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Ethical Egoism and Abortion Research Paper

… The formula of universal law seems to offer a method for evaluating maxims of abortion that eschews the contentious question of whether the fetus is a person. This method also appears to render unnecessary the task of locating one duty in relation to which to understand abortion. (Dennis 2007, 547-8)

In other words, the Kantian ethical school -- against which ethical egoism tends to define itself -- is concerned with defining the ethics of abortion in terms of whether or not it would be morally good if the act of abortion were universal. Denis notes that Kantian approaches to finding abortion unethical can be formulated in different ways, and restricts herself to examining two different stances. The first suggests a thought experiment: if one is…. [read more]

Abortion Research Paper

… Twenty states make it mandatory to have the provision of ultrasound by abortion agencies. Seven states make it compulsory that the abortion service centers should conduct ultrasound prior to undergoing abortion and also necessitate the provider to accord scope to the client to view the image. Eleven states also necessitate that a woman should be accorded with the scope to watch an ultrasound image if the service providers conduct the procedure as portion of the preparation for an abortion. Five states necessitate that a women be given with the opportunity to watch the image of ultrasound. (Guttmacher Institute, 2012)

This legal framework necessitate that women thinking of termination of pregnancy must attain an outward ultrasound of the fetus prior to according the consent for the…. [read more]

Abortion and Critically Examine Various Essay

… "The modern American debate on abortion reflected the convergence of two trends -- the development of medicine and the rise of the feminist movement" (Melton 2).

Protestants largely followed the general public by dividing themselves in two camps: prolife and prochoice. Prolife Protestants employed attitudes that were very similar to the ones expressed by the Catholic Church and basically started to concentrate on criticizing abortion as a result of the fact that it was a corrupt practice that needed to be addressed from a moral point-of-view. Liberal Protestants wanted people to understand that they did not necessarily favor abortion as the answer to unwanted pregnancies, but that they considered that it was a solution that the masses needed to consider.

The United Church of Christ…. [read more]

Abortion Term Paper

… Evaluation and Assessment of the Alternatives

The above mentioned policy alternatives are outlined on the idea that it is the government's responsibility to provide welfare support to the underprivileged groups and that public and socio-economic welfare must be given a priority above political motives. This however does not mean that the views and sentiments of those who deem a practice ethically and morally wrong should be ignored, as that would be in violation of the democratic principles. Thus in order to keep a balance between the two sides, the policy must be designed to take all stakeholders on board.

Keeping this in view, there are two basic alternatives that are proposed above. One, either the government should support Planned Parenthood programs for the poor aiming…. [read more]

Abortion to Poverty Term Paper

… The best instance is the Thornburg Case, which enjoys the privilege of precedence. In the case, court decided that abortions were not to be restricted. A different alternative was more effective, where women were to be informed on abortion and its repercussions, the risks involved in the procedures of inducing abortion, record keeping of all incidences of abortion and rescuing any born children that was initially intended for abortion, but is delivered live.

If the policies are to be critically analyzed, there is the realization that if parenting services are not funded, or the funds subsidized, there is great a chance of adverse effects on the women who are low-income earners, as they will get children who they cannot provide for. Those responsible for making…. [read more]

Abortion Term Paper

… They are of the view that human fetus must be given a chance of life as it deserves to live as much as any normal living human being. For example, if I told you that there is a poor family with seven children and the mother is pregnant with the eighth baby, she is unhealthy and wire thin, would you say it is wise or reasonable for her to opt for abortion. Well if your answer was yes, you just killed the world famous symphony composer, Beethoven. Anti-abortion circles argue that while a woman has right to decide her future, she must not be given the right to completely destroy the future of another human being. Even if a woman feels she is incapable of…. [read more]

Abortion Pros and Cons Essay

… When empathy and caring permeate the healthcare system, such psychological problems are not an issue (Cockrill & Weitz, 2010). Likewise, when society ceases stigmatizing women for having abortions, emotional and psychological distress will also not be a factor. Instead, women would be congratulated because they would have prevented the needless suffering of yet another unwanted human being.

The con position asserts that the fetus is a full human being with rights equal to that of the mother. Because of this belief, it is concluded that an abortion is murder. If abortion were killing a human being, then it would be understandable that the "murder" argument would hold true. However, a fetus is a fetus. It has the potential to become a human being, but so…. [read more]

Ethical Theories and Abortion Issues in Contemporary Term Paper

… Ethical Theories and Abortion Issues

In contemporary American society, elective abortion remains one of the most controversial political, social, and moral issues. While the debate is often reduced to matters of religious belief, the issues are also addressable through purely secular ethical concepts. In that regard, the deontological, utilitarian, and virtue-based ethical perspectives may yield very different answers to the underlying moral question of terminating pregnancy. However, in many respects, each philosophical view is also capable of supporting more than one answer, depending on the assumptions and definitions used in the analysis.

All three perspectives provide specific considerations that are helpful to identifying the most important issues for moral consideration, but in that regard, a comprehensive objective approach to human morality may actually require incorporating…. [read more]

Abortion Pros and Cons Thesis

… Abortion Pros and Cons

Abortion: Pros and Cons

Abortion from a purely moral or ethical perspective can never be endorsed. However, in some medical conditions where the life of the mother is at stake abortion as a life saving intervention is certainly approved. Irrespective of the methods used abortion leaves a great psychological stigma and guilt feeling. A more prudent method would be to use the available contraceptive methods. For women who choose abortion as a method to end their unintended pregnancies the provision of post abortion-healing care is very important.

Abortion continues to be one of the much debated medical, social and ethical issue worldover. In the U.S. ever since the 1973 landmark decision by the Supreme Court ( Roe vs. Wade case) that…. [read more]

Abortion Ever Since in the 1973 Supreme Term Paper

… Abortion

Ever since in the 1973 Supreme Court, the divergence over the validity of abortion and the right of nations to bound women's right to use to this process has been one of the most obstinate arguments in American politics. Though the combat appears to have been remunerated mainly throughout lawsuits and the subsequent legal judgments the shade of abortion politics has been suffered at every stage of the American political organization. However, while participants are allowed or predestined by groups that put themselves on one of the two sides that have come to classify the dispute, very little open discussion has occurred amid pro-choice and pro-life advocates.


The combats have been waged mainly through tactical shifts to take power of positions and foundations…. [read more]

Abortion Is Every Woman A-Level Outline Answer

… B. Pro-life arguments focused on the rights of the fetus.

1. Life begins at conception, argued the pro-life side, not at a subsequent viability date.

2. According to the Constitution, the authorities should ensure that no harm is ever done to any individual

3. Pro-life activists also argue that there is no clear stipulation in the Constitution in favor of (a) right of privacy for the mother or (b) the Federal Government's right to overturn a State legal decision.

C. Pro-choice and pro-RW decision arguments focused on the right of the woman/mother.

1. Compulsory motherhood violates the right of women under the Thirteenth Amendment.

2. The State cannot force the woman, under any condition, including prior health-related concerns/risks, to remain pregnant.

III. Debate on the…. [read more]

Abortion in the United States Term Paper

… Abortion in the United States (Pro-Choice)

Abortion has evoked considerable debate and controversy throughout history. In the United States too, it has been a subject of heated debate through most of its history. In recent times, "pro-choice" and "pro-life" movements have taken diametrically opposite positions on the ethical, legal and medical aspects of the issue. Both sides present seemingly valid arguments for their stands and try to refute the counter-arguments of the other side by presenting moral, legal, and medical "facts." Abortion was legalized in the United States in 1973 following the landmark Roe v. Wade decision of the Supreme Court. The decision, however, did not put an end to the controversy and subsequent decisions by the Court have even watered down the Roe decision…. [read more]

Abortion: Ethical and Political Issues Term Paper

… Asides the fact that there are inevitable side effects for any kind of pharmaceutical preparation there are two main aspects to be considered when we discuss the safety of the drug. The main contentious issue is that the drug was introduced without sufficient clinical tests in the U.S. In fact the approval was mainly based on the results of the drug usage from abroad and a single clinical test inside the United States. This has left room for skepticism about the urgency with which the government approved the drug. RU 486 was given an accelerated approval under the 'under 21 CFR 314 Subpart H' process. This is something, which is inexplicable as generally the accelerated approval is only meant for potentially life saving drugs whose…. [read more]

Pro-Life Abortion Term Paper

… Abortion (Pro Life)

Not many people disagree when a law is passed that is objective and does not impact religious beliefs and value systems. For example, some individuals protested the speed limit of 55 mph on many federal highways. However, the situation changes significantly when people view the law, or intended law, as acceptable or unacceptable due to different ethical considerations. The abortion issue falls into this second category. Abortion has most likely been the most heated issue in American society for the past half of a century. Relating to all aspects of social, political, philosophical and religious areas of life, the issue has divided the country when it needs most to be united. America was founded on the principals of democracy, or middle ground…. [read more]

Abortion and Reproductive Rights Essay

… ¶ … Abortion and Reproductive Rights

Abortion is one of the most divisive and controversial political and social issues in the United States. For many decades, elective abortion was prohibited in most American states. As a result, most women who wished to terminate an unwanted pregnancy typically had only two choices: to travel to remote states for a legal medical procedure or to obtain an illegal abortion performed (usually) by non-physicians under unsafe conditions.

Wealthier women were more likely to have family support and resources, including the money to travel if necessary and the professional connections and the social relationships necessary to obtain a formal medical certification of "necessity" required under state statutes to satisfy the legal criteria for medically necessary abortion procedures (Mappes &…. [read more]

Stem Cell Research -- Ethical Issues Term Paper

… Stem Cell Research -- Ethical Issues

The positive, progressive view of stem cell research raises the promise of one day helping to heal individuals with diseases like Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, spinal injuries, cancer, among other health issues and serious medical disorders. One of the controversial aspects of stem cell research relates to whether or not human embryos should be destroyed in order to conduct deep research into the potentiality of embryonic stem cells. This moral issue, along with other ethical questions, and updates on recent stem cell advances, will be addressed in this paper.

What are Embryonic Stem Cells?

Basically, according to the National Institutes of Health, stem cells are: a) "capable of diving and renewing themselves for long periods"; b) they are not specialized; and…. [read more]

Against Abortion. The Writer Explores the Moral Term Paper

… ¶ … against abortion. The writer explores the moral and medical issues of abortion and argues that abortion should not be legal as each person is a gift. There were four sources used to complete this paper.

Statistical research indicates that America is the leading nation in the incidence of abortion with more than 1 million being performed annually. In addition, research also shows that 88% of American abortions are performed before the twelfth week of pregnancy. Adolescents are more likely to wait until the pregnancy is further along before seeking an abortion, while their adult counterparts usually seek one as early as possible (Hanks, 2002).

About 4% of abortions were performed after 15 weeks of gestation, with an additional 1.2%-1.3% after 21 weeks (Hanks,…. [read more]

Abortion / Abortion Debate Term Paper

… The phrase was originated by Cardinal Bernardin to describe the ethical stand that all life is worthuy of protection and that it is ethically correct to protect life at all stages. However, there are a number of instances where the taking of life is socially acceptable and the moral considerations are not defined in terms of 'rights'. Seen from this vantage point, abortion is seen as a moral predicament and social problem with antecedents that can be identified as well as addressed outside of the moral arena.

Among these 'middle ground positions' are during the course of war when killing becomes not only acceptable but necessary and expected. Another middle ground position is when killing becomes neccesary as a matter of self-protection. Quite often, the…. [read more]

Abortion Rights Research Paper

… Abortion is by definition a feminist issue because only women can become pregnant. However, abortion is also a human rights issue. All sides of the abortion debate frame abortion in terms of human rights, with anti-choice activists claiming the rights of the fetus trump those of the woman, and pro-choice activists claiming the rights of the woman trump those of the fetus. Because a woman is a human being and a fetus is not yet a human being, it seems that abortion should be a relatively straightforward legal matter, even if not a straightforward ethical one. Religious fanatics and the morally self-righteous can believe whatever they want, but those beliefs cannot and should not impinge upon the law. Unfortunately, the law has become severely tainted…. [read more]

All Sides and Issues of Abortion Term Paper

… ¶ … Abortion

The topic of abortion is one of the most controversial and one of the most emotional dilemmas confronted by modern societies. The concept of abortion refers to terminating pregnancy which is intentional with an objective other than to give birth to a live born infant or to remove a dead fetus. (Definitions and associated Formulas) The common public often considers abortion as any non-natural mode to bring about the loss of a pregnancy. The physicians and clinicians indicate such kind of abortion to the 'therapeutic abortion' or 'elective abortion'. Physicians also indicate miscarriages as 'threatened' 'spontaneous' or 'incomplete' abortions. (Abortion: Definition) The issue that matters most is whether it is ethical to allow the termination of a child while it is inside…. [read more]

Anti-Abortion Rule Natural Law Term Paper

… But, there is a mutual agreement between developmental biologists and the Roman Catholic believers that moment of conception is the moment of beginning of a human life and personhood as there is a set of markers that show the beginning of a human life.

Natural law has thereby argued that in the face of death and threat to life, and in order to save her own life, a woman can undergo the procedures for aborting the fetus. This exception has only been given by the natural law if death of the fetus is not being directly intended. Nonetheless, if death of an unborn child is being directly intended as a result of the use of medical procedures that include chemotherapy and hysterectomy, abortion occurring in…. [read more]

Library Search Term Paper

… Abortion

A landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision regarding abortion occurred in 1973: Roe vs. Wade. The Supreme Court decided that abortion in the U.S. is legal during the 1st trimester of pregnancy. The pregnant woman has the legal right to decide to keep or terminate her pregnancy. "The basis of the Court's decision in this case was the Ninth Amendment, in stating 'the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people,' protected a person's right to privacy" (Lewis, 1999).

Impact on Male and Female Sexuality

Abortion obviously takes the lives of young infants, but it can also ruin the lives of their mothers. Many women, post-abortion, experience great levels of depression. They realize…. [read more]

Health Care Reform Term Paper

… The issue could prove to be precedent setting because it would be the first time that law would prohibit people from using tax credit funds for a legal medical procedure.

The issue has created extensive debate because the right to choose abortion is protected by law. New laws related to the proposed health reform could eventually require women to pay out of pocket for expenses related abortion. This, in turn may have a particularly negative affect on vulnerable women, such as younger women with fewer economic resources, low-income individuals, or victims of domestic violence. In all of these cases, a woman may have a compelling reason to seek an abortion based on a lack of resources or concerns about raising a child in a violent…. [read more]

Is Abortion Ethical? Thesis

… Abortion Philosophy

The Utilitarian Debate Against the Ethicality of the Pro-Life Agenda

Though there is a theoretical separation between Church and State which is said to serve the inherently spiritual but politically secular United States, there is nonetheless an inextricable relationship between the moral codes which guide both sectors. Indeed, it may often be difficult if not impossible to fully distinguish where such moral motives can be said to derive from political imperatives or from religious ones when speaking on such sociologically prevalent issues as those concerning law and order, civil liberty and the sanctity of human life. Perhaps no such issue is as salient in modern discourse as that of abortion, which by no mere incidence of its commonality throughout human history, but by…. [read more]

christian worldview on abortion counseling Term Paper

… 'Were aborted lives counted as are other human lives, induced abortion would be acknowledged as the largest single preventable cause of loss of human life,' (McCurdy, 2016, p. 20). In this way, abortion is qualitatively different from birth control or contraception. Contraception prevents the pregnancy from occurring whereas an abortion terminates a pregnancy that has already taken place. Even when the pregnancy was unexpected, unplanned, or unwanted, it is still a reality and cannot be wished away via abortion. The Supreme Court decision in Roe v Wade set a dangerous precedent for allowing unbridled access to abortions, resulting in what can be considered a humanitarian crisis. For Christians and non-Christians alike, scripture does provide a sensible and logical moral framework for understanding abortion far better…. [read more]

Abortion and Universalism Research Paper

… Abortion: A Moral (and Universal) Dilemma

The ethics of abortion have been debated by many and the philosophies behind the debates are diverse. The Women's Movement advocated the legalization of abortion because it claimed that a woman should have the right to choose what to do with her own body. This was the basis of feminist theory. Opponents of feminist theory have asserted that the unborn child should have a right to live. This was the basis of focusing on "personhood" and when that state comes into being -- i.e., at what point the fetus inside the woman can be said to be a "person" and thus have rights. "Care ethics" evolved to address issues such as this one, which grew out of an attempt…. [read more]

Obama and Mccain Ethics Essay

… McCain/Obama Comparison

One ethical issue that separates Barack Obama and John McCain is the matter of abortion. This is probably one of the most divisive ethical and political issues in the country. Some votes feel so strongly about the pro-life pro-choice matter that they will vote solely on this issue. The issue has undergone a rejuvenation of sorts with the selection of Sarah Palin as John McCain's Republican running mate for the presidential election.

The history of this issue goes back to the early nineteenth century. Abortions were not criminal offenses "before the 'quickening' of the fetus" (Bardes 128). During the last part of the century, however, abortions were considered illegal with severe punishment. By 1973, abortions were illegal in most states. However, with the…. [read more]

Health Care Policy Essay

… David Gunn. In 2000, the Nebraska statute banning 'partial-birth abortion' was ruled unconstitutional in the case Stenberg v. Carhart (Carhart I), one because the statute is reported to be lacking in the "necessary exception for preserving the health of the woman, and secondly, "the definition of the targeted procedures is so broad as to prohibit abortions in the second trimester, thereby being an 'undue burden' on women. This effective invalidates 29 of 31 similar statewide bans." ( ) In 2000, the Food and Drug Administration approved mifepristone (RU-486) as an abortion care option for pregnancies that are in the very early stages. In 2003, the Congress passed a federal ban on abortion procedures, which President Bush signed, into law. The law was challenged in court…. [read more]

Controversy Abortion the Right to Privacy Research Paper


The Right to Privacy

Contrary to what many people believe, there is no constitutional right to privacy per se (Dershowitz, 2002). The modern right to privacy first came to be recognized in connection with a series of U.S. Supreme Court cases that were decided during the civil rights era. Specifically, in the principle case Griswold v. Connecticut (1965), the Supreme Court struck down a state law prohibiting the use of contraceptives, ruling that the Constitution did protect a right of privacy despite the fact that no such white was actually described (Dershowitz, 2002; Friedman, 2005).

To reach that conclusion, the court decided that the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment was the source of an umbrella or…. [read more]

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