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Psychology Theories of Personality Focus Essay

… Erikson presented eight different stages of personality growth and development. These included the infancy stage, where a person develops trust. The second stage is between ages one and three. At this stage, the individual develops autonomy, and if not, shame and doubt. Therefore, these early stages roughly correspond with Sigmund Freud's notions of how individuals develop shame and doubt feelings early in their psychosocial development. The way the person moves through these stages is shaped by the environmental factors, and then influences the personality.

Social learning theory was presented by Alfred Bandura. Alfred Bandura's social learning theory focuses on learning, just as the behaviorists did. However, unlike the behaviorists, Bandura's social learning theory suggests that people develop their personality as they watch others. For example,…. [read more]

According to Psychology Term Paper

… Psychology

Although the Wizard of Oz is not expressly a film about human psychology, its colorful cast of characters lends itself well to the application of multiple theories and issues in psychology. With films such as Analyze This! And a Beautiful Mind, it would seem odd to focus on a film that avoids direct addressing of psychology themes. However, the Wizard of Oz, with enough creative interpretation, can offer an even richer understanding of how the concepts of psychology such as those outlined in the Ciccarelli (2011) text. The Wizard of Oz is about a young woman, Dorothy, who lives with her elder aunt and uncle in Kansas and her dog Toto. An old woman in town threatens to kill Toto because he occasionally runs…. [read more]

Behavior? Prejudice and Social Psychology Essay

… Thus, we all tend to fulfill our psychological need of belongingness and distinction that is reflected in the amount of influence that we absorb from societal factors such as peers, parents, figures of authority, and other factors that shape behavior.


As quoted by renowned researcher Milgram, "Psychiatrists predicted that only a pathological fringe of about one in a thousand would administer the highest shock on the board" (Milgram, 1973; Pg. 62). With such popularly held notions and general perceptions regarding individual's behavior, Milgram refuted that we only act morally in given situations and held true that obedience to authority plays an important role in shaping behavior of individuals. The self-argued plausible explanation individuals such as Adolph Eichmann after committing crimes, provide is that they…. [read more]

Psychology, it Has Intended Essay

… It performs experiments on behavior to confirm or discard results by advancing precise models.

In contrast with other ways of explaining human and animal experiences and behavior, psychology tries to explain individuals' mental processes and behavior. This subject is primarily concerned with engagement of mental occurrences and behavior on a systemic level.

Psychology is inseparable from other sciences. Psychology encompasses neuroscience, ethology, biochemistry and paleontology.

"On the other hand, there is not a single natural phenomenon that may not, from a different point-of-view, become an object of psychology. A stone, a plant, a tone, a ray of light, are, as natural phenomena, objects of mineralogy, botany, physics, etc.; but in so far as they arouse in us ideas, they are at the same time objects…. [read more]

Psychology Personality Essay

… The clinical approach is effective because it takes into account an in depth understanding of the individual or individuals concerned. It also studies the developmental changes in the individual over time. Lastly, it also investigates extreme and rare events that take place in the individual's life. Despite these strengths, certain limitations of the clinical approach include the issue of generalization, which means that their sample group might not be true for a population. Also, several kinds of biases can emerge such as the researcher bias and the subject bias.

For the correlational approach, the strength is the fact that it explores relationships and takes into account the relationship with other variables, to determine the strongest correlation and the best research potential. It also takes into…. [read more]

Psychology the Field Essay

… [footnoteRef:8] [8: "History of Psychology," 2011. ]

Contemporary Psychology

With the great strides made in treating psychology, such as the processes mentioned above, it is important to now leave foundations behind and transition to contemporary psychology. In order to examine this aspect, the section will look at the four above-mentioned innovations in thought: biopsychology, psychopharmacology, humanistic and cognitive psychology. The first of the four, biopsychology, was discovered by Wilder Penfield who uncovered the "relationship between chemical activity in the brain and psychological phenomena" in his studies of epilepsy. Psychopharmacology, also involving biological of chemical processes, involved the development of drugs, especially during the 1950's, and contributed to a whole new way of treating psychological disorders. The first drug, for example, was called Doriden, and it…. [read more]

Psychology History Essay

… For instance, the firing of the optic due to mechanical pressure would not be perceived as the sensation of touch but as some sort of visual stimulus like spots or flashes of light," and it was in his laboratory that he mentored many of the most successful psychophysicists, who eventually developed the birth of psychology "as a separate discipline in 1879 with the establishment of Wilhelm Wundt's first laboratory of psychology at the University of Leipzig."

It was due to these historical, gargantuan efforts that psychology developed, and developed quickly, once it started. The remainder of the paper will focus upon these developments in Wundt's Germany. Other scientists can be attributed to the German beginnings of psychology and they include: Hermann von Helmholtz, Ernst Heinrich…. [read more]

Psychology History of Psychology Max Weitheimer (Laws Essay

… Psychology

History of Psychology

Max Weitheimer (Laws of Organization in Perceptual Forms)

Max Wertheimer was one of the principal proponents of Gestalt theory which emphasized higher-order cognitive processes in the midst of behaviorism. The center of Gestalt premise was the concept of grouping. The chief aspects that determine grouping include: proximity which involves elements being grouped together according to their nearness, similarity, where items of similar respect tend to be grouped together, closure where items are grouped together if they tend to complete some entity and simplicity where items will be organized into simple figures according to symmetry, regularity, and smoothness. These factors are referred to as the laws of organization and are explained in the context of awareness and problem-solving. The fundamental character of…. [read more]

Psychology Essay

… Pattern recognition theories are a manner of explaining how the mind makes associations, either by recognizing components, templates, features, or objects.

4. There are many ways that we think and talk about "attention." Compare and contrast Input Attention vs. Controlled Attention. Discuss the similarities, differences; is one better than the other?

Input and Control attention are two types of attention. Each of these has a different set of variables that are part of it. Discussing each in turn, we have components such as alertness or arousal, orienting reflex or response, and spotlight attention for Input Attention.

Alertness or arousal refers to the prerequisite that in input attention, the mind should be aware, and awake, present to the situation in order to take the input from…. [read more]

Psychology Master's Degree: Methodology Degree Concentration Term Paper

… Psychology Master's Degree: Methodology

Degree Concentration:
Master of Sciences in Interdisciplinary Studies with a concentration in

Degree Rationale:
By establishing a base education in Psychology that is centered in
interdisciplinary contexts, I anticipate creating a wide array of
opportunities for participation in practice, research or instruction which
can incorporate any number of scholastic subjects. For instance, though my
attention will be on issues derived from the discipline of abnormal
psychology, the courses which I intend to pursue will present me with a
greater understanding of the correlation between psychological disorders
and a host of other subjects themselves justifying a full course of study.

For instance, the relationship between psychology and morality is something
which will be of great interest as I proceed in my…. [read more]

Psychology Criminal Behavior Term Paper

… Psychology

Criminal behavior has been the subject of interest for psychologists for a very long time. In a manner, it is quite intriguing question that what are the reasons and causes that lead a person to display criminal behavior. Many theories have been presented over the decades to answer this question. Most theories tend to focus on the factors that make a person indulge in committing crimes. While many factors are argued to be the main reasons for such criminal behavior, none can be proved with surety as behavior depends upon the way the brain and the psychology of a person works. Only the understanding of the human mind can assist psychologists greatly to investigate the structure of the mind and the way it operates…. [read more]

Psychology Personality Essay

… The client is then asked to arrange these cards according to what they feel and what describes them the best. This is one of the tools that are used by psychologists to test the personality of the people.

According to this approach, the personality of person is determined through their actions. For example, a person can choose to be evil or good by going for the right and wrong actions. The things that we consider as a "must-do" are a window through our personality, since they determine our priorities and choices in life and reflect our personality.

It is commonly seen that the people who are humanistic like to live one day at a time. They are not concerned about what has already happened in…. [read more]

Psychology's Rodney Dangerfield Problem Essay

… Rodney Dangerfield

Psychology's Issue of Credibility

Over the course of more than a century, the field of psychology has gained a great deal of prominence and validity in the mainstream practice of health provision. Many healthcare providers perceive mental health as having equal importance to physiological health. However, even with its permeation of mainstream society, psychology continues to suffer from a problem of impression. Such is to say that, as iconic comedian Rodney Dangerfield so famously proclaimed of himself, psychology is a field which gets no respect. This, as our discussion below will show, is simultaneously a result of perception and practice.

With respect to both, psychology's status as a social science makes it inherently subject to a wide variance of schools of thought, perspectives…. [read more]

Psychology of Adaptation Experimentation Essay

… In the third, the perception of temperature was very different when I plunged both hands into the lukewarm water after each had been exposed to opposite extremes. As these experiments demonstrated, the sensations felt and the perceptions of those sensations were two very different experiences.

According to Chapter 5 of Allpsych, "perception is the way we interpret these sensations and therefore make sense of everything around us" (Allpsych, 2011). Although the sensations I experienced did not seem to make sense to me, by understanding the concept of adaptation in its psychological context, I am able to see how these reactions came about, and how they are a form of adapting to the environment in a way that has been shown through evolution to be, in…. [read more]

Psychology Theology and Spirituality in Christian Counseling Term Paper

… Psychology, Spirituality, And Healing

Book Review & Reflection

McMinn, M.R. (1996). Psychology, theology, and spirituality in Christian counseling.

Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishers.

Christianity and psychology have long been regarded as inharmonious ideological systems. However, this book attempts to establish a connection between the roles of believing Christian and trained counselor and therapist. M.R. McMinn suggests that serving as a psychological counselor does not mean that a therapist must give up spiritual guidance, and he also acknowledges that a minister today must often come to grips with the psychological needs of a client who is coping with a crisis that threatens his or her mental health as well as his or her spiritual health. In fact, mental and spiritual health is intertwined. After all,…. [read more]

Psychology Sensation and Perception Work Together Term Paper

… Psychology

Sensation and perception work together to help us see the world. Most people use these terms as interchangeable concepts. However, they are separate functions and each compliments the other.

Sensation is the process that allows the body to take in the stimuli from outside of it. For example, when we smell cooking, it is our sense of smell that sends the information to our brain. Our five senses are smell, sight, touch, taste and sound. If all of our senses are working, we cannot possibly sense everything around us. We may taste some of the ingredients of a prepared dish, but not all of them. The same applies to all of the senses. We hear some of the sounds around us, but because of…. [read more]

Psychology Assessment Multiple Choice Questions in Light Assessment

… Psychology Assessment

Multiple Choice Questions

In light of problems posed by the concept of drive, Premack, one of Skinner's followers, proposes that we consider reinforcement:

In terms of the power of discriminative stimuli.

Responses that are intermittently rather than continuously reinforced are:

All of the above.

Skinner's attitude toward the theory of natural selection seemed basically:


Skinner argued that internal events such as thoughts:

Should only be studied if they can be observed and measured.

According to the text, the most basic difference between Skinner and the developmentalists has to do with:

The source of developmental change-inner or outer.

The text considers research on televised aggression as:

Supporting some theorists but not others.

In Bandura's theory, direct reinforcements primarily affect:

D. Performances rather than…. [read more]

Psychology - Freud the Freudian Perspective Essay

… Psychology - Freud


Explain Freud's views on the structure of personality and the functions of each of the structures he proposed.

Freud described the human mind as comprising three specific major components, each with distinct - and in some cases, conflicting - characteristics and functions (Gerrig and Zimbardo 2005). The "Id" corresponds to unexamined and unchecked human desires; consequently, it also represents the childhood phase of human personality development in which the individual relates to the external world exclusively in terms of wants. Freud emphasized the connection between the Id and the "pleasure principle" and suggested that it is the primary basis for the dominance of sexual pleasure, particular, in the hierarchy of human energy (Gerrig and Zimbardo 2005).…. [read more]

Psychology Definitions Psychosis = Loss of Contact Research Paper

… Psychology Definitions

Psychosis = Loss of contact with reality.

Downward drift = Lower achievement than parents or family members in terms of social class, employment, and financial stability.

Positive vs. negative symptoms = Positive symptoms are present in the disorder and characterize it; Negative symptoms are present in normally functioning people, but absent in people with the disorder.

Delusions of persecution = the mistaken belief that someone or something is pursuing the individual and means him or her harm.

Difference between hallucinations and delusions = Hallucinations are sense perceptions, such as hearing, seeing, or smelling things that do not in fact exist in reality. Delusions are patterns of thought about the self or the world that are not true or realistic.

Types of schizophrenia (disorganized,…. [read more]

Psychology (Personality) Hypo-Egoic Self-Regulation: Exercising Self-Control Term Paper

… Psychology (Personality)

Hypo-egoic self-regulation: Exercising self-control by diminishing the influence of the self" by M. Leary, C. Adams and E. Tate

In this article by Leary et. al., the concept of hypo-egoic self-regulation was developed through an integration of different components that ultimately make self-regulation possible. In developing the concept of hypo-egoic self-regulation, the authors posited that "hypo-egoic states may be facilitated by intentionally and consciously taking steps that will reduce the degree to which one's behavior is under deliberate executive control." This was the main thesis of the study, stated as an objective wherein the authors would like "to examine occasions on which people relinquish deliberate, conscious control over their own behavior so that they will respond more naturally, spontaneously, or automatically" (1804).

In…. [read more]

Humanistic Psychology Critique of Mainstream Term Paper

… Humanistic Psychology

Critique of Mainstream Psychology

Humanistic and transcendental perspectives of psychology have been making inroads into psychology to alter the assumptions and practices of mainstream psychology. The humanistic perspective highlights the primacy of human experiences in forming any assumptions and theories of the human mind whereas the transcendental perspective encourages psychologists to consider peak experiences and higher states of consciousness (Walsh & Vaughan, 1980, pp. 15-16) that cannot be explained in terms of animal instincts or motivations but are instead inspired by spiritual or intrinsic values. This paper identifies and discusses some of the weaknesses of mainstream psychology in the light of the claims of humanistic and transcendental psychology.

Misconceptions about Human Nature

Bugental (1963) stated that "A true psychology of human beings is…. [read more]

Organizational Behavior (Psychology) Applied Comprehension Organizational Psychologists Term Paper

… Organizational Behavior (Psychology)

Applied Comprehension

Organizational Psychologists continually seek the creation of relevant approaches for the application of organizational psychological principles. Central to the application of Industrial Organizational psychological principles, as an emergent approach, has been the elevation of consultation psychology as a primary approach for the application of organizational psychology. Theoretically, the tension between business, clinical psychology and Industrial or Organizational Psychology has occasionally thwarted the effective application of psychological principles that could otherwise guide the successful resolution of issues between people and systems.

This paper will review the role that consultation psychological services can play in organizations, particularly as it may apply to facilitating organizational movement towards increased strategic success. As a case example, this paper will use a mental health organization to…. [read more]

Structural Therapy Positive Psychology (PP) Literature Review

… Structural Therapy

Positive Psychology (PP) and Structural Family Therapy (SFT): A Literature Review

Abelsohn, D. & Saayman, G.S. (1991). Adolescent Adjustment to Parental Divorce: An Investigation from the Perspective of Basic Dimensions of Structural Family Therapy Theory. Family Process, 30(2), 177-191.

The study by Abelsohn & Saayman provides some empirical evidence of the need for Structural Family Therapy (SFT) for children of divorce by proving setting out to prove that adolescent children of divorce with more structurally sound family dynamics experienced better adaptation to new circumstances than did their counterparts in structurally unsound homes. (p. 177)

The study by Abelsohn & Saayman gathered a sample of 45 adolescent children and monitored their adjustment based on 'four family-based, clinical dimensions.' (p. 178) the adolescents, all sharing…. [read more]

Social Psychology Differ When Applied Term Paper

… For example in the Japanese culture the employees tend to identify themselves by the companies that they belong to rather than their own individual identities (Nakane, 1970)such as, if they meet someone instead of introducing themselves by talking about their position at the firm they will say that 'they belong to ABC firm' etc. In Japanese culture more importance is given to the group identification rather than the personal attributes. However, if we talk about the behaviour of the American employees in a cultural context, for the Americans group identification is secondary while individual or personal identification is of primary importance (Johnson, 1985; Nakane, 1970)

It has been noticed that in the Japanese culture the loyalty to the company or firms that the employees work…. [read more]

Psychology Throughout Its History Essay

… This led Darwin to believe that facial expressions, such as smiling and frowning, could be cultural responses rather than instinctive ones. While physiological responses to danger could be the result of ancient evolution, some of the responses we display today could be the result of cultural evolution rather than instinct. While Darwin never had the opportunity to gather enough evidence to support his view, his work was continued by other psychologists. Only in the 1970s were psychologists able to establish that the facial expressions and even posture triggered by certain emotional states were indeed instinctive across the human race, regardless of culture or personal history.

Evolutionary psychology plays a role when the individual learns to override inappropriate instinctual responses by means of control mechanisms. Not…. [read more]

Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Term Paper

… However, some have questioned whether these results would have been the same if the groups of people had known one another. In the experiment, the boys were not acquainted with one another prior to the experiment. Believing that such a scenario is too artificial to make it generalizable to the population at large, Tyerman and Spencer conducted a similar experiment, but used an existing Scout troop, where the boys knew one another, as the source of the study population (Tyerman & Spencer, 1983, p.519, para.5). Moreover, the divisions in the study were natural divisions. "The subjects had been accustomed to functioning within their four distinct patrol groups at previous camps, meetings and other activities over a long period. At camp, the seven-boy patrol units, although…. [read more]

Social Psychology Essay

… Likewise, if a sufficiently large number of "doomsdayers" believe the earth will end on December 21, 2012 and take steps to remove themselves from the grid and vow to kill anyone who comes near, the earth may well end up self-destructing in a self-prophesizing fashion in the near future.


Humans are social animals by nature, of course, but not everyone wants or needs a sense of belonging and affiliation all of the time. The happenings that appear to shake most people out of any self-imposed isolation from others, though, are shared positive or negative events that serve to forge a lasting bond between people. For example,…. [read more]

Why I Chose Organizational / Industrial Psychology Research Proposal

… Psychology

Industrial Psychology chose the Industrial/Organisational Psychology program because I am interested in moving to the private sector rather than governmental employment and I have always had a keen interest in psychology as it applies to the organization. I believe this is an under-explored area of psychology, especially in my area of the world, and I would like to make it more visible and relevant to companies in my country. I believe I have the skills and experiences necessary to segue into a psychology career, and I believe my experience in government has given me a keen awareness of people and their distinct personalities, something I would like to explore much more fully in my new career.

It is extremely important to me to study…. [read more]

Organizational Psychology Productive and Counterproductive Essay

… It involved observing and recording systematically the employees' behaviors. Archival data is another popular method of studying behavior. In organizational psychology archival data is most prevalent when comparison is made to other observational methods. This is mainly because there is an absolute abundance of sources that are available to researcher from archival data.

In applied social research, the method known to be most important is survey research. It has a broad area that includes the basic questionnaires, asking direct questions to respondents, determining respondent's behaviors, attitudes, and personalities. Surveys are mainly used when gathering a wide variety of information and they use interviews or questionnaires.

Use of organizational psychology in organizations

Using the various research methods available, an organization can use organizational psychology to establish…. [read more]

Clinical Focused the Humanistic Psychology Essay

… He demonstrated his hypothesis and techniques via lecturing, teaching workshops, audiovisual recordings and live demonstrations. He developed the client-centered approach in between 1940. In the course of development of Rogerian theory, Rogers demonstrated that social learning is paramount in establishment of a good therapeutic environment. Through development of the Rogerian theory, Rogers ascertained that social transmission must be faithful enough, and requires clients to weed out their maladaptive culture through assessing their own conducts (Magnus, Kimmo & Stefano, 2007). His theory is subjective in temperament and requires psychologists to comprehend clients, their worldviews and experiences. The Rogerian theory postulates that an individual realizes his/her final potential when not blocked by environmental aspects as well as personal experiences. The objective of the Rogerian therapy is to…. [read more]

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