Study "Recreation / Leisure / Tourism" Essays 331-385

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Business Memo and Thank You Letter Reflexive Essay

… Business Memo and Thank You Letter

Reflexive Essay and Thank You Letter

To gain greater insights into the hospitality industry at the managerial and leadership level Tobias Ragossnig, Front Office Manager at the Kahala Hotel and Resort was interviewed. While working full-time he is also currently attending Hawai'i Pacific University pursuing a degree in Travel Industry Management. He is originally from Austria, where he attended a secondary college studying Marketing, interrupting his studies to take a full time position with the YMCA.

In choosing to interview Tobias, his unique managerial and leadership background in the hospitality industry, combined with his ambitious approach to continual self-improvement from a management and leadership standpoint, made him the best candidate available given my own career aspirations. He has accumulated over a decade of management and leadership experience in the YMCA, and for the last three years worked a the Kahala Hotel and Resort.

Background and Education

Tobias has a strong work ethic and also believes in the value of education as the foundation for excelling in managerial and leadership roles. This is evidenced by the continual investments he makes in personal development in these areas. Tobias began his career in the YMCA, where he served in a variety of roles including frontline and management positions, progressing to his final position as Senior Director of Membership & Marketing. At this point in his career he chose to leave the YMCA and join the Kahala Hotel and Resort first as Housekeeping Manager and later as Front Office Manager. He credits his background in doing many of the tasks his staff is required to do on a daily basis for being able to connect with them not just as employees but as people and personally identify with them as well. One of his mottos or mantras is "sweat with them so they sweat with you." This refers to building a strong team through self-sacrifice and a willingness to always go the extra mile for a co-workers and subordinate.

He credits his years at the YMCA with teaching him just how critical people skills are to any services-based job, and how important it is to also be a leader who earns trust and respect. Throughout the interview it became clear that Tobias earns respect and over time, trust from the employees that report to him by concentrating on sharing experiences and his willingness to pitch in ad help them. Instead of remaining aloof or authoritarian, Tobias jumps in to help his subordinates, staff members and peers at the hotel, further showing…… [read more]

Art Thinking Critically About Photography Essay

… Such works have been called Mosaic Collages. This photograph hints that the windows in the building are a part of a greater mosaic collage of another image, which is almost perceived, on the tip of the tongue, or brain, so to speak.

Sontag has an entire body of literature expounding upon the affects and effects of photography. She refers to the power of photography to "fiddle" or play with the viewers' sense of the scale of the world as well as linking photography to collecting. (Sontag, On Photography, 1973) Gursky's work participates in this discourse. The photograph captures a collection of windows, a collection of rooms, and a collection of colors. While viewers may know consciously from the parking lot and trees, that this building is for people, as in it is "people sized," the scale of the photograph invites persistent questions of scale and perspective. How far away is the photographer from the object? What kind of lens contributes to producing this effect? How big are those trees? There are no people in the picture. There is no common referential object in the piece to help more firmly locate the viewer with regard to scale and perspective. In this way, the photography is some sort of optical illusion. The photograph retains a hypnotic quality because in order to get a grip on what we see, how big is the thing that we see, and the determination if the thing we see is only a smaller part of an even bigger thing, we must continue to stare at the photograph. Sontag might argue that with respect to this photograph, in collecting the world, the photo has collected the…… [read more]

MGM Casino Research Paper

… ¶ … MGM Grand Casino opened in 1993 after ground was broken in late 1991 on the former site of the Marina Hotel and Tropicana Country Club, two properties MGM CEO and Chainman of the Board Kirk Kerkorian purchased in… [read more]

Porter's Five Force Analysis of Starwood Hotel and Resort, Ltd Essay

… Starwood

The threat of new entrants is moderate. The hotel industry is already fairly saturated, so there is greater threat from existing competitors. However, the costs of entering the market are relatively low, both in terms of capital and in terms of knowledge. New companies enter the hospitality industry frequently, and small companies grow to become bigger competitors often as well.

The threat of substitutes is relatively small. Starwood competes across multiple hospitality platforms under its different brands. There are a few potential substitutes, such as hostels or staying with family, but for the most part hotel customers need hotels and are unlikely to substitute anything in its place.

The bargaining power of buyers is high. There is substantial competition in the hotel industry, and consumers have a wide range of choices. They may choose from other major hotel groups, but also from a wide selection of independent hotels and resorts as well. There are no attractive markets in the world that do not have intense competition, although some markets may be underserved at a given moment in time. In general, however, buyers have a multitude of options at their fingertips. Online information sites allow for buyers to have a higher degree of knowledge as well, which increases their bargaining power. In addition, buyers see their bargaining power increase as the result of overcapacity in the hotel industry. Because hotel rooms are a perishable good, hotels must compete intensely to win customers every night to fill those rooms. This requires significant capital investment to build new properties and upgrade old ones. The high degree of bargaining power of buyers characterizes much of the industry's competitive intensity.

The bargaining power of suppliers is somewhat lower. Key supplies include labor, construction, and ongoing supplies. The size and wealth of hotels and resorts usually gives them…… [read more]

Terri Schiavo Term Paper

… Terri Schiavo's case is arguably one of the most controversial medical cases in recent times. After suffering a heart attack in February 1990, Terri experienced brain damage that led to her hospitalization. Her condition deteriorated steadily and soon, doctors concluded that she had sunk into a persistent vegetative state. Her condition necessitated the insertion of a feeding tube which was eventually removed on March 18th, 2005 after an acrimonious court battle pitting her parents against her husband. While Terri's parents (the Schindlers) opposed the removal of the tube, Michael Schiavo fought hard to have the said tube removed.

The six stages of moral development proposed by Kohlberg seek to explain the three levels of morality individuals ideally go through (Hill, 2001). Using these stages, it would be possible to determine exactly where Michael Schiavo and the Schindlers fall. To begin with, it is important to note that Michael Schiavo's resolve to have the PEG tube removed was partly based on his assertion that Terri had once intimated that she wouldn't want to have her life supported using artificial means. Her chances of full recovery according to him were also minimal. The Schindlers on the other hand deemed such a move unacceptable and inherently wrong. They occasionally attempted to demonstrate that Terri's state could improve. They tried all they could to keep their daughter alive. To them, this was the right thing to do.

In my opinion, the Schindlers fall at stage 4 of Kohlberg's stages of moral development. This stage according to Hill (2001) is characterized by the desire to do that which one considers to be his duty. Here, individuals are primed to do the right thing. The right thing in the eyes of the Schindlers was keeping their daughter alive. Killing her under any circumstances was simply wrong. On the other hand, Michael Schiavo seems to be in the 4th stage of Kohlberg's stages of moral development. According to Hill (2001), what pleases others is what is regarded good behavior at this stage. Michael Schiavo's desire was to fulfill Terri's wish. From his viewpoint, his intention was largely honorable.

Part 2

Quite a number of studies have been conducted in the past in an attempt to determine if violent media, i.e. exposure to violent video games, has any effect on violent behavior…… [read more]

MGM Grand Hotel Fire Writing Essay

… Fire extinguishers and fire hoses were not easily accessible to those who were in proximity to the fire (employees). There was a great deal of smoke. Because of the lack of sufficient fire warning systems strategically placed throughout the hotel, a number of guests and employees were unaware there was a fire until there were blown back by the force of fire or suddenly incapacitated by smoke. (Best & Demers, 1980)

There was insufficient air circulation in key parts of the hotel, such as the largest/main areas, and in some cases where there was a lot of air circulation, this actually fed the fire and increased the intensity, especially in areas where the fire was on one side of HVAC; air pushing through the HVAC into the areas that fed into areas with flames, fed oxygen to the fire, causing more flames and more smoke. (FEMA, 2010) In such areas, this is where the loss of life was the greatest, as a number of employees and guests were trapped or surrounded by flames. Many of the victims of the fire died due to excessive smoke inhalation. (Best & Demers, 1980) In summary, the fire spread due to build up of smoke, insufficient fire extinguishers, unprotected vertical openings, lack of smoke proofing, and distribution of smoke because of the HVAC. (Best & Demers, 1980)

The benefits of smoke control and smoke management are numerous. These kinds of systems can, in some cases, prevent fires. It is more likely that these systems do better in serving as sufficient warning to occupants regarding smoke and fire. Smoke control and management systems may also stave off the fire and smoke for long enough for occupants to evacuate and assist others in safe evacuation of the premises. These systems, if they remain partially intact, can additionally help fire investigators understand the nature of the fire and more accurately diagnose the cause, as well as assess the damage, perhaps used to improve systems and prevent more fires and fire related injuries in the future.


Best, R., & Demers, D.P. (1980). Investigation Report on the MGM Grand Hotel Fire. National Fire Protection Agency, Clark County, Nevada, 1- 83.

FEMA. (2010).…… [read more]

Stress Management the Procedure Essay

… , 2009). .

Hot flashes: hot flashes which accompany the menopause can be relieved by relaxation exercise. This relaxation involves slow and deep breathing (Casey et al., 2009).

According to the researchers, no major changes are discovered in the outcomes which have resulted after undergoing relaxation exercise during cardiac catheterization. Nevertheless, patients were seen less distressed with the implementation of the new procedure. Further research would find out the existence of any long-term effects of this technique on recovery and the outlook (Casey et al., 2009).

Various studies concerning relaxation therapy and health are restricted to certain individuals and their treatments on weekly or monthly basis. It is suggested to undertake studies that can follow more participants for a longer period of time so that one can know about the cumulative effects generated by relaxation therapy (Casey et al., 2009).


Barnes PM, Bloom B, Nahin R. Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States, 2007. CDC National Health Statistics Report #12. 2008.

Beard C, Stason WB, Wang Q, et al. Effects of complementary therapies on clinical outcomes in patients being treated with radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Cancer. 2010;117(1):96 -- 102.

Benson H, Casey A, Dadoly A, et al., eds. Stress Management: Approaches for preventing and reducing stress. Accessed on January 31st 2013 from: NCCAM Clearinghouse. Relaxation Techniques for Health: An Introduction. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

Casey A, Chang BH, Huddleston J, et al. A model for integrating a mind/body approach to cardiac rehabilitation: outcomes and correlators. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention. 2009;29(4):230 -- 238.

Dusek JA, Benson H. Mind-body medicine: a model of the comparative clinical…… [read more]

Cup 2014 Term Paper

… Additionally, there will be many small projects that will be seen. These include restaurants and hotels, since the people who come to the country to see the event will need food and a place to stay (Host, 2009). Many hotels and motels will start making changes so they are better able to accommodate the influx of people. Also, the restaurants that are able to expand or revamp their locations will do so in order to make sure people can get what they want (Host, 2009). Even if these locations are not actually in the host cities, if they are close to those cities they will get a great deal of "spillover" of people who are not staying in the host cities (Host, 2009). For some people, the decision to stay elsewhere will be theirs. For others, the decision will be made for them because everything in the host city will already be booked by the time they get around to making their reservations. Either way, many people will be in cities and suburban areas that are close to the cities that are actually hosting the World Cup 2014.

The value to Brazil as a country is high, but the value to its citizens and businesses is even higher. The money that is being spent now is highly significant, but the money that will be spent in the future is also going to have a serious impact on the country and its future. As time moves closer to the World Cup 2014, people will begin to come to the country. They will spend their money, and that will boost the economy and help Brazil recover some of the money it is spending to make sure it is ready for the people who will be coming from all over the world. While it seems as though hotels and restaurants and convention centers would be the focus of a study on the impact of money coming into Brazil from the World Cup 2014, the money that is being spent on things like stadiums, light rail trains, and airports is also vital to the growth of the economy and the success of the World Cup 2014 event.


Brazil shall grant tax breaks for 2014 stadiums. (2010). Portal 2014.

Future airports of Brazil. (2011).

Host cities -- World Cup. (2009).…… [read more]

Video Game Violence Criminal Behavior Article Review

… 2012, Commonwealth of Australia: 18).

Sociological critics of these studies further note that the experiments fail to take into consideration important cultural factors which influence the video game debate. First of all, while the United States is not the only… [read more]

Exciting About Video Games Thesis

… Meta-analysis however has its limitations which include factors such as the researchers selecting their included studies (therefore incorporating bias to a certain degree), excluding others that they may not be aware of and/or that come from sources that they do… [read more]

Products or Businesses Xbox 360 Research Paper

… The table beneath exhibits a side by side assessment of the 2 video games

Current Upgrades Assessment

The optical drive:

With regard to PS3, this has been the monster feature. In the year 2006, producers spent around 200 to 300 dollars for Blu-ray hard drives, based on Wolfgang Schlichting, a researcher with IDC. From 2007, the cost has dropped to amid 100 and 200 dollars. The Xbox includes a conventional DVD drive, together with an HD-DVD disk drive (Semico, 2006).

Normal DVD drives cost $20 or perhaps even less. Sometimes recordable DVD hard drives at wholesale prices cost only 28 to 32 dollars (Semico, 2006).

Graphics chip:

This appears like a tie. Microsoft worked alongside ATI Technologies to produce a chip which costs about $141, based on iSuppli. Sony worked with ATI competitor Nvidia to develop its processor chip, which has been priced between 120 to 150 dollars, based on Dean McCarron working at Mercury Research. Considering that the two chips have been in line with the high-end Computer chips via the two businesses, and also, since ATI and also Nvidia have been such fierce rivals, it is a secure bet that the 2 have been approximately equivalent in this case (Semico, 2006).


Seems like a tie, however Sony might take a small hit right here. The Xbox 360 console includes 512MB of GDDR (graphics double data rate storage, intended for managing graphics-intensive applications such as video games). The PS3 includes 256MB of 700 MHz GDDR three storage as well as 256MB of XDR storage. Bob Merritt associated with Semico Research states it is risk-free to presume that the two kinds of memory space will cost one hundred % premium over standard DDR2 memory space, shedding to a 50% premium one year afterwards. A 256-megabit DDR2 processor chip costs approximately $2.46 within the wholesale marketplace, he explained, resulting in a cost of approximately 79 dollars for 512MB of GDDR (here's the mathematics: 2.46x2x2x8. There have been eight bits inside a byte) (Semico, 2006; also see Lanterman, 2010).

iSuppli as well as Merrill Lynch place the price of memory space at, correspondingly, 65 and 50 dollars. The average amid the 3 has been 65 dollars. The only real variable has been that XDR might not drop in cost as quickly as GDDR, which has been extensively utilized. The royalty Rambus costs has been unidentified (Semico, 2006).

With a twist, Samsung can make memory space for the two gaming systems.

Hard disk:

The 399 dollar version related to the Xbox 360 console includes a removable 20GB hard disk. Sony includes a removable drive however has not established specifications. So once more, it is a draw. Within the wholesale marketplace, the drives can cost around forty dollars (Semico, 2006).

The rest:

The energy supply, all of the chassis, wireless parts -- all of those components have come via the exact same (or similarly positioned) rivals in China as well as Taiwan and can charge precisely the same. The "other" group of components… [read more]

Innovation Nintendo Term Paper

… Nintendo Disruptive Strategy

Nintendo's Disruptive Strategy

"Nobody said that being a disruptor would be easy. Nintendo shows how a disruptive strategy can pay off handsomely, but also illustrates that in highly competitive markets, competitive advantage is transient," and as such,… [read more]

Supervisory Development Plan This Situational Assessment

… I will have to handle the whole situation with a lot of tact and care. Without proper thought a single sentence uttered can go wrong. This can end up ruining the whole of the trip for the group. That is… [read more]

Video Games Essay

… The excuse for tolerating this is that 'it's only a game.' Even as a first-person shooter, the player distances himself from the character, given that he is performing actions he would not in life (Partridge 387).

The defense 'it's only a game' invalidates the claim that video games have meaning, significance, and value outside of the realm of gaming and seriously questions the notion that they are 'art,' given how little they critique or question dominant modalities of representation (Partridge 386). Video games, after all, are designed to be consumed and marketed, not to last for all time. The very notion of the electronic medium is a disposable one. Unlike art, video games encourage us not to question why people get enjoyment from violent and morally questionable images. There is no nuanced interpretation, the only defense is 'it is only a game.'

The reason for the disagreement between the two authors seems partially to lay with the examples both writers cherry-pick for their arguments. Partridge's selection of examples highlights how video games are marketed to white, middle-class male adolescents and the content tends to encourage rather than question their prejudices. Tavinor emphasizes aspects of games that have resonance in high-quality science fiction literature such as apocalyptic metaphors. It may be that like movies or books, it is impossible to fully pass judgment on the medium as a whole, given the degree to which the creators can influence the world that is created. But it is also certain that once in that interactive world, the gamer has little choice but to 'play the game,' which means interacting in a violent and what would often be considered profoundly asocial way in many instances. A novel, film, or even a song encourages us to ask ourselves: what would I do, in this instance? But in the world of gaming, there is only the choice to kill or be killed, to sustain one's avatar in the false world. Moral reflection is actively discouraged, with the possible exception of role-playing games that demand more nuanced moral choices of the…… [read more]

Video Game Violence Literature Review Article Review

… The experiment was structured so that "30 images from four picture categories were chosen for a block design fMRI experiment ... [and] participants saw 24 blocks (four image categories x six repeats) ? each block consisting of five pictures [in] categories labeled 'unpleasant,' 'pleasant,' 'neutral' and 'Counterstrike'" (Montag et al., 2012). The raw data was then subjected to rigorous statistical analysis, including analyses of variance and general linear model estimations, to assess the potential link between excessive video game play and the processing of emotion.

As the focus of their study was to assess the variations in emotional and congnitive activity during the viewing of specific images, the research team ultimately found that "significantly higher activations could be observed in control persons compared to the first-person-shooter-video-gamers for the processing of negative emotions" (Montag et al., 2012). The brain scans produced by fMRI testing clearly illustrate the discrepancy between the neural activity of avid first-person shooter video gamers and non-gamers, and while comprehensive extrapolations cannot yet be made, the results of Montag's study made it clear that further research on this subject is warranted.


Montag, C., Weber, B., Trautner, P., Newport, B., Markett, S., Walter, N.T., Felten, A., Reuter, M. (2012). Does excessive play of violent first-person-shooter-video-games dampen brain activity in response to emotional stimuli?. Biological Psychology,…… [read more]

Employee Satisfaction Conclusion Conclusion Chapter

… Recommendations

Among the core recommendations warranted by the research conducted here, perhaps the most imperative is for Comfort Inn to take serious steps to foster more open and multi-directional communication between employees and management. At present, an atmosphere of silent fear pervades the staff, which prevents the company from receiving critical feedback on its operational successes and failures from its front line personnel. Not only does this promote the low morale revealed in the present study, but it also deprives management and the Comfort Inn's corporate personnel of operational information that could help to make significant product and image improvements.

Therefore, it is incumbent upon the Comfort Inn to reach out to employees and seek input for how best to improve both the working conditions and the service quality at the hotel chain. This process may include establishing a position of employee-management liaison for a member or members of the hospitality staff, whose specific function is to ensure that both management and personnel are working in close concert to ensure both a positive working environment and an improving service reputation. Liaisons should be selected with close input from personnel so as to ensure that an inherent staff leader is tapped to represent shared interests. When employees feel that they have an outlet to convey concerns about operational or employment practices that is safe, anonymous and effective, they are likelier to feel valued and invested in the quality of their work. This will ultimately be reflected in the improved experience for Comfort Inn guests.… [read more]

Photography Grace Taylor Creative Writing

… What is appropriate exposure for one shot may not be the appropriate exposure for another. This is yet another aspect of black and white photography that challenges me. There are different challenges for a photography with the presence of color and without the presence of color, as I have experienced first hand.

Becoming more experienced with taking photographs really involves exposing oneself as much as possible; taking more shots than one may think is a necessary aspect of photographic experimentation. As a photography learns, there is no universal rule for which type of photograph works best. I am a fan of taking the shot in my camera rather than adjusting it on the computer later.

Digital photography allows for more instantaneous photo editing, yet the challenge to take a captivating shot still remaining. Just as in motion pictures (movies, films), advances in technology allow for a greater range of special effects, this does not deter the trained cinematographer or director from attempting to do most of the work in the camera rather than in post production. This is my philosophy regarding still photography. This approach to composition and form means a deeper understanding of the composition and subject matter while one is in the moment rather than relying on the computer to make the nice shot for the photographer

There is a substantial amount of research and theory regarding the ways in which color affects the human psyche and emotional state. Black and white photography evokes emotions in different ways than color does. Black and white photos are arguably more intellectual, as the presence of color is the mind of the viewer. Furthermore, the absence of color may somehow automatically abstract the content and force the viewer to reflect upon the content in an alternative way than if the photo were in color. Black and white photography evokes emotions, yet from a different perspective and a different perception than in color photography.… [read more]

Shaping of New Visions Exhibition at MOMA Essay

… MoMA

The Shaping of New Visions Exhibition

For the first several decades of its existence, photography was largely seen as science and driven by the technological advances made by its inventors and innovators. Therefore, photography would rightly be seen as a tool for historical documentation capable of conveying that which could not be conveyed through the written medium. But by the early 20th century, photography was evolving into a form capable of previously unseen artistic ingenuity as well. This is the outlet for photography which is featured in the Museum of Modern Art's "The Shaping of New Visions" exhibition. The collected photographic images simultaneously expand the way that the camera can be used and the way that artistic statements may be defined.


From the outset, the mission of the exhibition is well-stated and clearly conveyed through the selected works. According to the Museum's description of the exhibition, photographs ranging from between 1910 and the present day have been selected in order to provide a loosely narrative history of the photographed image as it advanced through different post-realist movements such as surrealism, constructivism and Dadaism. (MoMA, p. 1)

Featuring works from a broad range of internally acclaimed photographers, the collection includes photomontages, photobooks and experimental films featuring sequenced still-frames. These various modes of showcasing the work help to demonstrate the intent of the exhibition, to illustrate the genuinely expansive and endlessly novel ways that the medium has been used to achieve expression. Of said expression, themes of industrialization and alienation permeate the work of the 20th century, carrying the notion that the camera has in its own way helped the artists to probe for humanity in increasingly mechanized subjects.

By its own assertion, for instance, 1924's Self-Portrait, by El Lissitzky may be the piece most directly representative of this idea. Here, the photographer overlaps a series of five individual still frames merging his face, a handheld compass and a tightly groups arrangement of geometrical figures, using the still medium to convey the actionable dynamic between mind, hand and one's surroundings. According to the Museum of Modern Art, the photo contests "the idea that straight photography provides a single, unmediated truth . . instead…that montage, with its layering of one meaning over another, impels the view to reconsider the world. It thus…… [read more]

What Has Cause Men or Boys to Struggle With and in Society Term Paper

… Philip Zimbardo's The Demise Of Guys

In his speech, the Demise of Guys, Philip Zimbardo makes some interesting generalizations about the state of men today. He suggests that men prefer the company of men to the company of women, even going so far as to state that there is some type of cortical arousal when men are in one another's company. He gives several examples of men preferring the company of other men. Even more interestingly, he discusses the fact that he believes that changes in modern society, including porn and video games, have changed how men respond to stimuli. He does not discuss the physical changes to the brain, but talks about the psychological component of addiction. He believes that porn and video games create an addiction to novelty, which is different than a chemical addiction in which one creates more of the same substance. For these addictions, Zimbardo and Duncan suggest that, "Sameness is soon habituated; newness heightens excitement. In traditional drug arousal, conversely, addicts want more of the same cocaine or heroin or favorite food" (2012).

I honestly do not know whether or not I agree with Zimbardo. I do not have the information available to assess whether there have even been changes in the nature of men and how they approach women. He talks about men approaching women differently and being less prepared to mate with a woman and more inclined to hang out with men for companionship. However, I have not seen any empirical evidence that supports his conclusion. On the contrary, the historical record of humanity shows a significant schism between men and women. A number of civilizations had men and women living separately for most of their adult lives, even when males and females were mated in pair-bonds. Almost all militaries around the world have been premised upon the notion of male-only companionship for the majority of time. Therefore, to suggest that this preference for all-male companionship is something new simply seems unsupported absent more historical evidence. Because I do not know if his described phenomenon is even occurring, I have no way…… [read more]

Cedar Point Amusement Park Case Study

… Cedar point Amusement park is located in Sandusky, Ohio. It is among the world's largest and most highly rated amusement park offering ever innovative coaster thrills that can be paralleled by very few amusement parts of the kind with the… [read more]

Communication What Audiences Essay

… In the press release, I would avoid the letter to the editor altogether and instead focus on one of our recent successes or a news story. Consulting with other departments, I could come up with something. Even if it has to do with a new meal being served, it will help divert attention away from the letter to the editor and towards the benefits of sailing with us.

3. If the letter had been published in a travel publication widely read by travel agents and cruise travelers, how might your course of action have differed?

My course of action would not have been much different. I would still write a direct response to the editor to be published in the follow-up issue. I would also take out an advertisement that was to be placed in close proximity to the original letter. Moreover, I would consider hiring a freelance writer to profile one of our entertainers, one of our ships, or one of our destinations. By achieving positive publicity in this way, we can divert attention from the letter to the editor.

I would also make sure to start reading travel forums and find out if the word had spread about the issue. Cruise Critic and other cruise-centric travel forums would be my first stop. I would openly apologize on the forum for the experience that the passenger had, and ensure future passengers that all is being done to prevent a bad experience in the future. I would say that all comments are welcome, and that we work hard to help people have a good time. I would try to see if any other passengers had similar bad experiences. Finally, I might consider a public peace offering to the disgruntled passenger in the form of a small but meaningful voucher on her…… [read more]

Video Games on Children Owing Research Paper

… It was found by splitting two groups, one being the control group and the other being the experiment group. One group was given the video game consoles and the other was not. There results were that the kids who did… [read more]

Cultural Practice Essay

… ¶ … Video Games on Children

This text is a follow-up of the recent discussion we had on the need to cut down on the number of hours your son, Alex, spends playing video games. In that regard, I will largely concern myself with the negative effects of video games on children. It is my hope that after reading this text, you will recognize the need to limit the number of hours Alex spends playing video games.

The Negative Effects of Video Games

Today, video games have become a source of both fun and entertainment for millions of children from across the world. Thus it's obvious Alex has got company. In basic terms, video games could be violence oriented, educational or even sports oriented. From our discussion, you mentioned that Alex is particularly interested in violence oriented video games.

Two years ago, Tyler Savage, an eighteen-year-old lured a young developmentally-delayed girl to an isolated location and strangled her to death. Immediately after, Savage according to Gaines and Miller "returned home to play the online fantasy video game Dungeons and Dragons" (60). According to the authors, Pierce County's prosecutor at the time pointed out that in the opinion of the defendant, the murder and the video game were somehow connected. This is just but one of the cases that have in the recent past fuelled debate on whether or not there exists a link between video games and violent behavior amongst young people.

Games that have numerous instances of violence including but not limited to shootings and killings could trigger increased aggression in children. Research in the words of Gaines and Miller "has found that violent video games, especially those of the first-person shooter type, not only desensitize players to real violence, but also train them to commit real acts of violence" (60). It is important to note that unlike is the case with movies; games with a violent theme effectively place the player (in this case a kid) in control of the violence. As a kid identifies more with such violence, he or she may be motivated to replicate the said violence in real life.

It is also important to note that apart from influencing violent behavior, video games are also obvious time wasters. In general terms, most video games are programmed to present more challenging levels to players on the successful completion of easier levels. Winning in subsequent levels becomes a real morale booster. This could easily hook players on the game's console for hours on end. In that regard, video games could easily interfere with the academic performance of Alex should you allow him to allocate more time to playing the same instead of studying.

Further, video games could negatively affect a child's interpersonal skills as a result of social isolation. The greater the amount of time a child spends playing video games, the less time such a child has to socialize and interact with his or her peers.

Video games could also impact negatively on the health… [read more]

My Love of Photography Admission Essay

… Photography

My love of photography

My Love for Photography

My Love for Photography

The blistering heat, the rugged paths, a few vicious animals, sometimes angry people; a photographer can work with everything, just to see his final masterpiece. A photographer's life is not a very easy one, but it sure is interesting. The process of becoming a photographer in it is a very difficult one. We need to work our way up using latest technology, creativity and ideas. It may also be true, that the art of photography lies in the eye of photographer, but with the technology advancing day by day; we have to be up-to-date, so that our eye can see an angle that might not have been possible earlier. It is a very difficult job to learn about the new lenses, and cameras and their features and how to use them! However, all that pain turns itself into joy, when it is combined with our skills and creativity and eventually ends up a beautiful picture.

To any normal person who has not much knowledge on photography, the definition of photography can be very different; apparently one of them being, just clicking an over expensive camera using an even more expensive equipment. However, that is sure not the way we photographers feel! To us photography is more than just clicking; it involves a passion of seeing things from different angle and making them look different altogether. The fact that photography can change so many things in one click never stops me from thinking about this one question: What could be the other side to this story?

Difficult and pointless as the question might be, but once the pictures are taken, processed and finalized, they always tell an amazing tale. That is the art of a photographer. Taking any normal object that we see every day and showing different perspectives of that. Every picture we take has a concept, a story or a theme running behind it. It may…… [read more]

Safety Risk Management a Risk Management Plan Essay

… Safety

Risk Management

A risk management plan is a step-by-step program that serves as a blueprint for a proactive approach to risk management. By tackling the topic in a structured manner, one can tick off each task with confidence and demonstrate an organization's professional commitment to safety. A program of this type is extremely valuable as it can serve as a deterrent to being sued and is evidence of a company's intent to manage responsibly if they are sued. Additionally, it can help one to prioritize projects and make more efficient use of labor and funding (Designing a Risk Management Program for Mountain Biking, 2006).

A good risk management program for a commercial fixed-based maintenance facility should:

Identify the risk. All procedures and process should be evaluated for potential risks. All identified risks should be recorded and categorized based upon which part of the maintenance process they affect.

Analyze the risk. All identified risks should be evaluated in order to determine how significant the risk is. Risks should then be ranked as to their severity and the probability of them happening. Thus how likely is the risk to take place and if it does how sever are its effects going to be on daily maintenance operations? The list should then be broken down into levels of risk. Those at the top will be categorized as high risk, those in the middle as medium risk and those at the bottom as low risk. Those risks that are highly probable and severe should end up at the top of the list while those that are not likely and have low severity will be at the bottom.

Mitigate the risk. After risks have been identified and classified then each should be looked at in the context of what can be done to prevent the risk from happening. This is the action that will be taken to offset the risk from occurring. Those with a high risk level should be looked at first. The ultimate goal is to know exactly…… [read more]

Hospitality the Most Memorable Term Paper

… Hospitality Case Study

The most memorable hospitality experience that I have had actually started out as a very negative situation. We checked into our hotel on a very hot evening and we were pleased to walk into a room that was nice and cool because the hotel had turned the air conditioner on prior to our arrival. However, we noticed almost immediately that the air conditioner was extremely loud. It was more than just the normal sound of the unit blowing air; it was a rattling noise because something inside the air conditioner was obviously scraping against something else. Initially, we were hoping that it was something that could be "fixed" by simply giving it a sharp tap on the side with a hand but that didn't work at all. We tried to turn it off and turn it back on to see if that might work, but it didn't and the noise continued as soon as we turned it back on.

We called the front desk and told the person who answered the phone that our air conditioner worked but it was much too loud. She apologized and explained that the hotel was planning to upgrade to a centralized air-conditioning system that would be quieter. I had to explain to the girl that I am familiar with traditional single-unit air conditioners, that I was not talking about the ordinary noise from a typical air conditioner working properly, and that there was no way we would be able to sleep with the air conditioner running. I took the phone closer to the window and I held the receiver next to the air conditioner so that she could hear the scraping and (now) the loud squeaking for herself. She immediately apologized and said that she would send someone from maintenance to our room to fix it. When the maintenance person was unable to fix it for us, the front desk supervisor apologized and informed us that we were being upgraded to a suite at no charge and the rest of our stay was perfect after that change.

The experience started out negatively and could have become a very negative experience for us. For example, the hotel could have apologized but informed us that they had no other rooms available. They might have offered us coupons for a subsequent stay or for free meals but that would not have been a satisfactory solution and would have resulted in a much different outcome, particularly with regard to the five dimensions of service. Because the hotel handled the situation in a way that genuinely resolved the problem satisfactorily and provided us with the hospitality experience we had paid for and expected, we provided positive word-of-mouth feedback to others. For example, we left a detailed comment on the website where we had booked out stay explaining that we were impressed with the way that hotel management responded to and resolved our problem. Just as we felt motivated to reciprocate for the…… [read more]

Video Games, Violence and Aggression Research Proposal

… Violence and aggression applied in games is learnt and the brain may refer to the knowledge in a situation by activating and application of aggression-related information in memory



Meta-analysis is a 'study of studies', a correlation coefficient (r) is used as effect-size estimate .when r=±.10 it is classified as small. r=±.30 is medium while ±.50 is large. This phase is split into (a) selection criteria for inclusion (b) acquisition of the effect size estimates from the studies and (c) analysis of the effect sizes. Data that falls into all set criteria is computed to find a general effect size estimate.

Literature search procedures

Articles that contained inspection of the effects of playing violent video games were considered relevant; these effects include aggression, physiological arousal or pro-social behavior. Studies excluded if participants merely watched someone else play a video game.

Hypothetical Results

Existing documentation suggests that exposure to violent video games led to higher levels of aggressive behavior and lowered prosocial behavior levels. Initial opinion that compared gaming with television watching suggested the gaming effect should be likened to the effects of television that reported an increase in aggression and violence .these were ignored since television effects cannot be wholly compared to gaming as watching is passive unlike gaming which is active and requires undivided attention making its effects even more severe. Research also noted that the effect is bidirectional. Violent video games made players more aggressive and had the effect of luring already aggressive players to it.

Strong evidence of causality is especially notable from children test subjects as five out of seven tested exhibited heightened aggressions. Their aggression is visible in the immediate period after treatment or playing making them a seemingly… [read more]

Opera Term Paper

… This could translate into increased revenues for the hotel; better information can be leveraged to increase profitability, as a greater focus can be placed on those areas of the business that are most likely to result in greater economic returns for the hotel.

This enhanced and more easily accessible information can also translate into greater customer loyalty. OPERA provides the ability to track customers across multiple visits, keeping record of customer preferences and the like. This allows the creation of a customer profile that may then be used to anticipate the desires of repeat guests and provide enhanced levels of customer service to this valuable group. As such systems can be customized to address the specific needs of a particular hotel or resort, a hotel's management may design tools to enable more effective targeting of particular customer demographics, again offering the potential for greater returns; this can prove especially valuable within the context of group sales and event services, two potentially valuable streams of income.

The possibility of increased revenue and greater customer loyalty may be secondary uses of a property management system, but they are not to be discounted in the decision-making process, as they can prove crucial to greater profitability and brand strengthening. Yet the primary benefits of a system such as OPERA remain within the realm of operational efficiency. The ability to manage all key aspects of a property's day-to-day functioning is the primary appeal, and draw, of such a system. While OPERA may not be suitable for all manner of hospitality properties, particularly small, proprietor-owned and -- operated establishments with few rooms and staff, particularly in light of the required financial outlay, it offers larger hotels and resorts the opportunity to centralize information in a way designed to enhance productivity and, hopefully, profitability.


eG Innovations. 2012, 'The eG Monitor for Micros OPERA,' [Online] Available at

Micros. 2011, 'OPERA Property Management System,' [Online] Available at… [read more]

Film Products and Photographic Techniques Annotated Bibliography

… (2007, Mar 28). Retrieved from New World Encyclopedia:

III. Printing & Developing

A. Early methods of reproduction

B. Lithography (Nicephore Niepce. (2012). Retrieved from Encyclopedia Britannica:

C. The Diorama and Photography (Daniel, M. (2004, Oct). Daguerre (1787-1851) and the Invention of Photography. Retrieved from Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History:

D. Permanent Images? (Schaaf, L.J. (n.d.). WHF Talbot: Biography. Retrieved from The Correspondence of William Henry Fox Talbot:

IV. Photography as Part of History & Art

A. Photography as a throwback to the past (i.e. palimpsest and painting) (Schaaf, L.J. (n.d.). WHF Talbot: Biography. Retrieved from The Correspondence of William Henry Fox Talbot:

B. Tracing the trajectory of photography through the 20th century and into the 21st (History of Photography. (n.d.). Retrieved from A World History of Art:

IV. Conclusion: The advent of photography is along the same lineage as other forms of media such as painting and palimpsest. The history of photography includes scientific methodologies, mass marketing, and artistic techniques.… [read more]

Violent Video Games Research Proposal

… 192-4). The results drawn from this study infer that these psychological traits dictate the preference toward these types of games and do not cause the player to become more violent or aggressive. Yet again, this research did not uncover a causal effect between violent tendencies and playing violent video games. As research has failed to prove otherwise, violent video games do not promote violent or aggressive behavior.

Works Cited

Chory, R.M., & Goodboy, A.K. (2011). Is Basic Personality Related to Violent and Non-Violent Video Game Play and Preferences?. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 14(4), 191-198. doi:10.1089/cyber.2010.0076

Ferguson, C.J. (2008). The school shooting/violent video game link: causal relationship or moral panic?. Journal Of Investigative Psychology & Offender Profiling, 5(1/2), 25-37., uid&db=aph&AN=35678191&site=ehost-live… [read more]

Commercial Development Expansion of the Americana Mall Research Paper

… American Mall

Americana mall is an indoor shopping mall situated at Glendale in the State of California (CA). The mall is expected to host a lot of amenities such shopping mall, entertainment, dinning facilities, and boutiques. The mall was actually opened in 2008 and its expansion started later in 2010. Besides, it offers variety of luxuries facilities and scenic view, especially the splashing water situated on the entries to the mall.

However, the Americana at Brand outdoor shopping complex which was opened in 2008 has a brought in a huge success. it's brought a mixed of used development to the City of Glendale with variety of shops, restaurants and residence. Therefore, the completion of its expansion was being waited at a breath because of huge expectation from the community. This after developer Rick Caruso got his wish to expand the grounds of complex. Again, presenting his plan for demolishing an existing hotel and nearby vacant building in November 2010, Caruso and his team worked towards the logistics of their proposal to complete in time.

Therefore, Caruso purchased the other buildings such hotel, a nearby mall and some residential buildings which was stopping his expansion ambition, he then knock down to create elbow room for his development. The city will therefore benefit from the tax, visitors who will be coming to the mall. The construction of the mall will increase the number of tourist in the city. This therefore will result to increment of the revenue for the city of Glendale.

In addition, the expansion of Americana Mall affects other shopping malls, and would continue in the future in terms of customers acceptability First, before its expansion was started the owners bought nearby premises and then brought them down. Again, during its expansion period, the mall expected to close down and this would provide other malls with customer-based time to have a larger sales compared with other times.

Moreover, the expansion of Americana Mall has received acceptance from the City government which makes it more viable. The other sustainability of shopping malls such as amenity, access, transport, viability, air quality, water, design and operation, waste management, and other materials. The mall is situated close to the main avenue called "Central Avenue"…… [read more]

Hotel Vendome Fire and Collapse Essay

… Hotel Vendome Fire and Collapse

Hotel Vendome Fire & Collapse:

The Vendome Hotel Fire is regarded as one of the most significant fires that have occurred in the history of the United States. The fire broke out on June 17, 1972 in Boston, Massachusetts and rapidly became the worst fire-fighting tragedy in the history of the city. The fire became the worst in Boston history because nine firefighters from Boston Fire Department lost their lives while eight others were injured following the collapse of a section of the hotel. These firefighters were killed and injured during the routine overhaul operation conducted by the fire department. Since its occurrence, the Vendome Hotel Fire has provided important lessons about the collapse of structures and the associated risks to firefighters.

Background of the Hotel:

Vendome Hotel was built in 1871 as a luxury hotel with its location in Boston's Back Bay, north of Copley Square. Throughout its initial years, the hotel underwent huge renovations that included the massive expansion in 1881. The hotel experienced about four small fires in its operations during the 1960s. One of the most notable events in its history happened in 1971 when it was purchased during its initial building centennial. Following the purchase, the hotel's new owners opened a restaurant known as Cafe Vendome on the first floor. The opening of the cafe was accompanied by plans to renovate the rest of the hotel into a shopping mall and condominiums (Crombie par, 2).

The Fire:

June 17, 1972 marked a significant event for the hotel and Boston Fire Department as workers noticed a fire that had started in a void space between the 3rd and 4th floors that afternoon. At the Boston Fire Alarm Office, Box 1571 was obtained as an initial alarm for the fire at the hotel. Box 1571 served as the first of four alarms received by the fire department of the need to extinguish an intense fire at the Cafe Vendome, formerly Hotel Vendome. Due to its intense nature, the firefighters took approximately three hours to contain the fire. Moreover, the four-alarm fire necessitated a total of 16 engine companies, 2 aerial towers, a single heavy rescue company, and 5 ladder companies to contain it. There was also a great need for all the companies to operate with a complete accompaniment of personnel staffing.

After three hours of operations, a few crews were left at the scene of the incident to finalize salvage and overhaul. The routine overhaul operation was commenced by the Boston Fire Department after strenuous and extensive suppression duties. As these crews continued with their overhaul operation, there was a sudden collapse that brought down the five floors of the 40 by 45-foot building. The collapse of the southeast corner section of the building took place without a warning and resulted in a fatal tragedy. After the dust settled, it was discovered that the collapse buried a ladder truck and 17 firefighters under a two-story pile of plaster, mortar, brick, wood,… [read more]

Coding Data Analysis Technique Research Paper

… Coding

Data Analysis Technique: Coding

In the field observation conducted in a skateboard park, the researcher-observer took detailed observations of all the 'observable' elements in the chosen fieldwork setting. In general, the field observation involved observing the skateboarders and skateboarding activities, which are the focal points of the observation. In addition, other observation points identified are the spectators in the skateboard park, including their characteristics and activities in relation to the setting and main activity (skateboarding).

Going through the observation notes, there emerged five (5) major themes that provide a good description of the observation conducted at the skateboard park. These themes are: (1) skateboard park environment; (2) sounds in the skateboard park; (3) activities in the skateboard park; (4) profile of skateboarders; and (5) profile of the audience/spectators. Each major theme was identified based on the recurring observations that can be sufficiently grouped under each theme. For example, the first category, "skateboard park environment," observations such as "concrete-shape and molded," "painted with psychedelic designs / graffiti," and "green spaces" illustrate the general park environment. Since this is a recurring observation in the chosen observation site -- the skateboard park -- a category is assigned to describe these observations. Once identified as a category, the next step is to identify if the observations under the category can be further broken down into sub-categories, if there are any recurring sub-themes under each observation within the category. Since the observation does not have further in-depth information about the park, no other sub-themes or sub-categories were identified and used in the coding process. (This will also hold…… [read more]

Travel Blog: Year 2012 Essay

… Travel Blog: Year 2012

Travel Blog:

The world is full of beautiful and interesting places to visit. Yet one may ask oneself where to go first, especially at the beginning of a relationship. While the first, second and even third dates have passed, perhaps even a few months, the question of where to go on the first 'real' trip is one that must be weighed carefully and answered properly. The following paragraphs have compiled a list of five must-see places in the year 2012, five places from which one can choose that are certain to be as unforgettable as they are remarkable.

The five places mentioned above all include either cities or countries. For instance, the first place is the City of Lights, Paris, France, which is a must-see for any couple at any point of the relationship. Yet the second place is Ireland, a country whose countryside is as romantic as it is calm, and very beautiful indeed. Ireland is also quite cheap, especially if one is used to eating simply and is able to lodge with strangers whose hearts are as warm as their hearths.

Whereas Paris is a metropolitan area for those who are very 'chic' and in step with fashion, art, and culture, Ireland is lower key, for people who are willing to spend some time listening to the patter of the rain and the beautifully green solitude of the country.

The third place that is a must-visit for couples in 2012 is Turkey. The country, especially its capital, Ankara, is full of life, color, and culture. Though Turkey is undergoing quite a tumultuous time, especially as it is across the border from many Middle Eastern countries, Turkey's largest city, Istanbul, as well as the capital, mentioned above, offer a full array of luxurious services, from world class hotels, to nightlife, to spice markets and shopping. Turkey is definitely a destination for the adventurous.

For those Americans who want to stay close to home and experience the novelty of a new country, Canada must not be forgotten. Montreal, a city just at the border of the U.S. (New York State), and Canada, is full of charm and history, with churches so close to each other that Mark Twain was known to say that one could not throw a stone without breaking a church window. Yet Montreal is not only for lovers of religion and history; indeed, the city presents the gastronome with an array of fantastic opportunities as well. For this reason, Montreal is fourth on the list of must-see places for couples.

Perhaps the most unexpected but, in a way, predictable destination is a 'warm weather' destination. This kind of a yearly trip is present on every couple's list. Who does not love a day on the beach with a daiquiri, or a swim in the most clear, blue water? Yet whereas some couples may choose the Caribbean and Mexico, which are, indeed, wonderful places, this list recommends one of two warm-weather destinations that can… [read more]

Online Gaming Although Video Games Essay

… 217). Because of the ability of tech-savvy consumers who can easily engage in piracy and the lack of transparent and enforcing intellectual property laws, piracy remains a huge problem for both game developers and players. The virtual world requires that stronger mechanisms are put in place to protect intellectual property of game developers and virtual property of consumers.

Ying-Chieh et al., identify several forms of crimes involving online gaming: theft, fraud, robbery, kidnapping, threat, assault, battery, destruction of property, counterfeiting, receipt of stolen property, privacy violations, software piracy, and extortion (p. 249). And while these activities can more or less be subject to criminal investigation, there are still many issues which the courts are unable to clarify. For example, the existence of virtual property and monetary transactions in online gaming must subject them to taxation. In countries such as Australia and China, this has been incorporated into law but it has not in the United States. Besides the economy of the virtual world, there is also the question of control by regulators of virtual games that, as some consumers recently have complained in courts, are abusive (Kane, 2009, p. 25). The courts and lawyers are sometimes confused on how to solve disputes and cases brought to them. This again is the testament to the fact that the issues surrounding online gaming are complex, requiring specialized approach that would take into consideration the unique nature of the gaming industry and the virtual world. The criminal justice systems of most countries so far unfortunately are have not been able to adopt such an approach.


Kane, S.F. (2009) Virtual judgment: legal implications of online gaming. IEEE Security & Privacy, 7(3): 23-28.

Sublette, V., & Mullan, B. (2012). Consequences of Play: A Systematic Review of the Effects of Online Gaming. International Journal Of Mental Health And Addiction, 10(1), 3-23.

Ying-Chieh, C., Chen, P.S., Jing-Jang, H., Korba, L., Song, R., & Yee, G. (2005). An analysis…… [read more]

Claim Letter Essay

… ¶ … American Academy of Poets

584 Broadway

Jane Breitenbach

1201 Winterwood Boulevard

Dear Ms. Breitenbach:

Every since the inception of National Poetry Month in 1998, the American Academy of Poets has enjoyed a friendly, mutually beneficial relationship with the downtown YMCA here in New York City. We have greatly appreciated this relationship over the years, and the support of the YMCA has come to mean a lot to us. We hope it has been meaningful for the YMCA, as well.

As you know, the downtown YMCA has allowed the American Academy of Poets to use their facilities to hold a poetry reading each year since 1998. As a non-profit organization, the YMCA has been kind enough to let us use the facilities for the reduced rate of $1,000 for the evening each year. We have had a mutual understanding with the YMCA since this time that $1,000 would be the standing charge, and we have come to depend on that for our annual budget planning.

This year, however, there was a mis-communication between us and the billing department at the YMCA. I am not sure how this misunderstanding came about, but after our annual poetry reading, we received a bill for $5,000 for the use of the facilities from your organization. We understand that this is the standard rate the YMCA charges for the use of its facilities, but since we have been billed $1,000 for the past 14 years, and this change was made to the billing with no advanced notification to us, it has thrown our annual budget into a crisis that we could not have anticipated.

I have personally spoken with Ryan Nichols, who is the events coordinator at the downtown YMCA, about this matter, and he referred me to Sue Harrington, who is his supervisor. She was unable to help me resolve this issue. I understand that she is a new employee at your organization, and perhaps her predecessor did not let her know of the downtown YMCA's standing arrangement with us regarding the fee for the annual poetry reading. Ms. Harrington told me she had nothing on record indicating the American Academy of Poets should be given a reduced rate for the use of the facilities. Therefore, she was unwilling to adjust the bill, and insisted the $5,000 charge stand. She also sent us an email confirming this charge.

As you know, Ms. Breitenbach, the American Academy of Poets works on a limited budget, as does your organization. Being billed such a large sum when we were not expecting it and did not account for it in our annual budget is going to cause us some serious financial…… [read more]

Digital Media Technology Research and Design Research Paper

… ¶ … Digital Media Technology Research and Design

The hospitality industry has become increasingly competitive in recent years as major hotel chains vie for erratic occupancy levels during uncertain economic periods. Therefore, identifying opportunities to gain a competitive advantage in… [read more]

History of Photography: From Ancient Term Paper

… Light meters can be hand-held or integrated into your camera. The most common light meters are integrated into cameras. They tell the camera whether or not there is enough light with the current shutter/aperture settings" (Masoner 2012: 4). The rule of thirds attempts to geometrically determine what the eye will be drawn to first in a photographic frame.

Photography became more accessible to the masses and functioned more and more as a recorder of everyday person's lives, not simply the lives of the wealthy, throughout the 1920s and 1930s. The 'brownie' camera made taking photographs affordable and easy, and it was possible for the everyday consumer to chronicle his or her life in film. Later, the Polaroid 'instant' camera would give photographers instant gratification, and even more sophisticated equipment for the amateur began to drop in price. Professional photography became an integral part of the popular culture through the visual images of newspapers, and also through photographic 'essays' in magazines such as and Look and Life Magazine, which "would bring photojournalism to the public of the day and leave a legacy of pages of history for us to devour inside every old issue today" ("Life and Look popularize photojournalism in the 1930s," Collecting Old Magazines, 2011). Many of the images in these magazines quickly became iconic, spanning from movie stars such as Marilyn Monroe and Veronica Lake to ordinary strangers, such as the famous World War II sailor returning home from war, kissing his bride ("Life and Look popularize photojournalism in the 1930s," Collecting Old Magazines, 2011).

Today, digital photography, which can be easily manipulated, has entirely changed how the art of photography is viewed. "Digital photography has a more tenuous relationship to reality than that of earlier photographic forms. Now a photograph is information and does not become an image until called up and tinkered with, exaggerating all of the earlier debates about just what a photograph's image is -- art or reality, for example" (Cox 2007). Because digital film does not require processing by a professional, nor is it expensive beyond the purchase of the original camera, digital technology also enables viewers to chronicle the minutiae of their daily lives in great detail. Once a medium that was only accessible to the wealthy, or used to chronicle important events, is now something that even a child can use. People can take thousands of photographs of a vacation -- and post them immediately for all to see on the web. They can manipulate those images using free applications online, and have control over the photographic art in a manner undreamed of in the 19th century, and relegated to only professionals in the 20th century.


Cox, Richard. "Photography theory." Reading Archives. 29 Jul 2007. [11 Mar 2012]

"Early 20th Century Photography." Illinois State Museum. [11 Mar 2012]

Greenspun, Phillip. "History of Photography Timeline. 2007. [11 Mar 2012]

"History of 19th century photography." Photo Tree. 2010. [11 Mar 2012]

"Life and Look popularize photojournalism in the… [read more]

Agglomeration Effects and Performance Essay

… In locations where there is agglomeration and competition, the potential for competition can be beneficial to companies. For example, the competition forces the various hotel companies to better themselves in terms of quality. They will have to be more focused on the consumer in order to get people to use their services. However, there is a more financially beneficial reason for agglomeration because it creates less room for consumer investigation. Often, the consumer will look at the pluses of a potential lodging place, such as the amenities available and the price in particular. They will be less likely to question the negative attributes of any given location and instead focus on the benefits of that lodging place.

To prove this point, Chung looked at several hotels in Texas that had more than 25 hotel rooms. What he was able to determine was that larger hotel chains are more successful than independent hotels in an area. Also, larger hotels are traditionally more successful than smaller ones even though they are usually not as filled as the smaller ones. The smaller hotels are usually not chain affiliated and wind up charging less per room than the larger hotels. Thus even if the larger hotels are not filled to capacity; they will make more in a single night than smaller hotels.

In the conclusion, Chung decided that although agglomeration decreases individual unit cost, there is a benefit to businesses by having like establishments in close vicinity. Production is enhanced by close proximity. Also, demand increases with large amounts of hotel rooms to accommodate customers.

Works Cited:

Chung, William. (2001). "Agglomeration Effects and Performance: a Test of the…… [read more]

Photography and Images Our Memory Essay

… Photography and memory are fallible; images show subjective and not objective or absolute truth. What photography does not capture is the context within which the image exists and means. Memory is malleable and vulnerable to manipulation; the advent of photography… [read more]

Seasons Analyze the Industry Environment Research Paper

… However, while the state of the luxury hotel chain is not as dire as one might think, given the state of the global economy, it is important to consider that the market for luxury hotels in general may be shifting and changing. Amongst the elite, there is increased interest in the use of 'boutique' or small hotels, rather than large-scale institutions like the Four Seasons. Some competitors are buying large former estates, for customers who wish the experience of staying at a country house, rather than a traditional, large-scale hotel setting (Lockwood 2005). The Four Seasons has been striving to increase its amenities for customers, to demonstrate the value added of going to its chains but it is still fundamentally a traditional hotel: "The Four Seasons Beverly Wilshire Hotel downloads pictures of VIPs from the Internet and posts them on department bulletin boards so employees can greet guests by name at every encounter...Four Seasons San Francisco gives guests free use of a chauffeured Lincoln Town Car on a first-come, first-served basis, has a museum-quality private art collection with 80 pieces and a minibar for kids" (Barnett 2003).

These attempts at personalization and customization reflect the cutthroat competition in the large, luxury hotel market as a whole, which is clearly in a state of maturity, given that it is being rivaled by more 'unusual' accommodation options, spanning from renting homes, homes functioning as hotels, and even people willing to 'trade' their homes with other travelers, to have a more 'realistic' experience abroad. Many luxury travelers, despite efforts of hotels like the Four Seasons, are turning away from the large hotel model, reflecting the belief: "Having 24-hour room service and a skilled concierge allows you to say you're a luxury hotel, but you still get the best service at a bed-and-breakfast because the owner lives on word of mouth and can't afford an unhappy guest" (Barnett 2003).


Barnett, C. (2003). Traveling in style; what your money should buy at a deluxe hotel. Network Journal, 11(1), 58-58. Retrieved from

Clifford, Stephanie. (2011). Sales of luxury goods are recovering strongly. The New York Times.


Four Seasons Hotels. (2012). Official website. Retrieved:

Go, F., Choi, T., & Chan, C. (1996). Four seasons-regent: Building a global presence in the luxury market. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 37(4), 58-58. Retrieved from

Lockwood, C. (2005). Going corporate: Upscale chain hotels are buying into the English country house hotel experience. Urban Land, 64(8), 72-75. Retrieved from

Product life cycle. (2012) Tutor2U. Retrieved:… [read more]

Hilton Hotels a Cultural Perspective Essay

… Hilton Culture

The Hilton Worldwide: Cultural Compatibility in China

Hilton Hotels & Resorts constitute a highly recognizable and globally permeating brand name in the field of hospitality. The company's global expansion has persisted across nearly a century of growth and places the chain in over 70 nations and on all six inhabited continents. As a result, one of the greatest priorities to the firm has been its ability to achieve harmony and compatibility with the respective cultures in which its hotels operate. The focus of the current discussion centers on the Hilton's efforts to achieve cultural compatibility with its hosts and visitors in China, where distinct business, personnel and hospitality characteristics must be met with acute cultural awareness on the part of foreign corporations.

Hilton Worldwide at a Glance:

The importance of achieving cultural balance in its many contexts of operation is highlight by Hilton's recent emphasis on Hilton Worldwide, the umbrella name for its continually expanding global brandname. According to Radelet (2012), "Hilton Worldwide has become the fastest growing major hotel company, expanding its portfolio by 29% since June 2007 and surpassing its competitors in total rate of room growth.(1) During this time, Hilton Worldwide has also added more than 950 hotels to its total global footprint and created a pipeline of over 860 hotels, among several other successes." (Radelet, p. 1)

In doing so, Hilton would adopt several strategies aimed at demonstrating their commitment to the individuality of the spectrum of global cultures. For instance, it has taken an aggressive stance on helping to promote growth…… [read more]

Segmentation Variable Which Is Most Relevant Essay

… Segmentation variable which is most relevant for the expensive restaurants is without the consideration of how often one visits the expensive restaurant is income (.27a).This is however erroneous and therefore points out to the main weaknesses that is inherent in the reliance on the use or nonuse of a given entertainment activity (Hisrich and Peters,1974,p.62).It would therefore be better and more meaningful to base our reasoning or argument on the frequency of usage of a given entertainment activity. A review of the data indicates that with the frequency of usage in mind, the most relevant for the expensive restaurants is the social class (.23a).The absence of information on how often the respondents engaged in dining in expensive restaurants therefore leads to a wrong picture of the most important correlate.In this case, the most important variable is therefore the social class variable since it emerges the most significant with a consideration of the frequency of use.

The most relevant variables

The selection of the most relevant…… [read more]

Markets Marketing and Strategy Sony Playstation Strategy Concept PESTLE and Marketing Concept Innovation Essay

… Sony Playstation and PESTEL Analysis

Political factors

The PlayStation was released in 1995. Successors were PlayStation 2, Playstation Portable, PlayStation 3, and now Playstation Vita. Success of each Playstation depended on political situation. The recession right now, for instance, despite… [read more]

Sands Rewards Club on Venetian Research Paper

… Figure


Loyalty Program Types

Berman, B 2006, 'Developing an Effective Customer Loyalty Program', California Management Review, 49, 1, p. 125, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 December 2011.

The results of the primary research associated with this work should… [read more]

American Vacation Time/Holidays Term Paper

… Germany is just one of the more than two dozen industrialized countries -- like Slovenia, Japan, and Australia -- that require companies to offer four weeks (or more) of paid vacation to their employees (2011). Finland, France and Brazil lead the race, guaranteeing six weeks of paid vacation every single year (2011). Companies in the United States are not required under federal law to offer any paid vacation to their employees and a quarter of all Americans do not have any paid vacation time from work (2011). This makes the United States the only advanced country in the entire world that does not guarantee its workers annual paid vacation, though many employers do offer some paid vacation in order to lure workers and maintain them as well (2011).

Ideology plays a part in the difference of vacation time offered from one country to another. In a study that was published in the Journal of Happiness Studies, working was found to make Americans happier than Europeans (Pawlowski 2011). The study showed that Americans attribute working success with overall success as a person more than Europeans do. However, Americans' health may be in poorer condition than their European counterparts because they do not get (or take) the vacation time they need to rest, relax, and recuperate. In an article for ABC news, Quiqley (2011) reports that, according to doctors, there is a decreased risk of heart disease and improved reaction times associated with taking time off from work. The mind is quite a powerful thing, according to Quiqley (2011) and it has been shown that a relaxed mind can actually help the body heal better -- this means fewer sick days.

It seems ironic that in a nation like the United States where people are obsessed with the idea of 'being happy,' we don't associate happiness to pleasures that are not related to work. In a study published in the Journal of Applied Research in Quality of Life, researchers found that the "largest boost in happiness comes from the simple act of planning a vacation. In the study, the effect of vacation anticipation boosted happiness for eight weeks" (Parker-Pope 2010). However, happiness levels drop again once the individuals return to work (2010) and, if the vacation was stressful, which they often are, happiness levels drop even more (2010). What is clear from this study then is that the mere thought of taking a vacation increases happiness, which also, undoubtedly, is good for one's health, which is why Americans should care about taking the vacation time that they have accrued.

As we can see, ideological factors do play a part in the reason the United States is home to employers who don't offer much paid vacation time. If the individuals don't feel that they need the vacation time and if they believe that it is work that brings happiness -- not time off -- then why should companies offer it? Another reason that the United States pales in comparison to other nations when… [read more]

Facilities Maintenance Hotel Essay

… Equipment Purchase Criteria

Determining the cost of equipment is a complex endeavor that must factor in a variety of variables including initial purchase price, installation expense, ongoing maintenance, and technical support subscriptions. In addition, there are specific purchase criteria that the Hotel Montreux planning team must apply. These criteria include the following: (1) Durability and useful life of the equipment; (2) reparability; (3) accessibility; (4) efficiency; (5) green technology; (6)

Chosen Equipment and Systems

The architectural and interior design teams have integrated a number of systems in the facility that are designed to reduce long-term operating costs. Governing the use of electricity in the hotel, particularly that used to produce hot water, is a major focus of the operations team. To that end, the following systems are included in the specs.

Lighting -- Dimmable LED ceiling and track lighting systems; room lighting will activate when key cards are inserted into receptacles as rooms are occupied.

Insulation -- Exterior and interior walls will be constructed with integral segmented cavities, with contiguous cavities for wiring and plumbing.

Plumbing -- Reduced water capacity toilets, bidets, shower heads, and lavatory faucets will be installed/

Valet parking & shuttle -- Limited parking and an airport shuttle system will reduce associated facilities costs.

Supplier benefits

Hotel Montreux has an old-world, luxury focus that is best supported by vendors and suppliers who are established in the luxury hospitality arena. The benefits to suppliers who develop a relationship with Hotel Montreux include the following:

Consistent demand for products and services

On-time, within month payment

Association and reputation, goodwill equity

Capability to establish a product or service storefront on hotel website

Hotel Montreux has a strong interest in supporting local businesses and so will establish accounts with local businesses. From those vendor relationships, the following benefits can be derived:

Discounted volume purchasing

Reduced transportation costs

Consistent product quality and service reliability

Product evolution trends

Guest, Employee, and Corporate Benefits

A well-maintained facility provides myriad benefits to guests, employees, and the corporation. The reputation of Hotel Montreux is pegged to guest satisfaction, safety, customer service, and marketing differentiation. Facilities care, management, and maintenance are all closely linked to the guest experiences, the capacity to develop engaged staff, the hotel's brand equity, and return on investment (ROI). The capability of Hotel Montreux to deliver on its promise of luxury accommodations where every need is anticipated depends on an excellent maintenance plan.

Cost Accounts

Hotel Montreux facilities-related Cost Accounts include Site Development, Construction, and Operations.

Site Development Cost Account -- This account covers all permits required to begin building, all work with the local municipality, and the specific preparation of the actual building site.

Construction Cost Account -- This account covers all the permits required during the course of construction, including those from electrical, plumbing, heating, and technology. All costs of trades involved in the actual construction of the building, up to and including finish work, are included in this cost account.

Operations -- This account includes all facilities maintenance and plant… [read more]

Services Marketing Case Case Study

… ¶ … Ambassador hotels proposition has both its advantages and disadvantages.


Ambassador was internationally well-respected

Working with Ambassador would likely expand Transition's reach as well as its target market.

This might be an excellent opportunity for Transition who, due to their expensive prices and target market, is losing their business by growing competitions and cheaper services entering the market.

Transition is also losing their previous average age (41). Trends are changing; their membership has shifted to an average older age 946). Although not necessarily negative, this new opportunity may help them stabilize their prospective client portfolio as well as expanding their demographic range of clients.


Their main problem was that, although well-respected, Ambassador did not rank first class as other hotel lines such as Printemps and Clarkhouse did. Linking themselves with the Hotel branch may pull down a notch the luster of the name that he hoped to achieve. This may impact their marketing edge.

Gordon was also not sure whether expanding Transition's reach or target market would work and he was concerned that the Printemps management may react adversely to the offer.

Evaluation and recommendation

Although Transition stands out due to its offering a niche service and does not seem to be having major problems as yet, they seem to be finding it increasingly tough to hold onto their niche and sustain their establishment. Their way of running the establishment is expensive with staff-to-member ration being higher than other places and with high-cost facilities as being far from ideal particularly considering the fact…… [read more]

Finance Faus Wants to Sell the Hotel Assessment

… Finance

Faus wants to sell the hotel and vacant lot. He has plans to sell the other assets associated with the Arts Property and Hotel, but must determine fair value for the hotel, the vacant lot and the adjacent apartments.… [read more]

Narrative vs. Descriptive What Is My Favorite Essay

… Narrative vs. Descriptive

What is my favorite vacation spot?

The state of Wisconsin is called "America's Dairyland" because of all the milk and cheese that is produced in the state, but for many people Wisconsin is also a wonderland of fascinating, beautiful, and memorable places to visit and experience. A favorite summer vacation for me is to go into northern Wisconsin for a week to ten days. Notice I said "summer vacation" because I'm not one to spend a lot of time outdoors in the winter, in fact I don't really enjoy skiing, ice-skating, tobogganing and building snowmen at ten below zero. But in the summer I can actually engage in some of my favorite outdoor activities, like hiking, fishing, camping, biking, horseback riding, canoeing, kayaking and just relaxing in the lush green environment.

In the summer season in northern Wisconsin, one can experience near-perfect temperatures, up into the low 80s in the daytime with cool evenings (down into the high 60s). My dad used to take me fishing in northern Wisconsin, and I remember the very first fish I caught; it was a northern pike, not very big but it was legal size and I was thrilled. These days I like fishing for walleyes -- they are the best eating. My family loves the sweet aroma and fine taste of walleye filets in a frying pan over an open fire. For part of our vacation we rent a cabin on one of northern Wisconsin's beautiful, unpolluted lakes, and the fun begins the minute we haul our suitcases into the cabin and head out in back to the lake.

A flat-bottomed fishing boat usually comes with the cabin rental, and it is normally tied up to a pier jutting out into the lake. Before I go out fishing for that trophy "Musky" (muskellunge) -- one of the biggest game fish that anglers try to catch in northern Wisconsin -- or for walleye, smallmouth bass or northern pike, I just like to row all the way around the lake. I take the scenic route, around the shoreline, and very often I see other visitors about my age and we talk across the water about the fishing and other activities that are available. Sometimes there are group campfires that are planned (unofficially) and I enjoy going to those and meeting people from other parts of the state and the country.

Actually, I prefer the quiet lakes that only allow rowboats, canoes and kayaks; the other lakes that allow motorboats, can get pretty noisy and anyway those lakes are known for great places to water-ski, not for fishing. Nearly every year I try to go in early June or late September because the fishing is better when the lakes are cool. Deep summer brings warm temperatures to lakes, and the fish stay down deep closer to the cooler water, and they are harder to catch. One of my favorite towns is Eagle River, where the river (Eagle River) runs swift and cold because… [read more]

Overall Structure CS Annotated Bibliography

… ¶ … Structure (CS)

The advances of technology have become one of the most important developments that have marked the 20th and 21st centuries. The development of the Internet has taken communication, the entertainment world, and in particular the access to information to a totally different level that it had been before. However, along with such improvements, certain risks have become obvious. Video games are from this point-of-view one of the most controversial aspects of our world today, given the unlimited access to all types of video games and their accessibility to all interested parties.

Video games represent a means of relaxation and some may say that they help improve certain deficiencies such as physical injuries of psychological hurdles (Rudon, 2011). At the same time however, there are video games that have become so violent that they can negatively influence children of small ages and can determine a different self-development trend.

In order to allow video games to be used for medical purposes, but at the same time to provide children and adults alike to benefit from the relaxation video games entangle, but at the same time to protect children from the possible negative influence violent video games may have on them, it is important that action be taken at the level of the government. At the same time though, it is essential that such action do not infringe by any means the right of the consumer to choose and take informed decisions when purchasing video games.

The role of the government in this sense is very important. Given the nature of the constitutional structure of the United States, decisions to ban or restrict access to video games considered to be violent can be taken at the state level. However, it is important to first and foremost consider defining violent games. For instance, "Cops and Robbers" was a very popular live game played by generations and it often included gun toys and simulations of bank robberies and cop shooting (Thierer, 2003). However, decades ago, such game was not considered to be violent but simply a means of relaxation and socialization at the level of community children. The debate then arises on the limited means through which the government can actually regulate violent video games in the conditions in which there is no clear definition of what "violent" means.

Parents and teachers alike have become more aware of the potential danger video games may pose to children largely because of their availability and duration in time. Studies have been conducted in this sense and the conclusion is that "students who play violent video games more frequently across time should be more likely to learn aggressive cognitions and behaviors than those who play the same types of games for equivalent amounts of time but less frequently" (Gentile, 2007) Therefore, it can be said that the dangers are in a sense imminent and that action must be conducted at any means possible in order to prevent violent video games to determine the personal… [read more]

Exploring Relevant Issues to Junction Hotel Essay

… Junction Hotel is one of the more popular destinations for both the young as well as the mature consumers. It carries tradition and history, but has managed to combine them with modernity and style in a manner which attracts consumers… [read more]

Market Analysis of the Cruise Line Industry Research Paper

… Cruise Stats

Market Analysis: Cruise Line Industry

The cruise line industry has remained quite strong in many sectors despite the global recession and the diminished level of luxury spending that has resulted form this global economic downturn. Cruises remain popular with tourists and vacationers as they provide accommodation, entertainment, and travel destinations all in single packages, simplifying and easing a full vacation package. In order to understand the potential opportunities as well as the risk that are inherent in this industry, however, a more detailed and comprehensive view of the current cruise line market is necessary. This report examines the capacity and revenues of the cruise line industry through an examination of two of the largest cruise line carriers, Carnival and Royal Caribbean, and also examines figures calculated by the Florida Caribbean Cruise Association as a means of gauging industry-wide trends.


The world's largest cruise operators, with many well-known lines and brands encompassed by this corporation's holdings, Carnival operates just over under 100 ships and carried over nine million passengers in that past year (Carnival 2010). The average revenue earned for each of these passengers was approximately $1,582, which translated to a net income for the company of just under two billion dollars (Carnival 2010). The total passenger capacity for Carnival's 98 ships at any given time, assuming two passengers per cabin, is 191,464; this means the company has quite successfully monetized its resources (Carnival 2010).

Royal Caribbean

Also quite a large company, though not nearly the same size as Carnival, Royal Caribbean provided cruises to over four million passengers last year on its twenty-two ships, and has a total capacity (again assuming two passengers per cabin or berth) of 124,000 at any given time (Royal Caribbean 2010). The company saw total revenues of slightly under seven billion dollars, or approximately $1,675 per passenger, which led to a net income of $547 million (Royal Caribbean 2010). This company has slightly higher per-passenger revenues than Carnival, though the numbers are very close; Carnival appears to have been more successful in reducing costs and bringing more of this revenue into the real of real income and profit, however, and this combined with its sheer size makes it a significantly more successful company than Royal Caribbean, though neither could be said to be…… [read more]

Tony Hawk Sport Entrepreneur Extraordinaire Essay

… Tony Hawk Sport Entrepreneur Extrodinaire

Imagine studying about Tony Hawk. How did he become a success in his industry? What can one learn about him in regards to business? He has his own business, and people everywhere look up to… [read more]

Gambling Bioethics Gambling: A Literary Hypothesis Chapter

… "Results showed that the neighborhood disadvantage was positively related to frequency of gambling and problem/pathological gambling" in a national study of national telephone survey included 2631 U.S. adults (Welte 2006: 405). When individuals view gambling results as potentially life-altering, they are more apt to make wagers, and wager more money.

Hypothesis 4:

The higher involved 'centrality (self-concentrated degree)' also has higher purchase intention on casino's consumers

Egocentricity, and a perception of self-control over the world, even in activities like gambling that have a high degree of luck involved, have been associated with higher rates of gambling. This is particularly noteworthy in terms of how it is manifested in terms of gender: one study of one hundred and four students (51 males; 53 females) from grades 4, 6, and 8 involving a computerized blackjack game revealed that even at this young age "males were more likely to view gambling as involving both large amounts of skill and luck, thus suggesting an illusion of control for gambling activities" (Derevensky 1994: 49)


Derevensky, Jeffrey L., Rina Gupta and Giuseppe Della Cioppa. (1994). A developmental perspective of gambling behavior in children and adolescents. Journal of Gambling

Studies, 12 (1): 49-66

Payne, John. (2004). Task complexity and contingent processing in decision making:

An information search and protocol analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human

Performance, 16 (2): 366-387.

Saboia, Silvia, Martins Hermano Tavaresa, Daniela Sabbatini da Silva Loboa, Ana Maria

Galettia & Valentim Gentila. (2004). Pathological gambling, gender, and risk-taking

Behaviors. Addictive Behaviors, 29 (6): 1231-1235

Welte, John W., William F. Wieczorek, Grace M. Barnes, Marie-Cecile…… [read more]

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