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Art Culture: Public Space Term Paper

… This is because the 20th century public sphere constitutes organized individuals that exert their influence over public debate and sphere institutionally. This public cannot appreciate the placement of public art in the public sphere, unlike the 18th century public. According to Habermaes, public art gained popularity in the 18th century, since the public was subject to political decisions and interests. In that era, the public sphere was marked by a close link between church, state, public, and private sectors, under a feudal system. In this system, the power relations and levels of power saw political authority hold the highest levels of power (Habermaes 52). At this high level of power, politicians and rulers represented their ideals and state inform of symbols in the public sphere,…. [read more]

Art of Classical Antiquity Essay

… The story of the trial and death of Socrates as it is told in Plato's Republic, brought to life on canvas by David, had direct historical reference. Socrates was put on trial by those who would not listen to reason: the jury of Athenians was too beholden to the ancient social structure. David drew much from this historical reference and is making a political statement in the painting. In ancient Greece, the art was not making as much of a political statement as it was an expression of pride in the pinnacle of Hellenic culture. Other Neoclassical works, including those by David, do not address the themes of classical Greece. They are, such as "Napoleon Crossing the Alps," more squarely rooted in contemporary imagery. However,…. [read more]

Art One-Point Linear Perspective Research Paper

… Conclusion

The conventions of single point perspective are often presumed to be essential to a 'good' work of art. However, this is only relatively true for a brief period in Western history. The reason for the acceptance of this convention is linked to the rise of science, the secular spirit of the Renaissance and ideals of a detailed representation of reality, among many other factors and variables in Western history. However, this convention has been deeply questioned by modern artists, especially if we take into account the rise of abstract art in the Twentieth Century.

The history of art is however not simple or linear. While perspective has been critiqued by modern artists who wish to extend the boundaries of perceived reality and its representation,…. [read more]

African and Asian Influences on Western European Art Essay

… She is standing on a Chinese carpet and wearing a Japanese kimono. However, Asian influence was just one out of several styles that affected European art. African art had a profound effect.

African art influenced 20th century styles of European art which is evident in cubism. Looking at the Bakota reliquary guardian figure from Gabon, Mbulu-Ngulu, we see an intermediary between the living and the dead. It is formalized into geometric shapes, the base taking the shape of a diamond, the solid contrasting the empty space (Soltes). The head depicts the connection to the soul and the realm of the dead. Another geometric piece of art is the Fang mask from Gabon, with geometric reduction and geometric emphasis on light and shadow. The Kifwebe mask…. [read more]

19th Century Art During Term Paper

… 19th Century Art

During the 19th century, a great number of revolutionary changes altered forever the face of art and those that produced it. Compared to earlier artistic periods, the art produced in the 19th century was a mixture of restlessness, obsession with progress and novelty, and a ceaseless questioning, testing and challenging of all authority. Old certainties about art gave way to new ones and all traditional values, systems and institutions were subjected to relentless critical analysis. At the same time, discovery and invention proceeded at an astonishing rate and made the once-impossible both possible and actual. But most importantly, old ideas rapidly became obsolete which created an entirely new artistic world highlighted by such extraordinary talents as Vincent Van Gogh, Jacques Louis David,…. [read more]

Art History of the 21st Century Essay

… Art History & the 21st Century

French writer Charles Peguy commented in 1913 that, "the world has changed less since the time of Jesus Christ than it has in the last thirty years"

.This was the beginning of modernism, a time of significant change in the world that was illustrated at the World's Fairs, "those festivals of high machine-age capitalism in which nation after nation showed off its industrial strength and the breadth of its colonial resources"

In 1889, the Eiffel Tower was the magnificent construction of the World's Fair in Paris -- designed by an engineer rather than an architect, a decision that was frowned upon by the Beaux-Arts architects; but engineer Gustave Eiffel, created an iconic piece of functional art inspired by the…. [read more]

19th Century Art First Question - Three Term Paper

… 19th Century Art


Considered one of the most influential art movements of the twentieth century, Cubism defined not only a transformative period of art but influenced the careers of the individual artists who directed the movement as well.

Cubism is traditionally divided into three phases: The proto-cubist, or Cezanne Phase, when Picasso and Braque, both considered the innovators and initiators of the Cubist movement, first followed the guidance and advice of Paul Cezanne and began treating nature in their art as consisting of the "cone the sphere and the cylinder" (ArtLex, ¶2); the Hermetic or Analytic Cubism period when cubism had been defined as an art form, and the Synthetic Cubism or Collage period of 1912-1919 when later…. [read more]

Art and Society Term Paper

… Art and Society

An Analysis and Discussion of Gender Construction in the Toilet of Venus (1647-51) by Diego Velasquez

While women in the United States and the United Kingdom have enjoyed the right to vote for several decades now, things were very different at the turn of the 20th century when the suffragettes emerged to challenge the male-dominated status quo of Western society. One of the events that highlighted this period in history was Mary Richardson's attack on Velasquez's "The Rokeby Venus," an event which has since assumed its place in the historical record as one of the most important such events in women's struggle for equal rights. This paper provides an overview, an analysis of Velasquez's "The Rokeby Venus," including a description of the…. [read more]

Art Impressionism in Art Developed Essay

… Beside her, to the right of the painting sits a man staring to the right. Ellen Andree, an actress is the woman in the painting, while the man is Marcellin Desboutin, an artist as well as bohemian character. In the later half of 19th century, absinthe became popular in France and was held responsible for alcoholism, social instability and degradation. L'Absinthe has often by viewed by English critics as a lesson against absinthe. The painting also gives a glimpse of the social segregation in Paris during its years of rapid development.

A Bar at the Folies Bergere by Edouard Manet is a scene from the Folies Bergere club in Paris. The painting is filled with features specific the restaurant. Focused at the centre of the…. [read more]

Arts, Music, Lit Edward Henry Term Paper

… This is what the children convey and it is this enjoyment that it also seems that Potthast is trying to bring forward in his work. The significance of this should not be ignored because Potthast takes this joy and beauty to different levels in each of his paintings. However, the underlying theme generally remains the same.

In Potthast's painting "In the Park," the same basic theme is seen that involved the picture of the children at the seashore. While the setting is somewhat different the mood of the painting is generally similar. In both paintings Potthast wishes to convey the simple joy and beauty of playing together in the park. This joy and beauty comes not only from the beauty of nature that his all…. [read more]

Art History -- High Renaissance Term Paper

… Another massive sculpture by Michelangelo is his Moses (1513-1515), originally meant for the tomb of pope Julius II. In order to appreciate this fantastic piece of marble, one must study it in detail -- the sense of relevance in each detail of body and drapery forces the viewer to raise his emotional levels. The muscles bulge, the vein swell, the great legs seem to begin to move ever so slowly. In addition, the turned head concentrates the expression of terrible wrath that appears to stir in the eyes. With David, all of the ideals of the Renaissance are fully at work, for it demonstrates the power and magnificence of not only the church but also of man himself.

In conclusion, Raphael, Leonardo Da Vinci and…. [read more]

19th Century Art Term Paper


In Europe, the nineteenth century was an age of radical change during which the modern world took shape. In a world that was experiencing a population explosion of unparalleled magnitude, revolution followed revolution, a pattern punctuated by counter-revolution and conservative reaction. In thought as well as in science, the nineteenth century was an era of grand new theories through which visionary thinkers attempted to unify whole bodies of knowledge into precise, well-ordered systems.

Artist in the nineteenth century were also confronted with new innovations and their individual artistic styles and works changed with the times. These artists found themselves using the elements of line, shape and color to represent their private world, the realm…. [read more]

Modernism: Depth Analysis European Art Essay

… Though the basics were few, he altered the structure of each of the elements in such a way that he was able to generate a dissimilar artistic from each. It was in this advanced old-fashioned of his work that Mondrian work all the way until his hands scalded or he made himself cry. All through this time, he was also painting and rearranging his Manhattan studio apartment in an alike grid and block design, which he altered and re-painted upon accomplishment off assured paintings or projects. (Schwartz 2008).

In conclusion, modernism proved to be a period that was a movement in art that expressed what was going on during that era. In specific, the growth of modern industrial societies and the fast development of cities…. [read more]

Visual Art Vincent Van Gogh Term Paper

… However, this portrait in the painting was replaced by the portrait of a woman in the replica that was made in 1771 (Hulsker, 1996).

Van Gogh's work can now be dated accurately since the profiled work has now been proven to be original. It was in the Letter 555 (17 October 1888) that Van Gogh wrote "in order to let you know that I have completed the canvas that represent my bedroom this afternoon I am adding a line" (Vincent Gallery 2012).

Due to all these letter by Van Gogh in which he has mentioned such details most of his work could be dated with a lot of precision.


During Van Gogh's time in Paris it can be seen that his work constitutes of…. [read more]

History as Art the Past Thesis

… Forner (2010) revealed many such incidents during this time which demonstrate this point. Forner explains America's adoption of an imperialistic state after the reconstruction era of the country. Forner explains that roots of today's American empire were born in this time, and hence makes it ok and acceptable. American's imperial stance in today's world cannot be underestimated. Hence, we, as a collective have a myth to look to in order to help us understand.

Zinn (2003) also used these tricks with words as he promoted his own brand of populous history. Zinn dared to collectivize the American memory in his book when he wrote " my viewpoint, in telling the history is different: that we must not accept the memory of states as our own.…. [read more]

Art Memo Essay

… Justly controversial, it would be fruitful to hang a painting like this in our corporate headquarters. The rich red hues would add a lot to the otherwise drab color scheme of our boardroom.

4. Claude Monet's "Femme a l'ombrelle tournee vers la gauche."

Another obscure or lesser-known Monet painting depicts a woman in a field, holding a parasol on a warm spring or summer day. The color scheme is opposite to that of the other Monet painting proposed for our boardroom. Here, we see luscious cerulean blue, mint green, and white. The femininity is palpable in this painting, which is a critical component of any fashion house.

5. Edgar Degas's "L'etoile"

Edgar Degas created a series of paintings and sculptures focusing on the theme of…. [read more]

Black Artist During the Colonal Research Paper

… The majority of Johnson's techniques with painting are largely self-taught, although speculation exists as to whether or not he was taken in and taught some aspects of painting by extended family members of the Peale family. Johnson was fairly productive during his tenure, and is credited with rendering at least 80 paintings, the vast majority of which are portraits of wealthy and prominent people in the Baltimore area.

In conclusion, there is quite a history of African-American art that still exists from the historical era in which chattel slavery was prevalent and thriving within this country. What is interesting to note about this artwork is that all of the pieces, including Johnson's, served a variety of purposes. There is certain intrinsic artistic value, in terms…. [read more]

World of Art Term Paper

… ¶ … art, especially the visual arts, the artist presents the audience with a specific view of his or her personal world. In other words, the world according to the perception of the artist (the Visual World 10). The artist therefore tends to explain and delineate the world according to his or her own reactions to and perceptions not only of the landscape, but also of the social world and time period in which he finds himself. This is true of every period in art, and perhaps most notably in the Renaissance period.

The Renaissance marks a complete change of direction in art. As such, the total change in perception of the world and art itself makes this period one of the most colorful and…. [read more]

Kant, Hanslick and Music Term Paper

… Once it is determined what makes a specific work of art or piece of music beautiful, then it must determined what kind of pleasure is derived from experiencing the work of art. When the pleasure that is derived from music is identified, attention is shifted from the composer, who determined the structure of the piece, to the listener who is then tasked with identifying what pleasure is derived based upon personal (and possibly social) standards and to what extent the pleasure is derived (Graham, 78).

During the 19th century, music structures began to change and a new set of standards by which music was aesthetically judged had to be formed. Classic 19th century music built upon the style and the formal procedures that had been…. [read more]

Body and Nudity in the Nineteenth Century Art Term Paper

… ¶ … Body in 19th Century Art

Throughout the course of the 19th century, representations of the body - particularly the nude body - shifted considerably. As we will see in this paper through an examination of three paintings from different periods, the 19th century witnessed a remarkably fast transition, from the neoclassicism of Ingres to the realism of Courbet, and on to the modernism of Picasso. Through tracing the evolution of the way in which the nude female body was portrayed during this key period in the history of art, we will show how each artist under scrutiny responded to the innovations of earlier eras in rendering their own signature innovations.

We will begin with an examination of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres's La Grande…. [read more]

History of Architecture Essay

… Art Nouveau: Art, Architecture and Its Effect on Daily Life

In all of its interpretations, Art Nouveau constituted a movement in the arts and architecture that marked a clear departure from the Victorian style popular at the tail-end of the 19th century. What follows is a brief outline of the many ways in which Art Nouveau separated itself from past styles, and how the practitioners of the movement attempted to define their art, progress their art, and change the fabric of daily life by taking a totalitarian approach to architecture, and a richly decorative and sometimes direct philosophy to the fine arts. The practitioners of the movement desired to be original, and many of the architects designed each part of a building on which they…. [read more]

Venus in Art Term Paper

… This painting indeed conveys to the viewer feelings of delight and joy.

Another artist who produced works that depicted the birth of Aphrodite was the French painter JA.D. Ingres. Ingres' work is considered more classical in form that Boucher's version and is part of the artistic movement known as Neoclassicism. In addition, Ingres' work draws inspiration from the past as he depicted her as she emerges from the sea.

Various representations of Aphrodite became popular especially during the 19th century. Not all of the paintings, however, attempted to communicate a serious, intellectual purpose. One example of this trend is Adolphe Bouguereau's Birth of Venus. The work itself is more dynamic than the formal, classical-feeling Venus Anadyomene of Ingres but with a much lighter feel.

The…. [read more]

History of Western Art Essay

… History Of Western Art

Looking at the Dutch works, provide some examples where dramatic stylistic elements heighten the power of everyday scenes and still lives. Think about lighting effects, movement, extension or recession of space, and elements that allude to the passage of time.

The different Dutch works of art were illustrating the simplicities of everyday life, while highlighting the challenges everyone faces. This is accomplished through taking a unique aspect of: looking at the subject and interpreting the underlying events through various techniques. As the artist is: using unique colors / lighting, the capturing of the events / movement, the regression of space and they are creating a sense of timelessness.

A good example of this can be seen with the works from Frans…. [read more]

Public Art and Public Spaces Term Paper

… While the political content of public art has lessened to some extent in more recent decades, it remains in general inherently more subversive than unifying. Rachel Whiteread's 1993-4 sculpture, titled "House." The concrete piece replaces what was once an actual Victorian home with a solid block that cannot be entered, that cannot give shelter, that cannot do any of the things that houses must be able to do to merit the title of house except to take up space in a neighborhood.

The audience must re-evaluate its relationship with the space: emptiness is now solid and a solid form is now empty. That which once surrounded, sheltered, and confined is now gone. And what was thought to be empty is now a visible, identifiable, and…. [read more]

Works of Art Essay

… The woman looks much like a painting from the Renaissance: her face lacks a three-dimensional quality. The red and blue hues of the work also recall Renaissance paintings, and an angel is seen beside the harp, indicating the beauty of her composition. The subtle shading of the work is more modern than most Renaissance or medieval styles. However, in contrast to the Leighton, this work is far more of an exact replica of the style of the past it is appropriating. Leighton's work is more dark and personal, and according to the information provided about Lachrymae on the Metropolitan Museum website at the time when Leighton composed the work, he was dying and used the image of the woman to convey his own sorrow. In…. [read more]

Toulouse Lautrec Gauguin or Others Essay

… Art

The late 19th century was a time of revolutionary social, technological, and political changes. Those changes had an immediate effect on the arts in Europe. The Impressionism movement enabled freer creative expression. Subject matter became at once more personal and more universal as artists shifted their attention away from the themes that held sway for centuries. As old aristocracies and monarchies crumbled, so too did the connection between art and elitism. A bolder use of color and brushstroke on the canvas corresponded with the thematic shift in post-Impressionistic art. The paintings of both Toulouse Lautrec and Paul Gaugin encapsulate the political, social, and technological transformations taking place just before the turn of the century.

Imperialism and colonialism had a direct impact on the art…. [read more]

Art Paintings and Analysis Essay

… ¶ … works of art. The two pieces I have selected for comparative analysis are Water Lilies by Claude Monet, and Day of the God by Paul Guaguin. The criteria of my analytic comparison are going to be based on artistic qualities such as perspective/flatness, color, materiality, technique, and lines.

Day of the God

Day of the God (Mahana no Atua)

Artist: Paul Gauguin

Year of Execution: 1894

Material used: Oil on Canvas

Analytic Information:

In order to promote his work, Paul Gauguin spent the better part of his French sabbatical in Paris between 1893 September and 1895 August. In an attempt to wrap himself up in a retrospective and meditative mood, he embarked on illustrating and writing NoaNoa Day of the Gods, a work…. [read more]

Basic History of Western Art Term Paper

… ¶ … History of Western Art

Donatello's David is a clear influence of the classical style over the Renaissance art. The sculpture features a nude representation of carefully studied anatomy that depicts a certain level of feminity. It reminds of the Greek pursuit for beauty and realistic representation of the human figure, as well as the illustration of a major biblical event. It is an important work of art of the Renaissance period that shows a clear vision of the ideology of an era, where the religious crisis of the Christian church was bringing new solutions for society. On one hand, because of the many conflicts the church had over the middle ages period that resulted in a loss of spiritual faith from the people,…. [read more]

Italian Baroque Term Paper

… Italian Baroque

Art is the expression of artistic vision that carries the sign of the period of time when it was created. Baroque was born Italy from where it spread to France, Germany, Netherlands and Spain. The term "Baroque" was coined by 19th century critics, and refers to the period that started in late 16th century and ended towards the late 1700s. The Baroque style, used in architecture, sculpture, painting embodied the scientific developments - such as advances in astronomy for example - that determined a shift in the European view of the world. In fact, the developments and abundant scientific literature of the 18th century became knows as the Age of Enlightenment, a time of great economic progress which in turn gave rise to…. [read more]

Dynamics Between Art and Technology Essay

… There are buildings in Japan that withstand earthquakes while sustaining minimal damage compared to buildings which are not constructed by the same methods. That is an example of advancement in architecture. Sculptors have a greater range of materials to choose from because of the kinds of tools that exist now as well as the materials that they may not have had access to before commercial airlines, the Internet, and other technologies.

Art and technology of the 20th century were additionally influenced by increased contact and communication among the international communities and the rising strength of feminism in the latter part of the 20th century. Many of the most celebrated art forms of the 20th century came from within specific cultural groups such as Jazz, Rock…. [read more]

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