proximity to Europe and Asia has made it a destination of choice for decades, and current signs point to a major growth in Turkey's travel and tourism in the future. For example, Garvey (2011) reports that, "Over the past three decades the tourism industry in Turkey has boomed. Between 1980 and 2010, tourism receipts grew from $300 million to $20.8 billion. And the industry continues to grow" (p. 25). In fact, the Turkish travel and tourism industry is expected to generate revenues in excess of $45 billion by 2020 (Garvey, 2011).

Although there are a number of popular urban destinations in Turkey, there are also a number of opportunities for promoting rural destinations as well. For instance, the definition of "rural" provided by Black's Law Dictionary (1991) states simply that "rural concerns the country, as opposed to urban (concerning the city)" (p. 1334). A study of Turkey travel and tourism industry by Kasli and Avcikurt (2008) identified a paucity of relevant training for the Turkish travel and tourism sector concerning the country's rural destinations. These are important needs because the relative attractiveness of potential travel and tourism destinations in rural regions of Turkey along the Mediterranean (see map of Turkey in Figure 1 below), for example, will depend in large part on their prevailing climatic…… [read more]

Travelling and Tourism Contributes Research Paper

Research Paper  |  13 pages (4,137 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


The tourism is found to have a role in economies since history yet the impact became clearer in the second half of the 20th century. The tourism drives development of roads, railways, air transport, foreign currency, income and employment in the country. There was huge cost associated with the tourism in past as well. Some travelers used to become illegal… [read more]

Appalachian Trail Conservancy Grant Grant Proposal

Grant Proposal  |  14 pages (3,596 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


The Conservancy looks to these members for input, while maintaining an independent role and seeking to advance practices and strategies that best align with and support our mission. Therefore, to assess the extent to which the proposed project remedies the problems noted above, it will be necessary to quantify the results to measure the project's effectiveness. The following are the… [read more]

Types of Tourism Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  12 pages (3,877 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


¶ … Tourism

What are the many and varied categories of tourism and travel? What specific advantage does one form of tourism have over another, and what are the most coveted venues for the business traveler, the leisure traveler, or the adventure traveler? These and other issues pertaining to tourism and travel will be reviewed and critiqued in this paper.… [read more]

Boise Idaho Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,308 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Boise, Idaho. Specifically it will discuss why Boise, Idaho is a great place to live, why the economy is growing, and why it is number eight on Money Magazine's list of top places to live in the United States. Boise, Idaho is a fast growing city located in southern Idaho - desirable because it enjoys good weather, low real estate prices (compared to national averages), recreation, and a host of other benefits. Boise is a great place to live, and more people are discovering the joys of Boise every day.

Boise, Idaho (population 211,473) is a metropolitan city located along the Boise River, with the Rocky Mountains as a backdrop for the city. It is the largest city in Idaho and is the capital of the state, as well. The city sprawls over 1,645 square miles, and lies at an elevation of 2,842 feet. It receives about 12 inches of rain a year, along with 234 sunshine days, making it a temperate location with all the amenities of a larger city ("City of Boise," 2007). The city's location is good for shipping and transport, along with recreation and development. All of these combine to make Boise a very desirable place to live, work, and play.

Boise took eighth place in the 2006 Money Magazine list of Best Places to Live in the country. Money used several criteria to choose the cities they found the best, including weather, population (under 300,000 but more than 50,000), schools, recreation, and more. They also screen out communities with "low education scores, high crime rates, absurdly high housing costs, declines in employment or income less than 90% of the state median. Remove bedroom communities and places where people identify themselves as being from a smaller locale within the area" ("Best Places," 2006). They also looked for good schools, employment opportunities, and areas with low crime rates. Although Boise does not rate perfectly in every area, it has enough plusses to make it one of the most desirable of the mid-sized American communities.

Schools and education are important to families, and Boise offers three colleges and universities, two junior colleges, and several private schools, as well. In addition, one-half of the state's budget goes to education, and it ranks in the top 33% of states with the most high school graduates. There are also a variety of day care and after school options for working parents throughout the area. This makes Boise a desirable area for families just starting out, or growing families looking for a better place to raise their children.

Employment is also a key issue in creating a desirable place to live or relocate, and Boise has a diversified economy that includes mining and forestry, agriculture, and tourism. However, many large technology companies, such as Hewlett-Packard and Micron have relocated at least some of their operations to Boise, creating growth in the technical, healthcare, and business and information services sectors of employment. In addition, for the last several years, jobs and… [read more]

To Introduce Various Types of Funding Crucial to Operating Recreation and Leisure Studies Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,925 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Recreation and Leisure

Introduction Of Various Types Of Funding Crucial To Operating Recreation And Leisure Studies

The objective of this work is to introduce various types of funding crucial to operating recreation and leisure agencies. The first section of this work is a reflection on fundraising requirements for children participating in extracurricular activities. Secondly, this work will discuss a leisure… [read more]

Recreation Resort Report Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (778 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Recreation and Leisure

Industry report: the commercial resort and entertainment industry.

The commercial resort and recreation industry is, according to reports, showing positive growth and the possibility of increased growth in 2007. This is despite many setbacks such as natural disasters, Avian Flu and the negative influence that terrorism has had on the industry. As one report indicates, these factors have not had a significant negative impact on the industry in general. "....With 842 million arrivals and a 4.5% growth rate, 2006 exceeded expectations as the tourism sector continued to enjoy above average results, making it a new record year for the industry. " (World Tourism Organization) www.unwto.org/newsroom/menu.htm

Figures for the Word travel and Tourism Council...indicate that "

Figures for the Word Travel and Tourism Council indicate that travel and tourism was responsible for the employment of 235, 205, 000 people in 2006. (Executive Summary)

Furthermore the latest UNWTO World Tourism Barometer figures "...suggest that 2007 will consolidate this performance and turn into the fourth year of sustained growth. (World Tourism Organization)

Another indication of the resort industries buoyancy can be seen in the fact that, according to the Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority "... Las Vegas hosted a record of 38.9 million visitors in 2006, an increase of 0.9% from 2005." (Travel Industry Update

This increased confidence in the industry has obviously resulted in a boost in job confidence and then availability of jobs in this sector. For example in cities like San Francisco where there is a high concentration of tourists, there has been an increase in related job availability.. "The City's visitor industry employs 66,300 people - and 55% of them are San Francisco residents. Tourism supports more jobs in San Francisco than finance, insurance, information services and legal services. In fact, it's one of the largest employers in the City." (2006-2007 marketing plan) Coupled with this is the fact that the largest travel segment for San Francisco is leisure travel with "...more than 40% of overnight hotel visitors" (2006-2007 marketing plan) in California Travel and tourism expenditures total $82.5 billion annually and "... support jobs for nearly 900,000 Californians." (Travel Industry)

There are many trends and challenges in the industry at present. While it is certainly true that natural disasters such as tsunamis, hurricanes and the Avian Flu threat have had a negative impact…… [read more]

Personal and Professional Philosophy of Recreation and Leisure Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,333 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Recreation & Leisure

Professional Philosophy on Recreation and Leisure

Recreation and leisure must play an important role in American society, even though it may be difficult for some Americans to come to terms with that concept. Driver writes that the guilt many Americans feel about recreation and leisure activities is a residual affect from the Puritan work ethic, which equates having fun with laziness, that has influenced American societies for centuries (Driver, No Date). However, she points out that many nations, Japan is an excellent example, have incorporated the importance of recreation and leisure into the national culture and identity (Driver).

In fact, recreation and leisure are important to every culture because they contribute many positive things to both the individual and to society at large. Specifically, recreation and leisure confers benefits upon:

The individual: Research shows that positive recreation and leisure activities can improve health, provide psychological benefits and even boost work performance.

The community: Recreation and leisure activities can help provide cultural identity and allow for social interaction within communities.

The environment: The need to provide recreation and leisure activities to a community often leads to public protection of lands for those activities, which directly benefits the environment (Driver).

Individual benefits

The physical aspects of exercise as a recreation and leisure activity are virtually uncontested. A regular exercise routine can extend life by improving cardiovascular health, lowering cholesterol levels and blood pressure, and strengthening the body's bones, muscles and joints (Driver). But the benefits of regular leisure and recreation activities can have a profound psychological impact as well.

Research by Parry found that regular recreation and leisure activities provided a psychological boost to a group of women, allowing them to derive self-esteem and their sense of worth from something other than traditional female roles such as cooking and cleaning (Parry, 2005). Similarly, a study by Shannon tracked the recreation and leisure activities of eight breast cancer survivors and found that, after being diagnosed with the disease, they made recreation and leisure more of a priority and came to depend on the psychological benefits they derived from these activities (Shannon, 2005). Clearly, positive recreation and leisure activities can help people feel good about themselves, which can lead to more self-confidence and overall improved psychological stability.

Recreation and leisure activities also can help people become more effective at work. Busy managers, who perhaps make the least amount of time for recreation and leisure activities, may be among the groups who are in need of leisure most. As was mentioned, physical activities such as exercise can lower blood pressure and even increase energy levels, which would both be welcomed in a hectic work environment.

Research by Iwaski, et. al. demonstrated that male and female managers in stressful positions who choose to make leisure a priority find that it becomes an invaluable coping tool (Iwaski, et.al., 2005). While there do appear to be gender differences in the types of activities selected, both men and women expressed that their recreation and leisure activities… [read more]

Tourist Behavior Toward Nature-Based Tourism Multiple Chapters

Multiple Chapters  |  23 pages (8,137 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 30


The primary concept that is a part of ecotourism is that it entails consciousness and admiration of the Mother Nature and the activities based on it (Fennell, 2001, 2008).

Another concept that is a vital part of ecotourism is pertinent to the regional communal groups like contribution (Ross and Wall, 1999), prospective advantages (Honey, 2008) and authorisation (Scheyvens, 2002). The… [read more]

Symbolizes the Sum Total Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,357 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It gives support to local handicrafts and cultural activities. People undertake travel to learn about our cultural heritage and traditions. Country like India has a rich cultural past. Man made wonders like the Taj Mahal, Khajuraho, Havamahal, Bibi ka Makbara etc. attract a large number of tourists. Artistic stone carvings in the temples of south India, Ajanta, Ellora and the… [read more]

Tourism Chicago City Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (649 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3



The main stake holders within this tourism paradigm include the city's government, the citizens of the city and the economic business leaders included in tourist activites. The city must combine the unique contributions of each stakeholder to create a comprehensive tourist destination.

Forms of Tourism

Chicago offers many different forms of tourism. Entertainment tourism is a very large component of this practices with many sports, theaters, dining and siteseeing opportunites available in Chicago. Shopping and history also plays a large role in the tourist activities of Chicago. Lake Michigan, the largest fresh water lake n North America also provides many water and sailing-based tourism as well.

Application of Sustainability Indicators

Due to Chicago's urban framework, sustainability and environmental issues are big challenges. Chicago does much to promote itself as eco-friendly but falls short in many areas, as would any large metropolis.

Competition and Collaboration

Chicago is a large city around the Midwestern section of the United States and feels some of its main competition from other large cities such as New York and Los Angeles. Cities such as Milwaukee and Indianapolis sometime collaborate with Chicago as being supplemental visit stops. Lake Michigan is also accessible from many different areas demonstrating another competitive aspect of this city.

Destination Marketing

Chicago sells itself as a destination because of the many differing options one has in such a large city. Every vice and interest can most likely be serviced in one way or another and Chicago can make tourists happy.

Tourism Trends

Tourism trends are growing in Chicago as previously mentioned but it is important for Chicago to keep growing and changing with the time in order to keep its mass appeal. Tourism trends are fickle and change quickly so a city such as Chicago needs to constantly explore ways to take advantage of new trends in the industry.


Lecture Notes Week 1. Provided by student…… [read more]

Popularity of Tourist Destinations Tourism SWOT

SWOT  |  17 pages (5,848 words)
Bibliography Sources: 40


Popularity of Tourist Destinations

Tourism can be defined as travel by people for leisure or business purposes to any destination outside their usual environment (MAS, 2009). The international tourism industry churns out billions of dollars every year. Many countries develop their infrastructure and other political activities around building up their tourism industry in order to attract foreign remittances (OROZCO, Manuel,… [read more]

Pro-Poor Tourism: Association With Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (3,175 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


It is noted that pro-poor tourism net benefits to poor communities extend beyond economic benefits, as they cut across environmental, social, and cultural benefits (Spenceley, Habyalimana, Tusabe, & Mariza, 2010). This is because pro-poor tourism in any community or nation facilitates rapid diversification of tourism products (Torres & Janet, 2004). Communities are driven to find tourist interests, an in return… [read more]

Shopping Tourism in Hong Kong Essay

Essay  |  18 pages (4,928 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


" (Hong Kong Tourism Commission, 2011 p.1) This is due to the modern transportation network and "tourist-oriented authentic Chinese traditions when combined provide "both convenience and nostalgia" in tourism destinations and the time spent as well as the money spent in those locations. Cultural tourism has then served to drive the growth of tourism industry participants and moreover has driven… [read more]

Nature-Based Tourism Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  5 pages (1,344 words)
Bibliography Sources: 8


Nature-based tourism is defined any kind of tourism that depends on experiences openly connected to natural lures and this does involve things like ecotourism, extractive tourism, wildlife tourism adventure tourism, and nature retreats. From the position of conservation, nature-based tourism delivers inducements for local communities and landowners to protect wildlife environments that are upon which the industry becomes contingent -- it endorses conservation by engaging a better value on residual natural parts. As nature tourism develops into something that is important to the local budget, communities have added reason to preserve their enduring natural parts for wildlife and wildlife fanatics.


It appears to be a little difficult to define "Ecotourism" since this word has been still contentious. Lomine and Edmunds displayed that "In 2001, David Fennell establish over 80 diverse meanings of ecotourism, regard to both industry and academic sources" (2007; p.81). Some of them will be talked about in this literature review, in order to get a better understanding about "ecotourism."

The first one that will be explained is the description of Hector Ceballos -- Lascurain, who is normally recognized as the first individual using the word of "ecological tourism" which is initially called "tourisimo ecologico" (Spanish). He acknowledged ecotourism as "travel to somewhat uninterrupted or unadulterated natural parts with the exact object of studying, approving and appreciating the setting and its wild animals and plants as well as any current cultural facets (both previous and present) established in these parts" (1988, p.13). It could be understood that there are two chief features that this meaning highlighted on, that are "nature-based fascinations and enlightening of grateful motivations" (Weaver, 2006; p.192). Ecotourism is the wandering of persons to vacant regions in order to experience the natural setting. According to this meaning, ecotourism mostly emphases on satisfying the visitors' benefits.

What's more, there are a lot of other experts that describe "ecotourism" more extensively, which is not only focusing on visitors' reimbursements but also highlight on local individuals but also the environmental conservation. The study that was done by Epler Wood (1991) displayed that ecotourism is one type of travel to natural places in order to get an understanding of the culture as well as the setting, and also take care regarding the conservation with the influence to the local assistances (cited Weaver, 2006).

According to the exceeding meanings, it can be observed that there are certain obviously fundamental features that are being comprised in the term "ecotourism": (1) it is nature-based tourism; (2) it has a function of cultural attractions; (3) it continuously comprises of educational interaction; (4) Ecotourism is preservation-ran with both setting and socio-culture (Weaver, 2006).

Adventure Tourism

Adventure travel is a form of tourism that involves the examination or travel to remote, unusual and maybe aggressive areas. Adventure tourism is quickly starting to grow in approval, as tourists start to seek diverse types of vacations. Rendering to the U.S. based Adventure Travel Trade Association, adventure travel can just be any tourist activity, counting two of the… [read more]

International Management the Cultural Tourism Essay

Essay  |  8 pages (2,868 words)
Bibliography Sources: 20


Advertisement and information may change, however, the ways that these tourists react (McKercher, 2002).

Message interpretation

The effectiveness of an advertisement policy is measured by the quotient of involvement aroused in a tourist that the policy induces. Message processing model in Richard Vaughn (1986) helps in understanding how a message can coincide with state of mind through the virtue of… [read more]

Tourism &amp Cyprus Case Study

Case Study  |  4 pages (1,101 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Sustainable Tourism Development

The term "sustainable tourism" has been originated from the theory of "sustainable development." This theory has been adopted and applied on tourism. Academicians have a tendency to correlate the "sustainable development" with the report of World Commission on Environment and Development which was carried out in 1987, and this indicated the core task of the term: "bringing together the concepts of the environmental protection and economic development."

The concept of sustainable tourism development emerged in the 1990s in consequence to the rapidly increasing awareness of environmental impacts being causes by tourism industry. Altinay and Hussain (2005) discussed that the industry is impacting environment as there tourism demands wide creation of general infrastructure such as "construction of roads, airports, and tourism facilities which can destroy environmental resources gradually. The World Summit on Sustainable Development" (2002) has also provided support to this argument by offering different instances of unsustainable outcomes of tourism. These consequences identified by World Summit were that; culture and labor are exploited, people are displaced from their land, local communities are not consulted, and tourism planning is no appropriate and high leakage of foreign exchange which decreases benefits of local communities. Yet in the case of Cyprus, consequences mentioned above can be reduced as here tourism facilities have already been developed and can lodged the supplementary incursion of tourists and this has been initiated with the casino introduction.

Similarly, Altinay and Hussain (2005) have considered both the bilateral impacts stating that through tourism awareness can be created about environmental values, and can support financially to the environment protection. The authors have stated that the procedures of sustainable tourism development have become a well-liked approach and it is considered an economically satisfactory in the continuing of economic growth and social development as well as support environment protection. In brief through the concept of sustainable tourism development environmental impact of this industry can be minimized at the same time accentuating socio-economic benefits to the community engaged in the tourism industry.


The current essay discussed the tourism for sustainability in the Republic of Cyprus. The country is known for its climate conditions, location, culture and other facilities and attracts tourists who come to spend holidays. Tourism plays an important role in the economy of the country. The term sustainable tourism emerged as a consequence of the environmental issues from this industry. Tourism can be used to create awareness about environmental issues as well for the protection of environment through financial support. The Republic of Cyprus has already adopted sustainable tourism development and is further adopting this.


Aas E, Baussant T, Balk L, Liewenborg B, Andersen OK. (2000) PAH metabolites in bile, cytochrome P4501A and DNA adducts as environmental risk parameters for chronic oil exposure: a laboratory experiment with Atlantic cod. Aquat Toxicol 51:241-258.

Altinay, M. & Hussain, K. (2005). Sustainable tourism development: a case study of North Cyprus. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 17 No. 3, pp. 272-280

Cyprus Tourism Organization (2006). Tourism in Cyprus… [read more]

Contemporary Issues in Tourism Assessment

Assessment  |  6 pages (2,289 words)
Bibliography Sources: 6


¶ … Tourism

Explain what matters of scale and scope have to do with the marketing of tourism sites and places - according to a or the contributors of Jamal and Robinson (destination marketing organization: Convention and visitors Bureaus: Robert C. Ford and William C. Peeper)

The idea for a convention is thought to have been initiated in Detroit as… [read more]

Polish Tourists and Their Recent Tourism Trends Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (2,747 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 6


Polish Tourists and Their Recent Tourism Trends

Polish Tourists and Recent Trends

The forces of globalization have changed the way we now see and live life. The fact that social, political, technological, cultural and economic features have transcended boundaries materialized in new features, to which the contemporaneous society has quickly adapted. Technological innovations in the United States were brought to… [read more]

Current Situation of Silver Tourism and the Future in the USA Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,452 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


¶ … Silver Tourism and its Future in the U.S.A.

Travel Market General Situation

Travel Market Segments

Current Situation of the Silver Travel Segment

Silver Tourism Future Trends

The Mature Traveler segment is the most stable and probably the most important travel market segment, with tremendous growth opportunities that will be discussed in the following pages.

The following pages focus… [read more]

Changing Leisure Trends of Baby Boomers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,896 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


Babyboomer Proposal

Over the next two decades the babyboomers will all be entering into their senior years. However, many of these millions of individuals due to their personal interests and experiences are already demanding and will continue to increase their requests for outdoor leisure and recreational activities that meet the needs of an aging population. It will be in the… [read more]

Philosophy of Leisure Philosophy Can Be Thought Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,712 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 3


Philosophy of Leisure

Philosophy can be thought of as a systematically-defined set of values, beliefs and preferences." --Edginton, et. al 1997

miles. "I can't believe you chose to do that to yourself," shouted one spectator at a recent marathon, as the man watched people stagger over the finish line, exhausted and sweaty. When it was pointed that this disdainful individual… [read more]

Sex Tourism in the Vietnam Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,932 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Otherwise faced with poverty, such women are said to be doing a service to themselves and their families. For instance, Bart Croughs states, "in general sex tourists act rather feminist: most of them practice a private form of affirmative action ... This way the disadvantaged women in third world countries are given the opportunity to advance their economic position and… [read more]

Tourism Sustainability Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,285 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Therefore, tourism is not sustainable as an industry. While in theory it could be, it almost never is. The industry wants to define sustainability as wasting less, but that is a soft definition that does not reflect true sustainability. Heinberg's understanding of sustainability is more in line with reality. While washing towels less often is admirable, it does not make a hotel sustainable. If the hotel relies on people flying in from another city or country, the hotel cannot be sustainable because of that factor alone. Sustainability implies significant decline in human activity, and strict limits on the scope on the activity, the two things that tourism cannot say for itself.

The contrary view to this argument holds that sustainability is not something that can be taken on aggregate. People are free to make their own choices. Thus, a tourism operator can still operate sustainably, even if it is within the context of an unsustainable industry. Industry in particular makes this case. For example, a hotel on a tropical island can be sustainable if it uses renewable energy sources, takes less water than the replenishment rate, serves locally source food made with sustainable farming practices, and facilitates sustainable interesting activities for its guests, like horseback riding or snorkeling. This line of argument is common in business, but makes no sense. If the entire industry is unsustainable, then it is impossible to operate a sustainable business within that industry, because the business is a subset of the industry. The most sustainable resort in the world, after all, still markets frivolous consumption, and requires transportation that wastes resources. This counterargument still fails to meet the very first axiom of sustainability, despite its attempts to conceal that fact.

Moreover, most tourism industries are outright destructive. Many cause pollution and waste of water resources. In a number of cases, tourism operators are allowed to conduct their business with only limited government controls, and this results in destructive practices. Animals are disrupted, native tribes corrupted, quaint European villages overrun, leading to their degradation, and pristine environments damaged forever by influx of tourists. Such outright destruction should result in those operators being banned, as they are clearly violating several axioms of sustainability.

It is hard to argue that the tourism industry is sustainable, because on aggregate it simply isn't, not in its current form. That does not mean that individual tourism operators should be held accountable for the unsustainable practices of others. There is room for sustainable tourism in this world. People probably will shift their tourism when the economic incentives change over time. If overseas travel is too expensive, people will make different choices, and may well ride their bikes to the local lake. For right now, the focus should not be on vilifying the entire industry, and especially not on passing legislation. The government can encourage the development of tourism that has been designed with maximum sustainability in mind.

Heinberg's definition of sustainability is mostly accurate, and highlights how entirely unsustainable our lives are.… [read more]

Space Vehicles for Future Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (3,364 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Such technological growths will as well have fascinating implications on the hotel industry. Notably, the required technology for initial orbital accommodation is much simpler than that required by the passenger launch space vehicles. It is also simpler than that required within the orbiting research stations. Here, there is no need for extremely accurate high-speed computers, communications, attitude controls, and/or custom… [read more]

Tourism in Chicago This Assessment Assessment

Assessment  |  10 pages (2,950 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


The citizens also have a significant role in the sector. The citizens should ensure that the city is welcoming for the tourists. The citizens should also be proactive in protecting the tourist attractions and resources. Business leaders need to invest in the sector. This includes the building of new attractions and accommodation facilities for visitors. It is evident that the… [read more]

Terrorism Affects the International Tourism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  18 pages (5,575 words)
Bibliography Sources: 18


Terrorists see these vacationers as vital targets and utilize them as a political instrument. Acting against the tourism business permits the terrorists to harm a flourishing industry and additionally gather broad communications consideration. In the event, terrorist dangers happen in a nation remote voyagers reexamine their choice to visit reason being that the danger included has altogether expanded. The danger… [read more]

Cultural Tourism Effects That Tourism Had at Bali Indonesia Research Paper

Research Paper  |  10 pages (2,802 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Cultural Tourism

Culture Tourism Research the effects (both positive and negative) that tourism has had on Bali, Indonesia.

When most people think of Bali, they will often associate it with the beaches and their unique traditions. This has helped to make it one of the most popular cultural tourism destinations. What has helped to enhance its reputation is their ability… [read more]

Tourism Profile for Australia Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,459 words)
Bibliography Sources: 7


Tourism Australia

Tourism Profile for Australia

Tourism is one of the most important industries of Australia due to which it is counted as the eighth largest tourism market of the world. Australia provides to its visitors stable and secure environment; therefore every year a large population of local and overseas tourist visit Australia for exploring adventure and discovering beautiful places… [read more]

Needs for Local Participation in Tourism Development in Bueng Kan Province Thailand Multiple Chapters

Multiple Chapters  |  23 pages (7,386 words)
Bibliography Sources: 40


¶ … Local Participation in Tourism Development in Bung Kan Province

The tourism industry is an important element of economic development sector around the world, especially in many developing countries that possess natural resources that are amenable to tourism development. The experiences to date show that besides major metropolitan areas, people living in rural areas of developing countries can also… [read more]

Tourism - Kerala Boat Race Event Case Study

Case Study  |  8 pages (2,710 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


Tourism - Kerala Boat Race

Event Tourism -- Kerala Boat Race

Introduction to Event Tourism

Event tourism is the latest niche in the field of tourism and it refers to the way cities and regions market the local events to attract more visitors to the place. It can be loosely defined as the increase in the number of people who… [read more]

Worldmaking Practices in and Through Tourism Assessment

Assessment  |  6 pages (1,988 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Worldmaking Practices in and Through Tourism

Many people think about tourism as simply vacations and good times, without really considering the impact that tourism has on locales and on the world environment. However, tourism is about much more than providing entertainment for visitors. Tourism is far more powerful than it seems at first glance. It can help in worldmaking, since… [read more]

Tourism Handbook Coverage of Foreign Assessment

Assessment  |  4 pages (1,711 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


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Bloomberg, N, 'South Africa proclaims World Cup a tourism win', Toronto Star (Canada), December, 7 2010, Newspaper Source, EBSCOhost, viewed 11 December 2011.

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'C/A Deficit Growing, But Not Alarming' 2010, Africa Monitor: Southern Africa, 15, 10, pp. 1-2, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 11 December 2011.

Devaney, T 2011, '15 states feel Europe's economic pain', Washington Times, The (DC), p. 10, Regional Business News, EBSCOhost, viewed 11 December 2011.

'Executive summary' 2011, OECD Economic Surveys: New Zealand, pp. 9-10, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 11 December 2011.

Gideon, S 2011, 'London tourism body taps up top mandarin', Evening Standard, 25 May, Newspaper Source, EBSCOhost,…… [read more]

Shopping Tourism Hong Kong Essay

Essay  |  13 pages (3,450 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


Sampling Method

The researcher adopted convenient method of sampling. As the target of the research was tourists visiting Hong Kong the survey was conducted at two main shopping malls at Hong Kong. The avenue of the research was duty free shops at Tsim Sha Tsui which is a famous shopping district in HK. Yet at shopping malls there is less… [read more]

Model to Develop Sustainable Marine Tourism in Similan Island Thailand Methodology Chapter

Methodology Chapter  |  18 pages (5,220 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … sustainable marine tourism in Similan Island, Thailand

Thailand is located in the South-East Asia between the countries of Laos and Cambodia to the East, Burma (Republic of Myanmar) to the West, and Malaysia to the South around the Gulf of Thailand (Chien and Fitzgerald, 2006). Thailand moreover is a wonderful kingdom, where the country is combines with the… [read more]

Tourism Demand Research &amp Analysis Essay

Essay  |  12 pages (3,896 words)
Bibliography Sources: 30


Travel and tourism is a viable economic development alternative as it injects money from outside sources into the local economy, primarily through visiting tourism spending on locally produced goods and services. As an export-based industry, tourism generates regional income that contributes to the development of other services and amenities, such as housing and retail that are used by local residents.… [read more]

Quality Management in Sports Tourism Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,471 words)
Bibliography Sources: 12


There should be no unforeseen event that cannot be countered with an alternative.

The second part of managing sports tourism occurs at the destination itself. Sports tourists want something new. They want to get off of the beaten path and make their way into the wilderness. But, they want to do this safely and productively. Managing the destination requires making… [read more]

Tourism Opportunities Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (514 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Tourism Opportunities: Strategic Directions for Bilby

As a historic mining community with a wealth of natural beauty, Bilby can readily become the region's premiere tourism destination. The Bendalong Regional Tourism Authority (BRTA) should improve its marketing campaign, stimulate investment in adventure tourism facilities, and ensure the protection of the region's precious wetlands.

Bilby's history is one of the core tourism draws, allowing domestic and foreign visitors to catch a glimpse of the nation's rich mining and prospecting past. Moreover, Bilby's geographic setting enables the town to become a destination adventure, leisure, and ecotourism destination. Special emphases can be placed on farming tourism, which attracts families and also encourages investment. Tourism opportunities abound year-round, with plenty of activities for people with multiple interests including nightlife and shopping. With key marketing and investment strategies, Bilby will enjoy years of sustainable growth without sacrificing any of its charm or character.

1.0 Bilby's History

1.1 Improvements to the Town Museum

Extending town museum remains one of the most important means to stimulate investment in Bilby while expanding its tourism infrastructure. The BRTA is advised to hire a team of qualified curators who can offer the public a first-rate museum experience.

1.2 Bilby History Pass

The extension of the museum should be combined with improving access to all of Bilby's historic sites including the mines. Ideally, tourists can enjoy an optional pass that allows entry into all of Bilby's historical sites. The pass, entitled the Bilby History Pass, will allow entry into multiple sites over the period of several days. This will…… [read more]

Environmental Tourism/Eco-tourism the Hotel Sector in Malaysia Dissertation

Dissertation  |  10 pages (2,914 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1+


Environmental Tourism/eco-Tourism

The Hotel Sector in Malaysia

The work of Kasim (2007) entitled: "Environmentalism in the Hotel Sector: Evidence of Drivers and Barriers in Penang Malaysia" reports that the link between tourism businesses and their impact to the environmental are often hidden or veiled by the promotion of tourism as a 'soft' industry. It is this that perhaps best explains… [read more]

Amish Tourism and Sustainable Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  9 pages (2,993 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 25


Amish Tourism

Developing Sustainable Models for Amish Tourism

Although members of the Mennonite Church have established communities all over the world, a large percentage of them have made their home in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. The idyllic setting of Lancaster County combined with the pastoral lifestyle of the Amish have made this county an increasingly popular tourist destination, but this trend… [read more]

Service Agency Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,202 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Service Agency


The recreation and leisure service agency identified for this study is that of local Park and Recreation Services throughout the United States. These services include YMCAs and other community centers from the non-profit sector (501c3 agencies) There are other similar services located in cities and towns across the United States however, those services are for-profit agencies such as local gyms and other fitness agencies or they are non-profit agencies that do not focus on the market in terms of fees charged for their services, although these fees are minimal.



The YMCA is comprised of 2,617 non-profit community service organizations in the United States. This organization's mission is to "meet the health and human services needs of 20.2 million men, women and children in 10,000 communities in the United States." (About the YMCA, 2007) the following chart labeled Figure 1 lists the age and gender demographics of YMCA members further specifying the facility and program members in number as well.

YMCA Members 2,617 (2005 U.S. statistics)

Members 20.2 million

Facility members 11.8 million

Program members 8.4 million

Under age 18 members 9.5 million

Over age 18 members

10.6 million

Male members 10.1 million

Female members 10.1 million

Source: About the YMCA (2007)

I. Organizational Structure

AYP is stated to be the professional society for YMCA staff members in the Unites States. The Operating Principles of the AYP are stated to be those as follows (1) Connects and Supports AYP members; (2) Encourages Life Long Learning; (3) Enhances Personal and Career Development; (4) Advocates on Issues of Concern to AYP Members; (5) Promotes High Ethical Standards and Christian Values; and (6) Recognizes Individual Achievement and Excellence." (AYP, 2007)

II. National Board

AYP serves as the governing body for the YMCA and consists of 30 to 35 elected and appointed members. The National Board determines the policies and establishes the goals of the YMCA as well as appropriating and allocating funds. The member of the AYP includes those as follows:

national officers (chair, vice chair, secretary, treasurer, chief executive officer) members-at-large two elected officers from each of the seven regions

CEOs or their designees from the YMCA of the U.S.A., the YMCA Retirement Fund, Springfield College and the North American Fellowship of YMCA Retirees

The members are both elected and appointed and serve for three-year terms. The AYP programs and services are managed at the National level through the Board's standing committees, Chapter Services, Communications, Finance, Leadership Development, Member Services and Support Services. Seven geographic regions have been identified by the AYP with Chapters within each of the seven regions, which are organized to make provision of the "most meaningful grass-roots experience possible for the members." (AYP, 2007)

III. Regions/Chapters/States

The Regions, Chapter and Associated States are depicted in the following chart labeled Figure 2.

Regions/Chapters/Associated States of YMCA in the United States



Associated States


1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

ME, MA, NY, NH,… [read more]

No Time for Leisure Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,051 words)
Style: APA  |  Bibliography Sources: 1


¶ … Fighting Overwork and Time Poverty in America by John De Graaf. Specifically, it will contain a review of the book, including a summary of the critical concepts presented in this book. Americans work more than just about any other people on Earth and it affects everything from personal relationships to health and well-being. This book contains numerous essays regarding the relationship between time, work, and personal life. It gives some concrete ideas on how to create more "quality time" in life, but it seems few Americans heed the advice these experts have to offer. Americans are working more than ever, spending more than ever, and commuting more than ever. Americans live to work it seems, even though few might ever admit that fact aloud.

The first essay states Americans worked 199 more hours in the year 2000 than they did in 1973, which equates to five weeks more of work a year, based on a 40-hour work week (Schor 7). This is an amazing number, and citing it so early in the work makes the reader think about work and what it means to American society. The essays in this book explore that and many other aspects of the American work ethic, all of them pointing to the importance of job and career in our culture.

One of the interesting aspects of this increased workload is the "work-and-spend" ethic that many Americans subscribe to. People work harder today, but consumerism is also at an all time high. Many Americans are obsessed with "stuff" - from the oversized SUV to new furniture, clothing, and thousands of other discretionary expenses that seem to have become a necessity in modern life. The society is based on this consumerism, and it begins at a very young age. Many people are working more hours because they have to in order to afford the accessories of life that have become somehow necessary. These can be anything from designer handbags to swimming pools, new cars, and fancy kitchen gadgets. Many people justify the money they spend on their long hours at work, which seems to turn into a vicious cycle that can never stop. It is an interesting concept and one that the reader must ponder in their own lives.

Another interesting aspect is the comparison between American work hours and those in Europe. In Europe, laws guarantee vacations and limit work hours, and many Europeans get as much as four or five weeks of vacation each year. In America, laws ensure employers they can require mandatory overtime, and very few states even limit the number of overtime hours an employer can require in a two-week period. Another essayist notes, "In the U.S., it is entirely legal for an employer to require an employee to work beyond his or her scheduled shift time with no advance notice, and to take disciplinary action against an employee who refuses" (Golden 29). This seems grossly unfair to employees - the only people this law benefits are the employers.… [read more]

Hospitality and Travel Marketing Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,607 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



In recent years, the comprehensive atmosphere of tourism has undergone extensive changes worldwide in comparison to tourism during decades of the past. The traditional face of tourism has been exposed to numerous acts of terrorism, and even more recently, historical natural disasters. Although these recent tragedies have significantly altered tourism, the tourism and hospitality… [read more]

Recreation for Children and Youth Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (879 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


¶ … Recreation for Children and Youth

Recreation is an essential part of a child's natural development and growth.

Recreation is not only important in terms of physical health and well - being but is equally important in terms of the psychological, moral and personal growth of the child. I believe that the importance of recreation cannot be underestimated. At the same time recreation needs to be well planned and monitored so that it provides the most advantageous environment for a child's development.

A useful definition of recreation is one which sees the full spectrum of possibilities that recreational activities offer. One such definition is as follows. Recreation is defined as, any activity, voluntarily engaged in, which contributes to the physical, mental, or moral development of the individual or group participating therein, and includes any activity in the fields of music, drama, art, handicraft, science, literature, nature study, nature contacting, aquatic sports, and athletics, or any of them, and any informal play incorporating any such activity."

According to this definition, recreation is seen in a much wider context than is normally the case. Another definition which pinpoints the positive effect of recreation is, "Recreation is an experience that adds substance and content to living." (Nash 195) positive aspect of recreation is that it provides a "space' and a means for the child, or adult, to cope with daily stress. This is an important aspect for children in a world which is increasingly more complex and competitive and which makes more demands of children in terms of excelling and performance than ever before.

Recreational activities can also prepare the child in a friendly and non-stressful way for the rigors of the competitive world. This aspect also relates to health and well-being. "Participation in leisure activities provides resources that assist people either to resist the onset of stress reactions or cope with stress before stress has an impact on health."

Effects Of Parks And Recreation Services On Human Development And Other Benefits) related aspect is that leisure and recreation helps the child to come to terms with possible trauma and psychological issues. This is especially the case with regard to children recovering from injury or illness. Leisure activity can also be used "...as a source of motivation to sustain coping efforts. " (Effects Of Parks And Recreation Services On Human Development And Other Benefits)

It has also been found that children who have access to leisure facilities and a good recreational environment tend to perform better their academic activities.

Adolescents who spend time in communities that are rich in developmental recreational opportunities... experience less risk and show evidence of higher rates…… [read more]

Tourism Attraction Ethics Extensive International Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,900 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Some students seem to be under severe depression, being thrown into the entirely new surroundings, irrespective of the absence of language and custom barriers. There also exists a conflict between the privacy issues and the requirement of the institution to become aware of the mental and physical condition of the students.

The students are required to be oriented to become… [read more]

Tourism Distribution Network Term Paper

Term Paper  |  10 pages (2,787 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


Tourism entrepreneurs need to understand this and react quickly by adding creativity and innovation to their business models. Technological convergence and global trends are disrupting the structures of traditional industry. The players of tourism industry will have to accept the effects of dynamism brought about by technology in the distribution network. This requires a flexible approach and all the more,… [read more]

International Regulation of Tourism Term Paper

Term Paper  |  75 pages (19,613 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+



Lake Vostok has since become one of the few causes of disagreement between the international college of nations with interests in Antarctica; the Lake Vostok problems will be outlined later in this report. It is notable, however, even before the controversy and scientific quandaries that have vexed scientists and nations the past few years. Not since 1858, when Africa… [read more]

Mass Tourism on the Culture Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,840 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


This is different from other places where tourism is just one component in an integrated economy, and there is a sense of relief and freshness when the season comes. Due to size considerations, the impact of tourism on Ibiza is felt more than other destinations. Tourist contact is high and interactive thus resulting in positive and negative outcomes. There is… [read more]

Painting as a Leisure Activity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,763 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


S. Department of Commerce) reported that 18,624 citizens of the U.S. took international flights for "leisure and visiting friends/relatives" in the year 2002. As to how many of those "leisure" travelers used their time abroad to paint, that's a question with no answer. As to how many of those travelers who did paint overseas, and who enjoyed it - one can easily speculate that it was a very high percentage. As Churchill said in his book, "Even if you are only a poor painter you can feel the influence of the scene, guiding your brush, selecting the tubes you squeeze on to the palette."


Churchill, Winston S. (1950). Painting as a Pastime: An instructive and inspiring

Invitation to the joy of painting. New York: Cornerstone Library.

Il Chiostro Presents (2003). Yoga & Painting in Lake Garda, Italy, with Linda

Novick. http://www.ilchiostgro.com/Garda.htm.

Kemp, Martin (1989). Leonardo on Painting: an anthology of writings by Leonardo

Da Vinci with a selection of documents relating to his career as an artist. London:

Office of Travel & Tourism Industries (2003). 2002 Profile of U.S. Resident

Traveler Visiting Overseas Destinations: Reported From: Survey of International Air

Travelers. http://www.tinet.ita.doc.gov/.

Painting-photography-france.com (2003). One week holidays from 385 Euros. Excellent Value leisure activity holidays in the beautiful Bordeaux Region of France. http://www.painting-photography-france.com.

Peace of Selby Wilderness (2003). Painting Workshop with Karen Austen. http://www.alaskawilderness.net.

Pochade Boxes (2003). Guerrilla Painter: Plein air painter traveling light, with wet

Paintings completely protected, always read to paint at a moment's notice. http://www.pochade.com.… [read more]

Social and Cultural Impacts Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,030 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Moreover, these questionnaires were intended to give a more accurate picture of how a new eco-tourism enterprise could exceed its corporate needs and expectations, such that a new niche could be identified.

It is evident that corporate traveling is a segment of the hospitality industry with a high financial potential and one that can also sustain growth, due to the intrinsic need to meet their customers' or employees' business demands. Consequently, encouraging corporate businesses to participate in the development of eco-tourism hotels would, in my view, give organizations a new dimension through which to help the environment and to follow the necessary codes of ethics. In addition, incorporating the needs of corporate travelers would allow a better understanding of what can be done to stimulate corporate travelers to be interested in supporting an eco-friendly environment.

Surprisingly, even with the September 11th attacks of 2001, tourism in Brazil is still increasing, with a yearly growth of 7% (EMBRATUR). Therefore, the results from the suggested interviews and questionnaires would confirm whether there will be a sustained increase in the current trends of corporate and leisure travelers looking for a more eco-friendly environment in Brazil.


7.1 Introduction

This chapter provides an understanding of the literature published in the area of studies of sustainable tourism and eco-tourism. Firstly, I will be give a definition of Sustainable Tourism. A brief review of the economic impact of tourism development will follow. Finally, I will give a description of, and a definition for, Eco-tourism, and a summary of the studies that have been published in this subject area.

Tourism, as an activity, developed from the needs of individuals: from discovery and trade, to adventure and relaxation. According to Rejowski (1998), the first demonstration of tourism dates from 1870; and was linked directly with economy and geography. Nowadays, tourism is a global activity and interaction; it has gained a diversity of roots and branches, adapting to the needs of people.

A brief and simplistic chronological description of the tourism development can be given as follows:

i) Adventurers set out to discover other lands (e.g., Captain Cook) ii) People traveled for scientific research (e.g., Darwin) iii) People traveled for business (trade) iv) People traveled in order to visit friends and family (social), v) People traveled for leisure (relaxation) vi) People travel as Eco-Travelers (learners).

The development of tourism has influenced people and society, and has created thousands of organizations, at many levels: national and international, governmental or non- governmental. Tourism has thus led to the creation of million of jobs worldwide, in what is today is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. Tourism has led people to confront different attitudes and to admire eclectic cultures. In addition, to be able to understand these cultures, society at large has had to adapt to the pluralism of cultures by learning languages other than their own, different types of gastronomy and music, and also by adopting a greater tolerance of different religions.

Accordingly to Kaluf (2001), the… [read more]

Planning for Policy of Tourism Development Research Paper

Research Paper  |  8 pages (2,661 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 8


The plan also concentrates on improving relationships with all airline services serving Adelaide, and encouraging interested new airlines so that domestic and international seats can achieve increased growth.

The South Australian Tourism Plan 2015-2020 recognizes real actions that can stimulate growth. The plan notes the importance of a consumer based involvement in making decisions. It believes this will affect the… [read more]

Tourism, Technology and Innovation Essay

Essay  |  4 pages (1,655 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10



The Influences of Technology and Related Innovation on Tourism

Tourism is a highly competitive industry, technology has helped aided many tourist destinations. Owners and managers of tourist destinations have to compete to attract visitors, so need to understand the ways in which technology may influence, or may be leverage, the marketing and decision making of potential tourists who might… [read more]

Parks and Recreation and Managing Trail Conflict Research Paper

Research Paper  |  7 pages (1,917 words)
Bibliography Sources: 3


Managing Potential Trail Conflicts, Parks and Recreation

The objective of this study is to examine the management of potential trail conflicts in park and recreation planning. The appropriate park staff will be identified in management of groups utilizing the trail in the expectation that future park management will receive guidance from the information.

Trail Management

Various trail classes are identified… [read more]

Working and Leisure Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,560 words)
Bibliography Sources: 4


Sociology: Work and Leisure

Work and Leisure

The Importance of Being Lazy

The Importance of Being Lazy

Purpose of Book

Al Gini's is the author of "The Importance of Being Lazy." The purpose of the book is to explain the concept of 'working' and not the work. He criticizes the overworking habits that are destructive to both the health as… [read more]

Tourism in Mozambique Being Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (690 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+


The creation of this ministry also came with the scrapping off of the 3% tourist tax that was levied on every hotel services that were offered.

There are also laws that govern the operations of the tourism industry, apart from the policies mentioned above. For instance the Tourism law of 2004 sets out the legislation that applies to tourism activities, the public sector activities that are directed towards promoting tourism, tourist numbers, the supply in the tourism sector as well as the consumer numbers in the sector.

There are also strategic plans that are covered under Strategic Plan for the Development of Tourism in Mozambique (SPDTM) that sets out to promote tourism as a part and parcel of the economic growth catalyst and job creation. It is estimated that in 2001, 7.5% of the total employments in the sub-Saharan Africa were from tourism and Mozambique is part of this region. The SPDTM intentionally incorporates the vision 2020 of the country that foresees Mozambique being the leader in the tourism industry in terms of dynamism, exotic nature and fame within the entire Africa with a view of hosting over 4 million tourists annually.

There are estimations that within the tourism industry, there could be an additional $1.1 billion in the medium growth rate of 9% and $2.6 billion at the high growth rate estimation by 2020 to the economy of the country.

The tourism industry within Mozambique is bound to expand further and attract new tourists if the political conditions remain stable as they are within the country and the region at large, accompanied by the efforts seen above and the positive policies put in place.


Anna S & Ema B., (2011). Economic Case for Tourism in Mozambique. Retrieved April 24, 2013 from http://www.anna.spenceley.co.uk/files/Files%20Sept%202012/Economic%20case%20tourism%20Mozambique.pdf

National Policy for Tourism, (2013). Tourism Policy and Strategy. Retrieved April 24, 2013 from http://www.tourisminvest.org/Mozambique/downloads/tourism%20sector%20background/Strategies,%20plans/Tourism%20Policy%20and%20Implementation%20Strategy.pdf… [read more]

Use of Social Media Term Paper

Term Paper  |  13 pages (4,339 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


¶ … Social Media

Travel and tourism, a multibillion-dollar worldwide industry, with the UK being one of the premier tourist destinations, has constantly relied greatly on endorsement and advertising as platforms for the enormous number of destinations, spots, and vacation selections; hotels, resorts, areas, and countries; challenging for travel business, not to bring up the crowd of carriers, airlines, trains,… [read more]

City Town Reimaging Using Sport Strategies Assessment

Assessment  |  10 pages (3,154 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


City/Town Re-Imaging Using Sport Strategies

City Re-Imaging Using Sport Strategies

Changing a city or town over to be more of a "sports" destination can be difficult, and Belfast, Northern Ireland is no exception. It has to be considered carefully, because it may not have the rate of success for which one hopes. However, there are many ways to determine whether… [read more]

Promoting Cultural Heritage Literature Review Chapter

Literature Review Chapter  |  20 pages (7,664 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10


Moreover, in spite its strategic partnership with Elephantstay, an international organization committed to elephant conservation and ongoing support from the Thai government, the Royal Kraal at Ayutthaya needs additional resources to fulfill its mission of rescuing and caring for an increasingly endangered, aging elephant population in Thailand. The Royal Kraal's mission is important because the elephant population in Thailand is… [read more]

Fire in Hospitality and Tourism Essay

Essay  |  2 pages (434 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


Within the tourism industry, fire is widely used as a source of warmth. One would for instance find rooms installed with fire places and chimneys with wood for heating the room incase the room became too cold, these are provisions that almost all tourist destination hotels and motels have learnt to cater for. It is even used to heat shower water for nature tourists who choose not to spend within the constructed rooms with piped water and heating system. Fire can as well be used in the case that a group of tourists have go out to tour the wild areas; as a source of heat cooking food or protection in this instance as bonfires. Animals tend to shy away from fires hence will clear off any place that has fire, except the rhino who is known for disliking fires and would put it off before he marches on.

In as much as fire is seen as a positive contributor to the tourism and hospitality industry, there is need as well to tame it as fire left untamed can be very destructive and cost material as well as lives.… [read more]

Tourism Research Philosophies and Principles Assessment

Assessment  |  10 pages (2,944 words)
Bibliography Sources: 15


In addition, they employed the 'interpretative' paradigm's Quantitative Method by value-laden examination of the hotel guests in an attempt to understand the guests' behaviour and underlying reasons for reusing or failing to reuse guest towels. Through a carefully worded four-page questionnaire, careful selection of cooperative hotels, careful selection of appropriate guests, and well-placed rewards, Mair and Bergin-Seers were able to… [read more]

ICT Use Is Applied Case Study

Case Study  |  17 pages (4,714 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


" (2009) Sigala states that multimedia technologies are "…being referred to as the technological wave of ICT developments and are defined as "a host of computer-delivered services made-up of textual and no-textual information that integrate several sources of media and data such as video, graphics, animation, audio, text." (2009)

Multimedia is "an all-embracing term that cuts across a wide variety… [read more]

Development of Tourism Education and Training for Frontline Tourism Workers in Thailand Introduction Chapter

Introduction Chapter  |  5 pages (1,364 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Tourism in Thailand

Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. With many new nations being introduced to the global arena, tourists from all over are seeing new sights and placed. In 2005, international tourist arrivals worldwide surpassed all expectations, exceeding 800 million, thus achieving an all-time record (WTO, 2005). More recently, tourism within Asia has also been increasing at a dramatic rate. Despite global trends which tended to lower tourist trust in various areas, more and more tourists are looking towards Asia for their vacation, thanks to increased effort and investment being placed in the context of the tourism industry. In this regard, the research shows that in Asia as a whole tourism grew 11% in 2010 (ETN 2011). In fact, many Asian nations have stood within the world's top tourist destinations in the recent years of 2010 and 2011. One of those top nations was Thailand. Thailand has also seen some impressive recent numbers, but still definitely has a number of issues which could be possibly affecting future tourist revenues.

Thailand has been an integral part of that explosion of international tourism. In fact, it was ranked as the 16th most popular nation for international tourist travel in 2004 (WTO, 2005). Despite the decline between the 2008 and 2009 years, Thailand has been showing constant signs of growth in the 2011-year. Recent reports from 2011 show that Thailand is expecting to surpass its goal for the year, and bring in record numbers of tourists to the region. The Bangkok Post (2011) reported that the Fiscal Policy Office of the Finance Ministry believes 19.5 million visitors will make a stop in Thailand, which far surpasses the previous target of 26.5 million. Top groups of visitors include those from China, Japan, Korea, Russia, India, the UK, Australia, the U.S.A., and Singapore (Karnjanatawe 2011). This creates a situation where tourism is an integral part in Thailand's GDP and annual income for its residents. Here, the research shows that 2009 statistics saw Thailand's tourism revenue consisting of 6.5% of the GDP (Horn 2010). This is, in fact, a massive portion of the overall GDP of the nation. Such high increase of the overall impact the tourism industry has within Thai economy reaffirms "the fact that tourism [is] the country's single largest foreign-exchange earner and a crucial component to its overall economic health," (Horn 2010).


Number of Tourists Visiting Thailand


19.5 million (expected)


15.9 million (Department of Tourism 2011)


14.1 million


14.5 million


14.4 million


13.8 million


11.5 million



Northeast Asia

Southeast Asia


15.9 million (Department of Tourism 2011)

218 million (ETN 2011)

72 million (ETN 2011)

Still, there are several hurdles which have been continuing to hinder more tourists from visiting Thailand. First, the tsunami which hit Phuket, among other coastline areas of Thailand, created a negative tourist situation for the country by affecting most of the tourist attractions in Southern Thailand. This has been an ongoing trend… [read more]

Ethnic Tourism and Cultural Book Report

Book Report  |  9 pages (2,904 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


2011). The sociological inference of ethnic tourism will be explained through the macro viewpoint of historical tendencies from the current to the postmodern. The expression the modern' is regularly related in social sciences but its idea is extremely broad and obscure. The significance of 'the modern' as talked about in the article in this is the 'sociocultural trend of the… [read more]

Tourism in Thailand Economic, Social Book Report

Book Report  |  7 pages (2,817 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 15


The young people get attracted to the way the foreigners dress and try to adapt them. Also, cross cultural marriages are becoming more common among locals as well.

Strict regulations should be posed upon the tourists who visit the country. They should be notified on appropriate land usage, the dos and don'ts of visiting Thailand. Nowadays, for the sustainability of… [read more]

Tourism Industry of India Research Paper

Research Paper  |  13 pages (4,599 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


This is the overall situation of tourism industry in the Asian market and some of the important and significant countries of the region. In order to further investigate and decide to invest in tourism industry of any particular industry one has to evaluate different important factors of that particular country which will impact the demand, growth projections, and investment in… [read more]

Co-Creation of Tourism Experience on Travel Guide and Booking Websites Research Paper

Research Paper  |  16 pages (4,824 words)
Bibliography Sources: 25


¶ … co-creation does not exist in tourism marketing today but is the future of the industry. The concept is investigated from multiple angles. Today's e-commerce tourism sites are sophisticated marketplaces but are incapable of providing a true co-creation experience. The algorithms to provide this true co-creation experience are in development, however. This article examines the convergence between these algorithms,… [read more]

Alton Tower Book Report

Book Report  |  15 pages (6,064 words)
Bibliography Sources: 5


Alton Towers is one of the largest theme parks in the United Kingdom today and it continues to draw large numbers of visitors using a combination of innovation marketing programs as well as continuing investments in newer and more exciting rides and attractions. These efforts are absolutely essential in the highly competitive environment that exists in London and its environments… [read more]

Tourism There Are Five Stages Essay

Essay  |  5 pages (1,517 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 4



There are five stages of the decision-making process for travel. The first is need recognition. During this stage, the consumer identifies a need that they must meet either for travel or specific needs in their travel. For example, the consumer may decide that summer has been too hot and they need to escape to a cooler climate. Information search… [read more]

Tourism and Its Current Trends Thesis

Thesis  |  4 pages (1,001 words)
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Tourism and Its Current Trends

This report examines the current trends in global travel and tourism. Many factors will be seen to challenge the travel and tourism industry in the future including the state of the world economy, infectious disease spread as well as other factors that are examined in this report.

"The Future Trends in Tourism- Global Perspectives, the Future of Tourism: A Club of Amsterdam Conference" states that the countries of Switzerland, Austria and Germany are those with the most "attractive environments for developing the travel and tourism industry, according to the very first ranking of its kind in the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2007" published by the World Economic Forum. (2007) The countries that scored as the top ten in the 'Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index' are those stated as follows:

(1) Switzerland

(2) Austria

(3) Germany

(4) Iceland

(5) United States

(6) Hong Kong (SAR)

(7) Canada


(8) Singapore


(9) Luxembourg


(10) United Kingdom

5.28 (World Economic Forum, 2007)

Travel and tourism worldwide in 2005 is stated to have been at the following percentages for each listed region:

(1) Europe


(2) Asia and the Pacific


(3) Americas


(4) Africa


(5) Middle East

4.8% (World Economic Forum, 2007)

Stated as the top two tourism locations in Asia are those of China and India with 9.1% and 7.9% respectively in 'Annualized Real Growth' for 2007 through 2017. (World Economic Forum, 2007) The countries projected to realize the largest volume of travel and tourism demand in 2017 are stated to be those as follows:

1. United States


2. China


3. Japan


4. Germany


5. United Kingdom


6. France


7. Spain


8. Italy


9. Russian Federation


10. Canada

$311,412.6 (World Economic Forum., 2007)

China and India are the two countries expected to generate the largest amount in absolute terms of employment in travel and tourism by the year 2017. Travel and tourism prospects for workers in the future in Europe are somewhat dismal because of the aging population however it is related that the solution being discussed involves that of migrant workers with a projected 80-700 million migrants coming to Europe by 2050. The following illustration shows the global perspectives of the future trends in tourism in regards to future climate change.

Global Map of Climate Change

Source: World Economic Forum, 2007

Dark Blue -- Extreme

Light Blue -- High

Purple -- Mid

Violet -- Low

Gray -- No Data

Tourism is reported to be growing worldwide after several years of slowed growth which is believed to be attributed to the incident of September 11, 2001. Eco-Tourism is one sector experiencing rapid growth because today's tourists desire the 'experience' of travel and do not mind paying more for this. Travelers today are looking for "authenticity, inspiration and rejuvenation" according to the Tourism Alliance (2009). One report states that the United National "is being urged to introduce an international registration system to power Fairtrade…… [read more]

Effect of Tourism on Latin America Specifically Colombia Mexico and Costa Rica Thesis

Thesis  |  10 pages (2,833 words)
Bibliography Sources: 10



The Effects of Tourism on Latin America Countries

Most Latin American countries are dependent on tourism dollars to fuel their economies. Latin America encompasses a very large demographic area which includes all of Central and South America. Latin America hosts some of the most beautiful and scenic countries in the world and each one of these countries offers a… [read more]

Role of Tourism on Economic Sustainability in Japan Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  3 pages (1,047 words)
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¶ … role of tourism on economic sustainability in Japan

Economic Sustainability

The syntax of economic sustainability is more and more commonly used nowadays - it has in fact become a new buzzword (D'Arge, Norgaard, Olson, and Somerville, 1991) within the business community and it is now being borrowed by other fields as well. There are various definitions of the economic sustainability, some of the most relevant ones being presented below:

Economic sustainability encompasses growth, development, productivity and trickle-down effects" (Clement and Kraemer, 2000, p.14)

Economic sustainability may be thought of as choosing policies or strategies that result in non-declining economic welfare (where welfare includes market / financial as well as non-market considerations)" (Adamowicz and Burton, 2003, p.185).

In a formal analysis, one could perhaps interpret economic sustainability as narrow focus on sustaining market production and consumption only" (Tietenberg, Oates and Folmer, 2003, p. 171)

However the formulations of the definitions for the concept of economic sustainability tend to differ at some points, in essence, they all revolve around a simple idea: economic sustainability is about growth and development, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable manner. In other words, the growth has to be real and sustainable in the long-term, not just generate short-term profits. In order to ensure they have a prosperous future ahead, organizations must develop plans that foster economic sustainability. Otherwise put, the purpose of the concept is to help the corporate managers best combine the short- and long-term strategies into a single approach that will generate the best results.

2. Economic Sustainability and Tourism

The touristy industry has been approached from different standpoints across the globe. There are the countries which exploited it to the maximum and registered significant gains from attracting foreign tourists, and consequently investors. There are also those countries which focused on other industries. As a general tendency in the contemporaneous society however, most emerging countries try to consolidate their touristy industry. "Tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors of the global economy and developing countries are attempting to cash in on this expanding industry in an attempt to boost foreign investment and financial reserves" (Pleumarom). And to make sure that the gains will also be present in ten or twenty years, the governments and the organizations develop and implement programs based on economic sustainability. Such a program is the Millennium Vision, which was developed by the World Travel & Tourism Council and has established the following goals:

Get governments to accept travel and tourism as a strategic economic development and employment priority;

Move towards open and competitive markets by supporting the implementation of GATS, liberalise air transport and deregulate telecommunications in international markets;

Eliminate barriers to tourism growth, which involves the expansion and improvement of infrastructure - e.g. The increase of airport capacity, construction and modernisation of airports, roads and tourist facilities" (Pleumarom)

In Japan for instance, the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund has agreed to offer special loans to the touristy industry in the hope of reviving it,… [read more]

Role of Tourism on Economic Sustainability in Japan Research Proposal

Research Proposal  |  6 pages (1,865 words)
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¶ … role of tourism on economic sustainability in Japan

General Economic Overview of Japan

With a gross domestic product of $4,290 billion, Japan is currently the fourth largest economy of the globe, after the European Union, the United States and China (Central Intelligence Agency, 2008). The economic growth has been basically sustained by the reproduction activities, basically materialized in… [read more]

Wildland Recreation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,973 words)
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Desert Solitaire

Wildland Recreation as Represented in Abbey's Desert Solitaire

The American West has always been a locale of mythical proportions, with its sheer expanse, exoticness and diversity making it a historically rich point of inflection for natural scientists, adventurers and philosophers to better understand the country as a whole. By immersing himself deep into the heart of the desert,… [read more]

Fighting Overwork and Time Poverty in America Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,069 words)
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¶ … Fighting Overwork and Time Poverty in America by John de Graff

In the book Take Back Your Time: Fighting Overwork and Time Poverty in America, author John de Graff talks about the differences between how much work vs. vacation time people get in the United States and how much they get in Europe. In the United States, people work longer, if not harder. Their days are generally longer, and they do not take the kind of time for vacation and holidays that other people in other countries do. There is the idea in America that a job defines a person, and unless that person works to support a family to an excessive degree, that person is not a valuable member of society. Of course this is not true, but many people have still been conditioned to think that it is.

The main critical concept in this particular book is that people are working harder and harder today. However, they often seem to think that they have to do things this way, or they will not stay on top. There is a concern that the economy will collapse, or will at least go into a serious recession, if people do not 'do their parts' and keep working more and more hours each week. These people do make more money, but for that money they trade their valuable time. By the time they are very old, they realize what they have missed out on in many cases, but there is no way to get back the time that they have devoted to other things. It is simply gone.

The reasons behind why people are devoting so much of their fleeting time to work-related pursuits are also discussed by de Graff (2003). He indicates that individuals who spend so much time at work do so because they are in pursuit of material things - especially those which are only temporary. These can be fancy dinners, cars, and many other things. People have to 'keep up with the Joneses,' and in order to do that, they need money. Unfortunately, they see money as being more important than time. For some areas of life, money is important. People need somewhere to live. They also need to have clothing, food, and often a vehicle to drive. Beyond that, however, there are materials wants and desires, but few actual material needs. Most people do not realize this.

When it comes to recreation and leisure issues, this book is also very important. Recreation and leisure are big businesses - or at least they used to be. They are still important for many people, but more and more people are taking shorter vacations and not travelling as far from home when they do take a holiday. Some of this comes from not having enough money, but the largest majority of these people are so busy making money to buy more things that they do not have the time to go and take a break. When they do… [read more]

Eden Project Term Paper

Term Paper  |  20 pages (5,745 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Eden Project is one of the largest ecotourism sites in the world. The purpose of the Eden Project is to highlight man's dependence on and relationship with plants. The Eden Project informs visitors about the importance of plants to life on earth, delivering a high-impact message about the importance of preserving plant diversity (Eden Project ltd., 2007). The message at… [read more]

Tourism Strategic Planning Regional and Organizational Development Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,407 words)
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Tourism- Stratigic Planning, Regional and Organisational Development

Marketing Strategies Applied to Tourism

The Case of the Copacabana Palace

Tourism has always been an extremely popular industry, generating billion dollars in revenues each year. Depending on the land's resources and the authorities' ability to properly manage them, countries have the possibility of reaching national growth and development through touristy activities. A… [read more]

Putting Tourism Marketing to Good Use in Nigeria Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,306 words)
Style: MLA  |  Bibliography Sources: 5


Putting Tourism Markerting to Good Use in Nigeria

Tourism Marketing in Nigeria

Nigeria is one of the most visited African destinations. Among the features that attract the visitors are the magnificent landscapes, the preserved beauties of wild nature, the rich culture and local customs, the wide variety of handicrafts and the pleasant character of the locals. If until recently foreigners were reticent to traveling to Nigeria, the situation is now beginning to change as the democratic government encourages tourism on a large scale.

However the country has significant resources and major potential, the number of visitors is still reduced. This is generally the consequence of the poverty in some Nigerian areas and also of the inadequate touristy services. Since tourism is an area that should present consumers with increased quality and service standards, the Nigerian community, government and investors ought to focus their actions towards improving the accommodation and transportation services.

Since the government has had a reduced beneficial impact on tourism, the community asks foreign and local investors to develop businesses within the country, as Nigeria's potential is the guarantee of success. Furthermore, with the new democracy installed and the growing market and economy liberalization, the investments will be likely to generate rapid profits.

Here are some of the areas investors should focus upon in order to develop the Nigerian tourism:

cultural resources and heritage, including slave trade relics;

opening of museums;

wildlife and natural reservations;

activities in nature such as picnic, camping and hiking in national parks;

building tourist accommodation facilities near centers of attraction, such as waterfalls or caves;

improving the railroad infrastructure and offering tourists the possibility to visit the mountains;

improving the quality of the beaches, including water transport, and developing beach activities (fishing, boating, diving, swimming);

building new holiday resorts along the coasts;

developing entertaining activities and facilities, such as shops, restaurants or amusement parks;

emphasizing on the local culture throughout the Nigerian arts and crafts.

Another area of interest regards promoting the Nigerian potential. This is more suitable to the local community than to the foreign investors, as it is primarily aimed to attract businessmen to the region. Only its second goal is to attract visitors to the country.

The specialized literature points out how the massive developments in Information Technology have changed all business features. One country that seems not to subscribe to this global trend is Nigeria. When most countries of the world have placed numerous advertisements and descriptions of their countries on the Internet, Nigeria remains difficult to google. In this order of ideas, several specialists emphasize on the need for Nigeria to develop a touristy strategy and place it online. Once the country has done this, the virtual access to the region will be eased and the online presentation of the Nigerian attractions will determine more and more foreigners to spend their vacations in the heart of African culture.

2. Marketing Proposal

Considering that an American investor desires to expand his chain of hotels by opening three new hotels… [read more]

Tourism Destination Management Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (954 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0


¶ … Tourism Destination Management

The title of the article is "The sustainability of island destinations: Tourism area life cycle and teleological perspectives. The case of Tenerife" and its authors are Juan Ramon Oreja Rodriguez, Eduardo Parra-Lopez and Vanessa Yanes-Estevez. The three authors are professors of Economic Science at the Laguna University in the Canary Islands which positively contributes to the background of the article in question.

The aim of the article is to formulate a conceptual framework for the promoting of sustainability of island tourism. Also, the article uses the life cycle paradigm to project the evolution of this particular kind of tourism. The research is based on a theoretical standpoint previously explored when writing about island tourism. The life cycle model formulated by Butler in 1980 and revised in 2000 is a descriptive model which offers the possibility of long-term planning that is crucial to tourism in general. Nevertheless, because a descriptive model is somewhat limiting, the authors also utilize the Teleological model, an endeavor which clarifies multiple aspects and definitely offers a wider perspective on island tourism.

Butler's 1980 life cycle model was based on the hypothesis that destinations pass through six stages, i.e. Exploration, Involvement, Development, Consolidation, Stagnation, Decline and Rejuvenation, each carrying its specific characteristics. Since it proved incomplete in the sense that it did not fully manage to explain "growth, change, limits and intervention" (Oreja Rodriguez et al.: 2) in a tourist destination, the model was 'updated' by incorporating eight elements: dynamism, process, capacity or limits to growth, triggers, management, long-term viewpoint, spatial components and universal applicability. These eight elements have turned it into a universally applicable model of analysis of tourist areas.

The teleological model relies on the theoretical hypothesis that the evolution of a tourist destination is dependent on a number of variables which influence internal development which in turn, determines general development in a certain tourist area. These variables are "institutional decision making, objectives, strategic planning and social construction" (Oreja Rodriguez et al.: 2).

Having stated and explained the theoretical approach underlying the article, the reader is introduced to the case study in question, i.e. Tenerife in the Canary Islands. Tenerife is the largest island of the archipelago located in the Atlantic Ocean, and at the same time, the center of the Canary Islands which in fact, represent and autonomous region within the Spanish state. The authors argue that Tenerife has reached maturity and is now naturally progressing towards sustainability as a means of moving past the state of stagnation it has encountered. From the teleological perspective, sustainability results from two well-defined considerations, i.e. tourism restructuring and specific prioritization.

The conclusions of the authors reveal that indeed, the initial assumption that only one theoretical model could not explain the complex issue of sustainability. Moreover, the authors conclude that sustainability has to incorporate measures for the conservation of the…… [read more]

Strategic Tourism Management Plan Term Paper

Term Paper  |  12 pages (3,375 words)
Style: Harvard  |  Bibliography Sources: 10


¶ … Strategic Tourism Management Plan

Today, travel and tourism is one of the largest industries in the world, and its importance to the survival of some communities has become clearly evident in recent years. According to Harrill and Potts, international tourism remains a consistently productive industry despite periodic downturns in the global economy. During the period between 1950 and… [read more]

Recreation: Disabilities People Term Paper

Term Paper  |  8 pages (2,183 words)
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Recreation: Disabilities

People with Disabilities

According to the National Center for Health Statistics, there are 34.1 million non-institutionalized Americans currently living with some form of disability that impairs usual activities - that represents roughly 12% of the U.S. population (Disabilities, 2007). More than 15 million American adults lack the physical ability to walk a quarter mile, or one lap around… [read more]

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