Study "Religion / God / Theology" Essays 606-660

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Islam Is Not a Violent Religion Term Paper

… Islam

For all the destruction and bloodshed inflicted upon the world by Muslim fanatics, Islam is, in essence and in its original form, not a violent religion.

Burhan, Faysal. The Prophet of Islam and the Jews: Basis of Conduct, Acceptance,… [read more]

Ethics and World Religions Term Paper

… Ethics and World Religions

Interpretations of Shariah in relation to adultery and how interpretations of Shariah relates to the case

Sharia Law originates from the teachings of the Koran and also from the Sunna which is the practice of Prophet… [read more]

Monotheism Atomism Zarathustrism Judaism Term Paper

… Mythology is defined as the oral retelling of stories that one particular culture believes to be true. These stories, called myths, often times contain elements of the supernatural with the purpose of explaining or interpreting natural events as they pertain to nature, the universe and humanity in general. When viewed together, mythology creates a historical account of the development of humanity within the world. As one culture fades and new cultures have risen, the outgoing culture's myths were often adapted by the new culture and added to. Thus, mythology can be described as an accumulation of our collective mythological history.

Three of the major areas of mythology that have influenced the development of this so-called collective mythological heritage are the concepts of Atonism, Zarathustrism and Judaism, all of which follow the monotheism line of mythology. To understand this, one can look at history as being divided into two periods of mythology. The first period is the polytheistic period where a cultures mythology was characterized with the presence of many gods and other divine characters. Thus, explanations for the creation of the universe, the weather and all other happenings were explained through the actions of the actively present gods. Examples of such cultures include the ancient Greeks, Romans and Egyptians.

On the other hand, these polytheistic cultures eventually gave way to the cultures following a monotheistic mythology. These cultures included Atonism, Zarathustrism, Judaism and, eventually Christianity. However, it must be noted that monotheism mythology has never completely replaced polytheism but has had a much more influential role in the development of what has become known as Western mythology.

Atonism comes from the word atonement and is a prevalent part of the Judea and Christian mythology. Accordingly, Atonism describes how one's sins can be forgiven by the follower's god. In Judaism, atonism is the process of forgiving or pardoning a transgression and, with in Judea mythology, this is done through the performance of rituals performed by a high priest. In Christianity, atonism refers to the pardoning or forgiving of sins done through the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.

Zarathustrism, on the other hand, is based on the philosophical mythology as given by Zoroaster, an ancient Iranian prophet. According to Zarathustrism, the universe is a cosmic struggle between the truth and the lie. The main characteristics of this mythology are the belief in a doctrine consisting of creation, existence and Free Will. The purpose of humankind is to sustain creation, existence and free will. This is accomplished through taking an active participation in life and exercising good thoughts, words and deeds.

Judaism is perhaps the best know mythology as it is also a prominent religion that has had much influence on such Western thought as Christianity. Although the mythology of Judaism is much to expansive to even attempt to summarize, it can be characterized by several key beliefs. Unlike many other religions, the mythology of Judaism is not based in a specific group but instead within a collection of sacred texts and traditions, thus… [read more]

Salem Witchcraft Hysteria Term Paper

… Salem Witch Trials

The entirety of the Salem witchcraft hysteria centered upon the needs of the males to both assert and maintain their dominance within every element of their community. For the Puritans, evil and the evidence of evil was… [read more]

International Economics What Makes Religion a Useful Term Paper

… International Economics

What makes religion a useful tool for mobilizing members of terrorist groups?

Religion is a powerful tool for recruiting and mobilizing potential terrorists because religions are tied to community institutions as well as express an ideology. The religion of terrorists is often rooted in the local society and economic structure. Religious places of worship and the homes of congregants provide bases of popular and organizational support to train and nurture terrorist cells. Fundamentalist religions are often opposed to the ruling hierarchy of the land, and there may be political resentment of how the country is administered, taxed, and governed. An unpopular war or policy can turn people from politics to religion as a way of expressing their discontent, as prayers and bombs give the individual a concrete sense that something is being 'done.'

Terrorism often takes an international focus, even though if may be locally based, and here religion also provides a sense of comfort. Many terrorists feel resentment against what they see as the powerful West. Religion promises a more powerful…… [read more]

Buddhism and Judaism Term Paper

… Buddhism and Judaism

Conservative and Liberal Divisions of Buddhism and Judaism

Buddhism and Judaism are two of the oldest religions still in practice today. Despite how long they have endured the test of time, they have not survived unscathed. Among… [read more]

American Colonialism Opportunity in Colonial Amercia Colonization Essay

… American Colonialism


Colonization of the New World in the seventeenth century offered unprecedented opportunity for Europeans, particularly refugees from the religious intolerance and persecutions of minority religions in England. Even after initial reports suggested that the… [read more]

Mary Daly Term Paper

… Mary Daly, radical feminist philosopher and theologian, is the most passionate and uncompromising feminist alive. Throughout her 32-year career as a professor of theology at the Jesuit-run Boston College and as a prolific author of several books she has remained… [read more]

Religion Interview Term Paper

… Religion Interview

I interviewed a good friend and neighbor of my grandmother who is 65-year-old. Since she often visits with my grandmother and the two of them talk about all kinds of topics, my grandmother said she would make a… [read more]

Removal of Religion Is Marked by Increase in Violence Term Paper

… Religion & Curbing Violence

Violence has become the part and parcel of our lives. Metropolitan cities to suburbs all areas of the country are plagued by violence in one form or the other. Somewhere people are involved in racial violence and some people are doing it out of frustration. Even campuses are places where violence, blood and gore have found space. The news of killings of students at different campuses brought to light the issues of violence, its causes and how it can be curbed, to the forefront.

Many optimists associate religion with peace, tranquility and harmony. Faith and spirituality is one of the basic needs of all human beings. Religion helps in building character of an individual. Religion holds people accountable and responsible for their actions while lack of faith in one's life may lead to violence and frustration.

People belonging to the religious right argue that Bible and prayers offer lasting solution to the problem of violence in the society. They argue that religious teachings should be given a lot of emphasis in the schools and it should make a come back there. People who have been found involved in violence and killings were not found to be too strong in faith. They say that at the time when talking about issues like drugs, abortion and sexuality was considered a taboo, the rate of violence in society was not that high. As people shunned religion and entered into materialistic pursuits they lost connection with their inner self. Faith helped them in maintaining the balance, sanity and control but secularism and materialism made people forget about religion and moral of the society declined leading to a violent situation now. We witnessed that drugs became common among the youth and so did the weapons like semiautomatic pistols and later automatic guns. Researches have also been conducted on the issue and have established that religion plays important role in people's life. However, the people can also go to extremes when it comes to religion destroying its efficacy.

Religious Diversity in America

America is a state of variegated culture and religion. America today is called the melting pot where people belonging to different religions, ethnicities reside side by side. Even though every individual has full and complete freedom to practice his or her religion under the constitution but the problem arises when we try to seek a collective solution for the society, in religion to control the menace of violence & hostility. This diversity in American culture has brought many difficulties in American society. America has evolved as a secular society and it would be difficult to endorse one or other form of religion. Any attempt to make Christianity and its specific techings dominate over other religions would destroy the very fabric of American society. In such a situation it is the individual that can take help from faith in inculcating values. The role of parents in bringing up their children with positive moral values and balanced teachings of religion becomes important.… [read more]

Religion in Turkey Term Paper

… Religion and Secularism in Turkey

Turkey lies at the northeast tip of the Mediterranean Sea and bridges Europe and the Middle East. Part of it, called the Turkis Straits, is part of Europe and the rest is considered part of… [read more]

Religion of Buddhism Term Paper

… ¶ … religion of Buddhism. First, just like Christianity and many other world belief systems, there are many different sects and factions in the Buddhist religion. In fact, many scholars believe Buddhism is not a religion, but more a way… [read more]

Science and Religious Beliefs of the Victorians Term Paper

… Science and Religious Beliefs of the Victorians

Whether to follow the critical mind whatever its destructive effect on religious faith or to follow the will to believe and abandon reason could become for some Victorians, perhaps a majority of the… [read more]

Divine, Referred to as Lwa, Are Meticulously Term Paper

… ¶ … divine, referred to as lwa, are meticulously organized within the basic four elements of the world: earth, water, air and fire. The individual lwa met tet belongs to this set of 401 divinities within the Vodou tradition. Typically,… [read more]

Religious Life in Ancient Term Paper

… It was comprised of singing, dancing and art performances in general.

The festival did not have a set date. The different towns could organize it in different days. Therefore, in order to attend more festivals the Athenians could travel outside… [read more]

Hispanic Women and Religion Term Paper

… ¶ … Hispanic society and religion [...] various ways religion plays an active role in Hispanic society and the molding of women within the society. Religion, specifically the Catholic religion, is a vital part for many in Hispanic society, and it has been for centuries. It plays an active role in Hispanic society by offering not only hope and faith for its members, but social opportunities for interaction, support, and comfort during times of need. The Catholic Church is vital to most Hispanics, and has the power to create strong and vital Hispanic communities throughout a nation.

First, it has been the religion of Latin America for centuries, since the Spanish Conquistadors first conquered Mexico in the late 1400s. Second, because the Church is organized on a parish system, the Church has locations throughout the Hispanic community neighborhoods, making it more accessible to the people in different Latino neighborhoods throughout larger communities (Warren 57). Puerto Rico is home to the oldest Catholic diocese in the New World, and today, there are nearly 3.5 million practicing Catholics in the country. Most homes contain a crucifix and other religious items, and religious festivals and observances are the backbone of culture and society in the country.

Puerto Rican women who immigrate to the United States bring a strong cultural tradition of Catholicism when they enter the country, and often, that tradition continues largely for their need to keep some their traditions from home alive and well in their new country. These authors note, "Hispanics, by and large, especially the first generation in the United States, are rather traditional. The experience of being in a foreign land reinforces their need for recognizable institutions and traditional ways" (Deck, Tarango, and Matovina 2). The presence of the Church in the U.S. gives a feeling of comfort and sameness to lives that have been uprooted and are in turmoil, and thus, it has a calming affect on communities filled with recent immigrants.

The Church plays an important role in everyday life for the Hispanic community, but it also provides authority and guidance for people who may be lost in a culture they do not understand or feel a part of. Another author notes, "Indeed, it is the ability to provide content that is ecclesiastically authoritative, theologically informative, socially relevant, and spiritually nurturing that describes what is most characteristic of good inculturated preaching by and for Latinos" (Burgaleta). In other works, Hispanics want authority and nurturing, and they can find it at their local parish with their priests and laypeople, easily and just as if they were still back home.

While women do not play a role in the hierarchy of the Catholic Church, (except as nuns), they do serve locally, and this has turned out to be an important role for women. One woman notes of her involvement, "When Father Benavides came to St. Mary Magdalene's, he set up ministries and leaders developed [including me]. It gave me a sense of ownership. That I'm important and I… [read more]

Primal Religions Term Paper

… Orality in Primal Religions

Orality in primal religions means that there is no writing and it is
extremely important to primal religions. Orality does not mean primitive
as it appears to us now, but can even be more complicated and have a deeper
impact than written religious practices. The importance of orality to
primal religions helps to emphasize the value of religion in primal life.
There is no writing and literacy found in primal religions (368). This is
because writing down the very important religious ideas will not only limit
the religion, but allow it to be available to outsiders. Furthermore,
writing was considered to "threaten the virtues" or orality in religion and
thus orality was considered to be a cherished value.
First of all, orality offers opportunities that written religion does
not. For instance, silence can be used for impact, and speech infliction
and body language can add to the value. "Speech is a part.... of life,"
and thus shares an important value with people (368). Everyone is a part
of the religion as each tribe member is important for the religion to carry
on. Orality therefore adds an increased value to religion within people's
lives. Speaking is everywhere and so is religion if oral, and it was oral
in primal religions.
Orality is also important as it is considered to not only be superior
to writing, but writing is considered an adversary to it. Writing is a
"foe" to speaking within primal religions (369). This is because orality
in religion forces people to memorize the religious aspects, while literacy
allows things to be written and thus people do not need to memorize
religious values because they are readily available in text. Writing
eliminates the need for memorization, and memorization is important to
primal religions. Orality makes this possible.
As religions were oral, all myths, legends, stories, songs, chants,
were passed down from generation to generation through speech. This forced
people to learn…… [read more]

Religion as a Possible Determinant of Fertility Rate Term Paper

… Religion as a Determinant in Fertility

Summary and suggestions

The studies reviewed and analyzed take a look at how religion affects birth and fertility in married or paired women throughout the world, Austria, India and Canada in particular. In Canada,… [read more]

Primal Religion Term Paper

… ¶ … Religion [...] place of orality in primal (or tribal) religions. Early religions were based on orality because there was no form of written communications. They were the precursors to modern day religions in many ways, and they can reveal a surprising number of commonalities with modern religions.

Religion is at least partly based on tradition, and in primal religion, these traditions were passed down orally, because there was no other way to ensure their continuance. In addition, this oral tradition added a dimension of participation for many of the members, including participation in rituals and religious ceremonies. In addition, many early tribes felt writing anything down, even religious practices, would threaten the traditions, and perhaps even kill them.

Speaking is much more versatile than writing, as well, it can convey meaning with subtle changes in voice or action, and so it can convey emotions far better than writing. It can even become a performance, adding interest to whatever is being conveyed. The speaker can also interject periods of silence to allow listeners to pray or think their own thoughts, which adds depth and spirituality to the entire performance. Many ancient tribes had special storytellers or "wise men" who were the religious leaders of the tribe and who passed down the oral lessons from one wise man to the next to keep them from disappearing. They also created many of the legends that became the folk tales and myths of the tribe, which were also handed down from generation to generation.

Memory is an important part of orality, because speech and memorizing tales and religious beliefs creates a more active and alert mind, and encourages mental alertness and understanding. Writing can wander, or there can be so much a person can lose themselves in it, and lose some of the…… [read more]

Catholic Church Mean by the Term? Revelation Term Paper

… ¶ … Catholic Church mean by the term?

Revelation has been spiritual phase; the phase has been a sort of mode of communication between the Jesus and God. It is important to understand that what ever was preached by Jesus… [read more]

Chinese Religions Discuss Taoism and Confucianism Term Paper

… Chinese Religions

Discuss Taoism and Confucianism as responses to the social chaos during the Warring States period

Confucianism and Taoism were the two main philosophies developed in China during the Warring States Period, which started around the year 400 B.C. And lasted until 221 B.C. During this chaotic time, China became divided in seven different states or regional powers which were ruled by lords or dukes, who soon began to call themselves "kings," this being an indicative of the state of utter division which reigned in China, where the power of the dynasty king was no longer recognized. This chaotic social and political context is said to have been the cause of the great cultural developments that ensued and the emergence of Confucianism and Taoism respectively, as philosophical reactions to the social chaos and confusion meant to reestablish the lost order and balance for the individual and for the society.

Confucianism was developed by Confucius in the fifth century B.C. And was, together with Taoism, the main religion until the beginning of the twentieth century. In many respects, the two philosophies are alike, although Confucianism is more oriented towards society and social practices, whereas Taoism is an abstract philosophy, which focuses more on the individual and the way to absolute truth and freedom of mind. The main principles of Confucianism, especially as it was later defined by Mencius, were the belief in the innate goodness of humanity, in righteousness, virtue and mutual respect, which were extended to all the actions, either individual or social, and which should be used as the main instruments for governing oneself as well as the state. The Confucians believed that, to achieve the governing of virtue, people should center their lives around different rituals, which comprised everything, from the proper way in which one would lie during sleep to the proper way in which the empire should be governed. Thus, instead of outer laws, rites were preferred as they determined the individual to act while using his virtue, rather than obeying an external will, as it is said in the fourth chapter of the Analects: "The Master said, 'If the will be set on virtue, there will be no practice of wickedness.'"(Legge)

As opposed to this, Taoism believed not in virtue as such, but in the following of "the way" or "tao," which was also a way of behavior or a general attitude towards life, but which focused on the means of attaining absolute truth and absolute knowledge: "Those who are good I treat as good. / Those who are not good I also treat as good. / in so doing I gain in goodness." The Taoists thus believed that the way should integrate everything there is, both what is considered evil and what is considered…… [read more]

Southern and Northern Renaissance Term Paper

… Southern & Northern Renaissance

The Southern vs. The Northern Renaissance

Although both the Southern and Northern Renaissances were characterized by a revitalized interest in the human relationship with the world, as opposed to the human relationship with God, the impact of the Protestant Reformation upon Northern Europe created a far darker view of human life, in contrast to the still hopeful Italian, Catholic portrait of humanity dwelling in a fallen, but still recognizably God-created world. Northern Europe also had a less sanguine view of femininity, as the Catholic cult of the Virgin Mary met with Protestant disapproval, although this was somewhat replaced in England with the cut of the Virgin Queen Elizabeth I. "What a piece of a work is a man," begins Hamlet, encapsulating the marvel at man that was the spirit of the Renaissance, but Hamlet ends his musings by calling man a quintessence of dust, and saying that women does not delight him (II. ii. 298-305).

Of course, in both Italy and England, there is ample evidence as to how ineffectual rulers "could erode optimism and create doubt as to the potential of human beings to achieve the ideal or to inspire others to the good through eloquent expression" (323-350). But still, in the formative works of Italian Renaissance, such as Petrach's love poetry for Laura, the still-beautiful figures of Michelangelo's Sistine chapel, or the construction of St. Peter's where "reinforcing ideals of order, balance, and harmony," held sway, there remained a confidence in the ability of human beings to encapsulate the spirit of the creator on earth, through admiring the human form and mirroring the act of creation through art (346-7).

In England, the power of the Catholic Church as an influence upon government ended, and instead religious authority was fused with the persona of the monarch, Henry VIII. "Catholics," members of the newly created state "Church of England," and Puritans who wished to purify the church of…… [read more]

Religion and Sociology Term Paper

… Religion and Sociology

Challenges to the collective consciousness of the United States often revolve around concepts of conflicting religious belief. Within the past century a movement that many believe is fundamentalist has frequently challenged ebbs and flows in the religious ideals of the nation. The Christian Right gives millions of people a sense of peace, promising change in a socially challenged nation often more expressive of its violence and failing family structure than its value as a leader among men and nations, of while many others it gives pause to consider oppression and censorship of changes that they believe are foundational to progress, such as the appreciation of the changing acceptance of diversity, especially with regard to family structure, with the majority of Americans embracing the diversity of the new family including homosexuality and women's rights, not to mention a greater acceptance of abortion. (Wood & Wald 351) In a nation where religion and the state are assumed and expected by many to be separate entities many people are concerned with the political and sociological pull that is being developed by the Christina Right, while those within the movement embrace the ideals of family and conservatism that drive the movement, and that they wish to see as the guiding force to social change.

As Jeff Sharlet notes in his foundational work, Through a Glass, Darkly: How the Christian Right is Reimagining U.S. History, many individuals wish to discount the validity of the messages of the Christian right, claiming that they are, "A burp in American history. An unpleasant odor that will pass." (34) Despite the reality that such fundamentalist movements have been around since the foundation of the nation, and yet he also makes clear that the reinterpretation of the historical past of the United States as one that expressed fundamental principles, without regard to context, is troubling as it discounts the foundational truths that separate faith from politics. Sharlet points out that many Christian Right followers believe that the separation of church and state was meant by the framer of the constitution and the United States, was meant to protect the church from the state, rather than the more traditionally accepted view that the reverse is true, and that the framers wished to make sure that religious doctrine did not manipulate governmental and legal issues. (35) Wood, also reiterates that much current scholarship details the foundation of the separation to protect religion from government rather than visa versa. (339) point frequently made by the prominent social theorist Emile Durkheim, the foundations of religion are far less concrete than one would expect and that religion and religious beliefs are a fundamentally social phenomena, dictated by the power of coercion.

Blend et al. 20) It is almost as if the Christian Right, read the words of this master and detailed how their social goals would best be accomplished, as the foundation of the social movement that is beginning to influence the politics and opinions of the nation, is founded in the… [read more]

Gender and Religion Term Paper

… Gender and Religion

Women are viewed in many different forms by different religions. Some consider women as the integral part of the religion or of the society while some provide several restrictions for women when it comes to their beliefs… [read more]

Religion of Australian Aborigines Term Paper

… Religion of Australian Aborigines

A Brother?

An Impossible Task?

Fully Human Beings

Uncivilized 3 Christians?

Angry Indigenous Men


A Brother?

An Impossible Task?

Religion differs from magic in that it is not concerned with control or… [read more]

Medieval Leaders Constantine: Although Constantine Lived Term Paper

… Medieval Leaders

Constantine: Although Constantine lived more than a hundred years before the traditional beginning of the Middle Ages, he and his reign significantly impacted

Christianity and society in Medieval Europe.

Constantine was born at Nis in what is now… [read more]

Catholicism: A Look at a Different Religion Term Paper

… Catholicism: A Look at a Different Religion

What is Catholicism? When I first started working on this project, my knowledge of Catholicism was very limited. I believed that Catholicism was a strict and rigid religion. I also thought that most… [read more]

Reformation People Devote Themselves to Religion Term Paper

… Reformation

People devote themselves to religion for a wide variety of reasons; some search for comfort during difficult times, whether these be personal or more broadly social in nature. Others are in search of a spiritual path that will bring… [read more]

Is Religion Compatible With a Democracy? Term Paper

… ¶ … Religion of Islam Compatible with Democracy?

Modern day democracy, especially in the Western world, is equated with a political system marked by free and fair elections, rule of law, and upholding of human rights and individual liberties, including… [read more]

Rastafarianism the Meaning Term Paper

… Rastafarianism

The meaning of Rastafarianism is largely dependent on the understanding of the historical as well as the cultural and social aspects that have influenced the rise of this movement. The Rastafarian faith is one which is deeply intertwined with… [read more]

Montgomery County NC Term Paper

… Montgomery County NC

When Montgomery County was formed in 1779 from Anson County, it was named in honor of Richard Montgomery who, in 1775, lost his life at the battle of Quebec in the attempt to conquer Canada. Its county… [read more]

Development of the Islamic Religion and How it Impacted Europe Term Paper

… ¶ … Islamic Religion and How it Impacted Europe

The objective of this work is to discuss the development of the Islamic religion and how it impacted Europe.

The impact of the Islamic religion upon the European continent was one of great magnitude, not only in terms of religion but in mathematics, the language, food, the clothing worn by Europeans, and many other areas as well. The work entitled: "Great Religions of the World" states that They were hardly more than a band of Bedouin from the sand and lava wastes of Arabia." (1971) however these people were on the first Moslem expedition north...few then could have dreamed that these lean tribesmen and their newfound faith would change the course of civilization. The year: 632." (Ibid)

The Light of Islam

In the book entitled: "Great Religions of the World" a National Geographic Publication it is stated that:

During Europe's Dark Ages the light of Islam shone, unifying, stimulating the cultures of many lands with the currents of trade and the bond of a common language, Arabic." (1971)

In fact it is revealed that it was "brocades from the looms of Moslem Sicily..." that the wealthy in Europe had their clothes tailored from. Further the trade that came with the sweep of Islam across Europe brought the compass from China by which the astrolabe (an astronomical instrument for charting the heavens and calculating position at sea) was perfected. (Ibid)

II. Food Products Introduced

With the Islam people and their conquests and contributions to trade came new foods previously unknown in Europe which "...appeared on Europe's tables: apricots, rice, and sukkar - sugar." (New Standard Encyclopedia, 1984) Other contributions of the…… [read more]

Slave Religion Term Paper

… ¶ … slavery in American history. Specifically it will discuss the books "Slave Religion: The invisible institution in the Antebellum South" by Albert J. Raboteau, and "Slavery: A problem in American institutional and intellectual life" by Stanley M. Elkins. It… [read more]

Buddhism Hinduism Taoism Term Paper

… Buddhism, Hinduism & Taoism

Comparative Analysis of Buddhism, Hinduism and Taoism in the Context of Other Major World Religions and of the African-American Race

Humanity is characterized by its diverse and dynamic nature. With the presence of different cultures and… [read more]

Worship of God and Discipline Term Paper

… ¶ … Worship of God and Discipline of the Churches of the New Testament, John Owen attempts to explain the set-up of a Christian Church. He does this by explaining how a church should be organized. Furthermore, he discusses the… [read more]

Religion Judaism and Christianity European Society, Politics Term Paper

… Religion

Judaism and Christianity

European society, politics, beliefs and religion have forgone a lot of changes during the age of Enlightenment in the 18th Century. Initiated by a cluster of intellectuals, social and political movements, the age of enlightenment brought forth several amendments on European Laws that directed the diminution of several laws that restricts and prohibits Jews to intermingle with other people of other sects and worldly experiences. The age of enlightenment served as a turning point wherein Jews are allowed to an education and experience worldly pleasures and familiarity. This new acquired freedom in the 18th century have permitted Jews to non-religious knowledge unlike the old age of Judaism wherein Jews were only confined to their own religion and knowledge surrounding the age old practice and belief of Judaism. Jewish secular movement has also spurred practices of inter-marriage and assimilation in the Jewish community. In the reformed Judaism, the conduction of prayers is done in the vernacular. Traditional Middle Age Judaism does not incorporate translations of these prayers. Middle age Judaism also constitutes the segregation of men and women on all religious activities unlike reformist Jewish practices where both men and women have equal responsibility and function in religious adherence.

Jews around the world observes several events and traditional activities that give homage to the historical events of the Jewish people. They observe Sabbath day in respect to the laws of the 10 commandments given to Moses by God. Tish-bav is an event wherein Jews worldwide conforms to fasting in respect to the five events that befallen the Jewish people. Circumcision is a traditional event among Jewish men and has been also adapted by the Christian world. This is in respect to the covenant made by God to the father of all Jews, Abraham.

Jewish debates and skeptic argument always denotes rejection to Jesus' teachings and gospels.

Various reactions and opinions regarding Jesus have been published ever since Jesus' founding of Christianity. Jewish philosophy in general disagrees in the portrayal of the Jewish clergy…… [read more]

Bless Me, Ultima Essay

… Bless Me, Ultima is the first in a trilogy of novels that includes Heart of Aztlan and Tortuga. Set in New Mexico in the 1940s, it follows the story of Antonio Marez, a boy who meets a curandera named Ultima.… [read more]

Osiris Egyptian God Term Paper

… Osiris (Egyptian God)


Osiris is generality known as the Egyptian god of the dead. He was also known by numerous other names including, Oser, Aser, Asar, Usire. (Osiris, Asar)

More correctly he is seen as "Supreme god and judge… [read more]

City of God Term Paper

… City of God, Augustine defends the Christians against critics who blame them for the fall of Rome. Critics believed that it was due to the abandonment of the Roman gods in favor of Christianity that resulted in the empire's demise, because they reasoned that the gods were angry and thus had cursed them. However, Augustine claimed that the calamities of Rome happened long before Christ and had nothing to do with the popularity of Christianity, relying on historical philosophy to mount his defense. He believed that the city of God consisted of the holy angels and the elect among humanity, while the city of men was the earthly city and was comprised of the humans and angels who were in rebellion against God. He also believed that the church was a militant kingdom, in which it was at war with the enemies of Christ and the lusts within its members (Augustine). Moreover, Augustine viewed sexuality in terms of an interior state, in that all sexuality and sensual please consisted of the conquest of the carnal will, thus he developed a strict puritanical posture towards sexuality. According to Augustine, sexual reproduction was the natural means of creating humans for the friendship of community, and that the union between a man and woman should be bonded by the same goal. Furthermore, he linked sexual intercourse and procreation as God's intention and the natural reality of God.

According to most modern rabbinical scholars, the Christian concept of salvation from sin has no equal in Judaism, which does not believe that man is evil and sinful by nature, thus there is no need to be "saved" (Jewish). Moreover, they do not believe in a literal hell as a place of eternal punishment,…… [read more]

Judaism Is a Major World Term Paper

… Prejudice against Jewish people is known as anti-Semitism, a problem that continues today.

8. Different "sects" of Judaism: Judaism does not have "sects" in the same way that Christianity does, but there are three major divisions of Judaism. All divisions believe in essentially the same theological and religious tenets. They differ in their approach to practice and their level of orthodoxy. The three main divisions of Judaism include Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform, although Humanistic, Liberal, and Reconstructive Judaism are also recognized ("Judaism," BBC). Some differences between the different divisions of Judaism include the use of the Hebrew language during religious services and the obedience to Kosher dietary laws.

9. Conclusion/Judaism Today: Judaism is a fascinating religious and cultural tradition. Although the Jews are small in number compared with Muslims, Christians, or Hindus, religion remains vital and important in the modern world.


'Judaism." (n.d.). BBC Religion and Ethics. Retrieved Nov. 5, 2005 from 'Judaism." (n.d.). Religious Retrieved Nov. 5, 2005 from

Rich, Tracey R. (2001). What Do Jews Believe? Judaism 101. Retrieved Nov. 5, 2005 from

Rich, Tracey R. (2001). Jewish Population. Judaism 101. Retrieved Nov. 5, 2005 from

Rich, Tracey R. (2001). The Patriarchs and the Origin of Judaism. Judaism 101. Retrieved Nov. 5, 2005 from

Rich, Tracey R. (2001). The Land of Israel. Judaism 101. Retrieved Nov. 5, 2005 from

'Shavuot and the Ten Commandments." (n.d.). Retrieved Nov 5, 2005 from… [read more]

Theology of John Calvin Term Paper

… ¶ … Wilhelm Niesel's book entitled the Theology of Calvin. This paper will explore the doctrines and opinions of the greater reformer and offer a modern view of the works.

Wilhem Niesel's book explores the many issues that Calvin's Theology brings to light. This book can be described as having a great range and sweep of covering the theology that has been rarely comprehensively presented in one work. This is an important book for Calvinists and religious scholars worldwide. It is essential work to the Reform church.

Niesel does not waste time in exploring the vital core elements of theology. He devotes Chapter Two to Theology and the Holy Scripture. Calvin presents the problem of Scripture as we try to understand it, what we see is what he reflects about himself. Still he also creates a basic purpose of Christian doctrine. He wants the Christian reader to discover the Word of God and believes his work can act as a guide to instruct them. He wants to try and make the whole body of doctrine easier to understand by giving it order. Calvin wants people to judge the Scripture on its contents alone, not just grown frustrated by its difficulty to decide what to seek within. In this respect, Niesel offers summaries of Calvin's views on the Word of God making it in the modern sense, more user-friendly.

Still Niesel takes his purpose seriously and one can see this in his attention to detail as he tackles each subject step-by-step. This is evident as once he establishes the framework of the Word of God, he then wants to push the envelope and inquire about the content. This allows the reader to remain within the framework and not stray due to complicated content. He returns to the Word of God as a means to remain focused in this seeking and questioning tone. The one idea that remains solid throughout the book is his continued respect for Calvin and Calvin's straight forward way of explaining the Scripture without introducing his own original thoughts and ideas. Calvin has utmost respect for the Scripture as he understands that not only does it belong to him but also to the people of the world. Niesel writes, "As a hearer of the Word he knows that he belongs to the multitude of those who have interpreted Scripture before him, and in connexion with the witness of the early church establishes the principle with 'Thus God proclaims Himself as the One'" (54). Calvin respects this authority but Niesel believes that by allowing this respect Calvin is also limiting his view on the Scripture. As ground breaking as Calvin's work is, this is where it can grow confusing to the modern reader because Calvin allows for the older doctrine to be the framework for his work. This creates conflict for the reader but also the reader understands that Calvin is just struggling with his own notion that he is just a vessel for which the words to travel… [read more]

John Calvin's Book Entitled the Institutes Term Paper

… ¶ … John Calvin's book entitled the Institutes of the Christian Religion. This paper will explore the doctrines and opinions of the greater reformer and offer a modern view of the works.

John Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion is… [read more]

Judaism and Christianity Essay

… In the commandments of the Torah we have the declaration, 'I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day, that I have set before you life and death, blessing and curse, therefore choose life (Deuteronomy 30:19). Hence, man alone is responsible for choosing between good and bad. Christianity offers an explanation for sin and suffering, at least from the point of 'original sin', by using the concept of 'Fall of Man'. So the primeval sin or the original sin was committed by the temptations of Satan. The stain of the primordial sin committed by Adam affected every being on earth and is responsible for all his evil inclinations. [J. Gresham Machen]. Thus, the propensity for sin began from the moment Adam ate that forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden. "Ye shall not surely die," said the serpent "for God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as God, knowing good and evil" (Genesis 3:4-5). So Christianity in essence views every man as a sinner. "Wherefore as by one man sin entered into this world and by sin death; and so death passed upon all men." [Catholic Encyclopaedia].

Judaism does not consider the concept of original sin and it has a totally different doctrine for explaining man's tendency for sin. 'Yetzera tov ' (good inclination' and 'Yetzer ha-ra' (bad inclination) are the two forces that control man. [Goldberg, 250] The Jewish belief propounds that man is neither sinful nor good at birth and that the inclinations towards good or bad are dependent on his free will. An individual who commits a sinful act reaps the consequence. That is man is not predestined to suffer because of some primordial sin and by properly exercising his free will he can overcome sinful tendencies.


1) David J. Goldberg and John D. Rayner, "The Jewish People: their History and their

Religion," Penguin Publications 1989

2) Catholic Encyclopaedia, "Original Sin," Accessed on Oct 25th, 2005

3) J. Gresham Machen, "The Fall of Man," Accessed on Oct 25th 2005,

4) Mechon Mamre, Genesis, Accessed on Oct 25th, 2005,… [read more]

Role of Women in Religion Throughout History Term Paper

… Role of Women in Religion Throughout History

Women throughout time have contributed a lot in the history of religion. Many movements and organizations have been formed which focus and devote time for the ideals of religion, may it be any… [read more]

Christian Counseling Symbol: Symbols Communicate Directly Term Paper

… Christian Counseling

Symbol: Symbols communicate directly the subconscious parts of our minds because they bypass language. One of the reasons why Christian symbols are so powerful is that they allow people to suspend the rational parts of their brain and… [read more]

Religion Religious Language Term Paper

… Language is simply not grand enough to describe a deity such as this, and this is the great weakness of language in general, and using analogies in particular. They may be understandable to us, but they do not convey the true meaning or greatness of the deity himself. Language and communication can mean different things to different people. Even the same word, spoken with a different inflection, can mean something different from one person to the next. This is one of the great weaknesses of language, and one of the reasons the language of the Bible can be so difficult. It has often been translated, and each translator could have changed the meaning or the inflection of words to change the meaning. One of the great strengths of the Bible is its' powerful and moving language, but that could also prove to be one of its' greatest weaknesses if the language is misunderstood or misconstrued.


Vardy Peter, and Arliss, Julie. The Thinker's Guide to God. Oakland, CA: O. Books,…… [read more]

Catholic Ethics Term Paper

… Catholic Ethics

The Catholic religion has a long and well-documented history; scholars and priests since the faith's inception have recorded not only the happenings of important figures, but their perceptions and theories about the implications of these events for the faith. Today, Catholic scholars still immerse themselves in the meaning of the Holy Scripture. In Principles of Christian Morality, three preeminent Catholic scholars examine interpretations of moral theology, focusing on ethical matters facing the Church. While none of these men is "a specialist in moral theology," they do present compelling arguments regarding Christian ethics (8). Here, each man's contribution to the volume will be briefly summarized, then all three will be related to one another and evaluated in terms of each other, and finally, a more thorough treatment of Schurmann's essay will be included.

The first contribution, by Heinz Schurmann, was written as a submission for the International Theological Commission's December 1974 session. Schurmann discusses the New Testament's influence on morality, via both its statements and interpretations. Schurmann begins by noting that the Second Vatican Council, which had recently taken place at the time of his writing, gave more emphasis to action in a Christian lifestyle. Schurmann questions how this balance between Holy Scripture and practice could be achieved-"we must face the question of how far Holy Scripture and how far experience-that is, ethical reason-are competent to discover what is right action" (13).

Schurmann examines the questions of whether the words and deeds of Jesus Christ and the apostles are considered ethical norms which bind disciples to them. In examining the words and deeds of Christ himself, the instruction as to how His followers are to behave is implicit at the least. The words and deeds of Jesus are to be seen as "the ultimate ethical norm," that is to say, the model after which disciples are to follow in their own words and deeds (23). The deeds and teachings of the apostles, to be understood as having been significantly influenced by and patterned after Christ, are also to be understood as models, although not ultimate ethical norms, for disciples to follow. The apostles can disseminate the works of God and Jesus Christ through the spiritual gifts of wisdom, gnosis, receiving revelation, and the ability to instruct one another (29).

The next author in this compilation, Joseph Ratzinger (now Pope Benedict XVI), discusses the distinction between practice (orthopraxis) and established beliefs (orthodoxy) and the need of having a fixed point of moral reference (48). Ratzinger, in an effort to establish a practice for Catholics in a modern context, explored the possibility of the shifting meaning of religious law and commandments (50). The opposite of praxis, Ratzinger states, is the belief "that affirms that there is no such thing as a specifically Christian morality and that Christianity must take its norms of conduct from the anthropological insights of its time" (49). Ratzinger concludes that praxis is indistinguishable from a genuinely believed truth in Christ-that to imitate Jesus Christ is "inseparable from… [read more]

Compare the Relation Between Religions and the State in Europe Term Paper

… ¶ … religions and the state in Europe

State interference in religion in Germany and Austria

The question of a state interfering in religion occurs when a group of religious believers feel that it is superior to other believers and… [read more]

Scripture According to Christian Tradition, Mark Term Paper

… ¶ … Scripture

According to Christian tradition, Mark, who served as both interpreter and disciple of Peter, took responsibility to write down the teachings of his pedagogue after both his and Paul's death. While Mark's regeneration of the life of… [read more]

Religions Throughout the World Term Paper

… Reformed Judaism is the liberal wing of Judaism which feels belief and doctrine are interchangeable and dispensable, and the importance of the Jews focus is to keep the ethical traditions of the Torah ("

Four Cornerstones

There are Four Cornerstones of Judaism which are the Torah, the people, the land and the love of God.

The Torah is the "living law handed down from God to Moses on Mount Sinai and passes onward from generation to generation (" The people represent God's promise to make a great nation of the Jewish people and his blessings on them. The land is representative of the people leaving their "native land and their father's houses to a land which will be shown to them by God. The love of God states that 'you must love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your might' ("


There are millions of people and numerous religions throughout the world. By exploring Judaism, its beliefs, forms and Four Cornerstones, one can gain a better understanding of not only the religion, but the people who follow it.

Works Cited

(Jewish Identity. (accessed 04 August, 2005).


(Judaism. (accessed 04 August, 2005).


(Judaism. (accessed 04 August, 2005).


(What Do Jews Believe? (accessed 04 August, 2005). ).… [read more]

Hinduism Is Among the Oldest Religions Term Paper

… Hinduism is among the oldest religions in the world. It is a total way of life that evolved by the great sages and seers of ancient India, with traditions that extend back before recorded history (Tribute pp). Although the early phase of the Vedic tradition is dated between 10,000-7,000 BCE, Hinduism is a living tradition (Tribute pp). India remains today a predominantly Hindu country, with its ethos that have evolved down the ages through its ancient traditions, customs, philosophy and culture (Tribute pp).

In all Hindu traditions, the Universe is said to precede not only humanity, but also the gods, and fundamental to Hindu concepts of time and space is the motion that the external world is not solid and real, but illusionary (Hindu pp).

India is rooted in a timeless universe of eternal return: everything that happens has already done so many times before, though in different guises (Hindu pp). Hinduism arose from the discoveries of people who believed they had gained an insight into the nature of reality through deep meditation and ascetic practices (Hindu pp). According to the Prashasta Pada:

After a cycle of universal dissolution, the Supreme

Being decides to recreate the cosmos so that we souls can experience worlds of shape and solidity.

Very subtle atoms begin to combine, eventually generating a cosmic wind that blows heavier and heavier atoms together. Souls depending on their karma earned in previous world systems, spontaneously draw to themselves atoms that coalesce into an appropriate body" (Hindu pp).

The Caste System, or varna-ashrama, is said to be the mainstay of the Hindu social order, yet it has no sanction in Vedas (Caste pp). India's ancient culture was based upon a system of social diversification according to spiritual development, not by birth, but by his karma (Caste pp). This system became hereditary and over the course of many centuries degenerated as a result of exploitation by some priests, and…… [read more]

Leibniz According to Leibnez Term Paper

… Human beings cannot possible know or understand the motivations behind God's creation, or even know for sure if God exists in the first place. If God does exist, then there is no way of knowing if God is benevolent, or even if God is benevolent he would be choose to create only one world out of an infinite number of potential alternatives. In fact, it is entirely possible that God has created the best of all possible worlds, but that we do not live in it.

However, if we take Leibnez's assumptions to be true, then it is easy to witness how our world could be the best possible one. The world in which we live does express many of the qualities that Leibnez describes as being "best," such as harmonious interrelatedness, parallelism, and paradoxical unity. The Earth is replete with an abundance of wildlife, the human brain is tantalizingly powerful, and based on consumer-based cultures, human beings also seem to be drawn toward the type of multiplicity Leibnez ascribes to the best of all possible worlds. Any evil that is evident in the world in which we live does not exist because this is not the best possible world but because of human folly.

Leibnez perceives a mystical oneness pervading the best possible world: "each branch of every plant, each member of every animal, each drop of its liquid parts is also some such garden or pond," (Monadology Sect. 67). His philosophy of Monads reflects some of the Eastern religious traditions and therefore Leibnez is not alone in his perception of the world as being simultaneously and paradoxically diverse and unified. Although human society seems to be rife with strife and evil, the world in which we live may indeed be the best possible world; it is entirely possible that things could be far worse than they are.

Works Cited

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm. The Monadology. Trans. Robert Latta. Reproduced online at <>.… [read more]

Pascal's Wager Pascal Term Paper

… Unlike a horse race, in which a number of different conditions and possibilities impact the outcome, a coin toss will always result in one of two possibilities. In Pascal's wager, the two possibilities are "for the Christian God" and "against the Christian God." Although Pascal presents a complex array of statistical and logical proofs for his argument, the wager really just boils down to a fifty-fifty bet. This criticism of Pascal's wager critiques the way the philosopher has oversimplified a complex issue. What Pascal neglects to mention is the possible existence of multiple Gods, or of a God that does not resemble or behave like the Biblical God. Pascal also neglects to mention a multitude of trappings that go along with theism, such as dogma, lifestyle choices, morality, and a host of cultural issues concurrent with religious beliefs. For example, in order to be rewarded as Pascal suggests, the believer is also supposed to attend Church. Therefore, belief in God is not always a simple matter of personal choice as Pascal suggests; it is not always an either/or coin toss, but rather a complex decision based on lifestyle choices, family, and moral matters. Furthermore, because Pascal does not even attempt to prove that God actually exists in the first place, the wager could prove to be a sham: for if it turns out that God does not exist, then there will certainly be no reward. Pascal does not acknowledge that God might not exist at all, and that not believing in God might therefore be the more logical choice.

Moreover, the cost-benefit analysis that Pascal presents is also overly simplistic. Belief in God only presumably results in "eternal life and happiness." There is no way to prove that this is true, and also, the only reason why Pascal holds out such a lofty reward is because his argument is rooted in Christianity. What if belief in God results in moderate happiness, or a wave of ups and downs? What if, contrary to Pascal's belief, belief in God does not automatically result in an infinite return, but rather, a finite or limited one?

Pascal's wager is therefore not complex enough to account for the myriad of possibilities that extend beyond Pascal's premise. Concurrent with the criticism of Pascal's statistics is the almost humorous contradiction inherent in the wager: according to Christian and many other religious doctrines, God does not approve of gambling. Phrasing an argument for deism as a gamble therefore contradicts a major religious tenet. Betting on God might mitigate any rewards gained by believing simply because God does not approve of gambling to begin with.

The objections and criticisms of Pascal's wager are more robust than the wager itself. While an appealing and amusing philosophical argument, Pascal's wager rests on logical fallacies and biased assumptions. Pascal masks the shortcomings of his wager with sophisticated rhetoric and appeals to reason and personal gain. However, Pascal's appeal to statistical analysis oversimplifies an inherently and unavoidably complex issue. Belief in God is… [read more]

Shape and Place of Doctrine Essay

… It is taken for granted that all church Doctrine is to be found somewhere in either the Old or the New Testament. "Seek and ye shall find" -- look long and hard enough, analyze every word and phrase, and apply… [read more]

Christianity and Islam Term Paper

… Islam and Christianity

Religion serves as one of several socializing factors in a society, and religion helps shape the culture, determines aspects of the legal system, governs how the people are ruled, and achieves a number of other functions in… [read more]

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