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abuse of over the counter and prescription drugs Research Paper

… An addiction to prescription or over the counter medication may also signal an underlying mental health issue like depression or anxiety, which can be best addressed through a combination of counseling and psychopharmacology (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2018). Detoxification, behavioral and cognitive-behavioral therapies, and family therapy may also be indicated as part of an overall treatment regimen.
Legislation and Regulations
State and federal governments have responded to prescription and over the counter drug addiction for decades. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) was created in 1973 to enforce the Controlled Substances Act of 1970, the 'most comprehensive federal drug law' to date (Blake, 2013, p. 1). All drugs'prescription and illicit alike'are scheduled and classified under the Controlled Substances Act and all physicians must therefore be…. [read more]


Prescription Drug Abuse Term Paper

… Measures that have been undertaken thus far are the aforementioned laws banning not having a drug in the bottle it was issued in, making giving out of drugs a felony and so forth. Other drugs, including many over-the-counter drugs are tracked and must be sold, literally, over the counter by a pharmacist even though a prescription is not required (such as any drug with pseudoephedrine) and those purchase are often tracked by the state to ensure that too much of that drug or other precursors for methamphetamine or other drugs are not bought abusively. Age restrictions on over-the-counter medications are used as well (Garcia, 2013).

Another step that has been taken is the more heavy regulation and control of pain-management clinics that have been seen…. [read more]


Prescription Drug Abuse Opiates Thesis

… ¶ … Abusing Opiates

Cost associated with Abuse

At times, the cost associated with abusing prescription pain killers, such as opiates, may seem minimal, as having a prescription filled in the quest to secure relief from pain may be small in the cost of dollars. When an individual becomes addicted to opiates, however, the associated cost dramatically increases. At times, along with being dishonest and denying the fact that one may in fact be addicted to opiates may cost much more than the addictive individual ever intended to pay. Abusing opiates may at times cost an individual his/her life - figuratively, or literally, as in the case of Anna Nichole Smith, when abusing opiates ultimately ended in premature death. In "As painkiller, methadone proves deadly,"…. [read more]


OTC and Prescription Drugs Curbing Essay

… But when taken to extreme, they can over-stimulate the nervous system. Sleep aids are another group of OTC drugs, which are often mis-used. When taken in extreme, they can lead to narcolepsy, a neurological disorder, characterized by strongly disrupted sleep. Users abruptly fall asleep at dangerous times, such as when driving, climbing the stairs or performing risky tasks (Saar).

Dependence or Addiction

Addiction is a condition of dependence on something for one's normal functioning

(Salmon 2008). It creates a mental state, which later creates physical dependence. In that state, the person relies on the substance for relief to the condition. It develops into an addiction when the drug tolerance reaches a high level. Addiction to prescribed drugs can happen without overdosing. One can become addicted…. [read more]


Substance Abuse Term Paper

… The drug courts have implemented compulsory minimum jail terms for repeat and chronic drug offenders and for firearm crimes as well as career criminal and revised three-strikes sentencing laws (Reamer, 2005).

Chronic drug abusers/addicts frequently suffer from dire mental disorders. Some of the familiar calamitous mental illnesses associated with persistent drug misuse include schizophrenia, bipolar disorders; attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), generalized anxiety disorders, neurotic-compulsive disorders, post-trauma stress disorders, panic disorders, manic depression and antisocial personality disorders (Bennett & Holloway, 2005).

Different states and countries have introduced numerous measures in order to solve the drug and substance abuse crisis. States such as New York have relaxed their drug laws with the aim of allowing the judges to send the abusers to treatment centers, rather than…. [read more]


Drug Usage as a Multicultural Issue Term Paper

… Drug Abuse

The subject of drug usage is an issue that has plagued people all over the world for many years. Indeed, the issue of drug usage is multicultural and pervades many different people groups. The purpose of this discussion is to focus on the drug usage as a multicultural issue. This discussion will focus on a report published by the National Institutes of Health. In addition, we will review the findings of a study published in Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling.

Drug Usage as a Multicultural Issue

It is certainly true that no segment of the population that is not adverse effected by drug abuse. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Drug abuse is a persistent problem. The NIH explains that…. [read more]


Drug Legalization Term Paper

… Drug Legalization

As the country was turning into the 20th century, drugs that were in the market were largely unregulated. There were medical remedies that often contained derivatives of cocaine and heroin. These were freely distributed over-the-counter without a prescription and without the consumer being much aware of which drugs were more potent and which were not. There was a caveat emptor attitude towards the use of medical tonics which could have led to the difference between life and death. This is what led to the war on drugs that led to the implementation of drug regulations. However, these drug regulations have since come of age and they need to be removed.

History of the war on drugs

The war on drugs began in the…. [read more]


Drugs and Addiction Prolonged Term Paper

… These are people with abundant knowledge regarding health benefits, which they would receive from eating healthy to stimulate their cognitive functioning. Nevertheless, the fact that there exists an easy way of going about the cognitive performance without getting sweaty or on diets makes the needs appeal appended on stimulants. This drug provides a quick fix, which makes it the best option for those looking for optimal performance without much of a struggle with diets and physical exercises. This is producing a society where competition is becoming null because of the unfair use of enhancers against the efforts of others. The ethical unfairness for people under the influence of drugs is the manner in which they promote a lower look on those who are not under…. [read more]


Addiction to Prescription Drugs Term Paper

… Prescription Drug Addiction

When people think of drug addiction, they usually picture the use of illegal drugs such as heroin or crack cocaine, but people who use prescriptions drugs for non-medical purposes -- and become dependant and preoccupied with a compulsive need for them -- have become a serious problem in the United States (Meadows, 2001).

Ukens (2005) reports that controlled prescription drug abuse nearly doubled between 1992 and 2003 -- from 7.8 million to 15.1 million. Prescription drug abuse among teenagers has risen by 212%. There has been an 81% increase in prescription drug abuse in adults over 18. The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration reported 146 deaths attributable to OxyContin abuse in 2000 and 2001. Former U.S. Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, Joseph…. [read more]


Economics of Alchohol Abuse Alcohol Term Paper

… g. A cartel in which the maintenance of the monopoly is done through force) (Schenk, 2010).

The purpose of a monopoly is to define and regulate market competition. In economics, imperfect competition is a situation in a given market where the conditions for perfect competition (equal market power) do not exist. .). Rarely, if ever, markets reach a state of market power called perfect competition, in which there are infinite buyers and sellers, no entry and exit barriers, and completely free and open information structures. To be a viable market, most economists believe there should be appropriate competition. There are several conditions that must occur, however, to reach this market goal: 1) Quantity of businesses -- there should a number of firms in the market,…. [read more]


Drug Addiction Research Paper

… Social Problem of Drug Addiction

Drug Addiction

The Social Problem of Drug Addiction and the Role of the Community

The Social Problem of Drug Addiction and the Role of Community

Drug addiction is a multifaceted human issue that breeds biological, economic, and social consequences. The social impact of drug abuse and addiction affects the family, the community, and resonates with the overall society at large. In the simplest terms, a drug is a substance that alters the function of the body (Wilson & Kolander, 2011). In some form, drugs are used in every society on a daily basis, and includes caffeine, herbs, tobacco, and over the counter medications. For the purposes of this paper, the focus will be on drug addiction, which generally occurs with…. [read more]


Social Problem Drug Abuse Research Paper

… Social Problem - Drug Abuse

Drug Abuse

Drug abuse refers to excessive use of drugs with an intention of altering one's mood, emotion or state of consciousness. Buddy T. (2011) further indicates that drug abuse is "the use of illicit drugs or the abuse of prescription or over-the-counter drugs for purposes other than those for which they are indicated or in a manner or in quantities other than directed."

The menace of drug abuse otherwise referred to as substance abuse has been a threat to the societal mesh and has been attributed largely to the products of the civilization and the effects of globalization. There are particular aspects in the civilized and globalised society that encourage the wider abuse of drugs as follows (Medline Plus,…. [read more]


Drugs on the Economy History Capstone Project

… S. Department of Justice, 2010). Opiates were the primary drug of choice followed by marijuana and stimulants. A half of the admissions were taken to ambulatory facilities as opposed to residential facilities. Drug users react adversely to drugs including non-fatal overdoses. These individuals have to go to the hospital for medical attention. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) in 2006 posited that out of 113 million hospitals ED visits, 1.5% cases were due to drug abuse or misuse hence causing a massive strain on the healthcare systems (U.S. Department of Justice, 2010).

Cocaine, marijuana, heroine and stimulants abuse prompt these ED visits. The 2007 DAWN survey of 63 metropolitan areas indicated that 12.1 deaths per 100,000 persons were because of drug use. Their records also reflected…. [read more]


Content Areas Term Paper

… ¶ … Teenage substance abuse

Substance abuse is a serious legal and social problem in American culture that has plagued our society with skyrocketing crime rates and overflowing prison systems. The substances in question include any mind-altering chemicals, including common illegal street drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, ecstasy, and designer drugs, just to name a few. Also included are misused legal substances, such as household chemicals or over-the-counter and prescription drugs that are misused for the purpose of achieving mind-altering effects. Of course, alcohol is also included, which is by far and large the most commonly used substance of abuse, excluding perhaps tobacco which is rarely recognized properly as the drug that it is. The inappropriate use of these substances can easily spiral out of…. [read more]


History of American Drug Policies Term Paper

… Drug Policies

MAJOR POLICIES

History of American Drug Policies

This paper is about the history of the non-medical use of drugs. It is interesting to note than in the early 1900s there were far more people addicted to drugs in this country than there are today (Whitebread, 1999). Estimations reveal that between two and five percent of the entire adult population of the United States was addicted to drugs in 1900.

There were two main reasons for this dramatic level of drug addiction (Whitebread, 1999). The first was the use of morphine and its various derivatives in legal medical operations. People received morphine as a painkiller during an operation and after the operation. They often came out of the hospital addicted to morphine. In addition,…. [read more]


Military Drug Border Patrol Research Paper

… Drug Policy and Military

The following piece will address the United States policy on drugs as well as the involvement of the United States military with regard to protecting the borders and ports of the United States. Further the paper will address the changes in the drug policy since the late 1960s.

Former President of the United States (USA), Richard M. Nixon, during his tenure in 1971, founded the DEA (Drug Enforcement Agency) with the specific purpose of countering the profuse quantity of drugs coming into the country from outside. Nixon termed this as a 'war on drugs'. The war was intended to rid the streets of America of unlawful drugs, and close down drug cartels. In 1994, it was found that America's war on…. [read more]


Drug Use and Abuse Essay

… Over the past two-decade the state of Illinois has posted an increase in the prevalence/incidence rate of alcohol abuse and fact that has prompted the opening of many rehabilitation centers in the state.

Preventive measures

Statistics showed that nearly more than two thousand five hundred children experiment with prescription medication that are home based and that one in every five children has abused a prescription medication. Such statistics prompted the Massachusetts legislature to enact a law that required all pharmacy's located within the Commonwealth region to display in their counters or rather fifty feet from the counter an offer for sale of medical lock box that are designed for home consumption. Concurrently there have been products that were developed to act as a preventive measure,…. [read more]


Drug Abuse Economically Alcohol Consumption Essay

… Demand tends to be an addictive quantity, but there are choices. Public goods exist when consumption is mutually exclusive, and its impractical to exclude users from consuming the goods or services. The market demand is the number sum of consumers willing to pay for the fixed (inelastic) quantity of the good. The measure of responsiveness is always referred to as elasticity.

Increasing-Cost Industries

Increasing cost industries are industries where number of companies involved in that industry increases and the cost of production and resources increase, and the input prices rise. This results in a competitive industry having a long-run, positively- sloped supply curve. Examples of such industries are Hisoft Technology International Limited, and ITO (VanceInfo Technologies Inc.), Huawei, IBM Corp, Microsoft, Corp, Companies of China…. [read more]


Solutions for the Alcohol Abuse Term Paper

… This can be applied to most products and services. The higher the increase of the demand is, the higher is the impact on supply. For example, if customers start thinking that wine is better than beer, their behavior will modify in that direction. In other words, they will want to buy more wine, and the demand for wine will increase. This leads to increased prices and an increased supply. But if the demand for wine reduces, so will the supply, because it would not be cost effective for sellers to store larger quantities of wine than they sell.

4. There are several increasing-cost industries. Such industries are represented by the housing industry and by the vegetables production industry. These types of industries have a positively-sloped…. [read more]


Teen Drug Abuse - Prescription Term Paper

… g., social class, ethnic and religious influences, neighborhood values); family and peer (e.g., personalities and interaction patterns of parents and peers, child-rearing patterns, peer socialization, and parental/peer modeling of alcohol use); and intra-individual (e.g., genetic predispositions, cognitive and personality variables) (Morrison, et al. 2007). Drinking is seen as influenced directly only by intra-individual factors. These in turn are influenced by the social variables (directly through intimate groups and both indirectly and directly by the sociocultural and community environment). Conversely, drinking behavior is expected to influence intra-individual attributes, which will in turn influence other domains.

When considering a model for adolescent substance abuse, it is important to incorporate differential effects of factors in relation to the developmental stage of the adolescent. The relative contribution of factors…. [read more]


Pharming Parties Essay

… Pharming Parties: Prescription Drug Abuse Amongst Teens

Conscientious parents have long been concerned about teen drug use. However, most of the focus of drug use prevention programs has centered on illegal, rather than legal drugs. After all, parents rationalize, how bad can a medication be, if I take it myself and it has been prescribed by a doctor? The increased availability of prescription drugs may mean that the drugs of people who fail to use all of their painkillers after surgery may fall into the wrong hands -- their teen's hands.

"In our quick-fix world, kids see adults, who'd never touch an illegal drug, fill prescriptions to treat everything from physical pain to anxiety. Meanwhile, pharmaceutical companies via TV and magazines hype drugs that promise…. [read more]


Advocacy for Medicinal Marijuana Research Paper

… However this argument fails completely when one considers that many patients are out in the black market to get what they want, and many a times the lives of these very people are put at risk by the usage of low quality synthetic replicated drugs ( Manila Bulletin, 2011).

From a Medical point-of-view, the only negative effect of Marijuana, besides the abuse of the non-medical version, has been that the drug can damage the lung if inhaled in excess (Seteve Sussman, 1996). However, there is research underway trying to find alternate ways, and already progress has been made in this regard.

The Pro Argument:

The major argument in defense of this drug comes from the very users who have been using it, legally or illegally…. [read more]


History of Direct to Consumer Term Paper

… Since the Act did not require manufacturers to prove the safety or efficacy of their products prior to marketing, many false claims for a drug that were not on the allowed unsafe drug products to remain on the market. At that time, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) did not have the authority to regulate deceptive advertisements unless it could prove that such advertisements injured another company. In 1938, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act repealed and replaced the Pure Food and Drugs Act. This was a result of the significant increase in the advertising of foods, drugs, and cosmetics. Accordingly, consumer protection from fraudulent marketing techniques was one of the important goals behind the new food and drug law. Congress was concerned not only…. [read more]


how drugs affect the body intended effects Essay

… d.). Unintended effects of central nervous system stimulants include agitation, irritability, and paranoia ('How Drugs Affect Your Body,' n.d.). Long-term use of stimulants can also cause other unintended effects such as heart problems. For hallucinogens, the unintended effects may be confusion, paranoia, or temporary psychosis. All drugs can have the unintended effects of addiction or dependency, with others leading to potential overdose.
Drug Interactions
Taking more than one drug simultaneously can lead to additive, antagonistic, and potentiative interactions. Additive interactions occur when the drugs work well together to enhance the overall intended effects ('Interactions in Chemical Mixtures: Additive, Synergistic & Antagonistic,' n.d.). Some additive effects can be considered synergistic ('Drug Interactions,' n.d.). Antagonistic interactions are those in which the two drugs compete with one another,…. [read more]


Terrorism and Drug Trafficking Capstone Project

… In particular, heroin from Mexico poses a formidable threat throughout Pennsylvania and Delaware, as evidenced by the increasing availability of high purity, low priced heroin and the resulting escalation in abuse, drug treatment admissions, and overdose deaths. This threat is exacerbated by the widely-reported trend of prescription drugs abusers migrating to heroin, seeking a cheaper and more available high. The DEA Philadelphia Division routinely assesses and ranks the drug threats to Philadelphia and the Delaware area as determined by availability, threat to public health, community impact, attendant crime, enforcement activity, seizures, drug abuse and treatment statistics, as well as propensity for abuse. Analysis of these factors, supplemented by investigative reporting, human intelligence, liaison, and open source data, allows for a comprehensive overview of each drug…. [read more]


Health Care Policy Bill Formulation Term Paper

… Health Care Policy Bill Formulation

What the legislation will target

The talking points

Bill writing

Policy to monitor and regulate drug abuse and trafficking

Legislative action

Health Care Policy Bill Formulation: substance abuse

The issue of substance abuse is a societal menace that is gritting the world economies to the ground due to its enormous negative effects. The term substance abuse refers to the use of illicit drugs or medicinal drugs for mood altering purpose in a person. The drugs that people abuse have a property of addiction in them, which leads to their excessive consumption by the user over time. It is the effects of substance abuse in the society such as; crime rates, gender related and other forms of violence and resource wastage…. [read more]


Alcohol and Drugs Among Elderly Research Proposal

… Black Studies: Social Issues

Alcohol And Drugs Among Elderly

The focus of this work in writing is to examine alcohol and drug use among elderly individuals and specifically in regards to historical information, demographics, culture, strengths weaknesses, current issues and advocacy issues, public policy, options or suggestion for change and other practical views on this area of study.

Numbers and Demographics

" Substance Abuse Among the Elderly Population" reports that 58,000 individuals who were the age of 55 years or older "were admitted to publicly funded substance abuse treatment." (Reach of Louisville, SIG, 2009) In addition it was reported in the work of Brennan & Moos (1991) that "a sizeable portion of elderly people" or approximately 11% to 33% "develop alcohol use disorders with late…. [read more]


Opium in China Essay

… ¶ … opium in China with that of the United States after the Civil War? Provide an analysis as to how the early problems with opiates influenced the drug problems of the 1970s worldwide.

Narcotics and drug abuse is common all over the world. The use of drugs dates back to 5000 BC (all the way up to the New Stone Age). Most drugs, at first were used for medicinal purposes. However, over time, they were introduced as being available for recreational use. It is the recreational use of the drugs, in large doses, that not only harms the user but also the community to which they belong. Most of the drugs have been derived from natural plants and herbs, and mixed with other ingredients…. [read more]


Methamphetamine Abuse in the US Research Paper

… Methamphetamine Abuse in the U.S.

The National Institute on Drug Abuse defines methamphetamine as a drug that stimulates the central nervous system similar to amphetamine. It is classified as a Schedule II drug due to its high potential for abuse and it is available through a non-refillable prescription. Though prescribed by doctors, its uses are limited and the doses they prescribe to their patients are in much smaller doses than the doses that are abused. In America, the methamphetamine that is abused is normally comes from foreign or domestic super labs although, they can also come from small, illegal laboratories with its production posing a danger to those working in them, those living near the lab and the environment surrounding the labs (1). Its high…. [read more]


Classical Argument Drug Prohibition Essay

… Classical Argument

Drug prohibition has been about as successful as alcohol prohibition, which is to say, disastrous. The 18th Amendment to the Constitution was a radical step, motivated by temperance leagues that feared alcohol was tearing apart American society and creating crime. Although prohibition lasted thirteen years, ultimately the policy failed. Not only did it fail; prohibition bolstered organized crime and did little to quench the public's thirst for recreational drinking. The same can be said for drug prohibition. Around the same time as alcohol prohibition, the fear of drugs gripped the nation. Drugs like marijuana have been banned for decades without any constitutional amendment. The prohibition of drugs has created more problems than it has solved. Drug prohibition has fueled transnational organized crime syndicates…. [read more]

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