"Recreation / Leisure / Tourism" Essays

X Filters 

Scientific Observation That Distinguish Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (2,109 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Therefore, using a ratio scale, the researcher would use no eye contact as the absolute zero measure and then attempt to time each instance of eye contact.

6. The correlation coefficient measures the degree of covariation between two different measures. Knowing the correlation coefficient allows the researcher to measure interobserver reliability, the degree to which two observers agree about their findings. As a coefficient, the numerical value can be used in any number of different studies. Moreover, the correlation coefficient measures two significant pieces of information: the direction and the degree, or strength, of the correlation.

The correlation coefficient ranges from -1.00 to +1.00. The sign of the correlation coefficient indicates whether the correlation is negative or positive. For instance, a negative correlation coefficient such as -.789 would mean that the two events share an inverse relationship to one another. If children who watched violent video games did not become more aggressive at school, then the correlation coefficient would be negative. The researcher could conclude that watching violent video games is negatively correlated with aggressive behavior.

On the other hand, a positive correlation means that the two events share a strong positive relationship. For example, if watching violent video games did cause children to become more aggressive at school, then the correlation coefficient would likely be a positive number such as .789. The researcher could conclude that watching violent video games is positively correlated with increased aggression.

However the correlation coefficient sign only indicates the direction of the relationship: whether the events were positively or negatively correlated. The numerical value indicates the strength of the correlation. The stronger the correlation coefficient in either direction from zero would mean a stronger relationship between the two variables. With a strong correlation coefficient, the researcher can make stronger educated guesses for designing research hypotheses. Thus, knowing the sign and numerical value of the correlation coefficient for a particular pair of observations also enables further hypotheses to be drawn and further studies to be conducted. A correlation coefficient close to zero indicates that there is hardly any relationship between the two variables.

7. Knowing the sign and the numerical value of a correlation coefficient allows the researcher to increase the reliability of the study as a whole, in relation to other similar studies. When the observational data uses an interval or ratio scale, then a correlation coefficient assesses interobserver reliability. A negative correlation coefficient would indicate that the two events being studied are related, but that as the value of one of the variables increases, the value of the second decreases proportionately.

8. Two ways in which observer bias can occur include expectancy and flawed research design. The researchers' expectations regarding a certain behavior might mean that he or she will record more or less of a certain behavior. The researcher may also fall pray to self-fulfilling prophesies. With a strong desire to prove the research hypothesis, the researcher might influence the outcome or the design of the study. Therefore, observer bias may affect… [read more]


Mediation and Wellness Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (889 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

The practice of Tai-Chi originated in Chinese culture. It is aligned to the philosophy of Taoism and is similar in many respects to the principles of traditional Chinese medicine. Taoism is a belief that is focused on knowledge of the vital life force known as chi or qi. It is also concerned with balance between the opposing forces in the human being and the environment known as yin and yang. "Tai chi exercises are designed to balance yin and yang and promote the unobstructed flow of qi." (Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Cancer Patients)

Essentially the technique of Tai-chi involves " ... slow rhythmic movements, focused concentration, and breathing." (Holistic Approaches to Health)

Tai-chi experts claim that this form of exercise is a method of controlling chi. The Tai-chi technique claims to reduce stress and increase general bodily coordination. Many practitioners also claim that Tai-Chi increases general well-being and improves concentration. Scientific studies have validated many of these assertions. " ... studies have shown the positive effects of tai chi, which include improved posture, balance, muscle mass, strength, decreased blood pressure and increased stamina, muscle mass and flexibility." ( ibid)

There are numerous other techniques and styles of mediation. Each technique has its one emphasis on certain aspects. Yoga is possibly one of the better known meditation techniques in the West. Yoga focuses on various body positions that are intended to concentrate the mind and relieve stress. Another lesser known form of meditation is the repetition of mantras or sounds that is intended to produce relaxing and consciousness altering effects. This form of chanting is used extensively in Eastern and particularly Buddhist forms of mediation. (Petulla J.)

While the methods and the immediate focus of many of these forms of meditation differ, yet they remain true to the central concept of the expansion and improvement of health. One of the important aspects of meditation for the contemporary industrialized world is that it allows for a more holistic and spiritual emphasis on health and healing issues.

Bibliography

Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Cancer Patients. Retrieved June 8, 2005 from University of California, San Diego. Web site: http://cancer.ucsd.edu/Outreach/PublicEducation/CAMs/taichi.asp

Holistic Approaches to Health. Retrieved June 7, 2005 from Vanderbilt University: Web site: Http://www.vanderbilt.edu/AnS/psychology/health_psychology/Holistic.htm

Massage Therapy. Retrieved June 8, 2005 from the University of New Hampshire. Web site: http://www.unh.edu/health-services/hepHolistic.htm

Petulla J. Crisis to Wellness. Retrieved June 8, 2005 from University of San Fransisico. Web site: http://www.usfca.edu/fac_staff/petullaj/postscript.html

"WHAT IS WELLNESS? Retrieved June 8, 2005 from State University of New York. Web site: http://www.oneonta.edu/development/wellness/wellness.asp… [read more]


Gambling He That Hastens to Be Rich Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (946 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Gambling

He that hastens to be rich hath an evil eye, and considers not that poverty shall come upon him," (Proverbs 28:22). Gambling is not specifically prohibited in the New Testament, but clearly the practice violates the spirit of Christianity. The Bible does include several passages warning against greed and the accumulation of wealth. Gambling can also lead to other sins, such as stealing. Betting can become a habitual practice that can be as problematic as any addiction, and often more expensive. While some enclaves of gambling will continue to exist, our society should undoubtedly prevent gambling from becoming as common as to be legalized. Already, legalized gambling exists in the form of state lotteries and race tracks. Recently, many localities have opted to install slot machines in public places, which will only lead to more gambling. If gambling becomes acceptable, we risk becoming a morally degenerate society with an "anything goes" form of moral relativism. The practice of gambling leads to a slew of social, psychological, and spiritual problems, from poverty to depression. Gambling also eases its way too easily into politics, contributing to the already widespread corruption and degeneracy that exists. In fact, gambling leads to widespread corruption, and undermines the moral foundations of family, community, and culture and should therefore be opposed by Christians.

Communities that invite gambling into their midst are asking for numerous troubles, including political corruption, law enforcement corruption, familial corruption, and personal corruption. For example, if a gambling industry pressures the local politicians to install slot machines in shopping malls, the industry will also expect preferential treatment. In exchange for the powerful gambling lobby, the politicians will continue to support the gaming industry and each will rub the others' back. Such special interests should have no place in politics to begin with, let alone for something as potentially nefarious as gambling is. Furthermore, because politicians work closely with law enforcement on a local level, endemic political corruption can translate quickly into law enforcement corruption. Police officers who look the other way when a gambling-related offence occurs are equally as likely to accept bribes from organized crime organizations. As a matter of fact, organized crime and gambling have a long history and a solid relationship. Christians should oppose legalized gambling because it promotes such widespread corruption in our legal and political systems and thus prevents justice and social equity. Furthermore, because gambling is often coupled with other crimes like prostitution and theft, law enforcement might overlook serious crimes.

Other problems that are associated with gambling include alcoholism. Most casinos or gambling facilities include readily available or cheap drinks. Gamers are encouraged to drink as much as they'd like. The House knows that the more a person imbibes, the more likely they are to place stupid bets. The more a person drinks, the more likely they are to…… [read more]


14 Day Vacation in the City of Brussels Belgium Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (854 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Vacation in Brussels, Belgium

Belgium, approximately the size of the state of Maryland, is multicultural and multilingual and is regarded as the essence of European culture (Introduction pp). Belgium's capital, Brussels, is one of the world's great cosmopolitan cities and is home to the European Union and NATO (Introduction pp). Brussels is also a major center of international trade and finance, with a long history of commercial and cultural exchange (Introduction pp). Both Dutch and French, as well as English, are spoken in Brussels, and the locals are courteous and cooperative (Introduction pp). The city has numerous museums, historical buildings, theatre, music and festivals, with architecture representing the past and present of Romanesque, Gothic, Baroque, and Nouveau (Introduction pp).

A round trip ticket from LAX to Brussels, plus fourteen nights at the Astrid Centre Hotel Brussels, which is located within a short walking distance from the Grand Place, is only $2,218, including all taxes, and buffet breakfasts (Travelocity pp). The Delta flight leaves Los Angeles, LAX, at 9:35 AM on Saturday December 17, 2005 and arrives in Brussels Sunday morning December 18 at 8:30am, and departs Brussels National Airport on Saturday December 31 at 10:35 AM, arriving in Los Angeles, LAX, at 5:37 PM (Travelocity pp). The Astrid bus will transport guests to and from the hotel and airport (Travelocity pp). The hotel offers patio area, concierge, currency exchange, dry cleaning, free weekday newspapers, 24-hour desk service, high speed wireless Internet, pay-per-view movies, satellite TV, and hairdryers (Travelocity pp). Meal plans are also available for dining at the hotel (Travelocity pp).

The Grand-Place, called the Grote Markt or Market Square, is the main tourist attraction of the City of Brussels and is one of the most beautiful town squares in Europe, if not the world, and is within walking distance from the hotel (Travel pp). The square is filled with shopping and entertainment, and especially restaurants (Travel pp). In fact, Brussels is one of the main restaurant cities in Europe, and it is best to consult the Michelin guide for restaurants for decisions concerning dining (Travel pp).

After checking into the hotel Sunday morning and resting a while, a stroll to the Square will kick off the visit with shopping and lunch, then back to the hotel for dinner and bed. On Monday, the 19th, it is breakfast at the hotel, then a tour of the King's House, then lunch and shopping, and again dinner at the hotel (Travel pp). After breakfast Tuesday morning, the day is spent touring the Guild Houses, Royal Park and…… [read more]


Dorothy Allison and Dagoberto Gilb Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,121 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

¶ … Tempest -- the Blockbuster

A remake of "The Tempest" by William Shakespeare.

The tropical island of Palau. Time Period: Today.

Note to Director: "The Tempest" is just an ancient story of survival of the fittest and class lines. I see this reproduced on the big screen as a "Survivor" imitator, with the castaways on Prospero's island scheming behind each other's backs toward their own selfish means. Prospero bought his own island in the Pacific to plan his run for President in 2012, but his plans are put on hold when these "survivors" wash up on shore after a cruise ship mishap. Witness Caliban, who hopes to murder Prospero and take the island that his scheming uncle sold, back into this own hands. The shipwreck survivors Trinculo and Stephano help egg Caliban on and make a pact with him, essentially creating a tribe of their own and setting themselves up against the other tribes forming up on the island. Setting this modern-day remake in the lush jungle landscape of Palau helps the audience understand the parallels between the two stories, and creates an exotic and lush atmosphere, similar to what the original castaways might have experienced. The magic of the story will remain intact as Prospero continues to manipulate and urge Ariel to oversee the survivors and create some modern-day miracles on the island, such as appearing as one or another of the survivors and helping to vote another off the island.

For audiences to truly identify with this play, the setting needs to be understandable, and the time period needs to be modern. That way, the action and dialogue can be updated, so people really understand what is going on. They also need characters and a setting they can identify with, and since so many people watch "Survivor," they should recognize the setting and understand the implications of how the characters will relate to each other. Ideas of the magic and mystery to come should be evident in the beginning, perhaps with Ariel turning into a "tinkerbell" type figure that people can relate to. Early on, the power struggle between Prospero, Caliban, the uncle who sold the island, and the shipwrecked cruise passengers will become evident, especially when one of the passengers turns out to have his own aspirations for president.

Ideas for Casting: Caliban. Jamie Foxx, no doubt. Jamie can be made up to be more "dark and grotesque," and his acting abilities would make him an excellent choice for Caliban. Jamie can be raw or refined, and he would need these qualities to portray Caliban. While some actors might see this as a minor role, I think Jamie would see it for what it is -- the backbone of the piece. Caliban is a little bit slave, a little bit master, and emotional and eloquent throughout. Sometimes he is earthy, like when he talks about the beauty of the island, and sometimes he is eloquent, like when he talks to Prospero about how he stole his… [read more]


Sony Playstation 2 Case Study

Case Study  |  6 pages (2,097 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Sony must work with these suppliers on terms that both parties can agree upon so that they can continue to work with the larger companies. Right now, many of the video games that are made for the Playstation 2 come from Capcom, Dreamworks, and other large companies. Because Sony has positioned themselves early on in working with these larger companies, they are in a good place now and must simply ensure that they keep up strong relations with these larger companies and do not do anything that could alienate them or cause them to end their association with Sony, which would force Sony to scale back on the number of titles that they have for their video game console.

7. The main short-term tactical issue that Sony currently faces is that there will be too much demand and not enough supply when the Playstation 2 is released in the U.S. This will make for frustrated customers and other problems that Sony would have likely preferred to do without. To help avoid some of this, Sony could push back the release date of the Playstation 2 in the U.S. To help them build up more inventory. This is, however, likely not the best option, because there would be much speculation as to whether there were problems with the system and therefore sales might suffer. A better option would be to simply be honest about the issues that are causing delays in production, perhaps in the form of a commercial or a press release, so that consumers know what the real issues are and can understand them. Those that really want a Playstation 2 console will wait for the consoles to become more widely available if they understand the issue. As for long-term strategic issues, Sony must ensure that the problems that it faced in Japan and the problems with meeting demand on its consoles do not happen again, so that the concerns over these issues do not continue and hurt stock prices, market share, or profits. Also important for Sony is to ensure that it continues to develop graphics and quality video games that compete with or surpass those that other companies are creating. To do this, Sony must work to pay close attention to the work of other companies and spend time on their product research and development so that they remain the strong competitor that they are today as they head into the future.

8. Sony is not just another competitor when it comes to the video game console market. True, they are a competitor and they have basically worked their way into the market when there were already other companies that were in the video game console market years earlier. However, Sony has advantages due to the fact that it has close music and video ties and also due to the fact that the brand name is so strong. Instead of being just a competitor, it seems more likely that Sony should be considered as an industry leader… [read more]


Violence in Video Games Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (888 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

This suggests that rather than violence, aggression is the initial emotion felt among video gamers rather than feelings of violence. The development of aggression, in addition, was explained as a psychological process in which video gaming is often associated with "social learning," wherein an individual becomes 'embedded' in the story relayed to him/her through the video game "visually, auditorily, and physically" (Brody, 2000).

Another study went further its scope, going so far as to identify who are these children or individuals who are most likely to have aggressive and develop violent behavior. In Gaziano's (2001) survey of children who participate in video gaming, it was determined that children who have parents who feel a "sense of powerlessness" and turn this weakness into aggression towards their children contribute to the development of negative behavior among their children. These children of 'powerless, aggressive' parents were in fact cultivating their own versions of themselves in their children, who also grow to be "powerless and who attempt to assert power through angry, harsh, punitive attitudes and behaviors ... And other authoritarian characteristics." Hence, it goes without saying that children who have cultivated feelings of aggression are most likely influenced and affected by the violence portrayed in video games.

In the same vein as Gaziano's study, another empirical study demonstrated how violence and video gaming were not considered causal -- in fact, most studies have been careful to demonstrate that these two variables, exposure to video gaming and development of violent behavior, are causal. What was constantly established throughout these studies on video game effects, asserted Lynne Eagle et. al., is that violent behavior is almost always highly-correlated with video gaming. As to the causal effect that video games result to violent behavior among individuals, this finding is yet to be established and determined specifically by the researchers. Nevertheless, the research reflects the fact that "children who come to television (and other mass media forms for that matter) full of aggression tend to seek out violence in television, and to remember and resurrect that violence later in life." This finding is highly linked with exposure to video games, wherein those who have aggressive behavior develop violent behavior after exposure to video games.

Bibliography

Brody, M. (2001). "Playing with death." Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, (16)11.

Gaziano, C. (2001). "Towards a broader conceptual framework for research on social stratification, childrearing patterns, and media effects." Mass Communication & Society, (4)2.

Lynne Eagle, L., S. Bulmer, and A. de Bruin. (2003). "Marketing communications implications of children's new electronic media use: a survey of parental opinions and perceptions." Journal of Marketing Communications,…… [read more]


Film Prioritization Centers Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,422 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

It also meets all three of the mandatory objectives that each project must have, for the company.

It too meets the desirable objectives of the company. A powerful story, it could easily be nominated for a Best Picture award. It would create one new main animated character, Keiko's imaginary offspring, Seiko, and could turn into an animated series. Again, as… [read more]


Disposable Camera Taking Pictures Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (581 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

The simplicity of use of a disposable camera makes it possible for even children to take pictures.

Since disposable cameras do not require equipment and film, they are much more versatile and portable than a regular camera. While on excursions or trips which may require physical exertion, running, jumping, or climbing, carrying around camera equipment may become a burden, physically and mentally. Having to carry around the equipment is difficult enough without the fear of losing or destroying it. A disposable camera is small and insignificant if lost, except for the photos taken. However, there is no loss of a camera as well. People can take disposable cameras places where they would not take a regular camera for fear of destroying the equipment for the very reason they want to document the experience.

Disposable cameras were taken a step further. The invention of underwater camera equipment made it possible to photograph vacation images as never before. At the birth of this invention, the equipment was expensive and mostly reserved for those with skill and money. However, camera companies quickly learned the benefits of producing disposable underwater cameras. Now, users have the option to capture a much wider variety of images without any additional skill or equipment.

Disposable cameras quickly entered into the marketplace and were accepted by the unskilled photographers. The first time I used a disposable camera I was awed at the ease of use, as I tried to take the film out myself only to learn that I had nothing more to do except drop it off and let the professionals take over! The low cost, ease, mobility, and options of disposable cameras make them one of the greatest inventions that have impacted the…… [read more]


Emergency Planning Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (566 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Emergency Planning H2

The purpose of this work is to provide an evacuation plan for a shall hotel with a gymnasium and swimming pool complex attached in Scotland during the G8 Summit to take place at Gleneagles Hotel in 2005. This paper will propose a model in which factors to be considered will be outlined in the process of preparing an evacuation plan to deal with a potential bomb threat keeping in mind the fact that evacuation plans are more lengthy than are fire evacuations.

Scope:

This plan provides an outline for an emergency response plan, recommended emergency response teams, site specific vulnerabilities due to hazards, emergency procedures for employees, requirements of training, procedures exercise and disaster preparedness for employees and their families.

Mission and Goals:

The mission of the hotel's management is in the event of an attack to:

Protect lives and property

Mitigate the effects of a disaster

Prepare for emergencies and disasters

Respond to emergencies

Aid recovery from disasters

The goals are focused toward the elements of:

Providing emergency response plans, services, and supplies for all facilities and employees of the hotel.

Coordination of the use of school personnel and facilities within the school

Restore normal services

Planning Assumptions

Assumptions on the basis of this plan:

An emergency on a single site in form of a bomb threat or other such situation could arise at any time without any advance warning and it is not feasible that the hotel should wait for local response agency direction but should through immediate action attempt to save both lives and property.

In the event of an attack or disaster the local and state government may be overwhelmed thus leaving the hotel employees on…… [read more]


History of Bowling, and Talk Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (776 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Originally, bowling pins were tall and narrow, but before the Civil War, the familiar "bottle" shaped pins became more popular and dominated bowling after the Civil War. Candlepin bowling is somewhat of a throwback to those earlier pins. The sport developed in Worchester Massachusetts in 1880 after a businessman named Justin White purchased a pool hall and bowling alley in the city. After he bought the business, he discovered some unusual pins and small, three- to five-inch bowling balls stored in the building. The pins were cylinders about one-inch around and ten-inches high, and they looked a bit like broomsticks. White wanted to use the pins, but he felt they needed adapting, because he new it would be very difficult to knock down the pins with the small, three-pound bowling balls. Therefore, he created a new size, about 12-inches high and three inches around, tapering from the center to a slightly narrower base and top (Editors).

These new pins made it a bit easier to score with the smaller balls, and a new sport was born. In addition, White and a friend, John J. Monsey, decided that scores were still too low, so they developed a very important part of candlepin -- "deadwood." Deadwood are the pins already knocked down by the bowler, and in candlepin, they are not removed from the lane, so the bowler can use them to knock down other pins in later turns. Candlepin became quite popular, and many bowling alleys added candlepin lanes to please their customers. Today, the pins are "15 3/4-inches high and 2 15/16-inches at the middle, tapering to 1 3/4-inch at the ends. The ball is 4 1/2-inches in diameter and weighs from 2 pounds, 5 ounces, to 2 pounds, 7 ounces" (Hickock). A perfect score in candlepins is 300, but no one has ever reached that score, the best sanctioned score recorded is 240 (Hickock). Today, the game has died out, but still remains popular in some areas of New England and Canada.

References

"Bowling." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000.

Editors. "History." International Candlepin Bowling Association. 2004. 1 Dec. 2004.

< http://www.bowlcandlepin.com/History.htm

Hickok, Ralph. "Candlepin Bowling." HickokSports.com. 2001. 1 Dec. 2004.

< http://www.hickoksports.com/history/candlpin.shtml

Hurley, Andrew. Diners, Bowling Alleys, and Trailer Parks: Chasing…… [read more]


Restaurants in Hotels Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (637 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

This is the reason why so many hotels are turning to outsourcing their restaurant operations to pass on their headache to someone else. With most hotel/restaurant combinations, the hotel typically has a seventy percent profit margin; the restaurant's margin is closer to only ten percent (Walker, 1997). One large impediment to profitability is that most hotel guests eat breakfast at their hotel, some eat lunch at their hotel, very few eat dinner at the hotel where they are staying (Schonwalder, 2002).

Some types of restaurants in hotels fair better than others (Schonwalder, 2002). Most high-end restaurants in hotels almost all lose money. However, specialty restaurants and coffee shops typically perform better. Specialty restaurants in hotels often attract the much needed local clientele in addition to the in house guest. In general, restaurant owners in hotels should stay away from getting an expensive famous chef. Instead, they should look for a good concept, reliable kitchen and dining room operators, and a good crew to run their facility as tightly as possible.

If restaurants presented an easy profit making opportunity, hotels would prefer to run the restaurants themselves. But, they are increasingly handing over this task to restaurant specialists. These individuals have a better chance of eking a profit because they know the business, but even they will encounter challenges. However, by taking full advantage of the benefits a hotel offers and by wisely selecting the right type of restaurant, profits are possible.

Bibliography

Schonwalder, H. (2002, December 23). Restaurant and its past. Retrieved November 25, 2004 from RestaurantEdge Web site: http://www.restaurantedge.com/index.phtml?catid=622

Ursin, C. (1999, January). Checking inn: restaurants signing up for extended stays at hotels, Restaurants USA. Retrieved November 25, 2004 from Web site: restaurant.org Web site: http://www.restaurant.org/rusa/magArticle.cfm?ArticleID=420

Walker, C. (1997, December 5). Heathman Inc.: bolding going forth. Business Journal. Retrieved November 25, 2004 from Business Journal Web site: http://www.bizjournals.com/portland/stories/1997/12/08/story7.html?page=1… [read more]


Fire Project Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (2,001 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Fire Project

Over the years, installation of Fire safety systems in hotels has assumed tremendous importance due to the mandatory requirement of provision of such systems under the law and also due to the growing consciousness within the hotel industry to provide such systems as a part of the overall infrastructure. Provision of high tech fire fighting device being products… [read more]


Mathematics in Gambling Casino Games Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (1,091 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Mathematics in Gambling, Casino Games

An Examination of the Ways in Which Mathematics are Used in Gambling and Casino Games Today

Introduction common misperception exists among many gamblers that the odds are somehow with them after a series of several losses at a slot machine, or that a seven might be more likely to come up on the roll of the dice if one has not been rolled in awhile. Gaming machines and dice, though, do not have a memory and it is impossible to predict what the next outcome of these types of gaming event might be based on the previous outcomes. Despite these constraints, there are some casino games that offer better odds of winning than others and in some of these, the careful application of mathematics can help the gambler achieve even more successful outcomes. This paper provides an overview of casinos and casino games and a discussion of vigorish, or the amount of advantage the house has over the gambler. An analysis of how mathematics and statistics can be used to further improve these chances is followed by a summary of the research in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

Background and Overview. The casino of the 21st century may also be called a gambling, or gaming, house or club; these are places where people can risk their money against a common gambler, known as "the banker," or "the house." Casinos around the world have an almost a uniform character (Casinos 2004). According to Barker and Britz (2000), casinos are able to calculate their handle for slot operations because the revenue accounting of the win-to-handle ratio is accurately known. Drop and handle are frequently confused terms; however, there is an important distinction between the two. "Handle is the total amount wagered, or bet: A chip may be wagered (bet) many times before the game goes to a decision and the chip is won or lost" (Barker & Britz 6). Video gaming machines are set to report the coins/cash going in and the coins or payouts going out; however, the handle for table games is calculated differently. Barker and Britz point out that there is no way of accounting for how much each player bets on each turn of the cards, roll of the dice, or spin of the wheel. As a result, casinos begin their mathematical calculations of what they have been winning or losing with the drop; this is the amount of money used at the table to buy chips. The amount of cash and credit that is collected at each table is then compared with the amount of chips remaining at the table when the final count is complete; however, the total amount a player wagers is not always equal to the amount of cash exchanged for chips, a point that is well recognized by money launderers. "A player could exchange $1,000 in cash for chips at a table, lose $100, and then cash in $900 at the cage. Nine hundred dollars would be successfully… [read more]


Online Casinos Internet Gambling Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (476 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

The Gaming Club offers more than sixty games including Blackjack, Roulette, Craps, Baccarat, Scratch Cards, Keno, Paigow Gow Poker, Video Pokers, Slots and CashSplash, and Progressive Slots, with the reputation for "huge progressive payouts" (Online pp). JackPot City Online Casino claims "Home of the Biggest Jackpots" and offers $50 free bonus with the purchase of %50 worth of casino chips (Online pp).

On Preferred Online Casinos (http://www.preferred-online-casinos.com/) offers games such as blackjack, poker, video poker, slots, roulette, bingo, craps, sportbooks and sports betting (Preferred pp). The Del Rio Casino offer $600 bonus for new customers, The Golden Palace claims to be home of the "biggest and fastest payouts since 1997 ... And biggest player bonuses of any casino'(Preferred pp). Vegas Online Casino offers $888 bonus, and over sixty "exciting games, fair gaming, highest security, 100% private, fastest payouts" (Preferred pp).

A few of the casinos offered on The Top 12 Casinos (http://www.top-12-online-casinos.com/) are Platinum Play, Golden Tiger, Vegas Towers, Vegas Villa, Golden Stars, Monaco Gold, King Casino, Goldengate Online Casino, Casino Tropaz, Gaming Club, and Windows Online Casino (Top pp).

Work Cited

"Helping investors build their own online casinos for profit." Latin Trade;

11/1/2000

"Online Casinos."

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en& q=online+casinos& btnG=Google+Search

On-line-Casinos-Online.net. http://www.online-casinos-online.net/

The Top 12 Casinos. http://www.top-12-online-casinos.com/… [read more]


Can We Trust the Computer Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (312 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Rock Climbing Technology

Rock climbing is both an indoor and outdoor sport that requires stamina, endurance, and patience, primarily because it is an activity where gravity is the greatest adversary and what becomes the main objective is not to fall.

In rock climbing, an individual, whether acquainted or not acquainted to the rules of the sport, is challenged to work his or her way through the maze or series of handholds and footholds, thinking of the best strategy in which climbing can be easier and faster. In fact, there are no rigid rules in rock climbing: it is sufficient that the individual is able to come up with solutions to the problem presented to him/her -- that is, climbing given a series of small or large and unmanageable holds. Once a strategy is formed, the individual's ascent or descent to the wall or a mountain (in extreme free rock climbing) becomes easier and faster -- more…… [read more]


Biologist He Was Born Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,018 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

He loved her then stopped loving her, you see

Or she loved him but her love flew away.

Too soon love becomes the same old story; story of feelings that cannot stay.

Sooner or later the best of love dies;

The poetry and kisses die too,

Until the joy of love turns into sighs,

Leaving all moments unhappy and blue.

So please do not say that love is splendid;

It's just a song that hasn't yet ended.

The Misfit's Side of the Story

Me and Hiram and Bobby Lee had quite a day today. We thought it would be a day full of nothing but running now that we are out of the Federal Pen. But we had the pleasure of stumbling upon a lovely southern family that was kind enough to increase the total number of our victims by six. There was a mamma, a papa, two young ones, a baby, and an old lady. Those poor people -- they never made it to their vacation and the worse thing is that they never saw it coming. It must have been some shock to be heading somewhere and then stumble upon The Misfit and his gang. Meeting up with The Misfit is no vacation. You can always tell when folks are going on vacation. They wear their bright and fancy vacation clothes and they always have to take grandma along. Grandma in her nice dress was looking all nice and pretty until she realized she was looking at The Misfit. Can I help it if my reputation has managed to spread over these parts?

That granny and all her Jesus talk. She might have been a nice woman if she ever tried to shut up but who could ever tell with her mouth running all the time like that? It must have been driving her family crazy to hear her going on and on in the car. Well, I might have even done them a favor. No one should talk that much. She almost got to me with her talk about Jesus -- she even said that I had good blood in me. She almost had me thinking that maybe if I prayed, I might find something out about myself. But I knew better than that. The head doctors already told me that I was a killer and there was nothing that could save me. That includes that old granny and her Jesus. Jesus was the one who messed everything up anyway. That old lady was agitating me with all her talk to the point that I could not take it anymore. If I had not have put me and her both out of our misery, I don't know what would have happened. I kept her cat as a souvenir of our happy little talk but I will not miss her. It sure isn't fun being a cold-blooded killer but that's what they told me I am, and so I…… [read more]


History Has No Place Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (830 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Certainly, many mistakes were made by our ancestors and parents that can be learned from by being avoided, but there were also many things that were done correctly and could be adapted to suit today's modern hospitality industry. Take, for example, the customs of holding doors for and taking coats from patrons when they enter an establishment. Certainly, this is not the norm today when people expect a far less formal environment even from respectable establishments. However, there is a certain charm that may be quite appealing to customers upon receiving that service. Also, businesses often have a great deal of luck in sporting a "retro" atmosphere, whether that be an Old West theme for a steakhouse, a 1960's Psychedelic appearance for a college-town coffee shop, or a 1950's makeover for a previously struggling diner. Take, for example, the custom today for many bars and clubs to offer a "Goth Night" where patrons are welcome to wear anachronistic clothing from the Medieval, Victorian, Classical, and even 1980's time periods. This has been a remarkable way for many establishments that were previously struggling to make ends meet to bring in a whole new style of business. History is something that cannot be returned to, but reminiscing about it can be quite enjoyable. Basking in the styles of decades and centuries past may be just the thing that customers are looking for, and could be the solution for a business that is looking for a way to stand out.

The important thing, then, is for any business in the modern hospitality industry to strike a balance between today, yesterday, and the future. The patrons who may seek out services are living in today's world, and dealing with today's lifestyle. There are certain expectations of a modern business regarding what services are to be offered and the manner with which they should be performed. However, keeping historical lessons about the "right" and "wrong" way to conduct business and to treat customers is important, because the history cannot be erased and therefore must be utilized. Additionally, a little touch of historical style may be appealing to customers that could use a break from the mundaneity of today's world. Finally, every business should keep a sharp eye on the future and not be afraid to take steps to stay ahead of the competition by offering futuristic-like conveniences and comforts to patrons. Indeed, complete anachronism may be the key to success in the modern…… [read more]


Hospitality Consumption. The Relationship Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (716 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

In all but the most leisurely and expensive places, tables must be planned in such a fashion that servers have quick access to customers, and that tables can be cleared quickly and expediently for a high rate of turnover. Larger banquet-style tables, despite a desired high rate of patron turnover, may be necessary where courses may be served on numerous platters, or shared amid the entire table, as they often are in Indian, Chinese, Japanese, and other such restaurants and cafes. If this is not possible, folding tables must be available so servers can make use of these platters to situate a variety of dishes upon one table for a number of patrons.

In places where meeting strangers is the goal, however, bars and tables must be situated in a clear and unobstructed fashion, so that rafters and other aspects of design do not get within he customer's view -- sometimes necessitating small tables that can only accommodate appetizers and drinks. Conversely, in restaurants where customers desire more intimate settings, forms of decorative obstructions can be used to convey privacy. Even in ethnic restraints, the use of strategically placed screens can create a unique atmosphere as well as convey privacy. However, this is not necessarily the case in all ethnic restaurants, as is clear in the popularity of 'noodle shops' where customers happily slurp noodles side by side, in true Japanese fashion.

Paradox

The paradox is, there is neither one typical patron nor one single desired design experience that is sought in any dining establishment, at any restaurant. Rather, what is critical is to integrate the design, food, and intent of the establishment in a way that can satisfy the particular patron's needs, whether young or old, single or a couple, a tourist or a local resident. And all the while, one must be cognizant of the fact that the hospitality industry is one of craft as well as art, and whatever food is served must be of high quality and that the design must expedite the server and the chef's function, as well as the…… [read more]


Compulsive or Pathological Gambling Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,353 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Fisher continues, "the inevitable losses suffered by the Machine Beaters leads to self deprecation and remorse. But this is rarely sufficient to halt their gambling" (Fisher 465). Thus, machine beaters represent a solid segment of the pathological gambling population, as they exhibit many of the characteristics common to problem gamblers. They bet more than they can afford, they cannot stop, and they adversely affect other relationships and responsibilities to gamble. As reporter Marriott notes about one problem gambler he encountered, the man, in a matter of fifteen months, bet more than a million dollars, and "All the while, Mr. S. said he could not manage his family's most basic expenses, such as regularly paying his household's electricity and telephone bills" (Marriott 61). Sadly, this is the case for most problem gamblers, and eventually they lose their families, their homes, their possessions, their jobs, and everything meaningful to them. Problem gambling can lead to homelessness, health problems, and even suicide when the gambler sees no other way out of their predicament.

Pathological gamblers do not know how to stop gambling and in trying to chase their losses, they turn into problem or compulsive gamblers. Clearly, the implications and consequences of problem gambling are numerous, and they affect more than the gambler, they affect people surrounding the gambler in many areas. The casinos and gaming establishments need to provide more information to these types of gamblers, and there need to be more avenues available for them to understand their disease and seek treatment. Few studies have been conducted on the treatment of compulsive gambling, but the most prevalent is psychotherapy. One expert in the treatment of the compulsion notes, "For many of those who seek help, several types of effective treatment are available; most are variants of psychotherapy" (Blaszczynski 38). Various types of psychotherapy are used, including aversion therapy, and they have had varying rates of success. The author continues, "like alcoholics and smokers, some compulsive gamblers can stop on their own, yet others seem uncontrollable despite the best of today's treatments. As our understanding of compulsive gambling increases, we may develop new treatments for people not now helped" (Blaszczynski 38).

Clearly, these "machine beaters" who cannot control their addictive behavior need help and understanding. They see themselves as losers against a mechanical device, and this adds to their compulsion to win. For some, it is a never-ending spiral toward destruction, while others manage to pull themselves out of the whirlpool. As these gamblers chase an ever-growing amount of losses, they adversely affect every aspect of their lives. Many steal gambling funds from family or employers with little compunction. Chasing gambling losses is a losing battle, for the odds are always in favor of the casinos and the gaming establishments. To truly understand what makes people gamble uncontrollably, more studies need to be done, and more treatment options need to become available.

Clearly, the limits of this research are many, for only a few of the many sources available have been utilized.… [read more]


Casinos and How They Lure Term Paper

Term Paper  |  4 pages (1,386 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Several studies indicate there are between 15 and 20 million Americans who show some signs of problem gambling (Hills). Problem gambling can lead to many complications, including loss of job, home, and family, homelessness, abuse, health problems, and even suicide. The National Gambling Impact Study Commission (NGISC) spoke of suicide in its Gambling Report of 1999. "Commissioners heard repeated testimony about suicide and attempted suicide on the part of compulsive gamblers" (Hills). Thus, as casinos stimulate heavier gambling from their patrons, they are also adding to the continuing problem of compulsive gambling. They are tearing apart families and lives for the profit of the company.

As these studies show, the casinos have all the power in the equation. They lead their players to the tables just like "lambs to the slaughter," and all along the way, there are smiling faces more than happy to take their money. From the moment a gambler enters the casino, the odds are all in favor of the casino, and they have the upper hand in all their dealings with the gambler. It is common knowledge that the games' odds all favor the casinos, but far fewer gamblers recognize the great lengths that casinos go to in keeping gamblers in their seats and betting. As Popkin's article shows, there are numerous ways casinos manipulate gamblers, from pleasant-smelling air to color, lighting, and free alcohol. This manipulation is subtle in many ways, but it works on many of the people playing in casinos, and it adds to the number of problem gamblers in our country. In turn, problem gamblers strain local and national resources, and cost their communities in lost time, wages, loans, and increased social services. Thus, the casinos get richer at the expense of many who cannot afford to lose. Once a gambler enters the casino, he or she is putty in their hands, and their wallets are at stake. Casinos have only one purpose, to make money, and as Popkin notes at the end of his article, "If you wanna make money in a casino, own one'" (Popkin 108). This is funny, but for those players who cannot control their gambling, it is not funny at all. While some casinos do recognize the part they play in problem gambling, there is still much to be done to increase public awareness and treatment. The casinos have a moral obligation to do more to help problem gamblers, and since they do so much and spend so much to lure gamblers in the first place, it seems reasonable that they should spend more to help treat those who need it. Casinos spend millions to retain gamblers, and use a wide variety of ploys to keep gamblers playing. They have all the control when patrons enter their doors, and they should use some of this tremendous power to do something good for some of the people they have been luring in like sheep for years.

Clearly, there are limits to this research, since it only uses two… [read more]


Diploma, so Where's Your Dream Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (890 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

Consider taking additional classes to pump up your resume. Most colleges and universities offer night classes, so it shouldn't be difficult to continue learning as you enter the business world.

FIVE ESSENTIAL TIME SAVING (AND FUN INDUCING!) TRICKS FOR THE SUMMER

1. Have a plan this summer.

Decide in advance what you would like to do this summer. Successful people do not become successful by accident-their success is typically the result of a well-executed plan. Instead of rushing around madly, trying to accomplish an undefined set of goals, or constantly "intending" to go on that trip to the beach, make a list of what you would like to do while the weather is warm and beautiful. Rank order your choices according to your preference.

Then plan your summer accordingly.

2. Learn how to multitask.

Organized people can do more than one thing at a time. Suppose you need to conduct some business in another town. Is there a way for you to add some fun to the trip? Are there theme parks, museums, or sites of natural beauty in the area? Investigate the possibilities, and you may end up packing a bikini in your briefcase!

3. Create some long weekends.

Some of the most pleasant vacations take place over long weekends. Leave on Friday and return on Monday night. If you live near an airport that is a "hub," you may be able to jet down to Key West or New Orleans for the weekend. Return to work on Tuesday refreshed, rejuvenated, and ready to plan for the next long weekend.

4. Make time for the family.

Vow to get the family active this summer! Winter tends to lull most families into a lazy pattern that often includes television and junk food, but little real bonding time or strenuous activity. Think about how much closer your family could be after a white-water rafting trip or a visit to a rock-climbing gym. Then again, simply adding a family game night to your schedule might serve the same purpose, and there is less chance of personal injury.

5. Try new things.

Have you always wanted to try water skiing or rollerblading, but have never had the opportunity? Create your own opportunities this summer. Do research on the Internet about that sport you have never played (but always wanted to try), and then get on the phone to the experts. Take lessons. Read the entertainment section of the local newspaper, which is usually full of helpful suggestions for having FUN. Make a promise to yourself that you will experience something new this summer, whether it is guitar lessons, skydiving, or swing dancing. You will be better…… [read more]


Walt Disney World in Orlando Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (622 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Nevertheless, Animal Kingdom offers a welcome alternative to the three other major Disney theme parks in the Orlando area.

Disney-MGM Studios opened in 1989 and now consists of five main areas of attraction. The studios are arranged to provide the visitor with insight into the filmmaking industry as seen from the Disney perspective. Mickey Avenue is a genuine working studio; New York Street mimics the excitement of Manhattan; and Hollywood Boulevard and Sunset Boulevard offer wild rides including the "Twilight Zone Tower of Terror" and the "Indiana Jones Stunt Spectacular."

Disney's Epcot Center consists of two major sections: the World Showcase and Future World. The former consists of pavilions from major countries including China, Canada, and Germany. Each world pavilion boasts shops and restaurants selling native wares. As the name suggests, Future World offers the visitor a glimpse into the future through interactive rides and exhibits designed to stimulate creativity and awareness of science.

Finally, the Magic Kingdom is the heart of Walt Disney World in Orlando. With such famous rides as "It's a Small World," parents and children and people of all ages can lose themselves in the fun and frolic of the truly magical kingdom. From Cinderella's castle to Tom Sawyer's Island, the Magic Kingdom is not to be missed on any first visit to the Orlando-area theme parks.

Walt Disney World offers something for everyone. In 2004, Disney World consists of four huge theme parks, some of which have yet to be totally completed. Therefore, for the foreseeable future, the Disney Corporation will continue to invest in improving the quality of its Orlando-area parks so that their visitors will never cease to be amazed and will always have a reason to return.

References

All Ears Net. http://allearsnet.com/index.html.

Disney Online. http://disney.go.com/home/today/index.html.… [read more]


Yosemite Falls Gives Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (655 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

Amy McConnell after visited the falls commented that,

With skiing, hiking, fireside retreats -- and no crowds -- Yosemite glows when it snows.

Maybe it's the stark beauty of snowcapped granite towering against a slate gray sky.

Or the image of the Ahwahnee hotel, serene in an empty meadow, so quiet you can almost hear plumes of smoke rising from its chimneys. Or the ephemeral artistry of pine marten tracks imprinted in newly fallen snow (Yosemite In Winter).

The Yosemite Falls are connected to the cross-country trails via a hiking trail. Travelling west to this route leads the tourists to the Lower falls. After traveling for about half a mile the route climbs steeply through thick pine woodland. Only after travelling a 1000 feet, the elevation becomes more leveled and contravene the cliff facing eastwards in the direction of Yosemite creek. From there hence, the view becomes much clear and allows the tourists to view the impressive sights of the valley. Travelling a bit further allows the tourists to view the Upper Falls.

Most of the tourists travel as far as the base of the Upper Falls. The path beyond this becomes very dangerous, as it is very steep.

Trailhead for Upper Yosemite Fall is at Sunnyside Campground, near Yosemite

Lodge in Yosemite Valley For an easier look, the trailhead for the 1/4-mile walk to the base of Lower Yosemite Fall is west of Yosemite Village and east of Yosemite Lodge

on Northside Dr. (Anne Marie Brown, Yosemite Falls, Yosemite National Park).

Hence the Yosemite Falls and the park around it gift its tourists with its great beauty and allow one to actually witness this splendid sight. The reverberation of the fall can be heard throughout the valley. Even though the falls present a magnificent view all through the years, it however is most grand during springtime.

Work Cited

Anne M.B. Yosemite Falls, Yosemite National Park. Sunset Publishing Corp. March 2001.

Amy…… [read more]


Articles on Compulsive Gambling Term Paper

Term Paper  |  2 pages (684 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

One talks about how dangerous and debilitating compulsive gambling can be, and the other clearly illustrates it. The first article looks at compulsive gambling as a disease that needs treatment, while the second article shows just how a compulsive gambler cannot face his addiction, or his need for treatment. Together, the articles form a more cohesive picture of compulsive gambling, giving the reader not only facts and figures, but the real experience of a gambler attempting to quit while unwilling to face up to their addiction. Both articles show the dangers of compulsive gambling, but in very differing ways.

The authors of both these articles present their material effectively and in a manner that is easy to read and understand. One uses statistics and a hypothetical gambler to make their point, while the other simply discusses the personal experience of one highly visible compulsive gambler. Both articles clearly illustrate how dangerous this disease can be, and how easy it is to become addicted. They discuss addictive behavior clearly and realistically, and one gives the reader some hope because there are many treatment options available to those who really want to quit. These articles are quite effect in not only presenting the dangers of gambling, but they put the reader right in the middle of the problem, making them more aware of why compulsive gambling is so addictive, and so harmful to not only the gambler, but the surrounding support group and the community. It is clear that gambling addiction costs the community money in the form of treatment, unemployment, bankruptcy, and even physical and mental health costs not only for the gambler but also for the family. The articles make the reader more aware of this problem, and more aware of what needs to be done to combat it. As the first article notes, "The benefits from the gaming industry come at a price" (Weinstock, Whelan & Meyers, 1999).

References

Virtues guru Bennett: 'Gambling days over'. (2003, May 31). The Christian Century, 120, 18.

Weinstock, J., Whelan, J.P., & Meyers,…… [read more]


Role of Video Games Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,977 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

The survey will be conducted on parents of children between the ages of five and 15 years old. The population will be drawn from school districts and will be randomly selected for the purpose of the study. There will be a three-month window in which to complete the surveys and return them to the research team. The survey will ask questions about what games the parents purchase for their children. There will be three sections to the survey. The first section will ask for general information such as the age and gender of their children as well as questions about race, income and the names of recently played games in their household. In addition this section will ask questions about the amount of time spent on video games.

The second section will ask questions that are not about video games per se but about the children's personality characteristics. How many times has the child been disciplined for violent acts or verbal abuse in recent year. Out of those times how many of them were toward females and how many toward males.

The third section will be more free style based. It will allow the parents to describe their methods of discipline at home as well as their beliefs about video games and violence.

When the surveys are collected they will be analyzed to determine whether or not video games play an active part in the current socialization of the genders of children as they grow up in today's society.

Findings and Analysis

The findings will be analyzed by separating the surveys into two groups. Those that are completely filled out will go into one pile while those that are partially filled out or have other errors will be rejected. Those that are accepted will be further divided into groups of female and male and age groups. This will allow the analysis of the data and the collection of it to be grouped in different ways for different reasons.

CONCLUSION

The research will attempt to address the question of gender targeting for video game marketing. It will ask questions that will determine whether the games are geared more for males than for females. In addition and along with that it will address the issues of socialization in the children who play them and how the genders are impacted by playing them.

This study will be important to the future of the industry by shedding light on what the marketing department is doing to turn away female consumers and possibly how they can change the games to be more gender equal and more socially responsible.

References

Violent Video Games Affecting our Children.

Grand Theft Auto' creators sued for $100m over killing.(News)

Computers, video games, and literacy: What do girls think?(Statistical Data Included)

Popular video games: quantifying the…… [read more]


Fear and Beating Timidity Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (372 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

The moment I jumped off the 50 feet high bridges, I knew I was doing something that would profound affects my beliefs about my capabilities and in a positive way too. And God, Was it liberating!

Liberation-Yes Liberation, more than adrenalin rush and exhilaration, is what I felt after that experience. It liberated me forever from the chains of false beliefs about man's capabilities. Bungee jumping may be a regular thing for some, but since I could never even picture myself jumping off a 50-feet high bridge, it was certainly a huge personal achievement. It was significant because to this day, this one experience helps me remove my self-imposed limitations in many areas, Its gives me the confidence to give destiny a nudge, fear a smack and dare to achieve more. The experience made me realize that one single opportunity of this kind contains within it the power to profoundly affect your old beliefs provided you are courageous…… [read more]


Marketing Data Collected Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,580 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

However, they may be considered useful when developing marketing information.

Comment on the usefulness of the margins of error you have obtained for a selection of your confidence intervals (both means and proportions). Perform two sample size calculations, one for means and one for proportions, using acceptable margins of error. Justify your choice of all the parameters used.

The margins of error were acceptable in analysing the sample: most of the variables consisted of small numbers (between one and five) and the sample size was 200, which is adequate for the determination of data. Population analyses were not used to analyze data for the American guests. The numbers were normally distributed and I was able to interpret customer data with a reasonable amount of certainty.

Statistical data shows that the firm consistantly operates at a loss during the fall and winter months. The modal motel guest is from New Zealand, consists of a couple with a child, and spends two days at the motel. The modal guest is extremely likely to eat at the restaurant and somewhat unlikely to engage in other activities such as sailing. Principal expenses are related to staffing. If the hotel were to close its doors during the winter or limit operation to being open on the weekend, revenues would be slightly better than they are now.

Information that would still be of interest includes that regarding monthly data for 2001; between 2001 and 2002 profitability slumped considerably. This could be the result of several reasons; one is probably the failure of the organization to attract return visitors from New…… [read more]


Rationality Humans Are Lousy Term Paper

Term Paper  |  6 pages (1,840 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

A cancer specialist might observe that almost all his lung cancer patients are also cigarette smokers.

When our minds form a generalization, we are always making a judgment about a large number of cases based on a small sample of those cases. Our observation about peaches having pits is based on a small number of peaches, but we expect it to apply to all peaches. The estimate of the basketball player's shooting ability is based only on shots taken during the tryout, but the coach expects this sample to be representative of the shots that will be taken over the course of many games. Noticing that most lung cancer patients are smokers is based on a small number of patients, but is assumed to apply to lung cancer patients in general.

Almost all our behavior is based on expecting things to respond to our actions in the same way that they have in the past. Making and using generalizations based on limited experience is as fundamental as any aspect of human thinking can be. Without doing this, we could not survive (http://www.truthpizza.org/logic/sample.htm).

Thus while it is true that humans often fail at rationality, this is not the same thing as saying that the majority of humans are stupid. Rationality is a skill and a virtue, but there are other virtues as well, such as the evolutionary advantageous one of assuming that all bears are hungry.

References

http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/sci_tech/features/figure_it_out/lottery.shtml http://www.math.byu.edu/~jarvis/gambling/gambling-fallacies.html

http://www.truthpizza.org/logic/sample.htm

Paulos, J.A. (2001). Innumeracy: Mathematical Illiteracy and Its Consequences. London: Hill and Wang.… [read more]


Business Management Discuss Specific Challenges Term Paper

Term Paper  |  7 pages (1,915 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

4. Detail the steps in the rational decision-making process as it relates to the following three scenario:

A. A manager at K-Mart who recognizes the need for the store to recover from its prolonged poor image and retail slump might follow these steps of thought:

1. People do not shop here because we are not as cheap as Wal-Mart nor as upscale as Target.

2. We do not have the resources to change our stores fundamentally so we have to capitalize on what we have.

3. We cannot charge as little as Wal-Mart because they pay their employees less. But we can capitalize on the public's uneasiness about exploited workers by running an ad campaign emphasizing our commitment to our workers.

4. Target has been successful because it emphasizes its unique products. We should also do so - and more than we have in the past - relying on our name brands such as clothing by Jaclyn Smith to help us.

B. A plant manager realizes that employee turnover is up by over 10%.

1. The manager must first ask himself or herself why turnover has increased.

2. If he or she doesn't know, then the manager must talk to workers to find out.

3. The manager must take steps to remedy the problems that the workers find most serious. He or she may not be able to do so, of course, but often some problems that really bother workers can be relatively cheaply solved. For example, has some new, expendable rule just come into effect that has prompted the higher rate of turnover?

4. The manager must find ways to reward seniority. Additional days of vacation or increased flexibility in scheduling hours for those workers with more seniority may well convince workers that they should stay with their current job to reap these benefits.

C. A student suddenly realizes that a "C" is a strong possibility for a final grade.

1. The student should review how many points are still obtainable in the class.

2. The student should talk with the instructor about making up any missed work.

3. The student should talk with the instructor about revising any work that received a low grade.

4. The student should talk with the instructor about doing extra-credit work.

5. The student should consider dropping the course and…… [read more]


Entertainment Violence in Recent Years Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (387 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

According to Henry Jenkins of MIT, criminologists rarely consider media violence to be a serious contribution to crime, rather they consider "access to weapons, mental health and poverty...media consumption ranks very low on the list" (Newit pg). Yet, while crime and violence has actually been decreasing, the news coverage of it has doubled in recent years with stations routinely reporting of incidents outside their area (Cockburn 27).

The entertainment industry appears to be simply a scapegoat for more serious issues facing society, such as poverty, healthcare, access to weapons, and education incentives.

Works Cited

ACLU Sees Political Opportunism, Not Science, In Report Linking Pop Culture and Youth Violence." American Civil Liberties Union Freedom Network. http://archive.aclu.org/features/f091300a.html.(accessed 06-28-2003).

Cockburn, Alexander, When U.S. politicians get fired up about screen violence, it has to be election year: real causes of social crime in the United States." New Statesman & Society. Volume 9. May 17, 1996; pp 27.

Newit, Annalee. "Blame Game: Gamers say social problems, not video games cause violence" San Francisco Chronicle. January 14, 2002 http://www.sfgate.com/cgibin/article.cgi?file=/gate/archive/2002/01/14/gameviol.DTL.(accessed 06-28-2003).… [read more]


Walker Evans the Emergence Term Paper

Term Paper  |  15 pages (4,742 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

S. Resettlement Administration and during the Depression, recorded the social conditions. It is during this second period, from 1931 to 1935, that Evans mastered his skills and developed a full "palette " in a salon where when one goes into it gives feeling of as if entering into a shaft of light (Cosmo Polis, 2000).

At the salon are many… [read more]


Wild Horse Saloon Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (814 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

One of the most profitable things the club has done is make it a family venue. Anyone over the age of 18 can enter its premises and those under 18 can come in if they are with a parent or adult guardian. The Wild horse is strategically placed near many well-known Nashville Hotels including the Opry Hotel, which is a few miles away.

The cover charge Monday - Thursday is $4 and Saturday & Sunday is $6, except for concerts and special events. Cover begins at 7 p.m. daily, except for concerts and special events when it begins at 5 p.m. See our concert calendar for a complete list of concerts and special events (Wild Horse Saloon (http://www.wildhorsesaloon.com/)."

Because the club offers dancing and eating there is a restaurant atmosphere upstairs with a dance club ambiance downstairs. The restaurant serves the usual touristy American fair and the servers are dressed in Levis, boots and country western shirts. The drinks are reasonably priced as are the meals. One can get a meal for 7-10 bucks and then dance off the calories downstairs on the shining hard wood dance floor. The Wild Horse is well-known for the live performance such as Faith Hill, Dan Seals, and others but it also has lesser known bands who can apply to be featured there either as an opening band or as the main act.

The Wild Horse hospitality is what brings the guests back again and again. The service is excellent, the ambiance is something that stays with the guests long after they have gone home and the opportunity to hear some of the best acts in the world on the stage are all things that the Wild Horse offers the public.

The Wild Horse Saloon has gained world wide acclaim for its ambiance and ability to entertain and for those who live in the Nashville area it is a local gold mine. Those who have the chance to travel to Nashville and stop in at the Wild Horse will find themselves taken by the friendly yet active atmosphere the club provides.

References

Eff, Tony; Kyle, Reuben (1995). Circle of prosperity. (Nashville, Tennessee)(includes related articles on Nashville's achievements in 1995). Vol. 9, Business Perspectives, pp 1(9).

Author not available (1994). WHEN THEY'RE NOT DANCIN', THEY'RE WATCHIN'., St. Louis Post-Dispatch, pp 01H.…… [read more]


Interactivity in Video Games Term Paper

Term Paper  |  31 pages (9,740 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

The locations are made to appear attractive to the player, so that the player doesn't just have a good story line but also a good environment to enjoy while playing. Sometimes, games even have characters that the players can talk too, just so the players can have repeated conversations with them and see what they say every time.

The games… [read more]


Future of Internet Gaming Term Paper

Term Paper  |  5 pages (1,386 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

As the X-Box and Playstation 2 consoles become wired to the Internet, it will be all other companies can do to stay afloat in an easily dominated industry.

Sony's Playstation 2 will account for 72% of global console sales by the end of 2002 (Greenspan, 2002) with the average user being 23 years old. Games are currently being marketed towards an age bracket that includes teenagers, and within the next few years it will be evident what age group is dominating Internet usage, and namely, online gaming. Teenagers will probably continue to be a viable source of income, as more and more DVD releases are held in conjunction with game releases, like Reign of Fire, which conveniently has a T. rating.

So what can we expect from online gaming over the next five years? Along with an increase in game options, a lot will depend on technology advances and the economy. Games already launched, like The Sims, require a subscription service of $10 a month and though it will rely on it's established popularity to grow online, most of its success will depend on the members and their enjoyment.

In the case of movie crossovers, games will have to be challenging and visually attractive, as well as having a movie-like atmosphere. LucasArts Entertainment and other powerhouse studios like Dreamworks are already using their cinema technology in creating realistic graphics and authentic themes, like Spielberg's Medal of Honor series set in World War II.

Needless to say, the possibilities these types of games could lead to are endless and will only be a matter of time before big studios produce more elaborate game designs that will require more advanced consoles and computers. It is a self-perpetuating industry that relies on the gaming experience being, at often times, just as good as a movie experience.

Companies are striving to keep gamers interested and this leads to increased research and spending on graphics and storylines. Broadband and DSL have made it easier to play high-resolution graphics online, and companies like Sony and Microsoft are making Internet gaming more accessible to it's console markets (Becker, 2002b). More than likely we will see a large crossover of console games appearing on the Internet, where games will be available for free (Burnham, 2002). How this will affect the cost of console games vs. PC games remains to be seen.

The recent issue of Newsweek (Croal, 2002b) highlights the emergence of The Sims Online, a game that has players 'playing God' as they create people and families and run (or ruin) their lives. The crossover from PC game to a virtual online community has been made, quite often unsuccessfully, but EA believe they have a winner with the much publicized and Game of the Year that promises to have more expansion packs than ever before.

Computer games have come along way from the days of Pong, and with the evolution of the Internet, we can be assured a growth in online gaming, and remarkable progress in the… [read more]


Fire at MGM Grand Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (918 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1+

SAMPLE TEXT:

"The MGM, which was at 99% capacity the day of the fire, only had sprinklers in a galley and in the basement, areas where the fire was stopped dead in its tracks by the heavy flow of water (Koch, 2000)."

In addition the MGM Grand had an air system that allowed toxic fumes to be piped throughout the building. There were no fire control rooms in the building either which meant there was no central way for the hotel to contact the hotel guests and advise them on measures to stay safe until they could be rescued." Today, every major public building has such rooms with computers that can pinpoint the origin of fires and vent smoke out of areas to help firefighters (Koch, 2000)."

More than two decades later the fire is still remembered. The Nevada Lions' Burn Care Center at the University Medical Center devoted lots of time helping fire victims that day and currently still donate money to the treatment of fire victims (Tragedy Remembered Through Gift MGM Fire Fund to Help Burn Victims (http://www.umc-cares.org/press/030501_mgm.html).

The investigation found many bodies that were just feet from doors that would have led to escape. "All they had to do was push the door open," Burns said 20 years later from his office at Fire Department headquarters (MGM GRAND FIRE: Horror can't be forgotten (http://www.lvrj.com/lvrj_home/2000/Nov-19-Sun-2000/news/14842491.html)."

Though there were many rumors over the years that the fire was started by arsonists the true cause according to fire investigators who reported faulty wiring as the culprit. The wires in the wall in a restaurant called the Deli within the hotel smoldered for hours without detection due to flaws in the design and installation of the wiring. "Several minor factors, from exposed wires near the fire's origin to flammable glue in the ceiling tiles of the casino, all came together to make the fire so deadly. "

The MGM fire made history. Causing over 80 deaths, and creating the springboard for many fire laws that were passed following the fire, it will be a historical tragedy for many years to come. The fire was tragic indeed, costing many people their lives. But the changes that came because of the fire's occurrence, have the potential to save millions of people in the future.

References

Koch, Ed (2000).MGM GRAND FIRE altered safety standards. Las Vegas Sun.

Tragedy Remembered Through Gift

MGM Fire Fund to Help Burn Victims

http://www.umc-cares.org/press/030501_mgm.html

MGM GRAND FIRE: Horror can't be forgotten http://www.lvrj.com/lvrj_home/2000/Nov-19-Sun-2000/news/14842491.html

REVIEW-JOURNAL

Author not available, NT: Fire in casino, 150 guests evacuated., AAP General News (Australia), 12-09-2001.… [read more]


Secretary Went on Vacation Term Paper

Term Paper  |  1 pages (477 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

This idea was rejected because it did not fit with the rest of the facts of the case. If the secretary had claimed to be out of town for a funeral, this solution may have been plausible. Another idea was that she may have posted something confidential that was not meant to be posted. This solution was also rejected because it did not fit the rest of the information.

The idea was then thought of that perhaps she took the keys and mailed those back. This led to the final solution. The solution meets all the facts of the case. The keys are an item likely to be taken home inadvertently by a secretary. The fact that she took the keys was not the reason for her sacking. The secretary mailing the keys is critical to the scenario and explains why she was not sacked for taking the keys but sacked on her return.

The steps of this problem-solving approach included:

1. Determine the question.

2. List the facts of the case.

3. Analyze the facts to determine which one might provide the answer.

4. Brainstorm to find solutions that explain why this fact might be relevant.

5. Determine if each of the solutions also meets the other…… [read more]


Company Holiday Function Research Paper

Research Paper  |  3 pages (849 words)
Bibliography Sources: 1

SAMPLE TEXT:

It is the opinion of the planning committee that the problem lies in the fact that the caterers are not being contacted until late in the season. The month of December is filled with holiday events and waiting until the last minute prevents us from obtaining the best food (Dusen, 2002). This year we have decided that the catering will be secured no later than September 15. Each month several caterers will be contacted and allowed to prepare samples for the food committee to taste and evaluate. The theme for the party is going to be summer breezes and Hawaiian foods. The caterers will be allowed to bring us a miniature sample of what they will provide if we hire them to provide food for the event (Dusen, 2002). By September 15 we will choose the caterer and book them. The budget allows for about $24.00 to be spent feeding each party guest and the caterers being interviewed will be asked to provide samples that will fall within that price range.

The planning committee was formed after we looked at the possibility of outsourcing the panning of the event. There were several companies contacted who are in the business of planning and conducting events for businesses but the planning committee believes it will be best to allow employees to handle the tasks as they know their fellow employees and will be able to discuss their likes and dislikes when the need arises and not have to wait for special meetings or phone calls. We did however, take several ideas from the businesses that provide parties and actually used their idea about early catering decisions to try and improve this year's festivity (Dusen, 2002).

Conclusion

The party will be held from 6 P.M. until midnight. Those who plan to attend will be expected to rsvp by November 1, 2002 to give the caterer time to plan the menu. The venue is set to be secured by the middle of September and the entertainment will be determined by October first. This year's event is shaping up well and the members of the planning committee is working to begin recruiting sub-committee members. It is anticipated that there will be a need for about 75 volunteers, and the committee believes offering a raffle of a weekend get away to those who volunteer will stimulate the offers. We will meet back with the director's office in three months to go over the completion of plans for the party.

References

Dusen, Van, Christine (2002). Business…… [read more]


Infinite Megapixels Digital Photography Term Paper

Term Paper  |  3 pages (912 words)
Bibliography Sources: 0

SAMPLE TEXT:

As a result, the purists will probably continue to use conventional photography no matter how many advantages digital photography poses. Also, conventional photographs are easier to print. Digital photographs require an expensive color photo printer, but even then, to get the best quality print out of a digital photo, one needs to send the file to a professional printer who may charge upwards of ten dollars a print. Conventional photographs may be developed in a dark room with the correct chemicals.

But the most striking advantage of conventional photography over digital photography is the sense of humanness about it. Conventional photography, as we discussed earlier, eliminates the computer's efforts to mitigate humanity. Roland Barthes, in his "Camera Lucida," discusses his attempts to find the perfect photo of his dead mother in the second part of the work, and his writing and his search are so poignant and human. We identify with Barthes and we are warmed by the fact that a man with such an imposing intellect and understanding can be brought to his sentimental knees by even the prospect that a perfect photograph exists of his mother. We could never imagine the same gut human reaction to a digital photograph. We are human, and therefore we are analog: we have no computers within us, and so to best represent humanity, computers cannot play a role.

But that is our view today. Surely writers in previous decades claimed that they could never envision themselves creating their art on computers; the manual nature of a typewriter was the only way to convey their thoughts. And of course, even before them, writers insisted that they could never use the new-fangled typewriter because it seemed so mechanical: writing for them was dipping a pen in ink and opening up their minds to the paper. All that has changed, and perhaps our attitude towards digital photography's dehumanization will change as well. We can only wait and see.

There is, currently, an interim medium that combines both digital and conventional photography: the scanned picture. We can take conventional photos and then scan them into zeros and ones using a quality scanner: This allows us to maintain the human element of the print in the original photo and on the negative, and also allows us to modify and share it easily on the computer format.

However, the problem with that procedure is, scanning technology has lagged behind digital photography technology. When we scan, we sacrifice quality of picture, which is one of the reasons digital photography has become so popular. Perhaps time will cure that deficit as well.… [read more]