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1962 the Longest Day Essay

… Film Analysis -- the Longest Day

The epic 1962 film the Longest Day recounted the historic Allied landings on five beaches in Northern France during the D-Day Invasion of June 6, 1944 that marked the beginning of the end for the brutal Nazi occupation of Europe throughout the Second World War. In the eighteen years since the actual events depicted, the motion film industry had already begun relying almost exclusively on color film, but the movie was shot in black and white (Eberwein, 2004). There were other notable features of the film. First, several of the cast were actual veterans of the invasion. Second, the film relied heavily on script advisers and consultants who were directly involved in the events, from both the Allied and…. [read more]


Manchurian Candidate 1962 Term Paper

… ¶ … Manchurian Candidate 1962

John Frankenheimer began his career in the early days of American television in 1954 and directed over 150 television shows before going to the cinema in 1961. On peut constater que son style visuel est a son apogee des ses premieres oeuvres cinematographiques; il avait euLa qualite majeure de son cinema est de prendre le spectateur aux tripes a l'aide d'images fortes et souvent indelebiles, imposant sa propre vision du sujet comme une evidence indiscutable.The quality of his major films is to take the viewer in the gut with powerful images and often indelible, imposing his own vision of the subject as indisputable evidence. (Kellner, pp285-305) Il ne craint pas de choquer ou de provoquer des reactions violentes dans son…. [read more]


1962 Nobel Prize in Physics Term Paper

… 1962 Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize

There are many Nobel prizes. They are awarded in Chemistry, Peace, Literature, Physiology, Economics, and Physics. The economics prize was not one of the original prizes. The other five were created through the will of Alfred Nobel, a Swedish scientist (Dorozynski, 1965). These were created in 1895, but they were not given out for the first time until 1901. The economics prize was first given out in 1969, after being created in 1968. It was instituted by the central bank in Sweden and designated to be in memory of Alfred Nobel. All of the six prize areas have been widely regarded as being the highest commendations in each of their subject areas. The peace prize is handed…. [read more]


Representations of War Research Paper

… Under normal circumstances, the life of one soldier would not be as important as to risk the lives of seven men, however, Ryan is the last remaining male descendent in his family as it is revealed during the course of the film that all of his brothers, who enlisted in the Armed Forces, were killed.[footnoteRef:15] The film's narrative is inspired by the four sons of Agnes Allison who were killed during the American Civil War, as well as, the story of the Niland brothers who fought in World War II.[footnoteRef:16] Under the War Department's sole-survivor policy, which was implemented after the five Sullivan brothers were killed while serving on the same ship, any and all efforts were made in order to ensure the safe return…. [read more]


U.S. Foreign Affairs Term Paper

… 1962 Memo Recommending Presidential Action

To the Chair, Robert Kennedy

The United States is at present faced with the threat of nuclear attack by the Soviet Union, which has installed missiles on the nation-island of Cuba, a Communist country. Cuba, being on friendly terms with the Soviet Union following the Bay of Pigs incident, entered into agreements of partnership for certain economic exchanges in support in Cuba's declining economy (Powaski, Ronald, 1998, p. 132). The relationship between the two countries has advanced, and Cuba, which did not previously declare itself to be a Communist country, has, since establishing a relationship and economic partnership with the Soviet Union, now declares itself a Communist country (the Washington Times, 2005, p. A21). As such, Cuba acts in synergy…. [read more]


Ivan Denisovich in Alexander Solzhenitsyn Term Paper

… Shukhov learned the rules of the Soviet system early on from his first boss named Kuzyomin, and they have enabled him to survive as well as any of the other slave-workers. Fra from being an ideal socialist society or workers' paradise "it's the law of the jungle here, fellows. But even here you can live. The first to go is the guy who licks out bowls, puts his faith in the infirmary, or squeals to the screws," although Shukhov also learns that the informers usually survive well enough (Solzhenitsyn 2). Panteleyev was one such stool pigeon who was always allowed to go on sick call as a pretext for remaining behind after the work groups were sent out, and the zecs knew that "he'd be…. [read more]


Eugene O'neill's Play, "The Emperor Term Paper

… That chastisement extends to George's grief over Emily's death at the grave, which the dead souls say should be spent by George in enjoying while he still has the time on earth to.

Wilder uses the stage to immortalize these simple and passing motions of daily life on earth and translate them into extraordinary and meaningful events through the eyes and perspective of the dead. It is the very irony of the play: that it takes death to acknowledge the immortal value of life, no matter how boring or meaningless some acts may be.

One more value "Our Town" salutes to is the importance of volitional companionship among the residents, e.g., with the milkman, the paperboy, the gossipers, the romance between George and Emily. It…. [read more]


Cornlius Ryan Term Paper

… Through, this book, readers come to know as so many special and remarkable people had very ordinary jobs. However, their exploits can never be gone or forgotten as long as people read books such as this. His later writers for instance Steven Ambrose, rely very heavily on Ryan but failed to imprison the sheer scale of the exercise, and the range of experiences as well as the remarkable circumstances individuals found themselves in; at the same time still transmit the pure planned and premeditated sweep of the operation.

Fascinatingly a few recent authors claimed to be 'definitive' still did not credit Ryan in their sources, and drew their own conclusions. However, much of enjoyable is Ryan's enclosure of the various nationalities engaged on all sides.…. [read more]


Richard Long Term Paper

… Richard Long was in born in Bristol, England on June 2, 1945 (Spector pp). From 1962 to 1965 he studied at West of England College of Art, and by 1964, he was making Earthworks and experimenting with the idea of Impermanence, "a theme that would inform his work throughout his career" (Spector pp). Long studied under Anthony Caro and Phillip King at the St. Martin's School of Art in London from 1966 to 1968, and in 1967, he introduced walking as an art form, followed by his first solo exhibition in 1968 (Spector pp).

Says Long, started working outside using natural materials like grass and water, and this evolved into the idea of making sculpture by walking. Walking itself has a cultural history, from Pilgrims…. [read more]


Khrushchev on the Cuban Missile Term Paper

… In late April 1962, while Khrushchev was vacationing at his dacha in the Crimea, he went for a walk along the beach one morning with Marshall Rodion Malinovsky, the Soviet Defense Minister. "Malinovsky pointed a finger out across the Black Sea. Even as they spoke, the general declared, U.S. nuclear missiles were across the water in Turkey, capable of destroying all Russia's southern cities. 'Why do the Americans have such a possibility?.' Malinovsky asked. 'They have surrounded us with bases on all sides, and we have no possibility or right to do the same'"

Just days before, U.S. Jupiter missiles in Turkey had become operational. From this moment forward, Khrushchev began to move forward with the idea of placing missiles in Cuba. Although he may…. [read more]


Engel v. Vitale ) Supreme Term Paper

… When the constitution was written, the founding fathers recognized that having the State give a "stamp of approval" to any given religion caused "anguish, hardship and bitter strife (Justice Hugo Black, para 11). In the following paragraph, Justice Black makes his opinion a matter of record when he states that the case is not so much about prayer in school, but about the imposition of a state-written prayer. "There can be no doubt that New York's state prayer program officially establishes the religious beliefs embodied in the Regents' prayer. The respondents' argument to the contrary... " (Justice Hugo Black, para 12).

The decision was also historically important because the Court's ruling was misinterpreted to mean that any prayer in school was unconstitutional, which sparked public…. [read more]


Vatican Council II -1965) Term Paper

… "

Moreover, during the final days of the council, a major event took place, that of Pope Paul and Orthodox Patriarch Athenagoras "joint expression of regret for many of the past actions that had lead up to the Great Schism between the western and eastern churches."

The official sixteen documents of the Second Vatican Council are:

1) "Constitution on Sacred Liturgy (Sacrosanctum Concilium) (Palm DOC)

2) Decree on Means of Social Communication (Inter Mirifica) (Palm DOC)

3) Dogmatic Constitution on the Church (Lumen Gentium) (Palm DOC)

4) Decree on the Churches of the Eastern Rite (Orientalium Ecclesiarum) (Palm

DOC) 11/21/1964

5) Decree on Ecumenism (Unitatis Redintegratio) 11/21/1965

6) Decree on the Pastoral Office of Bishops (Christus Dominus) 10/28/1965

7) Decree on Renewal of Religious Life…. [read more]


Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 Term Paper

… The Soviet Point-of-View

The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 was the first time that the world was in danger of full-scale nuclear war. When the Soviet Union placed nuclear missiles in Cuba, the U.S. viewed this as an act of hostility that could not be tolerated.

However, many critics say that the Soviets were simply reacting the Bay of Pigs invasion, in which Kennedy used Cubans against Castro without providing the American military support they needed. Americans saw this as a great embarrassment. But to the U.S.S.R., it was viewed as an American-sponsored military offensive against Cuba, which was a communist country and Soviet ally.

The U.S., through the Bay of Pigs, had challenged both the Soviet Union and Cuban governments (Roskin). In addition to…. [read more]


Warholrothko Andy Warhol's Iconic Images Research Paper

… This accessibility to all may perhaps be the only commonality between these paintings, although in one way if Warhol was consciously departing from and confronting 'high art' which by the 1960s Rothko had largely become, having traveled the world with MOMA and other shows, in some cases representing the U.S. In the interest of the most privileged elites, even allegedly employed abroad as a propaganda tool by the CIA (Cockroft 86-7). By then, then Rothko was part of the established norm Warhol pushed against. On the other hand we all know who won the local-national brand war in the early 'sixties, because we live surrounded by such advertising on a scale probably unimaginable in Madison Avenue's wildest fantasies, in no small measure perhaps owed to…. [read more]


Kennedy and the Civil Rights Term Paper

… In the speech, he proclaimed that the mistreatment of African-Americans would not be tolerated any further. He expected that they would be treated as equals. However, at the same time he did not want to become personally involved in the civil rights issue and wanted the issue to be solved via the courts rather than through continued protests by African-Americans. He hoped that his expression of his viewpoint would be enough to cause change, but of course this was not so.

Federal Responsibility:

Eventually pressure from African-American civil rights groups and a growing number of violent incidences forced Kennedy to take control of the legal effort to defend and implement civil rights. First he assigned federal marshals to attend the Freedom Riders and protect them…. [read more]


Schizophrenia Is a Heterogeneous Disorder Research Proposal

… The symptoms are rated on 24 items and include depression, anxiety, hallucinations and unusual behaviors. Each symptom is rated 1-7 scale Likert type scale. It is the most used symptom scale in psychiatry and has demonstrated excellent reliability and validity.

The Social Functioning Scale (SFS; Birchwood et al., 1990) can be used as a self-report measure or be completed by an informant. It has 79 items and measures social functioning across multiple domains. The questions are answered in an interview format.

The Social Behavior Schedule (SBS; Wykes & Sturt, 1986) takes 15 minutes to be rated by a researcher or clinician, assessing the previous month's functioning. It assesses 21 areas of functioning that can be grouped in four areas of behavior and has demonstrated excellent…. [read more]


Diffusion of Innovations Article Review

… Diffusion of Innovation

In 1962, sociologist Everett Rogers, popularized the theory of diffusion of innovations which seeks to explain the how's and why's and rates that new ideas and technology spreads through culture. Rogers believed that diffusion is the process in which innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among members of a culture. Depending on that culture, diffusion of different innovations are varied and may span across multiple disciplines. There are three types of innovations-decisions that help spread diffusion: 1) Optional Innovation-Decision -- made by an individual that is distinguished within a social system;

Collective Innovation-Decision -- made by all individuals within that system; and, 3) Authority Innovation-Decision -- made for the entire system by individuals in power. Once the decision and innovation…. [read more]


Diffusion of Innovation #2 in 1962 Article Review

… Diffusion of Innovation #2

In 1962, sociologist Everett Rogers, popularized the theory of diffusion of innovations which seeks to explain the how's and why's and rates that new ideas and technology spreads through culture. Rogers believed that diffusion is the process in which innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among members of a culture. Depending on that culture, diffusion of different innovations are varied and may span across multiple disciplines. There are three types of innovations-decisions that help spread diffusion: 1) Optional Innovation-Decision -- made by an individual that is distinguished within a social system;

Collective Innovation-Decision -- made by all individuals within that system; and, 3) Authority Innovation-Decision -- made for the entire system by individuals in power. Once the decision and…. [read more]


Egypt Revolution and International Relations Case Study

… This project investigates the internal and external consequences of the Egyptian revolution faced by the Egyptian nation.

International Relations is a broad term of political science, it encompasses within itself the study of foreign affairs and policies within the international system. According to Trevor Taylor (1979) "International relations is a subject which attempts to clarify politics across state borders." Positive relations with other countries play a vital role in order to secure the interest of the nation, economic prosperity and chances of survival. Cooperation with the rest of the world results in more security ensures sovereignty and enhances trade with other countries (Pearson & Rochester, 1988). International relations remain in transition and change with the rapidly changing global community and complexities. It includes in itself…. [read more]


Prayer in School Essay

… Since neither the coach nor any other public school employee was involved in the prayer, the team believed that they should be allowed to pray as an expression of their own religious beliefs and the issue went to court. The United States Supreme Court decided in that case, Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe, that this violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment and prevented the school from continuing the practice.

In addition to banning morning prayer and prayer in the locker room, the ban on school prayer has had other, far-reaching effects. One teacher in Florida was arrested for offering a mealtime prayer at an event for school employees (Duin). In another incident, the Santa Rosa County School District was sued by…. [read more]


Racism a Long History of Racial Preferences Essay

… Racism

A Long History of Racial Preferences for Whites by Larry Adelman.

Many middle-class white people prefer to think that it is through hard work, intelligence and luck that have been the reasons they have the life they have today. They find difficulty in acknowledging racial preferences. This author describes some ways in which white people have derived wealth and opportunities at the expense of others.

Affirmative Action began in the late 17th century. The European indentured servants who were brought to U.S. To work on the tobacco plantations in Virginia and Maryland were replaced by African slaves. The whites gained new rights and opportunities as a result. Several Acts allowed the whites to claim and own land that was originally owned by the Indians.…. [read more]


War Films Taking Jeanine Basinger Term Paper

… Both have abundant wine, women, song, a certain amount of depravity, money making the rules. It is the same in pre-War Berlin, or wartime Casablanca; individualistic, disaffected, and pragmatic in the 'eat, drink and be merry for tomorrow we die' sense.

Notorious (1946) was another Ingrid Bergman vehicle. This time, she is more than the high-principled ex-lover; she is, in fact, a woman of few principles who is drawn into an espionage scheme not so much out of idealism (she has none) but because she is both looking for fun and attempting to escape an empty life. There is a love-story in this 'war movie' that is not a war movie. The setting is 1946, but the animating event is the conviction of a Nazi…. [read more]


Kennedy and Flexible Response Research Paper

… Kennedy and Flexible Response

So many of the issues that plagued the U.S. during our JFK period case study exist now to this day, in fact even more so now. While the negative fallout from Vietnam brought about a curtailment of federal infringements upon civilian constitutional rights and foreign adventures, this has not been the case in the wake of post 9/11 incarnations such as the PATRIOT Act and a general loss in democratic liberties since the Al-Qaeda. Despite reversals in Iraq and Afghanistan, much less fervor and interest have manifested themselves in issues of empire and damage to the constitution. Certainly, to understand such issues, one must know how the government processes of the national security state evolved and remained in the background (despite…. [read more]


Nikita Khrushchev on the Cuban Term Paper

… The Role of Nikita S. Khrushchev. The pudgy little man in the wrinkled, ugly suit was not a very impressive figure for a world leader when he appeared on American television at the United Nations, but most Americans of the day still assumed that Khrushchev was, nevertheless, the undisputed overlord of a burgeoning Soviet empire, while nothing could have been further from the truth. Certainly, Khrushchev held the office, but the Soviet Union was in fact also managed by an enormous bureaucracy. According to Aleksandr Fursenko and Timothy Naftali, the political machine inherited by Khrushchev remained solidly in place during the missile crisis, and it would seem that the party leader's ability to maneuver in this environment was seriously constrained despite the Western perceptions of…. [read more]


Foreign Policy of China (Beijing Thesis

… But just as China (Beijing consensus)'s economic and military power does not yet match that of the United States, China (Beijing consensus)'s soft power still has a long way to go as demonstrated by a Chicago Council on Global Affairs poll. China (Beijing consensus) does not have cultural industries like Hollywood, and its universities are not yet the equal of the United States. It lacks the many non-governmental organizations that generate much of U.S. soft power. Politically, China (Beijing consensus) suffers from corruption, inequality, and a lack of democracy, human rights, and the rule of law. While that may make the "Beijing consensus" attractive in authoritarian and semi-authoritarian developing countries, it undercuts China (Beijing consensus)'s soft power in the West. Although China (Beijing consensus)'s new…. [read more]


Art Violence and Social Engagement in Colombia Research Proposal

… ¶ … Colombia is the third-largest recipient of military aid from the United States and is at a critical juncture in its turbulent history. More than three million people have been displaced in Colombia during the past decade alone, and violent deaths and kidnappings remain alarmingly high. While violence is nothing new to the people of Colombia, their response to its sources and causes have been portrayed in the visual arts in various ways, with one of the most recent manifestations of this being portrayal such as the "The Skin of Memory," developed by the anthropologist Pilar Riano-Alcala and the artist Suzanne Lacy in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team in Colombia. Because art must also serve a social function and civic responsibility, this thesis evaluates…. [read more]


Pearl Harbor and the Cuban Missile Crisis Term Paper

… Pearl Harbor and the Cuban Missile Crisis

All countries gather information regarding what other countries are doing. This information, called "intelligence," may be gathered in a variety of ways. Government analysts may study the speeches of other countries' leaders or use agents on the ground (loosely referred to as "spies") to gather such information as what ships come and go from harbors. Individual countries may use agents to infiltrate the governments of other countries to gather information that country would not willingly share. Government often view these intelligence-gathering efforts as crucial to protect their own interests, and large countries such as the United States and Great Britain, as well was smaller countries with significant concerns about other governments, such as Israel and North Korea, will…. [read more]


Working Mothers "Women's Work": Motherhood vs. Career Term Paper

… Working Mothers

"Women's Work": Motherhood vs. Career

Tired after a long day at the office, a man in a brown hat and dark blue suit opens the door to his house and is greeted by everything he needs, wants, and expects -- the house is sparkling and clean, the smell of a just-finishing roast wafts in from the kitchen, and his beautiful wife approaches with a kiss, taking his jacket and closing the door behind him. The kids bound down the stairs, healthy, happy, and well cared for by their doting mother. Life is perfect in this vision of domestic life in the 1950s, and though things almost certainly never went this smoothly anywhere but on television (and often not even then), this was the…. [read more]


Crisis as Robert Kennedy Reveals Research Paper

… ¶ … Crisis

As Robert Kennedy reveals in his memoir, the beginning of the Cuban Missile Crisis was on October 16th, 1962 -- and it had everything to do with the Central Intelligence Agency's "interpretation" of aerial photographs, which (it had "become convinced," according to President Kennedy) were emplacements for "missiles and atomic weapons in Cuba" (Kennedy 3). Robert Kennedy's Memoir provides an in-depth analysis of a crisis that indeed was as much a crisis between the office of the President of the United States and the offices of the Intelligence Community as it was a crisis between the U.S. And the Soviets. This paper will analyze the terms of the Cuban Missile Crisis, summarize the antecedents that led to the crisis and the dramatic…. [read more]


Pablo Picasso: Guernica Essay

… " (Oppler, p. 80)

Seen in a different context, the animals of El Guernica are considered as having ambiguous symbolic meanings to. From a naturalistic point-of-view, they could well be farm animals since the town was an agricultural centre and it was a market day when the bombing occurred. In addition to this, critics have identified the bull and horse with the Spanish corrida (bullfight) associating the two opposing actors of the bullfight with the two main opponents of the civil war. And when asked about the symbolism behind the bull and the horse, Picasso said: "the bull there represents brutality, the horse the people." (Jerome Secklor, 1945) When interviewed in 1945 by New Masses, Seckler, his interviewer, suggested if the bull was a symbol…. [read more]

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