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Art Culture: Public Space Term Paper

… This is because the 20th century public sphere constitutes organized individuals that exert their influence over public debate and sphere institutionally. This public cannot appreciate the placement of public art in the public sphere, unlike the 18th century public. According to Habermaes, public art gained popularity in the 18th century, since the public was subject to political decisions and interests. In that era, the public sphere was marked by a close link between church, state, public, and private sectors, under a feudal system. In this system, the power relations and levels of power saw political authority hold the highest levels of power (Habermaes 52). At this high level of power, politicians and rulers represented their ideals and state inform of symbols in the public sphere,…. [read more]

Art One-Point Linear Perspective Research Paper

… Conclusion

The conventions of single point perspective are often presumed to be essential to a 'good' work of art. However, this is only relatively true for a brief period in Western history. The reason for the acceptance of this convention is linked to the rise of science, the secular spirit of the Renaissance and ideals of a detailed representation of reality, among many other factors and variables in Western history. However, this convention has been deeply questioned by modern artists, especially if we take into account the rise of abstract art in the Twentieth Century.

The history of art is however not simple or linear. While perspective has been critiqued by modern artists who wish to extend the boundaries of perceived reality and its representation,…. [read more]

Integrated Arts Research Paper

… Art Interview

An Interview with Two Artists

Two Post-Impressionists, Paul Gauguin and Vincent Van Gogh became friends in the late 19th century in Paris, France. They lived together for a time in Arles in the famous "Yellow House," until Van Gogh fell ill and was hospitalized and Gauguin left for other parts of the world to pursue his vocation as an artist. An interview with these two painters reveals the dynamic of their relationship at this time and the essence of their craft and what they were trying to achieve through their unique approaches to painting. Both have left behind some brilliant pieces of work. This paper will discuss with them how they approached their art and how their friendship affected their painting.

Q: You…. [read more]

Art History of the 21st Century Essay

… Art History & the 21st Century

French writer Charles Peguy commented in 1913 that, "the world has changed less since the time of Jesus Christ than it has in the last thirty years"

.This was the beginning of modernism, a time of significant change in the world that was illustrated at the World's Fairs, "those festivals of high machine-age capitalism in which nation after nation showed off its industrial strength and the breadth of its colonial resources"

In 1889, the Eiffel Tower was the magnificent construction of the World's Fair in Paris -- designed by an engineer rather than an architect, a decision that was frowned upon by the Beaux-Arts architects; but engineer Gustave Eiffel, created an iconic piece of functional art inspired by the…. [read more]

19th Century Art First Question - Three Term Paper

… 19th Century Art


Considered one of the most influential art movements of the twentieth century, Cubism defined not only a transformative period of art but influenced the careers of the individual artists who directed the movement as well.

Cubism is traditionally divided into three phases: The proto-cubist, or Cezanne Phase, when Picasso and Braque, both considered the innovators and initiators of the Cubist movement, first followed the guidance and advice of Paul Cezanne and began treating nature in their art as consisting of the "cone the sphere and the cylinder" (ArtLex, ¶2); the Hermetic or Analytic Cubism period when cubism had been defined as an art form, and the Synthetic Cubism or Collage period of 1912-1919 when later…. [read more]

19th Century Art Term Paper


In Europe, the nineteenth century was an age of radical change during which the modern world took shape. In a world that was experiencing a population explosion of unparalleled magnitude, revolution followed revolution, a pattern punctuated by counter-revolution and conservative reaction. In thought as well as in science, the nineteenth century was an era of grand new theories through which visionary thinkers attempted to unify whole bodies of knowledge into precise, well-ordered systems.

Artist in the nineteenth century were also confronted with new innovations and their individual artistic styles and works changed with the times. These artists found themselves using the elements of line, shape and color to represent their private world, the realm…. [read more]

Venus in Art Term Paper

… This painting indeed conveys to the viewer feelings of delight and joy.

Another artist who produced works that depicted the birth of Aphrodite was the French painter JA.D. Ingres. Ingres' work is considered more classical in form that Boucher's version and is part of the artistic movement known as Neoclassicism. In addition, Ingres' work draws inspiration from the past as he depicted her as she emerges from the sea.

Various representations of Aphrodite became popular especially during the 19th century. Not all of the paintings, however, attempted to communicate a serious, intellectual purpose. One example of this trend is Adolphe Bouguereau's Birth of Venus. The work itself is more dynamic than the formal, classical-feeling Venus Anadyomene of Ingres but with a much lighter feel.

The…. [read more]

History of Architecture Essay

… Art Nouveau: Art, Architecture and Its Effect on Daily Life

In all of its interpretations, Art Nouveau constituted a movement in the arts and architecture that marked a clear departure from the Victorian style popular at the tail-end of the 19th century. What follows is a brief outline of the many ways in which Art Nouveau separated itself from past styles, and how the practitioners of the movement attempted to define their art, progress their art, and change the fabric of daily life by taking a totalitarian approach to architecture, and a richly decorative and sometimes direct philosophy to the fine arts. The practitioners of the movement desired to be original, and many of the architects designed each part of a building on which they…. [read more]

Art Memo Essay

… Justly controversial, it would be fruitful to hang a painting like this in our corporate headquarters. The rich red hues would add a lot to the otherwise drab color scheme of our boardroom.

4. Claude Monet's "Femme a l'ombrelle tournee vers la gauche."

Another obscure or lesser-known Monet painting depicts a woman in a field, holding a parasol on a warm spring or summer day. The color scheme is opposite to that of the other Monet painting proposed for our boardroom. Here, we see luscious cerulean blue, mint green, and white. The femininity is palpable in this painting, which is a critical component of any fashion house.

5. Edgar Degas's "L'etoile"

Edgar Degas created a series of paintings and sculptures focusing on the theme of…. [read more]

Art in "Burial at Ornans Essay

… Pointillism accesses our brains' capacity to fill in missing or implied information to create a coherent, articulated whole. This anticipates abstractions in form and interaction with the viewer. Reference Signac's "Femmes au Puits" and Seurat's "La Parade de Cirque" as examples of pointillism.

"Salon de la rue des Moulins" is full of saturated reds. The furniture is red, some articles of clothing are red, and a few of the women are redheads. It is very warm and visually stimulating. The women are comfortable and relaxing as evident by their posing and facial expressions. The yellows and blacks provide the greatest contrast in hue and tone in this piece. Most of the action occurs on the left two-thirds of the painting, where the reds are concentrated…. [read more]

Basic History of Western Art Term Paper

… ¶ … History of Western Art

Donatello's David is a clear influence of the classical style over the Renaissance art. The sculpture features a nude representation of carefully studied anatomy that depicts a certain level of feminity. It reminds of the Greek pursuit for beauty and realistic representation of the human figure, as well as the illustration of a major biblical event. It is an important work of art of the Renaissance period that shows a clear vision of the ideology of an era, where the religious crisis of the Christian church was bringing new solutions for society. On one hand, because of the many conflicts the church had over the middle ages period that resulted in a loss of spiritual faith from the people,…. [read more]

Modernism and Postmodernism (Question Essay

… Modernism and Postmodernism (Question #2)

There are differing opinions as to the point in history that is marked by the advent of modernism. Clement Greenberg (1982) says that he identifies the modernist period as commencing with the philosophy of Kant (Frascina, Francis, Harrison, Charles, and Paul, Deidre, 1982, p. *). However, it's ending point is defined by some theorists as coming to an end with the onset of the "pop culture," in the mid 1960s (Harrison, Sylvia, 2001, p. 11). Even though modernism and post modernism encompass all art expressions, when it is referred to in terms of Kant, Nietzsche, and "pop culture," then it becomes easier to gain a sense of the era, and to gain a sense of the embodiment of the genres…. [read more]

18th Century Art Term Paper

… 18th Century Art

So, why, given your sound position on the times and viewer responses like mine, would some call these works propaganda?

Can a work of great art, specifically great Romantic art, still be a work of propaganda? The answer must be 'yes.' The art of David is unapologetically pro-Napoleon, and David's Napoleon is a figure who represents the hope of France because of the beauty, majesty, and centrality of the leader with the frame David's paintings. However, the active nature of the lines and shadings of David's painting makes Napoleon come alive in a way that stands as testimony to the painter's talent. Even someone with no feelings about the leader who inspired David feels stirred, gazing at the painting. The painting transcends…. [read more]

Storms Paintings, Watteau Essay

… It shows individualism, human centeredness, and acts of heroism. The human activities in the image outplay the natural one, which is the oncoming storm. The characters on the image display act of heroism and self-centeredness. The characters are more concerned with their own activities; the oncoming storm does not deter them from finishing their quests. The interpretations can also aid in grouping the images as either romantic or neo-classic art. The acts of the characters in the first image working together towards the same cause shows that they are selfless. Its interpretation may indicate that they are fighting against oppression and harsh conditions. On the second image, each person is concerned with his or her own work. This may show each individual's determination to fight…. [read more]

Communication and Culture Essay

… ¶ … Reproduction of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction." In the first part of the paper, the explanation will be provided and in the second part, arguments given by the other authors will be provided.

Explanation of the argument

"The authenticity of a thing is the essence of all that is transmissible from its beginning, ranging from its substantive duration to its testimony to the history which it has experienced." Since the historical testimony rests on the authenticity, the former, too, is jeopardized by reproduction when substantive duration ceases to matter. And what is really jeopardized when the historical testimony is affected is the authority of the object. One might subsume the eliminated element in the term "aura" and go on to say:…. [read more]

Renaissance and Baroque Term Paper

… Renaissance / Baroque

Comparative Analysis of Renaissance and Baroque

What is the Baroque? We use this term to refer to an artistic movement that got started, roughly, at some point in the early seventeenth century and continued for decades, but it is important to recall that successive artistic movements are in many ways indebted to their predecessors: the idea that new artistic trends represent in some way a serious break with the past is, in itself, a modern twentieth-century idea and inappropriate for an analysis of Renaissance art (with its respectful search for models and precursors). We can perhaps see the elements of Baroque style more clearly by viewing them in contrast, then, to the style of the high Renaissance. For purposes of comparison I…. [read more]

Art Is the Lifeblood Term Paper

… Monet paints the shapes rather than focusing on the objects, another distinct feature of his work. He lucidly paints the doorway or the window through which we can observe Mrs. Monet shivering with the coldness of the wintry season.

All the other objects like the curtains and the windowpanes are painted with heavy and rough brushstrokes (Monet French). Moreover, the fact and the general opinion regarding Monet's paintings that "he also gave up still life and painted no genre groups" (Artchive) are highly evident in the painting under consideration. This painting sketching Mrs. Monet is simple yet perplexing and gives birth to various interpretations with no rights and wrongs involved, for the painting uses various techniques making it versatile rather than classified. The closed doorway…. [read more]

Vincent Van Gogh Research Paper

… Van Gogh

In Search of Illumination: An Analysis of the Life and Work of Vincent Van Gogh

If, as Richard Williamson (2010) says, art is a skill and that skill is the "expression of the soul," Vincent Van Gogh's artistic productivity (leaping into life in the final decade of his own) may tell us much about the soul of the man. With an oeuvre of over 2000 works Van Gogh's artistic passion matched the intensity of his religious fervor. Religion and art were, essentially, the basis of Van Gogh's life. And the history of his life is, in a way, a history of modern Europe; in another way it is a history of the prelude to 20th century modern art; and in another way it…. [read more]

American Art Term Paper

… ¶ … Armory Show of 1913 was one of the most influential events in the history of the American artistic movement. The exhibit was special because it contained a myriad of highly controversial paintings. Two specific parts are significant because in the wake of previously large independent art exhibits, the Armory Show was by the largest with a total of 1250 paintings, sculptures and decorative works. Such an exhibit with its breath of artists showed that America had expanded its tastes to a much broader understanding of the art around the world. Three paintings stood out in their controversy and signal the beginning of a new era largely due to this exhibit. Cezanne's painting of Hill of the Poor, was displayed after purchase by the…. [read more]

Modern Iconography Term Paper

… ¶ … Iconography picture is worth a thousand words.

Everyone has heard this saying before, but what does it really mean? Are we to infer that every work of art is loaded with meaning, waiting for a detailed interpretation? Is there such a thing as a "right" or "wrong" interpretation of a work of art? How does one go about discovering the meaning of a work of art? Can works of art be "read" like books, or do they require specialized knowledge?

These are all questions that iconography has attempted to answer throughout the ages. Today, iconography - the study of meaning in works of art - is more vital than ever before. But the nature of this approach to interpreting works of art continues…. [read more]

Realist Painting Style and Realism Term Paper

… Honore Daumier

The Third-Class Carriage


Oil on canvas

25 3/4 x 35 1/2 in. (65.4 x 90.2 cm)

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

One is simply tempted to say, "Holy cow! Is that woman nursing a baby on a train? Holy cow!" In some parts of the U.S. even today, this would be a difficult picture to hang. And yet, in its own time, it was probably far more common for a woman to nurse in public -- at least, a working-class woman -- than it is today. But depicting it was another matter entirely. In the depiction, however, the nature of French society in the 1860s is explained in detail. The mother looks down lovingly at the baby. The woman…. [read more]

Arts and Crafts Movement Term Paper

… ¶ … Arts and Crafts Movement, beginning in 1860, was a movement pioneered by William Morris and Charles Voysey. The movement came in response to the industrial turn of the century. It was a way to rebel against the mechanical way of manufacturing in order to bring back traditional crafts as a decorative and valuable form rather than the requirement it had been previously. The Arts and Crafts Movement or the "anti-industrial movement" founded by Morris and Voysey was immensely successful, although the industrial revolution pressed on as technology progressed.

The movement gained traction due to its challenge of not just manufacturing, but also challenging Victorian era tastes. These attitudes stemmed from social reform concerns of thinkers such as John Ruskin and Walter Crane who,…. [read more]

History of the Tattoo Term Paper

… ¶ … origins of this art form and how tattoos have endured through time. The art of tattoo has been practiced around the world for thousands of years, especially in the Polynesian islands, where tattoo has been a way of life for at least 2000 years. Today, tattoos are hip again, after remaining under the radar for decades. They are more intricate and detailed than ever, but they are still one of the most personal forms of art that a person can engage in, and they are permanent, so they create an enduring history of the art when tattoo artists create them.

While there were some ancient tribes in Europe who practiced tattooing, the practice really died out there, but it was always strong in…. [read more]

Vincent Van Gogh Research Proposal


INTRODUCTION had a hard struggle with myself...."

Vincent van Gogh (Van Goh's Letters, 2009)

The Painter

The Painter" sold only one of his paintings, now worth millions of dollars, during his lifetime. "The Painter," Vincent van Gogh, frequently depicted people in hard times, Linda Yoffe (1995) notes in "Vincent, Theo, painting and self-esteem." Today, considered one of the greatest Dutch painters and draftsmen after Rembrandt, van Gogh's art significantly influenced Expressionism in modern art. Van Gogh, born in 1853, began painting seriously in 1880, Arthur Max (2004), an Associated Press writer, reports in "Van Gogh letter refers to family tragedy." Theo, van Gogh's younger brother, supported "The Painter" for much of his life.

Study Design and Significance

As this descriptive qualitative…. [read more]

Rococo to Impressionism 18th and 19th Century Research Proposal

… Cleaving

George Seurat's work is immediately recognizable -- the flurries of busy specks, the sure pools of shadow, the luminescent faces and hands. But we do not remember Seurat for his subjects, or his lighting, or his perspective. We do not remember Seurat as an individual settled in time, in his place in the smooth continuum of history. Seurat is an oddity in the collective consciousness of the art-viewing populace. He's the inventor of pointillism -- and not much else. We think of him and we see dots. And then move on to the next mental image. He is all too easy to dismiss as a sort of one-trick pony. But he did not exist within a vacuum -- and it is impossible to understand…. [read more]

Historical Works of Art Research Paper

… ¶ … paintings and look at what themes combine them and what categorizations can be placed on them. Themes like color, religion, symbolism, life, and abstract vs. reality will be discussed and considered. Painting techniques and the various disciplines worth accounting for in the study of art history are also very pertinent fields that will receive consideration in the article. The art works that will be dissected here all share heavy symbolic themes. Religion is also a major combiner of at least two of the artworks whereas the third piece is more focused on the world. Again, the purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast three famous artworks.

While examining the history of various painting techniques, it is difficult to view them simply…. [read more]

Vincent Van Gogh, Frank Lloyd Term Paper

… Iron and Steel were used in order to open up the interior of buildings to an unprecedented scale. Architect Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo was one of the first to implement Oriental aspects into designs, using black and white, asymmetry and plant forms (Weisberg).

Nancy, which was located in Paris, was the premiere Art Nouveau school. It developed strong bonds with the East. Japanese decorative art offered Art Nouveau new forms and decorations that were used to renew the objects d'art. Painter Hokkai Takashima, for example, lived at Nancy from 1885 to 1888 and formed bonds of friendship with creators Emile Galle and Camille Martin, thus influencing their work.

When writing about Japonisme, some historians stop at the artists and collectors of the day and then have…. [read more]

Exoticism in 19th and 20th Term Paper

… S. -- Japan political relationship." (Shepard, "Cinematic realism, reflexivity and the American 'Madame Butterfly' narratives," Page 60)

The exotic in western culture and in 19th and 20th century opera representations often refers to objects and people that are Asian and African:

"The word "exoticism" relates, etymologically, to places or settings "away from" some vantage point considered normative, most often that of the observer him- or herself. Like so many "-isms" (idealism, Romanticism), exoticism can be broadly encompassing and relatively abstract: an ideology, a diverse collection of attitudes and prejudices, an intellectual tendency. Or it can be broad yet concrete: a cultural trend with rich and varied manifestations. In literature and the visual arts, for example, exoticism is generally sought and found in a work's subject…. [read more]

MANET's Paris Edouard Term Paper

… Manet's Paris

Edouard Manet's Paris

While his later reputation would posit him as "king of the bohemians," Edouard Manet was actually born firmly within the ranks of the Parisian bourgeoisie in the first half of 1832. He was the son of a judge, Auguste Manet, and a refined woman named Eugenie-Desiree Fournier, who was distantly related to the Crown Prince of Sweden. Thanks to the encouragement of his Uncle Charles Fournier, Manet's interest in the arts was fostered early on; Fournier frequently accompanied the young child to the Louvre to look at the museum's magnificent collection of painting and sculpture.

After a brief stint in the merchant marines, Manet began studying under Thomas Couture. He would remain in Couture's studio until the year 1856. Early…. [read more]

Nostalgia Term Paper

… The figures are dressed in generalized medieval or classical draperies; the buildings behind them have the appearance of ancient Roman or early medieval structures; the whole has the impression of another time and another place, without being specific, but a time and place characterized by peace, innocence, lapping water, evening sunshine, and the unpressured pursuit of beauty and happiness. Everyone can feel nostalgia for such a scene, for it is a dream transformed into paint. It is an image intended to evoke the longing for a time of contentment that is not only forever lost, but which almost certainly never existed.

Question 6: Urbanization and Industrialization

In 1801 the French artist Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg (1740-1812), who was working in England, painted 'Coalbrookdale by Night' (Science…. [read more]

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NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.